Gene Summary

Gene:NQO1; NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1
Summary:This gene is a member of the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone) family and encodes a cytoplasmic 2-electron reductase. This FAD-binding protein forms homodimers and reduces quinones to hydroquinones. This protein's enzymatic activity prevents the one electron reduction of quinones that results in the production of radical species. Mutations in this gene have been associated with tardive dyskinesia (TD), an increased risk of hematotoxicity after exposure to benzene, and susceptibility to various forms of cancer. Altered expression of this protein has been seen in many tumors and is also associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NQO1 (cancer-related)

Oronsky B, Scribner C, Aggarwal R, Cabrales P
RRx-001 protects normal tissues but not tumors via Nrf2 induction and Bcl-2 inhibition.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(8):2045-2050 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: RRx-001, a minimally toxic next-generation checkpoint inhibitor that targets myeloid suppressor cells in the tumor microenvironment, has also been shown to protect normal tissues from the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy and radiation. The following experiments were carried out to determine whether the cytoprotective functions of RRx-001 in normal cells were operative in tumor cells.
DESIGN: The effects of RRx-001 on normal cells, and ovarian cancer A2780 and UWB1 cells were evaluated with a colony-forming assay. Western blot densitometry was used to measure Nrf2 nuclear translocation in Caco2 cells after exposure to RRx-001. Following incubation with RRx-001, levels of the antioxidant, NQO1, were determined in Caco2 cells by measuring absorbance over 300 min at 440 nm. RRx-001-mediated cytotoxicity in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells was evaluated with an MTT assay. In addition, the effect of RRx-001 incubation on the protein expression of Nrf2, PARP, cleaved PARP, procaspases 3, 8, and 9, Bcl-2, and Bax in HCT-116 colorectal cells was determined by western blot analysis.
RESULTS: RRx-001 is demonstrated to induce Nrf2 in normal tissues, mediating protection, and to downregulate the Nrf2-controlled antiapoptotic target gene, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in tumors, mediating cytotoxicity.
CONCLUSION: Through Nrf2 induction in normal cells and inhibition of Bcl-2 in tumor cells, RRx-001 selectively protects normal cells against lethality in normal cells, but induces apoptosis in tumor cells.

Park SY, Lee SJ, Han JH, Koh YW
Association between 18F-FDG uptake in PET/CT, Nrf2, and NQO1 expression and their prognostic significance in non-small cell lung cancer.
Neoplasma. 2019; 2019:619-626 [PubMed] Related Publications
Two pentose phosphate pathway-related proteins, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/ NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (Quinone) 1 (NQO1) regulate the expression of glucose metabolism and antioxidant genes. We evaluated the prognostic significance of NRF2, NQO1 and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) parameter and their relationship with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) histology. A total of 241 patients, who underwent surgical resection for NSCLC, were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative 18F-FDG PET and immunohistochemical results of Nrf2 and NQO1 were evaluated. In SQCC, the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was significantly higher in NQO1-high than in NQO1-low expression (p=0.023). In adenocarcinoma, SUVmax was not correlated with NQO1 expression. Patients with a high NQO1 expression showed poor recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than patients with a low NQO1 expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) (p=0.002 and p=0.014, respectively). NQO1 expression was not associated with clinical outcome in adenocarcinoma. Nrf2 expression was not correlated with prognosis in two types of NSCLC. High SUVmax was associated with poor RFS (p=0.03) but is not related to poor OS (p=0.569) in SQCC. In multivariate analyses, NQO1 expression and SUVmax were not independent prognostic factors in SQCC. However, in multivariate analysis combining NQO1 and SUVmax values, both low SUVmax and low NQO1 was independent prognostic factor for RFS and OS (HR= 3.790, p = 0.033 and HR= 2.961, p = 0.045, respectively). In conclusion, both low SUVmax and low NQO1 was an independent prognostic factor in SQCC alone. The sample size was small but there was a positive correlation between NQO1 expression and SUVmax in SQCC.

Zhang J, Yang S, Xu B, et al.
p62 functions as an oncogene in colorectal cancer through inhibiting apoptosis and promoting cell proliferation by interacting with the vitamin D receptor.
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(3):e12585 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The role of p62 in cancer is controversial. Evidence has shown that p62 is upregulated in different cancers and promotes tumour growth, such as in liver cancer and lung cancer. However, a recent study showed that the downregulation of p62 in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) promotes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. How p62 is regulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the roles and molecular mechanisms of p62 in CRC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of p62 in CRC tissues and adjacent non-tumour tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Stable p62-overexpression HCT116 cells and p62-knockdown SW480 cells were established with lentiviral vectors. The role of p62 in CRC was investigated in in vitro and in vivo functional studies. The relationship between p62 and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) was investigated by coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays.
RESULTS: p62 was significantly upregulated in CRC, and a high p62 level was an independent risk factor for a poor prognosis in CRC patients. p62 promoted CRC migration and invasion by inhibiting apoptosis and promoting cell proliferation in vitro, and p62 aggravated tumour growth and metastasis in vivo. Co-IP assays indicated that p62 interacts with the VDR and may target the NRF2-NQO1 axis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that p62 functions as an oncogene in CRC through inhibiting apoptosis and promoting cell proliferation by interacting with the VDR.

Mohanta S, Sekhar Khora S, Suresh A
Cancer Stem Cell based molecular predictors of tumor recurrence in Oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Arch Oral Biol. 2019; 99:92-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the cancer stem cell specific biomarkers that can be effective candidate prognosticators of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
DESIGN: Microarray-based meta-analysis derived transcriptional profile of head and neck cancers was compared with the Cancer Stem Cell database to arrive at a subset of markers. This subset was further co-related with clinico-pathological parameters, recurrence and survival of oral cancer patients (n = 313) in The Cancer Genome Atlas database and in oral cancer (n = 28) patients.
RESULTS: Meta-analysis in combination with database comparison identified a panel of 221 genes specific to head and neck cancers. Correlation of expression levels of these markers in the oral cancer cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 313) with treatment outcome identified 54 genes (p < 0.05 or fold change >2) associated with disease recurrence, 8 genes (NQO1, UBE2C, EDNRB, FKBP4, STAT3, HOXA1, RIT1, AURKA) being significant with high fold change. Assessment of the efficacy of the subset (n = 54) as survival predictors identified an additional 4 genes (CDK1, GINS2, PHF5 A, ERBB2) that co-related with poor disease-free survival (p < 0.05). CDK1 showed a significant association with the clinical stage, margin status and with advanced pathological parameters. Initial patient validation indicated that CDK1 and NQO1 significantly co-related with the poor disease-free and overall survival (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: This panel of oral cancer specific, cancer stem cell associated markers identified in this study, a subset of which was validated, will be of clinical benefit subject to large scale validation studies.

Pey AL, Megarity CF, Timson DJ
NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1): an enzyme which needs just enough mobility, in just the right places.
Biosci Rep. 2019; 39(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) catalyses the two electron reduction of quinones and a wide range of other organic compounds. Its physiological role is believed to be partly the reduction of free radical load in cells and the detoxification of xenobiotics. It also has non-enzymatic functions stabilising a number of cellular regulators including p53. Functionally, NQO1 is a homodimer with two active sites formed from residues from both polypeptide chains. Catalysis proceeds via a substituted enzyme mechanism involving a tightly bound FAD cofactor. Dicoumarol and some structurally related compounds act as competitive inhibitors of NQO1. There is some evidence for negative cooperativity in quinine oxidoreductases which is most likely to be mediated at least in part by alterations to the mobility of the protein. Human NQO1 is implicated in cancer. It is often over-expressed in cancer cells and as such is considered as a possible drug target. Interestingly, a common polymorphic form of human NQO1, p.P187S, is associated with an increased risk of several forms of cancer. This variant has much lower activity than the wild-type, primarily due to its substantially reduced affinity for FAD which results from lower stability. This lower stability results from inappropriate mobility of key parts of the protein. Thus, NQO1 relies on correct mobility for normal function, but inappropriate mobility results in dysfunction and may cause disease.

Moumad K, Khaali W, Benider A, et al.
Joint effect of smoking and NQO1 C609T polymorphism on undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk in a North African population.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2018; 6(6):933-940 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a higher incidence in North Africa than in most parts of the world. In addition to environmental factors such as Epstein-Barr virus infection and chemical carcinogen exposure, genetic susceptibility has been reported to play a key role in the development of NPC. NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 is a cytosolic enzyme that protects cells from oxidative damage. A C to T transition at position 609 in the NQO1 gene (OMIM: 125860) has been shown to alter the enzymatic activity of the enzyme and has been associated with increased risk to several cancers. This study investigates for the first time the effect of this polymorphism on NPC susceptibility in a North African population.
METHODS: The NQO1 C609T polymorphism was genotyped using PCR-RFLP in 392 NPC cases and 365 controls from Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.
RESULTS: The allele frequencies and distributions of genotypes did not differ between cases and controls (p > 0.05). When stratifying according to smoking status, we observed two-fold higher NPC risk in ever-smokers carrying the CT or TT genotype. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that there was a significant interaction between T allele and smoking status (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.20-3.19; interaction p = 0.007).
CONCLUSION: In this North African population, the functional NQO1 polymorphism was associated with a significantly higher risk of NPC among smokers and did not affect the risk among nonsmokers.

Iplik ES, Ertugrul B, Candan G, et al.
ROS related enzyme levels and its association to molecular signaling pathway in the development of head and neck cancer.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2018; 64(7):24-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
Given the prevalence and annual incidence of cancer, head and neck cancer is affecting more than 600,000 people each year. In this research, it was decided to investigate that which genes are involved and how MPO, NQO1, SOD2 enzyme levels effective to develop of head and neck cancer and for the first time at the tissue level. 35 tumor tissues in all head and neck anatomy and their surrounding tissue (70 in total) were enclosed the research that received surgery. Determination of the apoptosis genes expression levels (Mtch1, Akt1, Caspase3, Caspase9, Bcl2, Mdm2, mTOR) were determined by RT-PCR techniques and the same patients' sample used for ROS associated oxidant-antioxidant system by using MPO, NQO1, SOD2 enzyme levels using ELISA method. According to statistical results, caspase 9 gene was found statistically high expressed in early stage in contrast to late stage (p=0,013). Level of SOD2, NQO1 and MPO was determined and only MPO level was found significantly important on tumor tissues p=0,008).  Specially, our findings for high expression of Cas9 on early stage were thought to be the target for treatment with its well-known initiator role of the apoptosis. Our results suggest that the higher level of MPO in tumor tissues and indicates that it has some role on pathology of head and neck cancers. We believe that, our research will lead the proposal in-vivo studies and will open new areas on therapeutic targets.

Sági JC, Egyed B, Kelemen A, et al.
Possible roles of genetic variations in chemotherapy related cardiotoxicity in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and osteosarcoma.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):704 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and osteosarcoma (OSC) is very effective: the vast majority of patients recover and survive for decades. However, they still need to face serious adverse effects of chemotherapy. One of these is cardiotoxicity which may lead to progressive heart failure in the long term. Cardiotoxicity is contributed mainly to the use of anthracyclines and might have genetic risk factors. Our goal was to test the association between left ventricular function and genetic variations of candidate genes.
METHODS: Echocardiography data from medical records of 622 pediatric ALL and 39 OSC patients were collected from the period 1989-2015. Fractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction (EF) were determined, 70 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 genes were genotyped. Multivariate logistic regression and multi-adjusted general linear model were performed to investigate the influence of genetic polymorphisms on the left ventricular parameters. Bayesian network based Bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance (BN-BMLA) method was applied to test for the potential interaction of the studied cofactors and SNPs.
RESULTS: Our results indicate that variations in ABCC2, CYP3A5, NQO1, SLC22A6 and SLC28A3 genes might influence the left ventricular parameters. CYP3A5 rs4646450 TT was 17% among ALL cases with FS lower than 28, and 3% in ALL patients without pathological FS (p = 5.60E-03; OR = 6.94 (1.76-27.39)). SLC28A3 rs7853758 AA was 12% in ALL cases population, while only 1% among controls (p = 6.50E-03; OR = 11.56 (1.98-67.45)). Patients with ABCC2 rs3740066 GG genotype had lower FS during the acute phase of therapy and 5-10 years after treatment (p = 7.38E-03, p = 7.11E-04, respectively). NQO1 rs1043470 rare T allele was associated with lower left ventricular function in the acute phase and 5-10 years after the diagnosis (p = 4.28E-03 and 5.82E-03, respectively), and SLC22A6 gene rs6591722 AA genotype was associated with lower mean FS (p = 1.71E-03), 5-10 years after the diagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants in transporters and metabolic enzymes might modulate the individual risk to cardiac toxicity after chemotherapy.

Perloy A, Schouten LJ, van den Brandt PA, et al.
The Role of Genetic Variants in the Association between Dietary Acrylamide and Advanced Prostate Cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer.
Nutr Cancer. 2018 May-Jun; 70(4):620-631 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the association between dietary acrylanide and advanced prostate cancer, we examined acrylamide-gene interactions for advanced prostate cancer risk by using data from the Netherlands Cohort Study. Participants (n = 58,279 men) completed a baseline food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which daily acrylamide intake was calculated. At baseline, 2,411 men were randomly selected from the full cohort for case-cohort analysis. Fifty eight selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two gene deletions in genes in acrylamide metabolism, DNA repair, sex steroid systems, and oxidative stress were analyzed. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 1,608 male subcohort members and 948 advanced prostate cancer cases were available for Cox analysis. Three SNPs showed a main association with advanced prostate cancer risk after multiple testing correction: catalase (CAT) rs511895, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) rs5275, and xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) rs2228001. With respect to acrylamide-gene interactions, only rs1800566 in NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) and rs2301241 in thioredoxin (TXN) showed a nominally statistically significant multiplicative interaction with acrylamide intake for advanced prostate cancer risk. After multiple testing corrections, none were statistically significant. In conclusion, no clear evidence was found for interaction between acrylamide intake and selected genetic variants for advanced prostate cancer risk.

Bi W, He CN, Li XX, et al.
Ginnalin A from Kujin tea (Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala) exhibits a colorectal cancer chemoprevention effect via activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.
Food Funct. 2018; 9(5):2809-2819 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ginnalin A (also known as acertannin) is one of the most important phenolic compounds of several beverage Acer plants. In this study, it is reported for the first time that ginnalin A is an activator of the Nrf2 signaling pathway in human colon cancer cells. Ginnalin A, isolated from the leaves of Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala, exhibited promising preventive activity against colon cancer cells (HCT116, SW480 and SW620) with IC50 values of 24.8 μM, 22.0 μM and 39.7 μM, respectively. In addition, it significantly reduced the colony formation of these cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that ginnalin A suppressed cancer proliferation via the induction of cell cycle arrest at the S-phase. Real time PCR analysis demonstrated that ginnalin A can upregulate the mRNA expression levels of Nrf2-related antioxidant genes Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1. Western blotting analysis revealed that ginnalin A promoted the Nrf2 nuclear translocation and upregulated the proteins Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1. Moreover, the upregulation of p62 and the inhibition of Keap1 were also found by Western blotting analysis. Therefore, the activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway was probably induced through the upregulation of p62 and the inhibition of Keap1.

Yadav U, Kumar P, Rai V
"NQO1 Gene C609T Polymorphism (dbSNP: rs1800566) and Digestive Tract Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis."
Nutr Cancer. 2018 May-Jun; 70(4):557-568 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several studies reported that polymorphism C609T (rs1800566) in (NAD(P)H): quinoneoxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene is associated with risk to digestive tract (DT) cancers, like esophageal cancer (EC), gastric cancer (GC), and colorectal cancer (CRC). Authors conducted a meta-analysis to investigate association between C609T polymorphism and DT cancer risk. Eligible studies were extracted from the databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Springer Link. All retrieved articles were evaluated. All statistical analyses were performed using Open Meta-Analyst and MIX1.7 programs. A total of 34 studies including 12,043 DT cancer cases and 15,209 healthy controls were included in the present meta- analysis. Results of meta-analysis revealed a significant association between NQO1 C609T polymorphism and DT cancer risk adopting all 5 genetic models (T vs. C: OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.11-1.31, p < 0.001; TT vs. CC: OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.22-1.79, p < 0.001; TT + CT vs. CC: OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.12-1.35, p < 0.001; TT vs. CT + CC: OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.15-1.60, p < 0.001; CT vs. CC: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.07-1.27, p < 0.001). In the stratified analysis based on cancer types, significant associations were observed between NQO1 C609T polymorphism and GC (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.11-1.72, p = 0.003) and CRC (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.06-1.30, p = 0.001), but not with EC (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.99-1.35, p = 0.06). Furthermore, stratified analysis based on ethnicity indicated that there was a significant association between NQO1 C609T polymorphism and DT cancer risk in the Asian (TT vs. CC: OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.21-2.00, p ≤ 0.001) as well as in Caucasian populations (TT vs. CC: OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.04-1.73, p = 0.02). In conclusion, the results of meta-analysis suggested that the NQO1 C609T polymorphism is a risk factor for DT cancers, including GC and CRC.

Bulgurcuoglu Kuran S, Iplik ES, Cakmakoglu B, et al.
Relation of MPO, MnSOD, NQO1 gene variants in endometrial carcinoma in the line of PCR-RFLP methods.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2018; 64(4):78-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to be responsible for inducing DNA damage leading to mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and cell death if the capacity of the protective antioxidant system is impaired. Endometrial carcinoma is the primary cancer type in the female genital system. The enhanced cell lipid peroxidation and impaired antioxidant enzyme activities observed in patients with endometrial cancer indicate the potential for oxidative injury to cells and cell membranes in such patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible association between gene variants of superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and NADPH quinone oxido reductase (NQO1), and their possible role in endometrial cancer in Turkish patients. According to results, MPO G+ genotype and AG genotype were significantly increased in patients compared with controls (P<0.001). We suggest that the MPO polymorphism might be a risk for endometrial cancer.

Shao J, Glorieux C, Liao J, et al.
Impact of Nrf2 on tumour growth and drug sensitivity in oncogenic K-ras-transformed cells in vitro and in vivo.
Free Radic Res. 2018; 52(6):661-671 [PubMed] Related Publications
K-ras is one of the most common oncogenes in human cancers, and its aberrant activation may lead to malignant transformation associated with oxidative stress and activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates multiple detoxification enzymes. The purpose of this research was to use gene editing technology to evaluate the role of Nrf2 in affecting tumour growth and drug sensitivity of K-ras

Liu MM, Huang KM, Qian L, et al.
Effects of bioactive constituents in the Traditional Chinese Medicinal formula Si-Wu-Tang on Nrf2 signaling and neoplastic cellular transformation.
Phytomedicine. 2018; 40:1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a potential molecular target for cancer chemoprevention. Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), a popular traditional Chinese medicine for women's health, was reported with a novel activity of cancer prevention.
PURPOSE: The present study was aimed to identify the bioactive constituents in SWT responsible for the Nrf2 activating and cancer preventive activity and explore the pharmacological mechanisms.
METHODS: Nine compounds detectable from various batches of SWT were ranked using in silico molecular docking based on their ability to interfere the forming of Nrf2-Keap1 complex. The predicted Nrf2 activating effect was validated using the antioxidant response element (ARE) luciferase reporter assay and quantitative RT-PCR analysis for select Nrf2 regulated genes Hmox1, Nqo1 and Slc7a11. The antimutagenic activity of the compounds were determined by the Ames test. The chemopreventive activity of these compounds were assessed on EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P+ cells, an established non-cancerous murine epidermal model for studying tumor promotion and identifying cancer preventive agents. These compounds were further characterized using luciferase reporter assay on EGF-induced activation of AP-1, a known transcription factor mediating carcinogenesis.
RESULTS: Three of the nine compounds predicted as Nrf2 activators by molecular docking, gallic acid (GA), Z-liguistilide (LIG), and senkyunolide A (SA), were confirmed with highest potency of increasing the Nrf2/ARE promoter activity and upregulating the expression of Hmox1, Nqo1 and Slc7a11. In addition, GA, LIG and SA exhibited an antimutagenic activity against the direct mutagen 2-nitrofluorene while no mutagenic effects were observed at the same time in Ames test. At nontoxic concentrations, GA, LIG, and SA inhibited EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P+ cells. Combined treatment of GA, LIG and SA, in the same ratio as detected in SWT, showed enhanced effect against JB6 transformation compared with that of the single compound alone. GA, LIG and SA, alone or in combination, suppressed EGF-induced activation of AP-1.
CONCLUSION: We identified three bioactive constituents in SWT responsible for the Nrf2 activating and cancer preventive activity. This study provides evidence supporting novel molecular basis of SWT in cancer prevention.

Kuang Y, Sechi M, Nurra S, et al.
Design and Synthesis of Novel Reactive Oxygen Species Inducers for the Treatment of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.
J Med Chem. 2018; 61(4):1576-1594 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Altering redox homeostasis provides distinctive therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Quinazolinediones (QDs) are novel redox modulators that we previously showed to induce potent growth inhibition in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell lines. Our lead optimization campaign yielded QD325 as the most potent redox modulator candidate inducing substantial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PDAC cells. Nascent RNA sequencing following treatments with the QD compounds revealed induction of stress responses in nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria of pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, the QD compounds induced Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress and unfolded protein responses as demonstrated by dose-dependent increases in RNA synthesis of representative genes such as NQO1, HMOX1, DDIT3, and HSPA5. At higher concentrations, the QDs blocked mitochondrial function by inhibiting mtDNA transcription and downregulating the mtDNA-encoded OXPHOS enzymes. Importantly, treatments with QD325 were well tolerated in vivo and significantly delayed tumor growth in mice. Our study supports the development of QD325 as a new therapeutic in the treatment of PDAC.

Zhao L, Qi Y, Xu L, et al.
MicroRNA-140-5p aggravates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by promoting myocardial oxidative stress via targeting Nrf2 and Sirt2.
Redox Biol. 2018; 15:284-296 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Clinical application of doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic with potent anti- tumor effects, is limited because of its cardiotoxicity. However, its pathogenesis is still not entirely understood. The aim of this paper was to explore the mechanisms and new drug targets to treat DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. The in vitro model on H9C2 cells and the in vivo models on rats and mice were developed. The results showed that DOX markedly decreased H9C2 cell viability, increased the levels of CK, LDH, caused histopathological and ECG changes in rats and mice, and triggered myocardial oxidative damage via adjusting the levels of intracellular ROS, MDA, SOD, GSH and GSH-Px. Total of 18 differentially expressed microRNAs in rat heart tissue caused by DOX were screened out using microRNA microarray assay, especially showing that miR-140-5p was significantly increased by DOX which was selected as the target miRNA. Double-luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-140-5p directly targeted Nrf2 and Sirt2, as a result of affecting the expression levels of HO-1, NQO1, Gst, GCLM, Keap1 and FOXO3a, and thereby increasing DOX-caused myocardial oxidative damage. In addition, the levels of intracellular ROS were significantly increased or decreased in H9C2 cells treated with DOX after miR-140-5p mimic or miR-140-5p inhibitor transfection, respectively, as well as the changed expression levels of Nrf2 and Sirt2. Furthermore, DOX- induced myocardial oxidative damage was worsened in mice treated with miR-140-5p agomir, and however the injury was alleviated in the mice administrated with miR-140-5p antagomir. Therefore, miR-140-5p plays an important role in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by promoting myocardial oxidative stress via targeting Nrf2 and Sirt2. Our data provide novel insights for investigating DOX-induced heart injury. In addition, miR-140-5p/ Nrf2 and miR-140-5p/Sirt2 may be the new targets to treat DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.

Cheng X, Liu F, Liu H, et al.
Enhanced glycometabolism as a mechanism of NQO1 potentiated growth of NSCLC revealed by metabolomic profiling.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 496(1):31-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), a cytoplasmic 2-electron reductase, has been considered as a potential poor prognostic biomarker and a promising therapeutic target for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) due to its frequent overexpression and significantly increased activity in NSCLC. Previous studies have shown that depleting tumor-NQO1 potentiates anoikis and inhibits growth of NSCLC. However, the underlying mechanisms whereby NQO1 potentiates proliferation have not been fully understood. In this study, based on a metabolomics analysis, we found that cell proliferation inhibition upon NQO1 depletion was accompanied by suppressed glycometabolism in NQO1 high expression human NSCLC A549 cells. Also we found that NQO1 depletion significantly decreased the gene expression levels of hexokinase II (HKII), a key mediator of aerobic glycolysis responsible for the transformation of glucose into glucose-6-phosphate. Taken together, we proposed that NQO1 could potentiate NSCLC cell proliferation by enhancing cellular glycometabolism, and HKII is a key mediator of this mechanism.

Torihata Y, Asanuma K, Iijima K, et al.
Estrogen-Dependent Nrf2 Expression Protects Against Reflux-Induced Esophagitis.
Dig Dis Sci. 2018; 63(2):345-355 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is more common in males than in females. The enhanced antioxidative capacity of estrogen in females might account for the gender difference. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a pivotal role in the host defense mechanism against oxidative stress.
AIMS: This study aimed to clarify the role of Nrf2 in reflux-induced esophageal inflammation, focusing on the gender difference and nitric oxide.
METHODS: Gastroesophageal reflux was surgically induced in male and female rats. Nitrite and ascorbic acid were administered for 1 week to provoke nitric oxide in the esophageal lumen. Male rats with gastroesophageal reflux were supplemented with 17β-estradiol or tert-butylhydroquinone, an Nrf2-inducing reagent. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma KYSE30 cells were treated with 17β-estradiol. Nrf2 expression was examined by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. Antioxidant gene expression profiles were examined by a PCR array.
RESULTS: In the presence of nitric oxide, reflux-induced esophageal damage was less evident, whereas esophageal expression of Nrf2 and its target genes such as Nqo1 was more evident in female or male rats supplemented with 17β-estradiol than in male rats. 17β-Estradiol increased nuclear Nrf2 expression in KYSE30 cells. tert-Butylhydroquinone increased tissue Nqo1 mRNA expression, leading to a reduction in reflux-induced esophageal damage.
CONCLUSIONS: Estrogen-dependent Nrf2 expression might contribute to protection against the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease in females.

Matsunaga T, Kamase K, Takasawa H, et al.
Facilitation of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone-elicited neuroblastoma cell apoptosis by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1.
Chem Biol Interact. 2018; 279:10-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (PQ), a major quinone component in diesel exhaust particles, is considered to provoke damage of respiratory and vascular cells through highly producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), but little is known about its pathophysiological role in neuronal cell damage. In this study, we found that incubation with 1,2-naphthoquinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone and PQ, major quinone components in diesel exhausts, provokes apoptosis of human neuroblastoma cell lines. SK-N-SH cell treatment with a lethal concentration of PQ facilitated ROS production within 6 h. The treatment also promoted formation of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine, p53 activation, elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, lowering of mitochondrial membrane potential, and resultant activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, inferring that ROS production, DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction are crucial processes of the PQ-triggered SK-N-SH cell apoptosis. The PQ treatment of SK-N-SH cells elevated the level of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a cytotoxic reactive aldehyde generated from lipid peroxidation. The treatment with PQ and HNE also decreased cellular levels of total and reduced glutathiones, and the damage elicited by HNE was ameliorated and deteriorated by pretreating with cell-permeable glutathione analog and the depletor, respectively. Moreover, the treatment with PQ and HNE decreased the proteasomal proteolytic activities, suggesting a contribution of decrease in the antioxidant abilities to the ROS-mediated neuroblastoma cell apoptosis. Our comparative analyses of 17 cells showed a positive correlation between the PQ reductase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activities. In addition, overexpression and knockdown of NQO1 augmented and lowered, respectively, the ROS production through PQ redox-cycling and the quinone toxicity. Furthermore, the treatment with PQ and HNE up-regulated the NQO1 expression. Taken together, PQ exposure produces large amounts of ROS in neuroblastoma cells via NQO1 up-regulation and resultant acceleration of its redox-cycling, followed by activation of the ROS-dependent apoptotic mechanism.

Martino T, Kudrolli TA, Kumar B, et al.
The orally active pterocarpanquinone LQB-118 exhibits cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cell and tumor models through cellular redox stress.
Prostate. 2018; 78(2):140-151 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The targeted induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a developing mechanism for cancer therapy. LQB-118 is a pterocarpanquinone and ROS-inducing agent with proven antineoplastic activity. Here, LQB-118 efficacy and mechanism of activity, were examined in Prostate Cancer (PCa) cell and tumor models.
METHODS: PC3, LNCaP, and LAPC4 PCa cells were applied. Dicoumarol treatment was used to inhibit quinone reductase activity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was applied as a ROS scavenger. ROS production was quantified by H
RESULTS: LQB-118 treatment triggered PCa cell death and apoptosis. Therapeutic activity was at least partially dependent upon quinone reduction and ROS generation. LQB-118 treatment caused an increase in cellular ROS and lipid peroxidation. Treated cells exhibited elevated levels of NQO1, Nrf2, and SOD1. The miRNAs miR-206, miR-1, and miR-101 targeted and reduced SOD1 expression. The knockdown of SOD1, by siRNA or miRNA, enhanced LQB-118 cytotoxicity. Orally administered LQB-118 treatment significantly reduced the growth of established PCa xenograft tumors.
CONCLUSION: LQB-118 is a developing and orally active pterocarpanquinone agent that effectively kills PCa cells through quinone reduction and ROS generation. The inhibition SOD1 expression enhances LQB-118 activity, presumably by impairing the cellular antioxidant response.

Megias-Vericat JE, Martinez-Cuadron D, Herrero MJ, et al.
Pharmacogenetics of Metabolic Genes of Anthracyclines in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Curr Drug Metab. 2018; 19(1):55-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Anthracyclines in combination with cytarabine have been the standard therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for decades with high efficacy. However, the majority of patients will show initial resistance or will relapse after initial complete remission. Genetic variability in genes involved in anthracyclines metabolic pathway could be one of the causes of the interindividual differences in clinical outcomes.
METHODS: A systematic review of published studies in AML cohorts was carried out in order to analyze the influence of polymorphisms in genes of anthracycline metabolism on efficacy and toxicity.
RESULTS: Polymorphisms in the main enzymes of anthracyclines metabolism (CBR, AKR, NQO1, NOS3) have been related to lower enzymatic activity and higher cardiotoxicity. Moreover, variant alleles in the genes of carcinogens and chemotherapy neutralizing enzymes (GST, SULT, NADP(H) oxidase) have been associated with ROS generation and drug efficacy, influencing the survival rates and cardiac toxicities. In addition, genetic variability in the transporters of anthracyclines could affect the intake in cells, including influx (SLC28A3, SLC22A12, SLCO1B1) and efflux transporters (ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC3, ABCG2).
CONCLUSION: The knowledge of the role of pharmacogenetics in anthracyclines metabolism could explain the differences observed in their disposition in leukemic cells. These genetic variants are proposed biomarkers in clinical practice in order to individualize chemotherapy schemes, potentially increasing the effectiveness and reducing the toxicities.

Li PC, Tu MJ, Ho PY, et al.
Bioengineered NRF2-siRNA Is Effective to Interfere with NRF2 Pathways and Improve Chemosensitivity of Human Cancer Cells.
Drug Metab Dispos. 2018; 46(1):2-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor in the regulation of many oxidative enzymes and efflux transporters critical for oxidative stress and cellular defense against xenobiotics. NRF2 is dysregulated in patient osteosarcoma (OS) tissues and correlates with therapeutic outcomes. Nevertheless, research on the NRF2 regulatory pathways and its potential as a therapeutic target is limited to the use of synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA) carrying extensive artificial modifications. Herein, we report successful high-level expression of recombinant siRNA against NRF2 in

Chatterjee A, Ronghe A, Padhye SB, et al.
Antioxidant activities of novel resveratrol analogs in breast cancer.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2018; 32(1) [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of the present study was to characterize the role of novel resveratrol (Res) analogs: 4-(E)-{(4-hydroxyphenylimino)-methylbenzene, 1, 2-diol} (HPIMBD) and 4-(E)-{(p-tolylimino)-methylbenzene-1,2-diol} (TIMBD) as potent antioxidants against breast cancer. Non-neoplastic breast epithelial cell lines MCF-10A and MCF-10F were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2), Res, HPIMBD, and TIMBD for up to 72 h. mRNA and protein levels of antioxidant genes, superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) and N-quinoneoxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and transcription factors, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf) 1, 2 and 3 were quantified after the above treatments. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by CM-H2-DCFDA and oxidative-DNA damage was determined by measuring 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). HPIMBD and TIMBD scavenged cellular ROS production, attenuated oxidative DNA damage, increased mRNA and protein expression levels of SOD3 and NQO1 and activated Nrf signaling pathway. Our studies demonstrate that HPIMBD and TIMBD have the potential as novel antioxidants to prevent development of breast cancer.

Xiang X, Qin HG, You XM, et al.
Expression of P62 in hepatocellular carcinoma involving hepatitis B virus infection and aflatoxin B1 exposure.
Cancer Med. 2017; 6(10):2357-2369 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study aims to clarify the relationship and mechanism between expression of autophagy-related protein P62 and prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) involving chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure. HCC patients who underwent resection were divided into three groups: HBV(+)/AFB1(+) (n = 26), HBV(+)/AFB1(-) (n = 68), and HBV(-)/AFB1(-) (n = 14). The groups were compared in terms of mRNA and protein levels of P62, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) and the expression of NRF2, Nqo1, and AKR7A3 in P62 high-expression and low-expression group. HBV(+)/AFB1(+) group has lower DFS and OS, and higher P62 expression than in the other two groups. P62 expression generally correlated with elevated NRF2 and Nqo1 expression, and reduced AKR7A3 expression. Patients expressing high levels of P62 showed significantly lower DFS and OS rates than patients expressing low levels. HCC involving HBV infection and AFB1 exposure is associated with relatively high risk of tumor recurrence, and this poor prognosis may relate to high P62 expression. High P62 expression activates the NRF2 pathway, promotes tumor recurrence. The downregulation of AKR7A3 also reduced liver detoxification of aflatoxin B1.

Narumi M, Takahashi K, Yamatani H, et al.
Oxidative Stress in the Visceral Fat Is Elevated in Postmenopausal Women with Gynecologic Cancer.
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2018; 27(1):99-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate differences in oxidative stress of visceral fat between premenopausal and postmenopausal women and clarify the antioxidant effect of estrogen on adipocytes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Abdominal subcutaneous and omental visceral adipose tissues were obtained from 38 patients who underwent gynecological surgery. We measured the sizes of the adipocytes and evaluated the lipid peroxidation levels in the adipose tissues. We investigated whether estrogen inhibited the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that was induced by hydrogen peroxide (H
RESULTS: The visceral adipocytes were 1162.4 μm
CONCLUSION: Oxidative stress in the visceral fat is higher in postmenopausal women. The expression of the antioxidant genes HO-1, NQO1, and GCL was upregulated by estrogen in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Hence, estrogen may act as an antioxidant in the adipose tissues of premenopausal women.

Ge M, Chen H, Zhu Q, et al.
Propofol post-conditioning alleviates hepatic ischaemia reperfusion injury via BRG1-mediated Nrf2/HO-1 transcriptional activation in human and mice.
J Cell Mol Med. 2017; 21(12):3693-3704 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To explore the effects of propofol post-conditioning (PPC) on hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury (HIRI) and the potential mechanisms that might be involved in the interaction of Brahma-related gene1(BRG1) and Nuclear-related factor 2(Nrf2). Patients were randomized into PPC(n = 16) and non-PPC(NPC)( n = 21) groups. Propofol(2 mg/kg) was infused within 10 min. of the onset of liver reperfusion during liver transplantation in the PPC group. Liver function tests, as well as Brg1, Nrf2, Heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) and NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase1(NQO1) expression levels were evaluated. CMV-Brg1 mice were designed to investigate the role of Brg1 overexpression during HIRI. Brg1 and Nrf2 siRNA were used to examine the relationship between Brg1 and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in propofol-mediated effects in a human hepatocyte(L02) hypoxia/reoxygenation(H/R) model. In patients, PPC attenuated both donor liver pathological and function injury, and reducing oxidative stress markers, compared to the NPC group, 24 hrs after surgery. PPC increased liver Brg1, Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 expression. In mice, PPC reduced HIRI by decreasing liver oxidative stress and activating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, accompanied by up-regulation of BRG1 expression. BRG1 overexpression activated Nrf2/HO-1 transcription in CMV-BRG1 mice during HIRI. In vitro, PPC significantly elevated expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1, resulting in a reduction of cell DCFH-DA and 8-isoprostane levels and decreased lactate dehydrogenase levels, leading to an overall increase in cell viability. Moreover, the protective effects of propofol were partially abrogated in Nrf2-knock-down or BRG1-knock-down hepatocytes. Nrf2-knock-down drastically reduced protein expression of HO-1 and NQO1, while Brg1-knock-down decreased HO-1 expression. Propofol post-conditioning alleviates HIRI through BRG1-mediated Nrf2/HO-1 transcriptional activation.

Atiomo W, Shafiee MN, Chapman C, et al.
Expression of NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) is increased in the endometrium of women with endometrial cancer and women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2017; 87(5):557-565 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Women with a prior history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of endometrial cancer (EC).
AIM: To investigate whether the endometrium of women with PCOS possesses gene expression changes similar to those found in EC.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with EC, PCOS and control women unaffected by either PCOS or EC were recruited into a cross-sectional study at the Nottingham University Hospital, UK. For RNA sequencing, representative individual endometrial biopsies were obtained from women with EC, PCOS and a woman unaffected by PCOS or EC. Expression of a subset of differentially expressed genes identified by RNA sequencing, including NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1), was validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR validation (n = 76) and in the cancer genome atlas UCEC (uterine corpus endometrioid carcinoma) RNA sequencing data set (n = 381). The expression of NQO1 was validated by immunohistochemistry in EC samples from a separate cohort (n = 91) comprised of consecutive patients who underwent hysterectomy at St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, between 2011 and 2013. A further 6 postmenopausal women with histologically normal endometrium who underwent hysterectomy for genital prolapse were also included. Informed consent and local ethics approval were obtained for the study.
RESULTS: We show for the first that NQO1 expression is significantly increased in the endometrium of women with PCOS and EC. Immunohistochemistry confirms significantly increased NQO1 protein expression in EC relative to nonmalignant endometrial tissue (P < .0001).
CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained here support a previously unrecognized molecular link between PCOS and EC involving NQO1.

Li S, Yang G, Zhu X, et al.
Combination of rapamycin and garlic-derived S-allylmercaptocysteine induces colon cancer cell apoptosis and suppresses tumor growth in xenograft nude mice through autophagy/p62/Nrf2 pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(3):1637-1644 [PubMed] Related Publications
The natural plant-derived product S-allylmercapto-cysteine (SAMC) has been studied in cancer therapy as a single and combination chemotherapeutic agent. The present study was employed to verify the combination use of SAMC and rapamycin that is the mTOR inhibitor with anticancer ability but has limited efficacy due to drug resistance, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. We combined rapamycin and SAMC for colorectal cancer treatment in the HCT‑116 cancer cells and a xenograft murine model. The in vivo study was established by xenografting HCT‑116 cells in BALB/c nude mice. It was found that the combination therapy had enhanced tumor-suppressing ability with the upregulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as a consequence of activated apoptosis, inhibition of autophagic activity and prevention of Akt phosphorylation. The rapamycin and SAMC combination activated antioxidant transcription expressions of Nrf2 and downstream gene NQO1. Concomitantly, autophagosome cargo p62 was downregulated, indicating that the p62 played a negative-regulatory role between Nrf2 and autophagy. Our results show that the combination of SAMC and rapamycin enhanced the anticancer ability, which could be used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. The underling mechanism of autophagy/p62/Nrf2 pathway discovered may provide a new direction for drug development, especially for traditional Chinese medicines.

Altay A, Bozoğlu F
Salvia fruticosa Modulates mRNA Expressions and Activity Levels of Xenobiotic Metabolizing CYP1A2, CYP2E1, NQO1, GPx, and GST Enzymes in Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma HT-29 Cells.
Nutr Cancer. 2017 Aug-Sep; 69(6):892-903 [PubMed] Related Publications
Natural products have gained considerable interests because of their use in some industrial areas including nutrition, cosmetic, pharmacy, and medicine. Salvia fruticosa M. (Lamiaceae) is known for its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, CYP1A2 and CYP2E1, produce reactive metabolites which are eliminated by the action of phase II enzymes, NQO1, GPx, and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). In this study, in vitro modulatory effects of S. fruticosa and its major phenolic compound rosmarinic acid (RA) on CYP1A2, CYP2E1, NQO1, GPx, and GSTm1 mRNA expressions and enzyme activities of GPx and GSTs were investigated in HT-29 cells. An mRNA expression analysis revealed that CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 levels were decreased while those of NQO1, GPx, and GSTm1 increased after S. fruticosa and RA treatments. In parallel to gene expressions, enzyme activities of GPx and GSTs by S. fruticosa increased 1.68- and 1.48-fold, respectively. Moreover, RA increased GPx and GSTs activities 1.67- and 1.94-fold, respectively. The results of this preliminary study show that metabolism of xenobiotics may be altered due to changes in the expression and activity of the investigated enzymes by S. fruticosa.

Li J, Hao D, Wang L, et al.
Epigenetic targeting drugs potentiate chemotherapeutic effects in solid tumor therapy.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):4035 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epigenetic therapy is a novel tumor therapeutic method and refers to the targeting of the aberrant epigenetic modifications presumably at cancer-related genes by chemicals which are epigenetic targeting drugs (ETDs). Not like in treating hematopoietic cancer, the clinical trials investigating the potential use of ETDs in the solid tumor is not encouraging. Instead, the curative effects of ETD delivered together with DNA targeting chemo drugs (DTDs) are quite promising according to our meta-analysis. To investigate the synergistic mechanism of ETD and DTD drug combination, the therapeutic effect was studied using both cell lines and mouse engrafted tumors. Mechanically we show that HDAC inhibitors and DNMT inhibitors are capable of increasing the chromatin accessibility to cisplatin (CP) and doxorubicin (Dox) through chromatin decompaction globally. Consequently, the combination of ETD and DTD enhances the DTD induced DNA damage and cell death. Engrafted tumors in SCID mice also show increased sensitivity to irradiation (IR) or CP when the tumors were pretreated by ETDs. Given the limited therapeutic effect of ETD alone, these results strongly suggest that the combination of DTD, including irradiation, and ETD treatment is a very promising choice in clinical solid tumor therapy.

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