Gene Summary

Gene:SQSTM1; sequestosome 1
Aliases: p60, p62, A170, DMRV, OSIL, PDB3, ZIP3, p62B, NADGP, FTDALS3
Summary:This gene encodes a multifunctional protein that binds ubiquitin and regulates activation of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) signaling pathway. The protein functions as a scaffolding/adaptor protein in concert with TNF receptor-associated factor 6 to mediate activation of NF-kB in response to upstream signals. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding either the same or different isoforms have been identified for this gene. Mutations in this gene result in sporadic and familial Paget disease of bone. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (28)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • siRNA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Knockout Mice
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cultured Cells
  • RNA Interference
  • Phagosomes
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Drug Resistance
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Heat-Shock Proteins
  • TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6
  • Breast Cancer
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Lung Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • Young Adult
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Apoptosis
  • Gene Expression
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Lysosomes
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Autophagy
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Cell Survival
  • Viral Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • SQSTM1
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Beclin-1
  • Chromosome 5
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Sulfasalazine
  • Antineoplastic Agents
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SQSTM1 (cancer-related)

Moscat J, Karin M, Diaz-Meco MT
p62 in Cancer: Signaling Adaptor Beyond Autophagy.
Cell. 2016; 167(3):606-609 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
Adaptor proteins participate in selective autophagy, which is critical for cellular detoxification and stress relief. However, new evidence supports an autophagy-independent key role of the adaptor p62 (encoded by the gene Sqstm1) in signaling functions central to tumor initiation in the epithelium and suppression of tumor progression in the stroma.

Zhang Z, Wu B, Chai W, et al.
Knockdown of WAVE1 enhances apoptosis of leukemia cells by downregulating autophagy.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(6):2647-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemoresistance of leukemia constitutes a great challenge for successful treatment of leukemia. Autophagy has recently attracted increasing attention for its role in conferring resistance to various conventional anti-neoplastic regiments. In the present study, the authors showed that WAVE1, a member of WASP family verprolin-homologous proteins, is a critical regulator of chemoresistance during autophagy. It is positively correlated with clinical status in pediatric acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and leukemia cell lines. The knockdown of WAVE1 expression decreased autophagy was accompanied by an upregulation of autophagic marker microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-Ⅱ, a degradation of SQSTM1/sequestosome 1 (p62) and the formation of autophagosomes. Moreover, a suppression of WAVE1 expression increased the sensitivity of leukemia cells to chemotherapy and apoptosis, and depletion of WAVE1 expression promoted the translocation of Bcl-2 from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. In addition, a knockdown of PI3K-Ⅲ expression significantly inhibited WAVE1-mediated autophagy. Furthermore, suppression of WAVE1 expression blocked the interactions between Beclin1 and PI3K-Ⅲ and the disassociation of Beclin1-Bcl-2 during enhanced autophagy. The above results suggested that WAVE1 is a critical pro-autophagic protein capable of enhancing cell survival and regulating chemoresistance in leukemia cells potentially through the Beclin1/Bcl-2 and Beclin1/PI3K-Ⅲ complex-dependent pathways.

Qian HR, Yang Y
Functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(14):17641-51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
Autophagy is a highly regulated catabolic pathway responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins and damaged intracellular organelles. Perturbations in autophagy are found in gastric cancer. In host gastric cells, autophagy can be induced by Helicobacter pylori (or H. pylori) infection, which is associated with the oncogenesis of gastric cancer. In gastric cancer cells, autophagy has both pro-survival and pro-death functions in determining cell fate. Besides, autophagy modulates gastric cancer metastasis by affecting a wide range of pathological events, including extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor angiogenesis, and tumor microenvironment. In addition, some of the autophagy-related proteins, such as Beclin 1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1-LC3), and p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) have certain prognostic values for gastric cancer. In this article, we review the recent studies regarding the functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer.

He W, Ye X, Huang X, et al.
Hsp90 inhibitor, BIIB021, induces apoptosis and autophagy by regulating mTOR-Ulk1 pathway in imatinib-sensitive and -resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(4):1710-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Development of drug resistance due to BCR-ABL point mutations and the persistence of leukemia initiating cells has become a major obstacle for tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The BCR-ABL protein is an important client protein of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). BIIB021, an orally available Hsp90 inhibitor, has activity against various cancer cells. However, little is known about the inhibitory effect of BIIB021 on CML cells. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of BIIB021 on K562, K562/G (an imatinib-resistant cell lines), as well as 32D mouse leukemic cells expressing wild-type BCR-ABL (b3a2, 32Dp210) and T315I mutant BCR-ABL (32Dp210-T315I) cells. Our data showed that BIIB021 induced significant growth inhibition and apoptosis that was predominantly mediated by the mitochondrial pathway. BIIB021 also resulted in proteasomal degradation of BCR-ABL proteins. In addition to induction of apoptosis, we report for the first time that BIIB021 induced autophagic response as evidenced by the formation of autophagosome, increased conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-I to LC3-II, decreased p62 (SQSTM1) protein levels. Further study suggested that Akt-mTOR-Ulk1 signaling pathway was involved in BIIB021-triggered autophagy. Moreover, blocking autophagy using pharmacological inhibitor 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1 significantly enhanced cell death and apoptosis induced by BIIB021, indicating the cytoprotective role of autophagy in BIIB021-treated CML cells. Collectively, these data provide possible molecular mechanisms for the antileukemic effect of BIIB021 on imatinib-sensitive and -resistant CML cells and provide new insights into the future application of BIIB021 in the clinical treatment of CML.

Divisato G, Formicola D, Esposito T, et al.
ZNF687 Mutations in Severe Paget Disease of Bone Associated with Giant Cell Tumor.
Am J Hum Genet. 2016; 98(2):275-86 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
Paget disease of bone (PDB) is a skeletal disorder characterized by focal abnormalities of bone remodeling, which result in enlarged and deformed bones in one or more regions of the skeleton. In some cases, the pagetic tissue undergoes neoplastic transformation, resulting in osteosarcoma and, less frequently, in giant cell tumor of bone (GCT). We performed whole-exome sequencing in a large family with 14 PDB-affected members, four of whom developed GCT at multiple pagetic skeletal sites, and we identified the c.2810C>G (p.Pro937Arg) missense mutation in the zinc finger protein 687 gene (ZNF687). The mutation precisely co-segregated with the clinical phenotype in all affected family members. The sequencing of seven unrelated individuals with GCT associated with PDB (GCT/PDB) identified the same mutation in all individuals, unravelling a founder effect. ZNF687 is highly expressed during osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis and is dramatically upregulated in the tumor tissue of individuals with GCT/PDB. Interestingly, our preliminary findings showed that ZNF687, indicated as a target gene of the NFkB transcription factor by ChIP-seq analysis, is also upregulated in the peripheral blood of PDB-affected individuals with (n = 5) or without (n = 6) mutations in SQSTM1, encouraging additional studies to investigate its potential role as a biomarker of PDB risk.

Shida M, Kitajima Y, Nakamura J, et al.
Impaired mitophagy activates mtROS/HIF-1α interplay and increases cancer aggressiveness in gastric cancer cells under hypoxia.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(4):1379-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) is a selective form of autophagy and a critical step in excluding mitochondria damaged by stress, including hypoxia. This study aimed to determine whether the integrity of mitophagy affected production of the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS), hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α expression and aggressive characteristics in GC cells under hypoxia. Three GC cell lines, 44As3, 58As9 and MKN45, were investigated in this study. HIF-1α expression was induced in the three GC cell lines under hypoxia, with higher expression observed in 44As3 and 58As9 cells compared with MKN45 cells. Cell survival and invasion abilities under hypoxia were significantly stronger in 44As3 and 58As9 cells than MKN45 cells. Moreover, mtROS accumulated in a time-dependent manner in 44As3 and 58As9 cells, but not in MKN45 cells. ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) treatment resulted in strong attenuation of HIF-1α expression, whereas HIF-1α knockdown increased ROS production in the three GC cell lines under hypoxia. These results suggested that the mtROS/HIF-1α interplay affected the hypoxia-induced cancer aggressiveness. Assessment of mitophagy by LC3-I/II conversion, SQSTM1/p62 degradation and specific fluorescence markers demonstrated that hypoxia-induced mitophagy was observed only in MKN45 cells, while the process was impaired in the other two cell lines. Treatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine conversely increased HIF-1α expression, mtROS generation, cell survival and invasion in hypoxic MKN45 cells. The present study revealed a novel mechanism in which the integrity of mitophagy might determine cancer aggressiveness via mtROS/HIF-1α interplay in GC cells under hypoxic conditions.

Goulielmaki M, Koustas E, Moysidou E, et al.
BRAF associated autophagy exploitation: BRAF and autophagy inhibitors synergise to efficiently overcome resistance of BRAF mutant colorectal cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(8):9188-221 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
Autophagy is the basic catabolic mechanism that involves cell degradation of unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components. Autophagy has a controversial role in cancer--both in protecting against tumor progression by isolation of damaged organelles, or by potentially contributing to cancer growth. The impact of autophagy in RAS induced transformation still remains to be further analyzed based on the differential effect of RAS isoforms and tumor cell context. In the present study, the effect of KRAS/BRAF/PIK3CA oncogenic pathways on the autophagic cell properties and on main components of the autophagic machinery like p62 (SQSTM1), Beclin-1 (BECN1) and MAP1LC3 (LC3) in colon cancer cells was investigated. This study provides evidence that BRAF oncogene induces the expression of key autophagic markers, like LC3 and BECN1 in colorectal tumor cells. Herein, PI3K/AKT/MTOR inhibitors induce autophagic tumor properties, whereas RAF/MEK/ERK signalling inhibitors reduce expression of autophagic markers. Based on the ineffectiveness of BRAFV600E inhibitors in BRAFV600E bearing colorectal tumors, the BRAF related autophagic properties in colorectal cancer cells are further exploited, by novel combinatorial anti-cancer protocols. Strong evidence is provided here that pre-treatment of autophagy inhibitor 3-MA followed by its combination with BRAFV600E targeting drug PLX4720 can synergistically sensitize resistant colorectal tumors. Notably, colorectal cancer cells are very sensitive to mono-treatments of another autophagy inhibitor, Bafilomycin A1. The findings of this study are expected to provide novel efficient protocols for treatment of otherwise resistant colorectal tumors bearing BRAFV600E, by exploiting the autophagic properties induced by BRAF oncogene.

Vegliante R, Desideri E, Di Leo L, Ciriolo MR
Dehydroepiandrosterone triggers autophagic cell death in human hepatoma cell line HepG2 via JNK-mediated p62/SQSTM1 expression.
Carcinogenesis. 2016; 37(3):233-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Autophagy is a catabolic process that cancer cells usually exploit during stress conditions to provide energy by recycling organelles and proteins. Beyond its prosurvival role, it is well accepted that occurrence of autophagy is often associated with a particular type of programmed cell death known as autophagic cell death (ACD). Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an endogenous hormone showing anticancer properties even if the underlying mechanisms are not fully clear yet. Here, we provide evidence that DHEA induces ACD in human hepatoma cell line, HepG2. Indeed, autophagy inhibitors (i.e. 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA) significantly reduced the percentage of dead cells. DHEA induces p62-dependent autophagy, which turns detrimental and brings about death. DHEA stimulates reactive oxygen species-independent jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphoactivation and the treatment with JNK inhibitor reduces p62 mRNA levels, as well as DHEA-induced ACD. The transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived-2)-like-2 (Nrf2) constitutes the link between JNK and p62 since its migration to the nucleus is suppressed by JNK inhibitor and its inhibition through a dominant negative Nrf2 plasmid transfection decreases p62 protein levels. Overall, our data indicate that DHEA induces ACD in HepG2 via a JNK-Nrf2-p62 axis. Thus, DHEA could represent a new appealing drug for eliminating tumor cells through autophagy particularly in apoptosis-resistant cases.

Puvirajesinghe TM, Bertucci F, Jain A, et al.
Identification of p62/SQSTM1 as a component of non-canonical Wnt VANGL2-JNK signalling in breast cancer.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:10318 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
The non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (Wnt/PCP) pathway plays a crucial role in embryonic development. Recent work has linked defects of this pathway to breast cancer aggressiveness and proposed Wnt/PCP signalling as a therapeutic target. Here we show that the archetypal Wnt/PCP protein VANGL2 is overexpressed in basal breast cancers, associated with poor prognosis and implicated in tumour growth. We identify the scaffold p62/SQSTM1 protein as a novel VANGL2-binding partner and show its key role in an evolutionarily conserved VANGL2-p62/SQSTM1-JNK pathway. This proliferative signalling cascade is upregulated in breast cancer patients with shorter survival and can be inactivated in patient-derived xenograft cells by inhibition of the JNK pathway or by disruption of the VANGL2-p62/SQSTM1 interaction. VANGL2-JNK signalling is thus a potential target for breast cancer therapy.

Jakhar R, Paul S, Bhardwaj M, Kang SC
Astemizole-Histamine induces Beclin-1-independent autophagy by targeting p53-dependent crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 372(1):89-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Apoptosis and autophagy are genetically regulated, evolutionarily conserved processes that can jointly seal cancer cell fates, and numerous death stimuli are capable of activating either pathway. Although crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy is quite complex and sometimes contradictory, it remains a key factor determining the outcomes of death-related pathologies such as cancer. In the present study, exposure of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to HIS and the H1 receptor antagonist AST both alone and together with HIS (AST-HIS) led to generation of intracellular ROS, which induced massive cellular vacuolization through dilation of the ER and mitochondria. Consequently, apoptosis by Bax translocation, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation were triggered. In addition, AST-HIS caused ER stress-induced autophagy in MCF-7 cells, as evidenced by an increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, with surprisingly no changes in Beclin-1 expression. Non-canonical autophagy was induced via p53 phosphorylation, which increased p53-p62 interactions to enhance Beclin-1-independent autophagy as evidenced by immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation. In the absence of Beclin-1, enhanced autophagy further activated apoptosis through caspase induction. In conclusion, these findings indicate that AST-HIS-induced apoptosis and autophagy can be regulated by ROS-mediated signaling pathways.

Masuda GO, Yashiro M, Kitayama K, et al.
Clinicopathological Correlations of Autophagy-related Proteins LC3, Beclin 1 and p62 in Gastric Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(1):129-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: This study evaluated the clinicopathological significance of autophagy, an intracellular degradation system, in gastric cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of three autophagy-related proteins, namely light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin 1 and p62, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using samples from 510 patients with primary gastric cancer.
RESULTS: LC3, Beclin 1, and p62 expression was positive in 79 (15.5%), 126 (24.7%) and 251 (49.2%) out of 510 carcinomas, respectively. Autophagy was defined when samples were positive for at least two out of the three proteins. Autophagy-positive cases were 113 (22.1%) out of the 510. Autophagy determined by LC3, Beclin 1, and p62 significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, vessel invasion, and hepatic metastasis. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that autophagy was significantly associated with poor survival of patients with gastric cancer, especially for those with disease at stage I. Multivariate analysis indicated that autophagy was an independent prognostic factor.
CONCLUSION: Autophagy promotes the progression of gastric cancer at an early clinical stage.

Bartsch G, Jennewein L, Harter PN, et al.
Autophagy-associated proteins BAG3 and p62 in testicular cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(3):1629-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) represent the most common malignant tumor group in the age group of 20 to 40-years old men. The potentially curable effect of cytotoxic therapy in TGCT is mediated mainly by the induction of apoptosis. Autophagy has been discussed as an alternative mechanism of cell death but also of treatment resistance in various types of tumors. However, in TGCT the expression and role of core autophagy-associated factors is hitherto unknown. We designed the study in order to evaluate the potential role of autophagy-associated factors in the development and progression of testicular cancers. Eighty-four patients were assessed for autophagy (BAG3, p62) and apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3) markers using immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue micro- arrays. In addition, western blot analyses of frozen tissue of seminoma and non-seminoma were performed. Our findings show that BAG3 was significantly upregulated in seminoma as compared to non-seminoma but not to normal testicular tissue. No significant difference of p62 expression was detected between neoplastic and normal tissue or between seminoma and non-seminoma. BAG3 and p62 showed distinct loco‑regional expression patterns in normal and neoplastic human testicular tissues. In contrast to the autophagic markers, apoptosis rate was significantly higher in testicular tumors as compared to normal testicular tissue, but not between different TGCT subtypes. The present study, for the first time, examined the expression of central autophagy proteins BAG3 and p62 in testicular cancer. Our findings imply that in general apoptosis but not autophagy induction differs between normal and neoplastic testis tissue.

Wang X, Du Z, Li L, et al.
Beclin 1 and p62 expression in non-small cell lung cancer: relation with malignant behaviors and clinical outcome.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(9):10644-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
Autophagy plays a complicated role in tumorigenesis in a variety of cancers. Recently, many studies report that some autophagy-related markers could be detected in several types of human tumors. However, fewer studies have been conducted to evaluate the relationship between autophagy and lung cancer, especially in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, the expression levels of autophagy-related markers Beclin 1 and p62 were detected by Western blot analysis and cell immunofluorescence staining in three human NSCLC cell lines A549, H1299 and HCC827. Then, tissue microarray and immunohistochemical staining were used to determine Beclin 1 and p62 expression in 104 NSCLC specimens collected from patients. Beclin 1 and p62 were observed to primarily distribute in the cytoplasm of the cells. Beclin 1 was expressed more predominantly in male and heavy-smoker and its expression was significantly correlated with the differentiation and lymph node metastasis. p62 expression was negatively correlated with TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed that low expression of Beclin 1 and high expression of p62 were significantly associated with shorter survival. Meanwhile, multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that Beclin 1 and p62 were independent risk factors related to overall survival for patients with NSCLC. Collectively, our study suggests that Beclin 1 and p62 could serve as potential indicators for the prognosis of patients with NSCLC.

Farago AF, Le LP, Zheng Z, et al.
Durable Clinical Response to Entrectinib in NTRK1-Rearranged Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
J Thorac Oncol. 2015; 10(12):1670-4 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Chromosomal rearrangements involving neurotrophic tyrosine kinase 1 (NTRK1) occur in a subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and other solid tumor malignancies, leading to expression of an oncogenic TrkA fusion protein. Entrectinib (RXDX-101) is an orally available tyrosine kinase inhibitor, including TrkA. We sought to determine the frequency of NTRK1 rearrangements in NSCLC and to assess the clinical activity of entrectinib.
METHODS: We screened 1378 cases of NSCLC using anchored multiplex polymerase chain reaction (AMP). A patient with an NTRK1 gene rearrangement was enrolled onto a Phase 1 dose escalation study of entrectinib in adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic tumors (NCT02097810). We assessed safety and response to treatment.
RESULTS: We identified NTRK1 gene rearrangements at a frequency of 0.1% in this cohort. A patient with stage IV lung adenocrcinoma with an SQSTM1-NTRK1 fusion transcript expression was treated with entrectinib. Entrectinib was well tolerated, with no grade 3-4 adverse events. Within three weeks of starting on treatment, the patient reported resolution of prior dyspnea and pain. Restaging CT scans demonstrated a RECIST partial response (PR) and complete resolution of all brain metastases. This patient has continued on treatment for over 6 months with an ongoing PR.
CONCLUSIONS: Entrectinib demonstrated significant anti-tumor activity in a patient with NSCLC harboring an SQSTM1-NTRK1 gene rearrangement, indicating that entrectinib may be an effective therapy for tumors with NTRK gene rearrangements, including those with central nervous system metastases.

Lee JG, Shin JH, Shim HS, et al.
Autophagy contributes to the chemo-resistance of non-small cell lung cancer in hypoxic conditions.
Respir Res. 2015; 16:138 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The development of chemo-resistance in non-small lung cancer is a major obstacle in treating patients. Hypoxia is a commonly faced microenvironment in solid tumor and suggested to be related to both autophagy and chemo-resistance.
METHODS: In this study, we investigated the role of hypoxia-induced autophagy in acquiring chemo-resistance in both cancer cell (A549) and human cancer tissue
RESULTS: Hypoxic exposure (1 % O2) of A549 cell stimulated autophagic induction in cancer cells, shown by increase of LC3BI to LC3BII conversion and decrease of p62/sequestosome1 in Western blot, increased GFP-LC puncta in confocal microscopy, and increased number of double-membrane autophagic vacuoles in electron micrographs. Hypoxic exposure also induced resistance of cancer cells to cisplatin, and LC3B siRNA restored the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Furthermore, Human lung cancer tissues that experienced chemotherapy showed increase of LC3BI to LC3BII conversion and decrease of p62/sequestosome1 compared with chemo-naïve cancer tissue in Western blot.
CONCLUSION: Autophagy may play an important role in acquiring resistance to chemotherapy in lung cancer and hypoxia related pathway seems to be involved in autophagy induction.

Toscani D, Palumbo C, Dalla Palma B, et al.
The Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib Maintains Osteocyte Viability in Multiple Myeloma Patients by Reducing Both Apoptosis and Autophagy: A New Function for Proteasome Inhibitors.
J Bone Miner Res. 2016; 31(4):815-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by severely imbalanced bone remodeling. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of proteasome inhibitors (PIs), a class of drugs known to stimulate bone formation, on the mechanisms involved in osteocyte death induced by MM cells. First, we performed a histological analysis of osteocyte viability on bone biopsies on a cohort of 37 MM patients with symptomatic disease. A significantly higher number of viable osteocytes was detected in patients treated with a bortezomib (BOR)-based regimen compared with those treated without BOR. Interestingly, both osteocyte autophagy and apoptosis were affected in vivo by BOR treatment. Thereafter, we checked the in vitro effect of BOR to understand the mechanisms whereby BOR maintains osteocyte viability in bone from MM patients. We found that osteocyte and preosteocyte autophagic death was triggered during coculturing with MM cells. Our evaluation was conducted by analyzing either autophagy markers microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 beta (LC3B) and SQSTM1/sequestome 1 (p62) levels, or the cell ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy. PIs were found to increase the basal levels of LC3 expression in the osteocytes while blunting the myeloma-induced osteocyte death. PIs also reduced the autophagic death of osteocytes induced by high-dose dexamethasone (DEX) and potentiated the anabolic effect of PTH(1-34). Our data identify osteocyte autophagy as a new potential target in MM bone disease and support the use of PIs to maintain osteocyte viability and improve bone integrity in MM patients.

Ivankovic D, Chau KY, Schapira AH, Gegg ME
Mitochondrial and lysosomal biogenesis are activated following PINK1/parkin-mediated mitophagy.
J Neurochem. 2016; 136(2):388-402 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
Impairment of the autophagy-lysosome pathway is implicated with the changes in α-synuclein and mitochondrial dysfunction observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Damaged mitochondria accumulate PINK1, which then recruits parkin, resulting in ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins. These can then be bound by the autophagic proteins p62/SQSTM1 and LC3, resulting in degradation of mitochondria by mitophagy. Mutations in PINK1 and parkin genes are a cause of familial PD. We found a significant increase in the expression of p62/SQSTM1 mRNA and protein following mitophagy induction in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. p62 protein not only accumulated on mitochondria, but was also greatly increased in the cytosol. Increased p62/SQSMT1 expression was prevented in PINK1 knock-down cells, suggesting increased p62 expression was a consequence of mitophagy induction. The transcription factors Nrf2 and TFEB, which play roles in mitochondrial and lysosomal biogenesis, respectively, can regulate p62/SQSMT1. We report that both Nrf2 and TFEB translocate to the nucleus following mitophagy induction and that the increase in p62 mRNA levels was significantly impaired in cells with Nrf2 or TFEB knockdown. TFEB translocation also increased expression of itself and lysosomal proteins such as glucocerebrosidase and cathepsin D following mitophagy induction. We also report that cells with increased TFEB protein have significantly higher PGC-1α mRNA levels, a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, resulting in increased mitochondrial content. Our data suggests that TFEB is activated following mitophagy to maintain autophagy-lysosome pathway and mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, strategies to increase TFEB may improve both the clearance of α-synuclein and mitochondrial dysfunction in PD. Damaged mitochondria are degraded by the autophagy-lysosome pathway and is termed mitophagy. Following mitophagy induction, the transcription factors Nrf2 and TFEB translocate to the nucleus, inducing the transcription of genes encoding for autophagic proteins such as p62, as well as lysosomal and mitochondrial proteins. We propose that these events maintain autophagic flux, replenish lysosomes and replace mitochondria.

Lebovitz CB, DeVorkin L, Bosc D, et al.
Precision autophagy: Will the next wave of selective autophagy markers and specific autophagy inhibitors feed clinical pipelines?
Autophagy. 2015; 11(10):1949-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
Research presented at the Vancouver Autophagy Symposium (VAS) 2014 suggests that autophagy's influence on health and disease depends on tight regulation and precision targeting of substrates. Discussions recognized a pressing need for robust biomarkers that accurately assess the clinical utility of modulating autophagy in disease contexts. Biomarker discovery could flow from investigations of context-dependent triggers, sensors, and adaptors that tailor the autophagy machinery to achieve target specificity. In his keynote address, Dr. Vojo Deretic (University of New Mexico) described the discovery of a cargo receptor family that utilizes peptide motif-based cargo recognition, a mechanism that may be more precise than generic substrate tagging. The keynote by Dr. Alec Kimmelman (Harvard Medical School) emphasized that unbiased screens for novel selective autophagy factors may accelerate the development of autophagy-based therapies. Using a quantitative proteomics screen for de novo identification of autophagosome substrates in pancreatic cancer, Kimmelman's group discovered a new type of selective autophagy that regulates bioavailable iron. Additional presentations revealed novel autophagy regulators and receptors in metabolic diseases, proteinopathies, and cancer, and outlined the development of specific autophagy inhibitors and treatment regimens that combine autophagy modulation with anticancer therapies. VAS 2014 stimulated interdisciplinary discussions focused on the development of biomarkers, drugs, and preclinical models to facilitate clinical translation of key autophagy discoveries.

Ladoire S, Penault-Llorca F, Senovilla L, et al.
Combined evaluation of LC3B puncta and HMGB1 expression predicts residual risk of relapse after adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
Autophagy. 2015; 11(10):1878-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
In spite of adjuvant chemotherapy, a significant fraction of patients with localized breast cancer (BC) relapse after optimal treatment. We determined the occurrence of cytoplasmic MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B)-positive puncta, as well as the presence of nuclear HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1) in cancer cells within surgical BC specimens by immunohistochemistry, first in a test cohort (152 patients) and then in a validation cohort of localized BC patients who all received adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy (1646 patients). Cytoplasmic LC3B(+) puncta inversely correlated with the intensity of SQSTM1 staining, suggesting that a high percentage cells of LC3B(+) puncta reflects increased autophagic flux. After setting optimal thresholds in the test cohort, cytoplasmic LC3B(+) puncta and nuclear HMGB1 were scored as positive in 27.2% and 28.6% of the tumors, respectively, in the validation cohort, while 8.7% were considered as double positive. LC3B(+) puncta or HMGB1 expression alone did not constitute independent prognostic factors for metastasis-free survival (MFS) in multivariate analyses. However, the combined positivity for LC3B(+) puncta and nuclear HMGB1 constituted an independent prognostic factor significantly associated with prolonged MFS (hazard ratio: 0.49 95% confidence interval [0.26-0.89]; P = 0.02), and improved breast cancer specific survival (hazard ratio: 0.21 95% confidence interval [0.05-0.85]; P = 0.029). Subgroup analyses revealed that within patients with poor-prognosis BC, HMGB1(+) LC3B(+) double-positive tumors had a better prognosis than BC that lacked one or both of these markers. Altogether, these results suggest that the combined positivity for LC3B(+) puncta and nuclear HMGB1 is a positive predictor for longer BC survival.

Khurana A, Roy D, Kalogera E, et al.
Quinacrine promotes autophagic cell death and chemosensitivity in ovarian cancer and attenuates tumor growth.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(34):36354-69 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
A promising new strategy for cancer therapy is to target the autophagic pathway. In the current study, we demonstrate that the antimalarial drug Quinacrine (QC) reduces cell viability and promotes chemotherapy-induced cell death in an autophagy-dependent manner more extensively in chemoresistant cells compared to their isogenic chemosensitive control cells as quantified by the Chou-Talalay methodology. Our preliminary data, in vitro and in vivo, indicate that QC induces autophagy by downregulating p62/SQSTM1 to sensitize chemoresistant cells to autophagic- and caspase-mediated cell death in a p53-independent manner. QC promotes autophagosome accumulation and enhances autophagic flux by clearance of p62 in chemoresistant ovarain cancer (OvCa) cell lines to a greater extent compared to their chemosensitive controls. Notably, p62 levels were elevated in chemoresistant OvCa cell lines and knockdown of p62 in these cells resulted in a greater response to QC treatment. Bafilomycin A, an autophagy inhibitor, restored p62 levels and reversed QC-mediated cell death and thus chemosensitization. Importantly, our in vivo data shows that QC alone and in combination with carboplatin suppresses tumor growth and ascites in the highly chemoresistant HeyA8MDR OvCa model compared to carboplatin treatment alone. Collectively, our preclinical data suggest that QC in combination with carboplatin can be an effective treatment for patients with chemoresistant OvCa.

Falasca L, Torino F, Marconi M, et al.
AMBRA1 and SQSTM1 expression pattern in prostate cancer.
Apoptosis. 2015; 20(12):1577-86 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
Prostate cancer is among the most commonly diagnosed male diseases and a leading cause of cancer mortality in men. There is emerging evidence that autophagy plays an important role in malignant cell survival and offers protection from the anti-cancer drugs in prostate cancer cells. AMBRA1 and the autophagic protein sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1; p62) expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot on tissue samples from both benign and malignant prostatic lesions. The data reported in this pilot study demonstrated an increased expression of AMBRA1 and SQSTM1, which were also associated with an accumulation of LC3II in prostate cancer but not in benign lesion. In the present study we found that: (i) at variance with benign lesion, prostate cancer cells underwent SQSTM1 accumulation, i.e., clearly displayed a defective autophagic process but, also, (ii) prostate cancer accumulated AMBRA1 and (iii) this increase positively correlated with the Gleason score. These results underscore a possible implication of autophagy in prostate cancer phenotype and of AMBRA1 as possible cancer progression biomarker in this malignancy.

Huang J, Wang L, Jiang M, et al.
Low BIK outside-inside-out interactive inflammation immune-induced transcription-dependent apoptosis through FUT3-PMM2-SQSTM1-SFN-ZNF384.
Immunol Res. 2016; 64(2):461-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Eighteen different Pearson mutual-positive-correlation BIK-activatory molecular feedback upstream and downstream networks were constructed from 79 overlapping of 376 GRNInfer and 98 Pearson under BIK CC ≥ 0.25 in low normal adjacent tissues of Taiwan compared with high lung adenocarcinoma. Our identified BIK interactive total feedback molecular network showed FUT3 [fucosyltransferase 3 (galactoside 3(4)-L-fucosyltransferase Lewis blood group)], PMM2 (phosphomannomutase 2), SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1), SFN_2 [REX2 RNA exonuclease 2 homolog (S. cerevisiae)] and ZNF384 (zinc finger protein 384) in low normal adjacent tissues of lung adenocarcinoma. BIK interactive total feedback terms included mitochondrial envelope, endomembrane system, integral to membrane, Golgi apparatus, cytoplasm, nucleus, cytosol, intracellular signaling cascade, mitochondrion, extracellular space, inflammation, immune response, apoptosis, cell differentiation, cell cycle, regulation of cell cycle, cell proliferation, estrogen-responsive protein Efp controls cell cycle and breast tumors growth, induction or regulation of apoptosis based on integrative GO, KEGG, GenMAPP, BioCarta and disease databases in low normal adjacent tissues of lung adenocarcinoma. Therefore, we propose low BIK outside-inside-out interactive inflammation immune-induced transcription-dependent apoptosis through FUT3-PMM2-SQSTM1-SFN-ZNF384 in normal adjacent tissues of lung adenocarcinoma.

Marchi S, Corricelli M, Trapani E, et al.
Defective autophagy is a key feature of cerebral cavernous malformations.
EMBO Mol Med. 2015; 7(11):1403-17 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a major cerebrovascular disease affecting approximately 0.3-0.5% of the population and is characterized by enlarged and leaky capillaries that predispose to seizures, focal neurological deficits, and fatal intracerebral hemorrhages. Cerebral cavernous malformation is a genetic disease that may arise sporadically or be inherited as an autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Causative loss-of-function mutations have been identified in three genes, KRIT1 (CCM1), CCM2 (MGC4607), and PDCD10 (CCM3), which occur in both sporadic and familial forms. Autophagy is a bulk degradation process that maintains intracellular homeostasis and that plays essential quality control functions within the cell. Indeed, several studies have identified the association between dysregulated autophagy and different human diseases. Here, we show that the ablation of the KRIT1 gene strongly suppresses autophagy, leading to the aberrant accumulation of the autophagy adaptor p62/SQSTM1, defective quality control systems, and increased intracellular stress. KRIT1 loss-of-function activates the mTOR-ULK1 pathway, which is a master regulator of autophagy, and treatment with mTOR inhibitors rescues some of the mole-cular and cellular phenotypes associated with CCM. Insufficient autophagy is also evident in CCM2-silenced human endothelial cells and in both cells and tissues from an endothelial-specific CCM3-knockout mouse model, as well as in human CCM lesions. Furthermore, defective autophagy is highly correlated to endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a crucial event that contributes to CCM progression. Taken together, our data point to a key role for defective autophagy in CCM disease pathogenesis, thus providing a novel framework for the development of new pharmacological strategies to prevent or reverse adverse clinical outcomes of CCM lesions.

Son YO, Pratheeshkumar P, Roy RV, et al.
Antioncogenic and Oncogenic Properties of Nrf2 in Arsenic-induced Carcinogenesis.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(45):27090-100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
Arsenic (As(3+)) is a carcinogen with considerable environmental and occupational relevancy. The present study shows that As(3+)-transformed human lung bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells (AsT cells) exhibit the property of apoptosis resistance. The level of basal reactive oxygen species (ROS) is very low in AsT cells in correlation with elevated expressions of both antioxidant enzymes and antiapoptotic proteins. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and p62 are constitutively expressed. These two proteins up-regulate antioxidant enzymes and antiapoptotic proteins. The knockdown of Nrf2 or p62 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced both ROS levels and As(3+)-induced apoptosis in transformed cells. AsT cells have autophagy deficiency as evidenced by reduced formation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II, GFP-LC3 puncta, and autophagy flux. Results obtained using a soft agar assay and shRNA Nrf2-transfected cells show that Nrf2 plays an antioncogenic role before transformation, whereas this transcription factor plays an oncogenic role after transformation. In addition, depletion of Nrf2 by shRNA dramatically inhibited growth and proliferation of transformed cells. Furthermore, the Nrf2 protein levels and antiapoptotic and antioxidant enzyme levels are higher in lung adenocarcinoma than in normal tissues. Collectively, this study demonstrates that a constitutively high level of Nrf2 in AsT cells up-regulates the antioxidant proteins catalase and superoxide dismutase as well as the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. The final consequences are decreased ROS generation and increased apoptotic resistance, cell survival and proliferation, and tumorigenesis.

Hua F, Li K, Yu JJ, Hu ZW
The TRIB3-SQSTM1 interaction mediates metabolic stress-promoted tumorigenesis and progression via suppressing autophagic and proteasomal degradation.
Autophagy. 2015; 11(10):1929-31 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
Cancer and diabetes are 2 multifactorial chronic diseases with tremendous impact on health worldwide. Metabolic risk factors play a critical role in fueling a wide range of cancers, but with undefined mechanisms. We recently reported that TRIB3, a stress-induced protein, mediates a reciprocal antagonism between autophagic and proteasomal degradation systems and connects insulin-IGF1 to malignant promotion. We found that several human cancer tissues express higher TRIB3 and phosphorylated IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate 1), which correlates negatively with patient prognosis. Silencing of TRIB3 not only restores insulin-IGF1-suppressed autophagic flux, but also attenuates tumor growth and metastasis. TRIB3 physically interacts with the autophagic receptor SQSTM1, and this interaction hinders the binding of SQSTM1 to LC3 and ubiquitinated proteins, leading to SQSTM1 accumulation and clearance inhibition of ubiquitinated proteins. Interrupting the TRIB3-SQSTM1 interaction with an α-helical peptide derived from SQSTM1 attenuates tumor growth and metastasis through activating autophagic flux. Our findings indicate that TRIB3 links insulin-IGF1 to cancer development and progression through interacting with SQSTM1. Thus, interrupting the TRIB3-SQSTM1 interaction may provide a potential strategy against cancers in patients with diabetes.

Teramachi J, Silbermann R, Yang P, et al.
Blocking the ZZ domain of sequestosome1/p62 suppresses myeloma growth and osteoclast formation in vitro and induces dramatic bone formation in myeloma-bearing bones in vivo.
Leukemia. 2016; 30(2):390-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
We reported that p62 (sequestosome 1) serves as a signaling hub in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for the formation of signaling complexes, including NFκB, p38MAPK and JNK, that are involved in the increased osteoclastogenesis and multiple myeloma (MM) cell growth induced by BMSCs that are key contributors to multiple myeloma bone disease (MMBD), and demonstrated that the ZZ domain of p62 (p62-ZZ) is required for BMSC enhancement of MMBD. We recently identified a novel p62-ZZ inhibitor, XRK3F2, which inhibits MM cell growth and BMSC growth enhancement of human MM cells. In the current study, we evaluate the relative specificity of XRK3F2 for p62-ZZ, characterize XRK3F2's capacity to inhibit growth of primary MM cells and human MM cell lines, and test the in vivo effects of XRK3F2 in the immunocompetent 5TGM1 MM model. We found that XRK3F2 induces dramatic cortical bone formation that is restricted to MM containing bones and blocked the effects and upregulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), an osteoblast (OB) differentiation inhibitor that is increased in the MM bone marrow microenvironment and utilizes signaling complexes formed on p62-ZZ, in BMSC. Interestingly, XRK3F2 had no effect on non-MM bearing bone. These results demonstrate that targeting p62 in MM models has profound effects on MMBD.

Linares JF, Duran A, Reina-Campos M, et al.
Amino Acid Activation of mTORC1 by a PB1-Domain-Driven Kinase Complex Cascade.
Cell Rep. 2015; 12(8):1339-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
The mTORC1 complex is central to the cellular response to changes in nutrient availability. The signaling adaptor p62 contributes to mTORC1 activation in response to amino acids and interacts with TRAF6, which is required for the translocation of mTORC1 to the lysosome and the subsequent K63 polyubiquitination and activation of mTOR. However, the signal initiating these p62-driven processes was previously unknown. Here, we show that p62 is phosphorylated via a cascade that includes MEK3/6 and p38δ and is driven by the PB1-containing kinase MEKK3. This phosphorylation results in the recruitment of TRAF6 to p62, the ubiquitination and activation of mTOR, and the regulation of autophagy and cell proliferation. Genetic inactivation of MEKK3 or p38δ mimics that of p62 in that it leads to inhibited growth of PTEN-deficient prostate organoids. Analysis of human prostate cancer samples showed upregulation of these three components of the pathway, which correlated with enhanced mTORC1 activation.

Hua F, Li K, Yu JJ, et al.
TRB3 links insulin/IGF to tumour promotion by interacting with p62 and impeding autophagic/proteasomal degradations.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:7951 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
High insulin/IGF is a biologic link between diabetes and cancers, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we report a previously unrecognized tumour-promoting mechanism for stress protein TRB3, which mediates a reciprocal antagonism between autophagic and proteasomal degradation systems and connects insulin/IGF to malignant promotion. We find that several human cancers express higher TRB3 and phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1, which correlates negatively with patient's prognosis. TRB3 depletion protects against tumour-promoting actions of insulin/IGF and attenuates tumour initiation, growth and metastasis in mice. TRB3 interacts with autophagic receptor p62 and hinders p62 binding to LC3 and ubiquitinated substrates, which causes p62 deposition and suppresses autophagic/proteasomal degradation. Several tumour-promoting factors accumulate in cancer cells to support tumour metabolism, proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Interrupting TRB3/p62 interaction produces potent antitumour efficacies against tumour growth and metastasis. Our study opens possibility of targeting this interaction as a potential novel strategy against cancers with diabetes.

Chang IC, Chiang TI, Lo C, et al.
Anemone altaica Induces Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells.
Am J Chin Med. 2015; 43(5):1031-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the past decade, no significant improvement has been made in chemotherapy for osteosarcoma (OS). To develop improved agents against OS, we screened 70 species of medicinal plants and treated two human OS cell lines with different agent concentrations. We then examined cell viability using the MTT assay. Results showed that a candidate plant, particularly the rhizomes of Anemone altaica Fisch. ex C. A. Mey aqueous extract (AAE), suppressed the viability of HOS and U2OS cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that AAE significantly increased the amount of cell shrinkage (Sub-G1 fragments) in HOS and U2OS cells. Moreover, AAE increased cytosolic cytochrome c and Bax, but decreased Bcl-2. The amount of cleaved caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) were significantly increased. AAE suppressed the growth of HOS and U2OS through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Data suggest that AAE is cytotoxic to HOS and U2OS cells and has no significant influence on human osteoblast hFOB cells. The high mRNA levels of apoptosis-related factors (PPP1R15A, SQSTM1, HSPA1B, and DDIT4) and cellular proliferation markers (SKA2 and BUB1B) were significantly altered by the AAE treatment of HOS and U2OS cells. Results show that the anticancer activity of AAE could up-regulate the expression of a cluster of genes, especially those in the apoptosis-related factor family and caspase family. Thus, AAE has great potential as a useful therapeutic drug for human OS.

Kim Y, Eom JI, Jeung HK, et al.
Induction of cytosine arabinoside-resistant human myeloid leukemia cell death through autophagy regulation by hydroxychloroquine.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2015; 73:87-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the effects of the autophagy inhibitor hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on cell death of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C)-resistant human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Ara-C-sensitive (U937, AML-2) and Ara-C-resistant (U937/AR, AML-2/AR) human AML cell lines were used to evaluate HCQ-regulated cytotoxicity, autophagy, and apoptosis as well as effects on cell death-related signaling pathways. We found that HCQ-induced dose- and time-dependent cell death in Ara-C-resistant cells compared to Ara-C-sensitive cell lines. The extent of cell death and features of HCQ-induced autophagic markers including increase in microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) I conversion to LC3-II, beclin-1, ATG5, as well as green fluorescent protein-LC3 positive puncta and autophagosome were remarkably greater in U937/AR cells. Also, p62/SQSTM1 was increased in response to HCQ. p62/SQSTM1 protein interacts with both LC3-II and ubiquitin protein and is degraded in autophagosomes. Therefore, a reduction of p62/SQSTM1 indicates increased autophagic degradation, whereas an increase of p62/SQSTM1 by HCQ indicates inhibited autophagic degradation. Knock down of p62/SQSTM1 using siRNA were prevented the HCQ-induced LC3-II protein level as well as significantly reduced the HCQ-induced cell death in U937/AR cells. Also, apoptotic cell death and caspase activation in U937/AR cells were increased by HCQ, provided evidence that HCQ-induced autophagy blockade. Taken together, our data show that HCQ-induced apoptotic cell death in Ara-C-resistant AML cells through autophagy regulation.

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