Anal cancer is an uncommon cancer, in which malignant cells are found in the anus (the opening at the end of the rectum through which the body passes waste). Cancer in the outer anus is more frequent in men, whilst cancer in the inner part of the rectum (the anal canal) is more frequent in women.Information for Patients and the Public
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Anal Cancer - information for patients
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MeSH term: Anus Neoplasms
US National Library of Medicine
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Anal Cancer Treatment - Information for Health Professionals
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Detailed reference article covering etiology, histology, staging, metastatic patterns, symptoms, differential diagnoses, prognosis, treatment and follow-up.
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Referenced statement including sections on epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, staging, treatment and follow-up produced by an editorial board of top European oncologists.
SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Anal Cancer
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Overview and specific fact sheets on incidence and mortality, survival and stage, and lifetime risk.
Latest Research Publications
This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).
Paget's disease of the anus masking a mixed adenoneuroendocrine tumour of the rectum.
BMJ Case Rep. 2017; 2017 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple preinvasive and invasive HPV-related lesions of the anogenital tract in a female patient with HIV infection: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(4):e5948 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported the case of an HIV-positive female patient on HAART with a good virological and immunological response and with a long history of HPV-related intraepithelial and invasive lesions of the anogenital tract.
DIAGNOSES: From 1996 to 2016, this patient was diagnosed with a high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; a HR-HPV positive inguinal lymph node metastasis from clinically undetectable primary squamous cell carcinoma; a HPV-related vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and an invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
INTERVENTIONS: All the intraepithelial and invasive lesions detected were properly treated, and subsequent follow up visits with gynecologic examination, anoscopy, pap smear and anal cytology were performed.
OUTCOMES: After a recurrence of the anal cancer and a subsequent salvage surgery with abdominoperineal resection, at the last available follow up visit no sign of disease recurrence was found.
LESSONS: This case stresses the importance of an accurate multidisciplinary follow-up in HIV-positive patients, including not only the routine medical, immunological, and virological evaluation, but also a periodical complete examination of the anogenital tract with cervicovaginal and anal cytology, colposcopy, high resolution anoscopy, and vulvar examination.
Clinics, prognosis and new therapeutic options in patients with mucosal melanoma: A retrospective analysis of 75 patients.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(1):e5753 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Feasibility and Acceptability of Anal Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Screening in HIV-Infected Patients.
Intervirology. 2016; 59(2):118-122 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Between October 2013 and March 2014, during their regular visits for the monitoring of their HIV infection in an HIV outpatient clinical unit of Marseille University Hospitals, patients were asked to self-sample anal swabs for HPV detection. A specimen self-collection kit was provided. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using in-house protocols. The quality of self-sampling was assessed by concurrent cellular quantification in collected samples.
RESULTS: The acceptability rate of anal self-sampling was 91%, and 91% of the self-sampled specimens were appropriate for HPV screening. In addition, 76% of the samples were positive for HPV, including 54% of HPV types with oncogenic potential.
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that HPV detection and typing through anal self-sampling is a valuable strategy to screen patients at high risk for anal cancer development. This could allow earlier management of anal lesions and related cancer in patients at high risk for HPV.
Giant Perineal Condyloma Acuminatum (Buschke-Lowenstein Tumour): A Case Report.
Chirurgia (Bucur). 2016 Sept-Oct; 111(5):435-438 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multimodal therapy is feasible in elderly anal cancer patients.
Acta Oncol. 2017; 56(1):81-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A series of 213 consecutive patients was diagnosed and treated at a single institution from 1984 to 2009. The patients received similar radiation doses but with different techniques, thus progressively sparing more normal tissues. The majority of patients also had simultaneous [5-fluorouracil (5FU) and mitomycin C] or induction chemotherapy (cisplatin and 5FU). The patients were stratified by age above or below 80 years. Despite that the goal was to offer standard chemoradiation treatment to all, the octo- and nonagenarians could not always be given chemotherapy.
RESULTS: In our series 35 of 213 anal cancer patients were above 80 years. After initial therapy similar complete response was observed, 80% above and 87% below 80 years. Local recurrence rate was also similar in both groups, 21% versus 26% (p = .187). Cancer-specific survival and relative survival were significantly lower in patients above 80 years, 60% and 50% versus 83% and 80%, (p = .015 and p = .027), respectively.
CONCLUSION: Patients older than 80 years develop anal cancer, but more often marginal tumors. Even in the oldest age group half of the patients can tolerate standard treatment by a combination of radiation and chemotherapy, and obtain a relative survival of 50% after five years. Fragile patients not considered candidates for chemoradiation may be offered radiation or resection to control local disease.
Depth and Patterns of Adnexal Involvement in Primary Extramammary (Anogenital) Paget Disease: A Study of 178 Lesions From 146 Patients.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2016; 38(11):802-808 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prospect of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early anal canal squamous cell carcinoma.
Clin J Gastroenterol. 2016; 9(6):384-388 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anal metastasis from rectal adenocarcinoma.
Clin J Gastroenterol. 2016; 9(6):379-383 [PubMed] Related Publications
Successful Delivery in a 39-Year-Old Patient with Anal Cancer after Fertility-Preserving Surgery Followed by Primary Chemoradiation and Low Anti-Mullerian Hormone Level.
Oncology. 2016; 91(5):295-298 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anal cancer - What is the optimum chemoradiotherapy?
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2016; 30(4):641-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prognostic impact of tumour burden assessed by metabolic tumour volume on FDG PET/CT in anal canal cancer.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017; 44(1):63-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Patients with a recent diagnosis of SCC of the anal canal without metastases undergoing PET/CT for initial work-up and treated with (chemo)radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. Computer-aided MTV and SUVmax were determined. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate prognostic variables of progression-free survival and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: The study group comprised 75 patients who had an initial work-up PET/CT. Five patients (6.7 %) had stage I disease, 22 (29.3 %) stage II disease, 20 (26.7 %) stage IIIA disease, and 28 (37.3 %) stage IIIB disease. Median follow-up was 51 months (range 10 - 117 months). Global 4-year OS was 82.7 %, ranging from 100 % in patients with stage I disease to 75 % in patients with stage IIIB disease. MTV at the primary site was significantly and independently correlated with OS (p < 0.05), as patients with MTV less than 7 cm(3) had a better prognosis. SUVmax was not correlated with survival parameters. Metabolic involvement of the inguinal lymph nodes was also correlated with a poor outcome in the univariate analysis (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: MTV at the primary site is a prognostic biomarker in anal canal cancer. Hypermetabolic inguinal lymph nodes also appear to be correlated with survival.
Metabolic tumour volume of anal carcinoma on (18)FDG PET/CT before combined radiochemotherapy is the only independant determinant of recurrence free survival.
Eur J Radiol. 2016; 85(8):1390-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 45 patients with anal cancer who underwent pre-treatment FDG-PET/CT were included. Metabolic parameters, recurrence and anal carcinoma specific survival were analyzed.
RESULTS: SUV max and metabolic volume of the primary tumour were significantly higher in patients with lymph node or distant metastases than in those with locally confined disease (p=0.020 and p=0.015, respectively). The extent of disease (local tumour only, lymph node or distant metastases) was highly predictive of both for recurrence free and disease specific survival (p=0.010 and p<0.001, respectively). Recurrence free (p=0.010) and anal carcinoma specific survival (p=0.006) differed significantly between patients with a metabolic volume ≤45ml and >45ml. Multivariate analysis revealed that a metabolic volume >45ml was the only significant independent determinant (p=0.19) for recurrence free survival whereas for anal carcinoma specific survival the extent of disease was identified as the only significant independent determinant (p=0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: the extent of disease on FDG PET/CT before combined radio-chemotherapy is strongly predictive of prognosis in anal cancer. Furthermore, patients with a large metabolic volume of the primary tumour (>45ml) are at significantly higher risk of recurrence.
Anal Canal Adenocarcinoma in a Patient with Longstanding Crohn's Disease Arising From Rectal Mucosa that Migrated From a Previously Treated Rectovaginal Fistula.
Am J Case Rep. 2016; 17:448-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Negative 18F-FDG-PET-CT may exclude residual or recurrent disease in anal cancer.
Nucl Med Commun. 2016; 37(10):1038-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of patients with anal cancer treated at the Sussex Cancer Centre who underwent PET-CT between November 2004 and September 2014. Information was retrieved from patient notes and the local cancer register, and verified by referring consultants in all cases.
RESULTS: A total of 75 PET-CT scans in 52 patients were identified, representing 38.5% of patients diagnosed with anal cancer during this period. There were 24 staging scans and 51 post-treatment scans. Management was altered following 45.8% of staging scans and 56.0% of all scans, mostly changing treatment type or radiotherapy volume. Out of 28 positive post-treatment scans, 71.4% were true positives, 7.1% were false positives and 21.4% showed nonspecific uptake. Of the 23 negative post-treatment scans, all remained disease free at clinical/radiological follow-up (median follow-up 25 months). The sensitivity and specificity of post-treatment PET-CT were 100 and 74%, respectively. Negative predictive and positive predictive values were 100 and 71%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Evidence is evolving for the use of PET-CT in anal cancer. Because of a high negative predictive value, our series shows that PET-CT can be used in the assessment of treatment response to exclude residual/recurrent disease.
Clinical Value of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen (SCCAg) in Anal Cancer - A Single-Center Retrospective Analysis.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(6):3173-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 24 patients with SCC of the anus, SCCAg was determined before CRT and at every follow-up visit.
RESULTS: 16/24 (66.7%) had normal SCCAg and 11/16 (68.8%) achieved complete remission (CR), while 7/8 (87.5%) with elevated SCCAg achieved CR. In two patients, elevated SCCAg was observed after radiotherapy. One was false-positive and one was true-positive leading to diagnosis of metachronous recurrent and metastatic disease after interim CR.
CONCLUSION: SCCAg was inappropriate to predict the clinical outcome but can provide additional information on the regular follow-up examinations to detect a relapse.
Assessment of Melanocyte Density in Anorectal Mucosa for the Evaluation of Surgical Margins in Primary Anorectal Melanoma.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2016; 145(5):626-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Histomorphology and melanocytic immunostains, microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and human melanoma black 45 (HMB45), were evaluated. Utility of VE1 immunostaining for determination of BRAF V600E mutation status was studied.
RESULTS: Immunostains aid in the distinction between "trailing" melanoma in situ (MIS) and benign melanocyte hyperplasia (BMH), by facilitating assessment of melanocyte density, and evaluation of nuclear atypia and growth pattern. While respective melanocyte densities overlapped, "trailing" MIS could be distinguished by melanocyte nuclear atypia and near confluent growth, compared to the banal cytology and scattered growth of BMH.
CONCLUSIONS: In the histopathologic assessment of AM resections, MITF and HMB45 immunostains aid in distinguishing between "trailing" MIS and BMH, by highlighting melanocyte density, nuclear atypia, and growth pattern, with the latter two being reliable features. VE1 showed nonspecific immunopositivity in anorectal glandular epithelium, a potential diagnostic pitfall when assessing BRAF mutation status.
The value of a transformation zone component in anal cytology to detect HSIL.
Cancer Cytopathol. 2016; 124(8):596-601 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: In a natural history study of anal human papillomavirus infection in homosexual men, all participants underwent liquid-based cytology and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with or without biopsy at each visit. True-negative cytology (negative cytology with non-HSIL biopsy or negative HRA), false-negative cytology (negative cytology with HSIL biopsy), and true-positive cytology (abnormal cytology with HSIL biopsy) were compared with regard to the presence or absence of a TZ component.
RESULTS: Of 617 participants, baseline results included 155 true-positive results, 191 true-negative results, and 31 false-negative results. The absence of an adequate TZ component was found to be significantly higher for false-negative (32.3%) than for either true-positive (11.0%; P = .0034) or true-negative (13.1%; P = .0089) results.
CONCLUSIONS: Significantly more false-negative cases lacked a TZ component compared with either true-positive or true-negative cases. TZ cells may be an important indicator of sample quality for anal cytology because, unlike cervical sampling, the anal canal is not visualized during cytology sampling. Cancer Cytopathol 2016;124:596-601. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Non-small cell lung carcinoma metastasis to the anus.
BMJ Case Rep. 2016; 2016 [PubMed] Related Publications
Front-to-back & dabbing wiping behaviour post-toilet associated with anal neoplasia & HR-HPV carriage in women with previous HPV-mediated gynaecological neoplasia.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2016; 42:124-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Cross-sectional study of women with a previous HPV-mediated gynaecological neoplasia in Tasmania, Australia. Women presenting for follow-up gynaecological care had anal swab samples taken for anal cytology by Hologic Liquid ThinPrep, followed by HPV genotyping. Women with abnormal anal cytology were invited for high-resolution anoscopy. Potential risk factors, including post-toilet wiping behaviours, were queried by questionnaire while clinical covariates were extracted from medical records. Covariates of anal outcomes evaluated by log-binomial and log-multinomial regression.
RESULTS: From 163 women enrolled in the study, 65 (39.9%) had abnormal cytology, with 46 (28.2%) being high-grade. Of the 50 women with abnormal anal cytology having high-resolution anoscopy, 32 (64.0%) had abnormal histology with 13 (26.0%) being high-grade. Of the 123 women tested for HR-HPV DNA, 48 (39.0%) had HR-HPV detected, the most common genotypes being 16 and 51 (14/123, 11.4% for both). In addition to some known anal cancer risk factors, we found front-to-back wiping was associated with significantly increased (Prevalence ratio (PR) range: 1.99-3.60) prevalence of cytological and histological abnormality and HR-HPV carriage/co-carriage, while dabbing post-toilet was significantly associated with decreased prevalences (PR range: 0.50-0.62).
CONCLUSIONS: Post-toilet wiping behaviours were significantly associated with the prevalence of anal cytological, histological and HR-HPV carriage outcomes. This suggests a biologically plausible mechanism for HR-HPV introduction and the higher frequencies of anal neoplasia in women.
Determination of Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genotypes in Anogenital Cancers in Myanmar.
Acta Med Okayama. 2016; 70(2):103-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
The assessment of local response using magnetic resonance imaging at 3- and 6-month post chemoradiotherapy in patients with anal cancer.
Eur Radiol. 2017; 27(2):607-617 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: From a prospective database of patients with ASCC managed through a centralised multidisciplinary team, 74 patients who completed routine post-CRT 3- and 6-month MRIs (2009-2012) were reviewed. Two radiologists blinded to the outcomes consensus read and retrospectively assigned TRG scores [1 (complete response) to 5 (no response)] and related these to early local relapse (within 12 months) and disease-free survival (DFS).
RESULTS: Seven patients had early local relapse. TRG 1/2 scores at 3 and 6 months had a 100 % negative predictive value; TRG 4/5 scores at 6 months had a 100 % positive predictive value. All seven patients underwent salvage R0 resections. We identified a novel 'tram-track' sign on MRI in over half of patients, with an NPV for early local relapse of 83 % at 6 months. No imaging characteristic or TRG score independently prognosticated for late relapse or 3-year DFS.
CONCLUSIONS: Post-CRT 3- and 6-month MRI-determined TRG scores predicted salvageable R0 early local relapses in patients with ASCC, challenging current clinical guidelines.
KEY POINTS: • Post-chemoradiotherapy MRI (3 and 6 months) helps local response assessment in ASCC. • The MRI-TRG system can be used reproducibly in patients with ASCC. • The TRG system facilitates patient selection for examination under anaesthesia and biopsy. • The use of MRI-TRG predicts for detection of salvageable early local relapses. • The TRG system allows for a standardised follow-up pathway.
Anal metastasis as the sentinel and isolated presentation of invasive ductal breast carcinoma.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2016; 98(5):e68-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Locally Advanced (T3-T4 or N+) Anal Cancer Treated with Simultaneous Integrated Boost Radiotherapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(4):2027-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort of 45 patients underwent SIB-IMRT employing a schedule consisting of 54 Gy/30 fractions to the macroscopic anal planning target volume (PTV), while clinical nodes were prescribed 50.4 Gy/30 fractions if sized ≤3 cm or 54 Gy/30 fractions if >3 cm. Elective nodal PTV was prescribed 45 Gy/30 fractions. Chemotherapy was administered concurrently following the Nigro regimen. Primary end-point was colostomy-free survival (CFS). Secondary end-points were locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: Median follow-up was 39.7 months. The actuarial 3-year CFS was 63.4 % (95% confidence interval (CI=44.8-77.1%). Actuarial 3-year OS and CSS were 67.7% (95%CI=48.7-80.9%) and 72.9% (95%CI=53.8-85.1%), while DFS was 55.8% (95%CI=37.5.4-70.7%). Actuarial 3-year LRC was 74.1% (95%CI=56.7-85.4%). On multivariate analysis, male sex (hazard ratio (HR)=10.9; p=0.004; 95%CI=2.2-55.5%) had a significant impact on CFS, while higher clinical stage (Stage IIIB vs. others) had borderline significance (HR=2.7; p=0.062; 95%CI=1.8-5.9%). A shorter package time (HR=0.94; p=0.007; 95%CI=0.91-0.98%) predicted for higher CFS. Maximum detected events included: skin (G3): 13%; gastrointestinal (GI) (G3): 13%; genitourinary (GU) (G2): 38%; genitalia (G2): 45%; anemia (G2): 4%; leukopenia (G3): 24%, (G4):7%; neutropenia (G3): 16%; (G4): 11%; thrombocytopenia (G3): 9%, (G4): 2%.
CONCLUSION: Our clinical results support the use of SIB-IMRT in the combined modality treatment of locally advanced anal cancer patients.
Early-stage Node-negative (T1-T2N0) Anal Cancer Treated with Simultaneous Integrated Boost Radiotherapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(4):1943-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort of 43 patients underwent SIB-IMRT employing a schedule consisting of 50.4 Gy/28 fractions to the gross tumor volume and 42 Gy/28 fractions to the elective nodal volumes for cT1N0 cases, and 54 Gy/30 fractions and 45 Gy/30 fractions to the same volumes for cT2N0 cases. Chemotherapy was administered concurrently following Nigro's regimen. The primary endpoint was colostomy-free survival (CFS). Secondary endpoints were locoregional control (LRC), disease-free (DFS), cancer-specific (CSS) and overall (OS) survival.
RESULTS: Median follow-up was 39.7 months. The actuarial 3-year CFS was 79.4% [95% confidence interval (CI)=61.4-89.7%]. Actuarial 3-year OS and CSS were 90.8% (95% CI=74.1-96.9%) and 93.8% (95% CI=77.3-98.4%), while DFS was 75.5% (95% CI=56.4-87.1%). Actuarial 3-year LRC was 86.1% (95% CI=69.6-94%). On multivariate analysis, tumor size >3 cm showed a trend towards significance in predicting CFS [hazard ratio (HR)=8.6, 95% CI=84.7-88.1%; p=0.069]. Maximum detected adverse events included: skin (G3): 18%; gastrointestinal tract (G2): 67%; genitourinary tract (G3): 3%; genitalia (G2): 30%; anemia (G2): 7%; leukopenia (G3): 26%, leukopenia (G4):7%; neutropenia (G3): 15%; neutropenia (G4): 12%; thrombocytopenia (G3): 9%.
CONCLUSION: Our clinical results support the use of SIB-IMRT in the combined modality treatment of patients with anal cancer.
Presenting symptoms predict local staging of anal cancer: a retrospective analysis of 86 patients.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2016; 16:46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: We performed a retrospective study reviewing history, symptoms and physical findings from 86 patients with newly diagnosed AC. We analyzed frequency of symptoms and physical findings according to T and TNM stage and their predictive value regarding tumor stage.
RESULTS: Most patients presented with T2 (37 %) or T3 (29 %) cancer. 85 of 86 patients were symptomatic with anal bleeding (78 %), anal/perianal pain (63 %), weight loss (31 %) and foreign body sensation (22 %). 95 % of patients had ≥1 finding on physical examination including a visible tumor, palpable resistance and pain/blood during digital rectal examination. Patients with locally advanced disease (T3/T4) presented with more symptoms (p < 0.01) and more physical findings (p = 0.04) than patients with T1/T2 disease. On multivariate regression analysis perianal pain, painful defecation and weight loss were significantly associated with T3/T4 disease.
CONCLUSION: Clinical symptoms and physical findings are present in nearly all AC patients. Pain referred to the perianal region, painful defecation and weight loss have predictive value for locally advanced disease.
Genital invasion or perigenital spread may pose a risk of marginal misses for Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in anal cancer.
Radiat Oncol. 2016; 11:53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: We present and discuss four patients with perigenital spread in anal cancer in both early and advanced stages (three at time of first diagnosis and one in form of relapse). Genital/perigenital spread was observed once as direct genital infiltration and thrice in form of perigenital lymphatic spread.
RESULTS: We review the available data regarding the potential consequences of genital sparing in anal cancer. Pattern-of-relapse studies in anal cancer after conventional radiotherapy and the current use of IMRT in anal cancer are equivocal but suggest that genital sparing may occasionally result in marginal miss. An obvious hypothesis suggested by our report is that perigenital lymphovascular invasion might be associated with manifest inguinal N+ disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Local failure has low salvage rates in recent anal cancer treatment series. Perigenital spread may pose a risk of marginal misses in IMRT in anal cancer. To prevent marginal misses, meticulous pattern-of-relapse analyses of controlled IMRT-series are warranted. Until their publication, genital sparing should be applied with caution, PET/CT should be used when possible and meeting genital dose constraints should not be prioritized over CTV coverage, especially (but not only) in stage T3/4 and N+ disease.
Dosimetric predictors of acute hematologic toxicity during concurrent intensity-modulated radiotherapy and chemotherapy for anal cancer.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2017; 19(1):67-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: 50 patients, submitted to IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy, were analyzed. Several bony structures were defined on planning-CT: PBM and lumbar-sacral (LSBM), lower pelvis (LPBM) and iliac (IBM) bone marrow. On dose-volume histograms, dosimetric parameters were taken. Endpoints included white blood-cell-count (WBC), absolute-neutrophil-count (ANC), hemoglobin (Hb) and platelet nadirs and acute hematologic toxicity (HT) according to RTOG scoring scale. Generalized linear modeling was used to find correlations between dosimetric variables and blood cell nadirs, while logistic regression analysis was used to test correlation with ≥G3 HT. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the optimal cut-off points for predictive dosimetric variables with the Youden method.
RESULTS: Maximum detected acute HT comprised 38 % of ≥G3 leukopenia and 32 % of ≥G3 neutropenia. Grade 2 anemia was observed in 4 % of patients and ≥G3 thrombocytopenia in 10 %. On multivariate analysis a higher PBM-V 20 was associated with lower WBC nadir. Increased LSBM-V 40 was correlated with a higher likelihood to develop ≥G3 HT. A cut-off point at 41 % for LSBM-V 40 was found. Patients with LSBM-V 40 ≥41 % were more likely to develop ≥G3 HT (55.3 vs. 32.4 %; p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Increased low-dose to pelvic bony structures significantly predicted for WBC decrease. Medium-high dose to specific osseous subsites was associated with a higher probability of HT. LSBM-V 40 was a strong predictor of ≥G3 HT. A threshold at 41 % for LSBM-V 40 could be used to limit HT.
Efficacy and safety of helical tomotherapy with daily image guidance in anal canal cancer patients.
Acta Oncol. 2016; 55(6):767-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Surgical excision alone for stage T1 anal verge cancers in people living with HIV.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2016; 42(6):813-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Demographic and clinicopathological data was prospectively collected from all HIV positive individuals with anal cancer, treated between 1986 and 2015. The date from anal cancer diagnosis until the date of the last follow up were collected.
RESULTS: Fifteen patients had T1N0M0 cancer of the anal verge from a total of 92 patients with HIV-associated anal cancer. The mean age was 49 years (range 36-57). The average age of HIV diagnosis was 35 years (range 19-48) and four patients had a diagnosis of AIDS prior to the diagnosis of anal cancer. All patients were surgically managed with complete local excision of the tumour. There were no complications or need for any adjuvant therapy. No patients have relapsed and at a median follow up of 4 years (range 3-15), the overall survival was 100%.
CONCLUSION: Surgical resection for early stage anal verge cancers is an effective strategy in PLWH. Increasing awareness of anal cancer and anoscopy surveillance in PLWH will hopefully continue to identify anal cancers at an early stage that are amenable to minimally invasive surgical management.