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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 9.9m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 50,500
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 285.4
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:28.3%
People dying from cancer /yr: 30,300
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Hungary Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications Related to Hungary

Hungary Cancer Organisations and Resources (8 links)

Latest Research Publications Related to Hungary

van Seijen M, Brcic L, Gonzales AN, et al.
Impact of delayed and prolonged fixation on the evaluation of immunohistochemical staining on lung carcinoma resection specimen.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 475(2):191-199 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pre-analytical factors, such as fixation time, influence morphology of diagnostic and predictive immunohistochemical staining, which are increasingly used in the evaluation of lung cancer. Our aim was to investigate if variations in fixation time influence the outcome of immunohistochemical staining in lung cancer. From lung resections, specimen with tumor size bigger than 4 cm, 10 samples were obtained: 2 were put through the standard fixation protocol, 5 through the delayed, and 3 through the prolonged fixation protocol. After paraffin embedding, tissue microarrays (TMAs) were made. They were stained with 20 antibodies and scored for quality and intensity of staining. Samples with delay in fixation showed loss of TMA cores on glass slides and deterioration of tissue quality leading to reduction in the expression of CK 7, Keratin MNF116, CAM 5.2, CK 5/6, TTF-1, C-MET, Napsin A, D2-40, and PD-L1. Prolonged fixation had no influence on the performance of immunohistochemical stains. Delay of fixation negatively affects the expression of different immunohistochemical markers, influencing diagnostic (cytokeratins) and predictive (PD-L1) testing. These results emphasize the need for adequate fixation of resection specimen.

Csonka A, Kincses A, Nové M, et al.
Selenoesters and Selenoanhydrides as Novel Agents Against Resistant Breast Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3777-3783 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Selenium-containing compounds are becoming new alternatives in experimental chemotherapy in order to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer. The main goal of this study was to determine whether combined treatment with new Se-compounds would increase the effect of conventional doxorubicin chemotherapy in breast cancer cell lines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Se-compounds were evaluated regarding their cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effect on MCF-7 and ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1)-overexpressing KCR breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, the interaction of Se-compounds with doxorubicin was assessed using the MTT assay.
RESULTS: Selenoanhydride exerted a selective activity towards the doxorubicin-resistant KCR cell line overexpressing ABCB1. Among the selenoesters, only ketone-containing selenoesters exerted significant cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 and KCR cell lines and the Se-compounds acted synergistically with doxorubicin on the KCR cell line.
CONCLUSION: The importance of the COSeCH

Menden MP, Wang D, Mason MJ, et al.
Community assessment to advance computational prediction of cancer drug combinations in a pharmacogenomic screen.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2674 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The effectiveness of most cancer targeted therapies is short-lived. Tumors often develop resistance that might be overcome with drug combinations. However, the number of possible combinations is vast, necessitating data-driven approaches to find optimal patient-specific treatments. Here we report AstraZeneca's large drug combination dataset, consisting of 11,576 experiments from 910 combinations across 85 molecularly characterized cancer cell lines, and results of a DREAM Challenge to evaluate computational strategies for predicting synergistic drug pairs and biomarkers. 160 teams participated to provide a comprehensive methodological development and benchmarking. Winning methods incorporate prior knowledge of drug-target interactions. Synergy is predicted with an accuracy matching biological replicates for >60% of combinations. However, 20% of drug combinations are poorly predicted by all methods. Genomic rationale for synergy predictions are identified, including ADAM17 inhibitor antagonism when combined with PIK3CB/D inhibition contrasting to synergy when combined with other PI3K-pathway inhibitors in PIK3CA mutant cells.

Molnar A, Horvath CA, Czovek P, et al.
FOXI1 Immunohistochemistry Differentiates Benign Renal Oncocytoma from Malignant Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(6):2785-2790 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Renal oncocytoma (RO) and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) are suggested to develop from α- and β-intercalated (IC) cells of the collecting duct expressing solute carrier family 4 member 1 (SLC4A1) and SLC26A4 under control of forkhead box 1 (FOXI1) transcription factor. The aim of this study was to clarify the possible cellular origin and of RO and chRCC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for aquaporin 2 (AQP2), FOXI1, SLC4A1 and SLC16A4 was applied to distinct types of renal cell tumors.
RESULTS: Nuclear FOXI1 staining occurred in 96% of 83 ROs, in 3% of 90 chRCCs and none of the other tumor types. The α-IC cell marker SLC4A1 was seen in 60% of RO and 11% of chRCC, whereas staining for the β-IC cell marker SLC26A4 was negative in all but one tumor.
CONCLUSION: Although the origin of RO remains unclear, our findings suggest that FOXI1 immunohistochemistry is useful in differential diagnosis of RO from chRCC with overlapping histology.

Barczi E, Meszaros M, Bohacs A, et al.
Testicular Cancer in a Lung Transplant Patient With Cystic Fibrosis: A Case Report.
Transplant Proc. 2019; 51(4):1293-1295 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common genetic disorders that develops from a mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene. Patients with CF are known to be at risk for malignancies, and lung transplantation-associated immunosuppression further increases this risk.
CASE REPORT: We describe a case of a 29-year-old male patient with CF who developed testicular cancer 14 months after a lung transplantation. Immunosuppressive therapy included antithymocyte globulin induction and tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and prednisolone maintenance therapy as compared to standard alemtuzumab induction, followed by tacrolimus and prednisolone, as used in our center. He underwent semicastration and refused chemotherapy. Immunosuppressive treatment was changed to tacrolimus, everolimus, and prednisolone, which did not influence excellent graft function. This case report highlights the importance of uro-oncological observation of patients with CF following lung transplantations.

Illésy L, Szabó RP, Kovács DÁ, et al.
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in a Kidney Transplant Patient: A Case Report.
Transplant Proc. 2019; 51(4):1286-1288 [PubMed] Related Publications
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are a possible complication of kidney transplant due to chronic immunosuppressive therapy, and they can elevate the mortality rate. Furthermore, the type of clinical appearance has a wide range. We describe a case of a 38-year-old male recipient who developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and received successful treatment. The recipient had received a kidney with 1 HLA-B and 1 HLA-DR match, and the deceased donor allotransplant was performed successfully on December 9, 2012. The cause of kidney failure was membranoproliferative-glomerulonephritis proved by biopsy results. The induction therapy was antithymocyte globulin; the basic immunosuppressive therapy consisted of tacrolimus, steroid, and mycophenolate mofetil. After 2 months the patient had elevated serum creatinine level, and biopsy results revealed cellular rejection (Banff grade I). We applied steroid bolus therapy. After that the graft worked properly for 5 years, and the patient had no symptoms or complaints; then he had right lower abdomen pain. After urgent procedures (laboratory diagnostics, abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography), we operated on the patient in a short time, and after a few weeks the fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the translocation of region C-myc; the diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. With the assistance of hematologists, the patient received adequate therapy. He was asymptomatic half a year after the rituximab with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine protocol therapy; the lymphoma is in remission. Our case is worth presenting because immunosuppressive drugs can modify the clinical picture, complicating the diagnosis and delaying treatment.

Farkas ÁZ, Török S, Kovács JB, et al.
Diagnosis and Management of a De Novo Urothelial Carcinoma in a Kidney Allograft: A Case Report.
Transplant Proc. 2019; 51(4):1281-1285 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Following renal transplantation, the incidence of malignancies is 3-5 times higher than that of healthy individuals. Among other type of cancers, the risk of urological tumors is also elevated. However, only a few cases of de novo transitional cell carcinomas occurring in renal allografts have been reported.
CASE REPORT: A 63-year-old tertiary transplanted male patient was urgently hospitalized for a painless macroscopic hematuria. Ultrasonography revealed pyelectasis and a hematoma in the renal pelvis. A percutaneous nephrostomy tube was inserted. An anterograde pyelography was performed later, where a filling defect was still observable in the location of the previously reported hypoechoic mass. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography showed enhancement of the lesion. An ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy was performed. The histologic evaluation revealed a high-grade transitional cell carcinoma. A whole-body staging computed tomography scan did not show signs of metastatic disease. The renal allograft was surgically removed. No disease progression was observed during the 21-month follow-up period.
CONCLUSIONS: Painless hematuria and asymptomatic hydronephrosis occurring after kidney transplantation should raise the possibility of urothelial carcinoma in the kidney graft. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound should be considered as a first-line diagnostic modality because it is easily accessible and does not raise concerns about nephrotoxicity or radiation burden.

Korda D, Doros A, Piros L, et al.
Liver Transplant for Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Single-Center Experience in Hungary.
Transplant Proc. 2019; 51(4):1251-1253 [PubMed] Related Publications
Unresectable liver metastases of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are an accepted indication for liver transplant. Patients undergoing liver transplant because of neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases have similar long-term survival compared with hepatocellular carcinoma; however, recurrence rates are reported to be higher.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records of patients who received transplants for neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases in the Department of Transplantation and Surgery of Semmelweis University between January 1995 and August 2018. The median follow-up period was 33 months.
RESULTS: Ten liver transplants have been performed because of neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases during the observed period. Recurrence occurred in 5 cases, and 3 patients died. Estimated 1- and 5-year patient survival rates after transplant were 89% and 71%, respectively. Estimated 1- and 5-year recurrence-free rates were 80% and 43%, respectively. Every patient whose primary tumor was of pancreatic origin or those recipients who had Ki67 index values in the explanted liver higher than 5% had disease recurrence.
CONCLUSION: Patient survival and recurrence rates after liver transplant were comparable with the results reported by other centers. In line with previous findings, primary pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and higher Ki67 index values in the explanted livers were both associated with higher recurrence rates. We believe that an international registry would be helpful to better understand factors leading to tumor recurrence in these cases.

Kiss G, Korda D, Szabó G, et al.
Oncological Screening of Kidney Transplant Patients: The Role of Ultrasound Examination.
Transplant Proc. 2019; 51(4):1231-1233 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Immunosuppressive therapy used after organ transplantation represents a considerable oncological risk. Abdominal ultrasound examinations play an essential role in the oncological screening of organ transplant patients. Our aim was to study the effectiveness of the ultrasound screening protocol currently used in our clinic.
METHODS: Reports of screening abdominal ultrasound examinations of kidney transplant recipients were processed at the Department of Transplantation and Surgery of Semmelweis University from January 2012 to December 2015.
RESULTS: In 1478 studies, 14 patients were diagnosed with a malignant tumor, 11 of which were formed in the native shrunken kidney. The mean age for tumor diagnosis was 55.6 ± 12.6 years, and 80% of the patients diagnosed with tumor were male. On average, 7.5 ± 4.6 years passed between the transplantation and recognition of the tumor. All of the kidney tumors were diagnosed at an early stage: histologic examination of removed kidneys showed 73% pT1a- and 17% pT1b-stage tumors.
CONCLUSION: In our study, early stage shrunken kidney cancers were outstandingly the most common post-transplant malignancies found by ultrasound screening. Annual ultrasound examinations as part of our current screening protocol allowed the detection of tumors at an early stage in kidney transplant recipients.

Kiss K, Biri-Kovács B, Szabó R, et al.
Sequence modification of heptapeptide selected by phage display as homing device for HT-29 colon cancer cells to improve the anti-tumour activity of drug delivery systems.
Eur J Med Chem. 2019; 176:105-116 [PubMed] Related Publications
Development of peptide-based conjugates for targeted tumour therapy is a current research topic providing new possibilities in cancer treatment. In this study, VHLGYAT heptapeptide selected by phage display technique for HT-29 human colon cancer was investigated as homing peptide for drug delivery. Daunomycin was conjugated to the N-terminus of the peptide directly or through Cathepsin B cleavable spacers. Conjugates showed moderate in vitro cytostatic effect. Therefore, sequence modifications were performed by Ala-scan and positional scanning resulting in conjugates with much higher bioactivity. Conjugates in which Gly was replaced by amino acids with bulky apolaric side chains provided the best efficacy. The influence of the cellular uptake, stability and drug release on the anti-tumour activity was investigated. It was found that mainly the difference in the cellular uptake of the conjugates generated the distinct effect on cell viability. One of the most efficient conjugate Dau = Aoa-LRRY-VHLFYAT-NH

Körhegyi Z, Rózsa D, Hajdu I, et al.
Synthesis of
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2415-2427 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The purpose of this study was to develop a folate receptor-targeted
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The nanoparticle (NP) agent was created by self-assembling of folic acid-modified polyglutamic acid and chelator-modified chitosan followed by radiolabeling with
RESULTS: Significant selective binding of NPs was established in vitro using folate receptor-positive KB and - negative MDA-MB-231 cell lines. In vivo tumor uptake of folate-targeted
CONCLUSION: In vivo results supporting the preliminary in vitro tests demonstrated considerably higher

Hideghéty K, Brunner S, Cheesman A, et al.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2265-2276 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this review was to define appropriate

André F, Ciruelos E, Rubovszky G, et al.
Alpelisib for
N Engl J Med. 2019; 380(20):1929-1940 [PubMed] Related Publications

Perone Y, Farrugia AJ, Rodríguez-Meira A, et al.
SREBP1 drives Keratin-80-dependent cytoskeletal changes and invasive behavior in endocrine-resistant ERα breast cancer.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2115 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Approximately 30% of ERα breast cancer patients relapse with metastatic disease following adjuvant endocrine therapies. The connection between acquisition of drug resistance and invasive potential is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that the type II keratin topological associating domain undergoes epigenetic reprogramming in aromatase inhibitors (AI)-resistant cells, leading to Keratin-80 (KRT80) upregulation. KRT80 expression is driven by de novo enhancer activation by sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1). KRT80 upregulation directly promotes cytoskeletal rearrangements at the leading edge, increased focal adhesion and cellular stiffening, collectively promoting cancer cell invasion. Shearwave elasticity imaging performed on prospectively recruited patients confirms KRT80 levels correlate with stiffer tumors. Immunohistochemistry showed increased KRT80-positive cells at relapse and, using several clinical endpoints, KRT80 expression associates with poor survival. Collectively, our data uncover an unpredicted and potentially targetable direct link between epigenetic and cytoskeletal reprogramming promoting cell invasion in response to chronic AI treatment.

Mótyán G, Gopisetty MK, Kiss-Faludy RE, et al.
Anti-Cancer Activity of Novel Dihydrotestosterone-Derived Ring A-Condensed Pyrazoles on Androgen Non-Responsive Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Regioselective synthesis of novel ring A-fused arylpyrazoles of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was carried out in two steps under facile reaction conditions. Aldol condensation of DHT with acetaldehyde afforded a 2-ethylidene derivative regio- and stereo-selectively, which was reacted with different arylhydrazines in the presence of iodine via microwave-assisted oxidative cyclization reactions. The 17-keto analogs of steroidal pyrazoles were also synthesized by simple oxidation in order to enlarge the compound library available for pharmacological studies and to obtain structure-activity relationship. The antiproliferative activities of the structurally related heteroaromatic compounds were tested in vitro on human cervical and breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (HeLa, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and on two androgen-independent malignant prostate carcinoma cell lines (PC-3 and DU 145). Based on primary cytotoxicity screens and IC

Szvicsek Z, Oszvald Á, Szabó L, et al.
Extracellular vesicle release from intestinal organoids is modulated by Apc mutation and other colorectal cancer progression factors.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019; 76(12):2463-2476 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-surrounded structures that transmit biologically important molecules from the releasing to target cells, thus providing a novel intercellular communication mechanism. Since EVs carry their cargo in a protected form and their secretion is generally increased in tumorigenesis, EVs hold a great potential for early cancer diagnosis. By 3D culturing, we provide evidence that colorectal cancer (CRC) patient-derived organoids, representing a state-of-the-art established and essential approach for studying human CRC, is a suitable model for EV analysis. When testing the effects of major factors promoting CRC progression on EV release in the organoid model, we observed that Apc mutation, leading to uncontrolled Wnt activation and thus to tumorigenesis in the vast majority in CRC patients, critically induces EV release by activating the Wnt pathway. Furthermore, the extracellular matrix component collagen, known to accumulate in tumorigenesis, enhances EV secretion as well. Importantly, we show that fibroblast-derived EVs induce colony formation of CRC organoid cells under hypoxia. In contrast, there was no major effect of tumor cell-derived EVs on the activation of fibroblasts. Collectively, our results with CRC and Apc-mutant adenoma organoids identify Apc mutation and collagen deposition as critical factors for increasing EV release from tumors. Furthermore, we provide evidence that stromal fibroblast-derived EVs contribute to tumorigenesis under unfavorable conditions in CRC.

Gulyas M, Fillinger J, Kaposi AD, Molnar M
Use of cholesterol and soluble tumour markers CEA and syndecan-2 in pleural effusions in cases of inconclusive cytology.
J Clin Pathol. 2019; 72(8):529-535 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: In order to improve diagnostics in pleural effusions, additional value of effusion cholesterol, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and syndecan-2 assays to cytology was studied.
METHODS: Biomarkers were measured in effusion supernatants from 247 patients, of whom 126 had malignant pleural involvement, and their additional diagnostic efficacy to cytology was assessed.
RESULTS: Syndecan-2 measurement, although gave detectable concentrations in all effusions with highest median value in mesotheliomas, was non-discriminative between different pathological conditions. CEA concentrations exceeding 5 ng/mL cut-off point indicated carcinomas, regardless of pleural involvement, which gave a sensitivity of 62% and specificity of 100% for carcinoma. Cholesterol concentration over 1.21 mmol/L cut-off value indicated neoplastic pleural involvement with 99% sensitivity and 'merely' 69% specificity, the latter mainly due to raised levels being associated also with benign inflammatory effusions. Combined CEA and cholesterol determinations increased the sensitivity for diagnosing carcinomatosis from 70% with cytology alone to 84% and established the correct diagnosis in 16 of 31 carcinomatosis cases with inconclusive cytology. Cholesterol measurement alone, with elevated level, in combination with absence of substantial number of inflammatory cells in effusion sediment proved to be a magnificent marker for neoplastic pleural involvement with 99% efficacy, and recognised all 36 such cases with inconclusive cytology.
CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous measurement of CEA and cholesterol concentrations in effusion, or at least cholesterol alone, in combination with non-inflammatory fluid cytology, provides additional specific information about neoplastic pleural involvement, and can therefore be used as an adjunct to cytology, above all, in inconclusive cases.

Kuo CY, Schelz Z, Tóth B, et al.
Investigation of natural phenanthrenes and the antiproliferative potential of juncusol in cervical cancer cell lines.
Phytomedicine. 2019; 58:152770 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Phenanthrenes isolated from Juncus species possess different biological activities, including antiproliferative and antimigratory effects.
PURPOSE: In this study, nine phenanthrenes isolated from the roots of Juncus inflexus were investigated for their antiproliferative activity on several gynecological cancer cell lines, using non-cancerous cells as controls.
METHODS: Antiproliferative activities of the compounds were determined by means of MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis and determination of mitotic cells. Activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 were detected by colorimetric kits. Tubulin polymerization was followed by kinetic absorbance determination. Action on tumor cell migration was described using wound healing assay. Western blot assays were used to determine apoptosis-related factors at protein level.
RESULTS: Among the compounds tested, juncusol exhibited the most substantial antiproliferative effect against cervical cancer HeLa cells. It was also revealed that juncusol has a distinct growth inhibitory effect in cervical cancer cell lines of various HPV status: it was highly active in HPV type 18-positive HeLa cells, while it was inactive in HPV type 16-positive SiHa and CaSki cells. Cell cycle analysis showed an increase in G2/M and subG1 cell populations after juncusol treatment. Caspase-3, -8, and -9 were detected to be activated by juncusol in HeLa cells, indicating that juncusol induces apoptotic cell death. Moreover, juncusol inhibited tubulin polymerization, as well as EGFR activation, suggesting two possible additional mechanisms that may account for juncusol's inducing a G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest and inhibiting cell migration.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that juncusol is a potent antiproliferative agent against HPV-18 related cervical cancer and may be considered as a lead compound for the development of innovative anticancer agents.

Sárváry A, Sárváry A
Use of complementary and alternative medicine among breast cancer patients in Hungary: A descriptive study.
Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2019; 35:195-200 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the prevalence of the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) before diagnosis and during oncology therapy, and reveal the disclosure of CAM use among Hungarian breast cancer patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey a self-administered questionnaire was used covering patients' demographics, oncology-related variables and various aspects of CAM use. Data were collected from 135 patients. Data analysis included descriptive analysis and Chi-square tests.
RESULTS: The prevalence of CAM use was 52.6% before diagnosis while it was 84.4% during therapy. The most commonly used CAM practices before diagnosis and during therapy were vitamins/minerals (37%, 60%, respectively) and herbs (31.9%, 78.5%, respectively). The frequency of CAM use before diagnosis was higher among more educated patients (p < 0.001) and those living in cities (p = 0.001) while during therapy it was higher among patients with higher income (p = 0.020). Over 40% of the patients informed their physician about each CAM practice they used.
CONCLUSION: Besides conventional medicine, CAM practices are also regarded as an important part of therapy by cancer patients. The higher frequency of CAM use during therapy and the relatively modest disclosure towards physicians indicate a greater need for patients' education regarding CAM practices.

Schmidt-Hieber M, Tridello G, Ljungman P, et al.
The prognostic impact of the cytomegalovirus serostatus in patients with chronic hematological malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a report from the Infectious Diseases Working Party of EBMT.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(7):1755-1763 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been shown recently that donor and/or recipient cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity is associated with a significant overall survival (OS) decline in acute leukemia patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We now analyzed the prognostic impact of the donor/recipient CMV serostatus in 6968 patients with chronic hematological malignancies who underwent allo-HSCT. Donor and/or recipient CMV seropositivity was associated with a significantly reduced 2-year progression-free survival (PFS, 50% vs. 52%, p = 0.03) and OS (62% vs. 65%, p = 0.01). Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed an independent negative prognostic impact of donor and/or recipient CMV seropositivity on PFS (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2; p = 0.03), OS (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2; p = 0.003), and non-relapse mortality (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.3; p = 0.02). OS decline was strongest for CMV-seropositive recipients with a CMV-seronegative donor (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3), followed by CMV-seropositive patients with a CMV-seropositive donor (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2). Conversely, OS did not differ significantly between CMV-seronegative recipients allografted from a CMV-seropositive donor (HR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.9-1.2) and patients with donor/recipient CMV seronegativity (p = 0.001 for the four groups together). Non-relapse mortality was also significantly (p = 0.01) higher for CMV-seropositive patients with a CMV-seronegative graft (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4) than for CMV-seropositive patients with a CMV-seropositive graft (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.9-1.2) or CMV-seronegative recipients with a CMV-seropositive graft (HR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.2). Donor and/or recipient CMV seropositivity still results in an OS decline in patients with chronic hematological malignancies who have undergone allo-HSCT. However, this OS decline seems to be lower than that described for acute leukemia patients previously.

Ferreira MA, Gamazon ER, Al-Ejeh F, et al.
Genome-wide association and transcriptome studies identify target genes and risk loci for breast cancer.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1741 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.

Méhes G
Liquid biopsy for predictive mutational profiling of solid cancer: The pathologist's perspective.
J Biotechnol. 2019; 297:66-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
The pathological diagnostics of cancer - based on the histological features - is today increasingly completed by molecular profiling at variable depth in an almost evident fashion. Predictive information should cover potential therapeutic targets and/or major resistance mechanisms the nature of which is subject of alteration during the course of the treatment. Mutational profiling recently became technically available by the analysis of circulating free DNA obtained following non-invasive peripheral blood or body fluid sampling. This "liquid biopsy" approach reflects the general status considering the actual tumor burden, irrespective of the intratumoral distribution and anatomical site. However, the dynamics of the liquid compartment relies on tissue-related processes reflected by histological variables. The amount and composition of free DNA seems to be influenced by many factors, including the stage and anatomical localization of the cancer, the relative mass of neoplastic subclones, the growth rate, the stromal and inflammatory component, the extent of tumor cell death and necrosis. The histopathological context should be considered also when analysis of cfDNA is about to replace repeated tumor sampling for molecular follow-up.

Márton É, Lukács J, Penyige A, et al.
Circulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated miRNAs are promising biomarkers in ovarian cancer.
J Biotechnol. 2019; 297:58-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death among women that is mostly due to the difficulty of early diagnosis. Circulating miRNAs proved to be reliable biomarkers in various cancers. We screened 9 miRNAs, which are involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in the plasma samples of patients with malignant (n = 28) or non-malignant (n = 12) ovarian tumors and disease-free healthy volunteers (n = 60) by qRT-PCR. The expression levels of miR200a, miR200b, miR200c, miR141, miR429, miR203a, miR34b (p < 0.001) and miR34a (p < 0.01) were significantly higher in the malignant samples than in healthy controls. MiR203a, miR141 (p < 0.01), miR200a and miR429 (p < 0.05) levels were also higher in malignant compared to non-malignant samples. ROC-AUC was the highest in the case of miR200c: 0.861 (95%CI = 0.776-0.947). Spearman's rank correlation analysis revealed positive correlation between the plasma levels of the studied miRNAs that was the highest between miR200b and miR200c (r

Peterfi L, Yusenko MV, Kovacs G
IL6 Shapes an Inflammatory Microenvironment and Triggers the Development of Unique Types of Cancer in End-stage Kidney.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(4):1869-1874 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Chronic inflammation in end-stage kidney is associated with the development of pre-neoplastic lesions and renal cell tumors. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the inflammatory microenvironment in this process.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used representative microscopic slides from 11 end stage-kidneys containing pre-neoplastic lesions and tumors and applied immunohistochemistry to detect IL-6, SAA1 and LBP expression. We also applied array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis to detect genomic changes in tumor cells.
RESULTS: We identified strong expression of IL6, LBP and SAA1 in activated stromal fibroblasts, in proliferating epithelial and tumor cells. Array CGH detected unusual genomic changes in tumor cells.
CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that expression of IL6, acute phase protein SAA1 and LBP maintain a long-lasting inflammatory microenvironment that leads to remodeling of end-stage kidneys and the development of unique types of renal cell tumors.

Möbius S, Schenk T, Himsel D, et al.
Results of the European survey on the assessment of deep molecular response in chronic phase CML patients during tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy (EUREKA registry).
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(6):1645-1650 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapies has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommends quantification of BCR-ABL1 transcripts by real-time quantitative PCR every 3 months during TKI treatment. Since a proportion of patients in deep molecular response (DMR: MR
METHODS: Data were collected on the standardized assessment of molecular response in the context of real-life practice. BCR-ABL1 transcript levels after > 2 years of TKI therapy were evaluated for DMR by local laboratories as well as standardized EUTOS laboratories. Since standardized molecular monitoring is a prerequisite for treatment discontinuation, central surveillance of the performance of the participating laboratories was carried out.
RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2017, 3377 peripheral blood samples from 1117 CML patients were shipped to 11 standardized reference laboratories in six European countries. BCR-ABL1 transcript types were b3a2 (41.63%), b2a2 (29.99%), b2a2/b3a2 (3.58%) and atypical (0.54%). For 23.72% of the patients, the initial transcript type had not been reported. Response levels (EUTOS laboratory) were: no MMR, n = 197 (6.51%); MMR, n = 496 (16.40%); MR
CONCLUSIONS: Multicenter DMR assessment is feasible in the context of real-life clinical practice in Europe. Information on the BCR-ABL1 transcript type at diagnosis is crucial to accurately monitor patients' molecular response during or after TKI therapy.

Decmann A, Bancos I, Khanna A, et al.
Comparison of plasma and urinary microRNA-483-5p for the diagnosis of adrenocortical malignancy.
J Biotechnol. 2019; 297:49-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Minimally invasive circulating microRNAs might be used for the preoperative differentiation of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and adrenocortical adenoma (ACA). So far, the best blood-borne microRNA biomarker of ACC is circulating hsa-miR-483-5p. The expression of urinary hsa-miR-483-5p as a non-invasive marker of malignancy and its correlation with plasma hsa-miR-483-5p, has not been investigated, yet.
AIM: Our aim was to investigate the expression of urinary hsa-miR-483-5p and its correlation with its plasma counterpart.
METHODS: Plasma and urinary samples from 23 ACC and 23 ACA patients were analysed using real-time RT-qPCR. To evaluate the diagnostic applicability of hsa-miR-483-5p, ROC-analysis was performed.
RESULTS: Significant overexpression of hsa-miR-483-5p was observed in carcinoma patients' plasma samples compared to adenoma patients' (p < 0.0001, sensitivity: 87%, specificity: 78.3%). In urinary samples, however, no significant difference could be detected between ACC and ACA patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Plasma hsa-miR-483-5p has been confirmed as significantly overexpressed in adrenocortical cancer patients and thus might be exploited as a minimally invasive preoperative marker of malignancy. The applicability of urinary hsa-miR-483-5p for the diagnosis of adrenocortical malignancy could not be confirmed.

Nagyiványi K, Budai B, Gyergyay F, et al.
Sunitinib Rechallenge After Other Targeted Therapies in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients: A Single-Center, Retrospective Study.
Clin Drug Investig. 2019; 39(6):577-583 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Sunitinib is still one of the standard therapies in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Despite the benefit of sunitinib resistance will develop in the majority of patients. Most of them receive multiple sequential therapies during the course of disease.
OBJECTIVES: To retrospectively investigate the efficacy and safety of rechallenged sunitinib in third or later line settings.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-one mRCC patients were identified who received rechallenged sunitinib between March 2010 and April 2018. Patients received sunitinib in first or second line, then other tyrosine kinase and/or mTOR inhibitors were applied, then sunitinib was rechallenged. Patients' characteristics, tolerability, treatment modalities, and treatment outcomes were recorded. The primary end-point was progression-free survival (PFS) of rechallenged sunitinib.
RESULTS: Median age of patients was 62 years at the start of sunitinib rechallenge. Sixty-seven percent of patients were male. All patients had prior nephrectomy. Upon rechallenge 4 patients achieved partial response and 12 stable disease. The median PFS of first sunitinib treatment was 22 (95% CI 17-26) months and for rechallenged sunitinib 14 (95% CI 6-20) months. No increased severity of prior toxicity or new adverse events was reported during rechallenged sunitinib. The median overall survival (OS) from the start of first sunitinib was 67 (95% CI 46-76) months. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that younger age (< 57 years) at start of first sunitinib (HR = 0.24; 95% CI 0.07-0.79; p = 0.019) and longer (> 2 years) first sunitinib treatment (HR = 0.28; 95% CI 0.09-0.93; p = 0.038) were independent markers of longer OS.
CONCLUSION: Sunitinib rechallenge is a feasible and tolerable option with clinical benefit in selected mRCC patients.

Lukács J, Soltész B, Penyige A, et al.
Identification of miR-146a and miR-196a-2 single nucleotide polymorphisms at patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer.
J Biotechnol. 2019; 297:54-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs play an essential role in the regulation of gene expression and tumor development. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) can be observed in miRNAs and could influence gene expression. We aimed to identify miR-146a rs2910164 and miR-196a-2 rs11614913 polymorphisms in ovarian cancer patients and controls. 75 patients and 75 controls were involved. DNA was isolated from blood samples. MiR-146a rs2910164 and miR-196a-2 rs11614913 were determined by LightSnip kit. We used melting curve analysis for allele classification. Network analysis was made to find common target genes. We detected 72.67% G allele frequency of miR-146a rs2910164 in controls and 82.00% in patients group (p = 0,053). GG, GC and CC genotypes occurred with 53.33%, 38.67% and 8.00% among controls, with 65.33%, 33.33% and 1.33% among patients, (p = 0.0917). Allele C of miR-196a-2 rs11614913 occurred in 59.33% of controls and in 67.33% of patients (p = 0.15). CC, CT and TT genotypes occurred with 37.33%, 44.00%, and 18.67% frequency in controls, with 46.67%; 41.33% and 12.00% in patients (p = 0.3815). Network analysis found ATG9A, LBR, MBD4 and RUFY2 genes to be targets for both miRNAs. SNPs of miR-146a and miR-196a-2 showed no significant differences between patients and controls. More investigations are required to clarify the exact role of these SNPs in ovarian cancer.

Makk E, Bálint L, Cifra J, et al.
Robust expression of EZH2 in endocervical neoplastic lesions.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 475(1):95-104 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of this study was to evaluate the nuclear expression of histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) in endocervical neoplastic lesions such as invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma (ECA) and cervical in situ adenocarcinoma (AIS) in comparison with normal endocervix and non-neoplastic counterparts. A total of 54 consecutive neoplastic cases (37 ECA, 17 AIS) and 32 non-neoplastic endocervical lesions (15 reactive atypia, 9 microglandular hyperplasia, 3 tuboendometrioid metaplasia, 3 tunnel cluster, 2 endometriosis) were included in the study with adjacent normal endocervix if present. EZH2 immunoreactivity was evaluated semiquantitatively by three independent experts in lesions and adjacent normal glandular epithelium as well. EZH2 expression was defined robust if at least two of the three experts rated partial or diffuse positivity. Robust EZH2 expression was statistically compared among the neoplastic, non-neoplastic, and normal glandular epithelium samples. Diagnostic test capability of robust EZH2 expression was calculated. Fifty-three out of the 54 neoplastic cases (98%) showed robust EZH2 expression. Robust EZH2 expression was significantly less often (4 out of 32 cases, 12.5%) found in the non-neoplastic endocervical lesions (p < 0.0001) and never (0 out of 66 samples) in the adjacent normal glandular epithelium. Robust EZH2 overexpression had a sensitivity and specificity of over 95% in detecting neoplastic lesions versus non-neoplastic lesions or normal glandular epithelium. EZH2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of endocervical neoplasia, and the detection of robust expression of EZH2 might be a useful differential diagnostic tool in problematic endocervical lesions in histology and cytology as well.

Reis H, Szarvas T
Urachal cancer-current concepts of a rare cancer.
Pathologe. 2019; 40(Suppl 1):31-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Urachal cancer is a rare but aggressive disease. In addition to the non-glandular tumors, non-cystic urachal adenocarcinomas are nowadays distinguished from the primary cystic variant. (Immunohistochemical) markers are only of minor differential diagnostic value and, therefore, the diagnosis is primarily established in a multidisciplinary approach. The non-cystic variant accounts for the majority of cases (83%), is more common in men (63%), shows a median age at diagnosis of 51 years and has a 5-year survival rate of about 50%. In organ-confined disease, usually a partial cystectomy of the tumor in the bladder dome, including the median umbilical ligament and umbilicus, is performed. In advanced stages, systemic therapy is needed while 5‑fuorouracil (5-FU) containing regimes have been shown to be more effective. Due to the rarity of the tumor, targeted therapy approaches based on a biological rationale are becoming increasingly relevant. As molecular data are still sparse, we compiled and analyzed the largest urachal cancer cohort to date. In 31% of the cases, MAPK-/PI3K signaling pathway alterations were detected (especially in K-/NRAS) with implications for anti-EGFR therapy approaches. Further potentially therapeutic alterations were detected in FGFR1, MET, PDGFRA, and erbB2/HER2. Additionally, PD-L1 tumor cell expression (clone: 22C3) was demonstrated in 16% of cases, therefore making anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immuno-oncological approaches worth considering despite the absence of mismatch repair deficiency (MMR-d) and/or high microsatellite instability (MSI-h). Finally, urachal adenocarcinomas seem to be a distinct entity on the molecular level with closer resemblance to colorectal adenocarcinomas than to urothelial carcinomas.

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