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Portugal

Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 10.7m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 49,200
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 246.2
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:24.4%
People dying from cancer /yr: 24,100
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Portugal Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications Related to Portugal

Portugal Cancer Organisations and Resources (5 links)


Latest Research Publications Related to Portugal

Fraga A, Ribeiro R, Coelho A, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms in key hypoxia-regulated downstream molecules and phenotypic correlation in prostate cancer.
BMC Urol. 2017; 17(1):12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In this study we sought if, in their quest to handle hypoxia, prostate tumors express target hypoxia-associated molecules and their correlation with putative functional genetic polymorphisms.
METHODS: Representative areas of prostate carcinoma (n = 51) and of nodular prostate hyperplasia (n = 20) were analysed for hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α), carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), lysyl oxidase (LOX) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR2) immunohistochemistry expression using a tissue microarray. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood and used to genotype functional polymorphisms at the corresponding genes (HIF1A +1772 C > T, rs11549465; CA9 + 201 A > G; rs2071676; LOX +473 G > A, rs1800449; KDR - 604 T > C, rs2071559).
RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry analyses disclosed predominance of positive CAIX and VEGFR2 expression in epithelial cells of prostate carcinomas compared to nodular prostate hyperplasia (P = 0.043 and P = 0.035, respectively). In addition, the VEGFR2 expression score in prostate epithelial cells was higher in organ-confined and extra prostatic carcinoma compared to nodular prostate hyperplasia (P = 0.031 and P = 0.004, respectively). Notably, for LOX protein the immunoreactivity score was significantly higher in organ-confined carcinomas compared to nodular prostate hyperplasia (P = 0.015). The genotype-phenotype analyses showed higher LOX staining intensity for carriers of the homozygous LOX +473 G-allele (P = 0.011). Still, carriers of the KDR-604 T-allele were more prone to have higher VEGFR2 expression in prostate epithelial cells (P < 0.006).
CONCLUSIONS: Protein expression of hypoxia markers (VEGFR2, CAIX and LOX) on prostate epithelial cells was different between malignant and benign prostate disease. Two genetic polymorphisms (LOX +473 G > A and KDR-604 T > C) were correlated with protein level, accounting for a potential gene-environment effect in the activation of hypoxia-driven pathways in prostate carcinoma. Further research in larger series is warranted to validate present findings.

Ribeiro J, Oliveira C, Malta M, Sousa H
Epstein-Barr virus gene expression and latency pattern in gastric carcinomas: a systematic review.
Future Oncol. 2017; 13(6):567-579 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: A systematic review of literature was conducted to identify all published reports regarding the expression of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) proteins/transcripts and EBV latency patterns in EBV-associated gastric carcinomas (EBVaGC).
RESULTS: The literature search retrieved 247 papers, of which 25 papers matched the inclusion criteria. The analysis reveals that the most frequently expressed EBV latent proteins are EBNA1 (98.1%) and LMP2A (53.8%), while LMP1 and LMP2B are present in only 10% of cases. Lytic proteins, such as BARF0 and BARF1, and other lytic transcripts are present in almost half of cases.
CONCLUSION: EBVaGC seems to display a unique transcription/latency pattern that does not fit the 'standard' EBV latency patterns and therefore should be further studied to better understand EBVaGC carcinogenesis.

Beets G, Sebag-Montefiore D, Andritsch E, et al.
ECCO Essential Requirements for Quality Cancer Care: Colorectal Cancer. A critical review.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2017; 110:81-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: ECCO essential requirements for quality cancer care (ERQCC) are checklists and explanations of organisation and actions that are necessary to give high-quality care to patients who have a specific tumour type. They are written by European experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care. ERQCC papers give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of the elements needed in any healthcare system to provide high quality of care throughout the patient journey. References are made to clinical guidelines and other resources where appropriate, and the focus is on care in Europe. Colorectal cancer: essential requirements for quality care CONCLUSION: Taken together, the information presented in this paper provides a comprehensive description of the essential requirements for establishing a high-quality CRC service. The ECCO expert group is aware that it is not possible to propose a 'one size fits all' system for all countries, but urges that access to multidisciplinary units or centres must be guaranteed for all those with CRC.

Aalders KC, Tryfonidis K, Senkus E, Cardoso F
Anti-angiogenic treatment in breast cancer: Facts, successes, failures and future perspectives.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2017; 53:98-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiogenesis is one of the hallmarks of cancer and a crucial requisite in the development of tumors. Interrupting this process by blocking the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab has been considered a possible breakthrough in the treatment of various types of cancer, especially for advanced disease. However in breast cancer, studies have shown ambivalent results causing debate about the value of this drug. In this article, we review the evidence for anti-angiogenic treatment options for breast cancer, as well as discuss the possible factors limiting the effectiveness of anti-angiogenic agents and offer a recommendation regarding the future research on these therapies for the treatment of breast cancer.

Carvalho MI, Silva-Carvalho R, Pires I, et al.
A Comparative Approach of Tumor-Associated Inflammation in Mammary Cancer between Humans and Dogs.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:4917387 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Infiltrating cells of the immune system are widely accepted to be generic constituents of tumor microenvironment. It has been well established that the development of mammary cancer, both in humans and in dogs, is associated with alterations in numbers and functions of immune cells at the sites of tumor progression. These tumor infiltrating immune cells seem to exhibit exclusive phenotypic and functional characteristics and mammary cancer cells can take advantage of signaling molecules released by them. Cancer related inflammation has an important role in mammary carcinogenesis, contributing to the acquisition of core hallmark capabilities that allow cancer cells to survive, proliferate, and disseminate. Indeed, recent studies in human breast cancer and in canine mammary tumors have identified a growing list of signaling molecules released by inflammatory cells that serve as effectors of their tumor-promoting actions. These include the COX-2, the tumor EGF, the angiogenic VEGF, other proangiogenic factors, and a large variety of chemokines and cytokines that amplify the inflammatory state. This review describes the intertwined signaling pathways shared by T-lymphocytic/macrophage infiltrates and important tissue biomarkers in both human and dog mammary carcinogenesis.

Santos MD, Silva C, Rocha A, et al.
Prognostic and Therapeutic Potential Implications of Genetic Variability in Prostaglandin E2 Pathway Genes in Rectal Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(1):281-291 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To evaluate the prognostic significance and potential therapeutic implication of genetic variability in prostaglandin E2 pathway genes in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) followed by surgery.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cohort study included 167 patients with LARC, treated with nCRT followed by surgery. A total of 61 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were characterized using the Sequenom platform through multiplex amplification followed by mass-spectometric product separation. Surgical specimens were classified according to Mandard tumor regression grade (TRG). The patients were divided as 'good responders' (Mandard TGR1-2) and 'poor responders' (Mandard TRG3-5). We examined prognostic value of polymorphisms studied to determine if they are related to Mandard response.
RESULTS: Mandard tumor response and rs17268122 in ATP binding cassette subfamily C member (ABCC4) gene were the only two parameters with independent prognostic significance for disease-free survival.
CONCLUSION: tagSNP ABCC4 rs17268122 appears to be a prognostic factor in LARC treated with nCRT and surgery, independently of response to nCRT. The screening of ABCC4 rs17268122 tagSNP and the Mandard tumor response in clinical practice may help to identify patients with different rectal cancer prognosis and contribute to an individualized therapeutic decision tree.

Lassed S, Deus CM, Lourenço N, et al.
Diet, Lifestyles, Family History, and Prostate Cancer Incidence in an East Algerian Patient Group.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:5730569 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PC) is the fourth most common cancer in men and the sixth leading cause of death in Algeria. To examine the relationship between lifestyle factors, including diet, and family history and PC risk, a case-control study was performed in an eastern Algerian population, comprising 90 patients with histologically confirmed PC and 190 controls. Data collection was carried out through a structured questionnaire and statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the different variables. The data showed that consumption of lamb and beef meat and high intake of animal fat and dairy products increased PC risk. Seven to thirteen vegetables servings per week and fourteen or more servings decreased PC risk by 62% and 96%, respectively. Seven to fourteen fruit servings per week decrease PC risk by 98%. Green tea consumption reduced the risk of PC but the results were statistically borderline. Increased risk was observed for individuals with family history of PC in first and in second degree. A positive strong association was also found for alcohol and smoking intake and a dose-response relationship existed for quantity and history of smoking. This study suggests that dietary habits, lifestyle factors, and family history have influence on the development of PC in Algerian population.

Rossi ED, Bizzarro T, Martini M, et al.
Cytopathology of Follicular Cell Nodules.
Adv Anat Pathol. 2017; 24(1):45-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
The detection of thyroid nodules, consisting of different diseases, represents a common finding in population. Their evaluation and diagnosis are mostly achieved with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Even though the majority of thyroid nodules are correctly diagnosed, a total of 25% to 30% of them are classified "indeterminate" comprising lesions with varying risk of malignancy and different types of management. Although the number of thyroid FNACs, including small lesions, is increasing due to the reliance upon sonographic and cytologic interpretations, there are issues concerning cytomorphologic interpretation and interobserver reproducibility. Different classification systems have tried to better define the criteria for inclusion in specific categories and to therefore reduce the rate of indeterminate diagnoses such as atypia of undetermined significance, follicular neoplasms, and suspicious for malignancy. However, the support of ancillary techniques (eg, immunocytochemistry and molecular analysis) are reshaping morphologic diagnoses made on materials obtained from FNAC.

Lage J, Uedo N, Dinis-Ribeiro M, Yao K
Surveillance of patients with gastric precancerous conditions.
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2016; 30(6):913-922 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma arises from a multistep process starting with Helicobacter pylori infection followed by gastric atrophy, gastric intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. Indeed, patients with gastric precancerous conditions or lesions (GPC) are at increased risk to develop gastric cancer even in regions with low incidence. Thus, the identification and surveillance of a high risk subgroup could lead to the diagnosis of cancer at early stage and improve survival. However, both endoscopic and histological accuracy and interobserver agreement in the diagnosis of GPC are still far from optimal. Also, there are conceptual differences between the West and the East in the diagnosis and surveillance of patients. In the former, multiple gastric biopsies are still recommended but Eastern gastroenterologists select patients to surveillance according to the results of endoscopy or serology. In this literature review we describe the cascade of GPC and we highlight the differences between eastern and western clinical practice.

Libânio D, Pimentel-Nunes P, Dinis-Ribeiro M
Complications of endoscopic resection techniques for upper GI tract lesions.
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2016; 30(5):735-748 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adverse events can occur during and after the endoscopic resection of upper gastrointestinal lesions. Their incidence can be minimized through the adoption of preventive measures and their final outcomes can be optimized through prompt identification and adequate treatment. In this evidence-based review we describe the risk factors for adverse events, preventive measures to avoid them and their management when they occur. Algorithms of action are also provided. Oesophageal strictures can be prevented with corticosteroids (either locally injected or systemically administered) and treated with endoscopic dilatation. Bleeding can be minimized through the adoption of prophylactic coagulation and novel preventive measures are emerging and being evaluated. Bleeding management includes coagulation therapy, clips and haemostatic powders. Perforations can nowadays be successfully treated endoscopically in the majority of the cases and conservative treatment is associated with favourable outcomes although optimal management is unclear.

Ramdani LH, Talhi O, Taibi N, et al.
Effects of Spiro-bisheterocycles on Proliferation and Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(12):6399-6408 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide and a critical public health concern. Here we investigated the anticancer potential and effects of low-molecular-weight bridgehead oxygen and nitrogen-containing spiro-bisheterocycles on proliferation and apoptosis of the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The compounds feature a hydantoin moiety attached to either diazole, isoxazole, diazepine, oxazepine or benzodiazepine via the privileged tetrahedral spiro-linkage. Treatment with compounds spiro [hydantoin-isoxazole] and spiro [hydantoin-oxazepine] resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in both breast cancer cell lines, whereas spiro [hydantoin-diazepine] was only active against MDA-MB 231. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed up-regulation of murine double minute 2 (MDM2), strictly p53-dependent, and detected an increase in expression of pro-apoptotic caspase 3 and BCL2-associated X (BAX) genes in both breast cancer cell lines expressing wild-type and mutant p53. In summary, the results suggest that our compounds promote apoptosis of breast cancer cell lines via p53-dependent and -independent pathways.

Gil da Costa RM, Aragão S, Moutinho M, et al.
HPV16 induces a wasting syndrome in transgenic mice: Amelioration by dietary polyphenols via NF-κB inhibition.
Life Sci. 2017; 169:11-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer patients often show a wasting syndrome for which there are little therapeutic options. Dietary polyphenols have been proposed for treating this syndrome, but their usefulness in cases associated with human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cancers is unknown. We characterized HPV16-transgenic mice as a model of cancer cachexia and tested the efficacy of long-term oral supplementation with polyphenols curcumin and rutin. Both compounds were orally administered to six weeks-old HPV16-transgenic mice showing characteristic multi-step skin carcinogenesis, for 24weeks. Skin lesions and blood, liver and spleen inflammatory changes were characterized histologically and hematologically. Hepatic oxidative stress, skeletal muscle mass and the levels of muscle pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB were also assessed. Skin carcinogenesis was associated with progressive, severe, systemic inflammation (leukocytosis, hepatitis, splenitis), significant mortality and cachexia. Curcumin and rutin totally suppressed mortality while reducing white blood cells and the incidence of splenitis and hepatitis. Rutin prevented muscle wasting more effectively than curcumin. Preservation of muscle mass and reduced hepatic inflammation were associated with down-regulation of the NF-κB canonical pathway and with reduced oxidative stress, respectively. These results point out HPV16-transgenic mice as a useful model for studying the wasting syndrome associated with HPV-induced cancers. Dietary NF-κB inhibitors may be useful resources for treating this syndrome.

Forschner A, Eichner F, Amaral T, et al.
Improvement of overall survival in stage IV melanoma patients during 2011-2014: analysis of real-world data in 441 patients of the German Central Malignant Melanoma Registry (CMMR).
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(3):533-540 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: During 2011 and 2014, new treatment modalities like tyrosine kinase inhibitors and checkpoint inhibitors were introduced into the therapy of metastatic melanoma. This study addresses the question whether overall survival (OS) of metastatic melanoma patients has already been improved in 441 patients diagnosed with metastatic melanoma between 2011 and 2014 in the real-world setting at the University Hospital Tuebingen.
METHODS: All patients were documented with their different therapies by the CMMR and followed up until March 2016. Survival probabilities were calculated by Kaplan-Meier estimators, and log-rank tests were used to evaluate significances. Hazard ratios were estimated by Cox regression analysis for survival probabilities and prognostic factors in stage IV melanoma.
RESULTS: Best OS was observed in patients (n = 93) treated by metastasectomy as primary treatment with the intention to completely excise all metastases (3-year OS 61%). OS for patients with first-line systemic treatment (n = 258) was unfavorable in general (3-year OS 23%). Of those, the most favorable outcome was observed in patients without brain metastasis and treated with immunotherapy (mostly ipilimumab), as first-line treatment (median OS 35 months, 3-year OS 43%). In case of brain metastases, patients with targeted therapy had a better OS (median 14 months) than patients with ipilimumab treatment (median 7 months). Among all patients with first-line systemic treatment, outcome of patients diagnosed in the years 2013/2014, compared to 2011 and 2012, showed an improved survival. Three-year OS for patients that entered stage IV in 2013/2014 was 37% compared to those that entered stage IV in 2011 (18%) and 2012 (20%).
CONCLUSION: The analysis of real-world data of treatment of metastatic melanoma showed an improvement of OS with both immunotherapy and targeted therapy. In case of cerebral metastasis, patients treated with targeted therapy showed a longer median OS than patients treated with ipilimumab.

Palha A, Cortez L, Tavares AP, Agapito A
Leydig cell tumour and mature ovarian teratoma: rare androgen-secreting ovarian tumours in postmenopausal women.
BMJ Case Rep. 2016; 2016 [PubMed] Related Publications
Androgen-secreting ovarian tumours are extremely rare accounting for <5% of all ovarian neoplasms. They are more frequent in postmenopausal women and should be suspected in the case of a rapid onset of androgenic symptoms. We report 4 cases of postmenopausal women who presented with signs of virilisation. All patients revealed increased serum levels of testosterone, normal dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate and negative pelvic ultrasound for adnexal masses. An androgen-secreting ovarian tumour was suspected and all of them were submitted to bilateral oophorectomy. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of Leydig cell tumours in 3 patients and mature teratoma in 1. A successful response to surgery, which includes a decline in serum androgen levels and signs of hyperandrogenism, was observed in our patients. This case series demonstrates that androgen-secreting ovarian neoplasms may not be detectable by imaging studies, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all postmenopausal women with signs of hyperandrogenism.

Oliveira RC, Nogueira T, Sousa V, Carvalho L
Bronchial schwannoma: a singular lesion as a cause of obstructive pneumonia.
BMJ Case Rep. 2016; 2016 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bronchial schwannomas are very rare pulmonary lesions, but its awareness is important to reach correct diagnosis and decide proper intervention. Clinical and radiological characteristics are mainly unspecific and pathological examination usually provides the definite diagnosis. In small lesions, endoscopic approach may be sufficient, but in large lesions associated with organising pneumonia surgical intervention may be required. Prognosis is typically favourable. We describe a case of a woman, aged 66 years, with productive cough and sporadic haemoptysis, dyspnoea, anorexia, excessive sweating and weight loss with 2 months evolution. CT scan showed a soft tissue dense lesion on the left hilum with 3.75 cm with 18-Fludeoxyglucose uptake. Left upper lobectomy was performed. Gross examination revealed a polypoid mass without necrosis, histologically showing cellular dense (Antoni A) and less dense (Antoni B) areas with Verocay bodies, slightly pleomorphic spindle cells, without mitotic activity and positive for S100 protein on immunohistochemistry.

van der Putten LJ, van de Vijver K, Bartosch C, et al.
Reproducibility of measurement of myometrial invasion in endometrial carcinoma.
Virchows Arch. 2017; 470(1):63-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myometrial invasion (MI) as a percentage (%MI), categorized into <50 or ≥50 %, is an important predictor of prognosis in endometrial carcinoma. Recent studies suggest that tumor-free distance (TFD) to serosa and the absolute depth of invasion (DOI) might be stronger predictors of prognosis. Although reproducibility is important in clinical practice for patient prognostication and treatment, reproducibility of these methods for the measurement of MI is largely unknown. One or two slides from 50 patients with FIGO stage I endometrioid endometrial carcinoma were viewed by seven gynecological pathologists, who were requested to measure %MI, TFD, and DOI. We categorized %MI as <50 % (including no MI) or ≥50 %, TFD as ≤1.75 or >1.75 mm (including no MI), ≤7 or >7 mm (including no MI), and ≤10 or >10 mm (including no MI) and DOI as <4 mm (including no MI) or ≥4 mm. Light's kappa for multi-rater agreement was calculated. The %MI, TFD, and DOI could be measured in 88, 83, and 79 % of cases, respectively. Kappa was 0.75 for %MI, 0.77, 0.73, and 0.69 respectively for TFD with cutoffs of 1.75, 7, and 10 mm, and 0.59 for DOI. Pathologists reach substantial agreement when measuring %MI and TFD and moderate agreement when measuring DOI. The %MI can be measured in more cases than TFD and DOI. This supports the use of %MI in daily clinical practice, but future studies should compare %MI and TFD more extensively, including inter-observer variability.

Pinto-Leite R, Arantes-Rodrigues R, Sousa N, et al.
mTOR inhibitors in urinary bladder cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):11541-11551 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the great scientific advances that have been made in cancer treatment, there is still much to do, particularly with regard to urinary bladder cancer. Some of the drugs used in urinary bladder cancer treatment have been in use for more than 30 years and show reduced effectiveness and high recurrence rates. There have been several attempts to find new and more effective drugs, to be used alone or in combination with the drugs already in use, in order to overcome this situation.The biologically important mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is altered in cancer and mTOR inhibitors have raised many expectations as potentially important anticancer drugs. In this article, the authors will review the mTOR pathway and present their experiences of the use of some mTOR inhibitors, sirolimus, everolimus and temsirolimus, in isolation and in conjunction with non-mTOR inhibitors cisplatin and gemcitabine, on urinary bladder tumour cell lines. The non-muscle-invasive cell line, 5637, is the only one that exhibits a small alteration in the mTOR and AKT phosphorylation after rapalogs exposure. Also, there was a small inhibition of cell proliferation. With gemcitabine plus everolimus or temsirolimus, the results were encouraging as a more effective response was noticed with both combinations, especially in the 5637 and T24 cell lines. Cisplatin associated with everolimus or temsirolimus also gave promising results, as an antiproliferative effect was observed when the drugs were associated, in particular on the 5637 and HT1376 cell lines. Everolimus or temsirolimus in conjunction with gemcitabine or cisplatin could have an important role to play in urinary bladder cancer treatment, depending on the tumour grading.

Santos TS, Estêvão R, Antunes L, et al.
Clinical and histopathological prognostic factors in locoregional advanced laryngeal cancer.
J Laryngol Otol. 2016; 130(10):948-953 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and histopathological factors affecting the prognosis of patients with squamous cell locoregional advanced laryngeal cancer.
METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 121 patients with locoregional advanced laryngeal cancer, primarily treated with surgery from 2007 to 2011. Disease-free survival and overall survival rates were analysed as oncological outcomes. Prognostic variables, namely gender, pharyngeal invasion, pathological assessment of tumour and nodal stage, adjuvant therapy, margin status, nodal extracapsular extension, tumour differentiation, lymphovascular and perineural invasion, and predominant growth pattern, were also analysed.
RESULTS: One-year and three-year disease-free survival rates were 81.3 per cent and 63.5 per cent, respectively. One-year and three-year overall survival rates were 88.3 per cent and 61.4 per cent, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that nodal extracapsular extension (p < 0.05) and an infiltrative growth pattern (p < 0.05) were associated with disease progression. Nodal extracapsular extension (p < 0.05) was associated with higher mortality.
CONCLUSION: Nodal extracapsular extension and an infiltrative growth pattern were the main prognostic factors in locoregional advanced laryngeal cancer. The presence of pharyngeal invasion, pathologically confirmed node-positive stage 2-3 disease, close or microscopic positive margins, and lymphovascular and perineural invasion have a negative impact on prognosis.

Oliveira S, Coelho P, Prudêncio C, et al.
Melanoma and obesity: Should antioxidant vitamins be addressed?
Life Sci. 2016; 165:83-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer refractory to conventional therapies. Obesity has reached epidemic dimensions acting as a risk factor for several cancer types, such as melanoma. Several reactive species of oxygen are also involved in melanoma initiation and progression. Low levels of antioxidant content and/or activity in lightly pigmented cells could expose them to an extremely oxidative environment and rise the susceptibility to oxidative damage and consequently loss of cell homeostasis. Despite the knowledge about melanoma biology, pathogenesis and developed therapies, is extremely important to understand the antioxidant modulation of melanoma under an environment of obesity, especially the effect of some natural compounds of the diet, such as antioxidant vitamins A, C and E and selenium in order to establish alternatives to conventional therapies, which are known to be ineffective against melanoma.

Barros R, Pereira D, Callé C, et al.
Dynamics of SOX2 and CDX2 Expression in Barrett's Mucosa.
Dis Markers. 2016; 2016:1532791 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the replacement of the normal esophageal squamous epithelium by a columnar lining epithelium. It is a premalignant condition for the development of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction. BE is associated with gastroesophageal reflux which might change the expression profile of key transcription factors involved in the establishment of tissue differentiation, namely, SOX2 (associated with esophageal and gastric differentiation) and CDX2 (associated with intestinal differentiation). Here, we sought to characterize the expression profile of SOX2 and CDX2 in the sequential alterations of the esophageal mucosa towards adenocarcinoma and compare it with the well-established gastric and intestinal mucin profiles (MUC5AC, MUC6, and MUC2). We observed that SOX2 and CDX2 expression correlates with gastric and intestinal differentiation in BE, defined by morphological parameters and mucin expression. We show the presence of a complete intestinal profile in BE, without gastric mucins and without SOX2, and we observed an evolutionary modulation of the metaplastic phenotype by SOX2 and CDX2. We observed that adenocarcinomas harbor more frequently a mixed gastric and intestinal phenotype. In conclusion, our study establishes a role for transcription factors SOX2 and CDX2 in the progression from gastric to gastrointestinal differentiation in Barrett's metaplasia.

Boaventura P, Batista R, Pestana A, et al.
TERT promoter mutations: a genetic signature of benign and malignant thyroid tumours occurring in the context of tinea capitis irradiation.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2017; 176(1):49-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and molecular characteristics of TERTp mutations in thyroid adenomas and carcinomas occurring in the low-dose radiation exposure tinea capitis setting.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with 34 well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 28 patients with 29 follicular adenomas diagnosed in a Portuguese tinea capitis cohort were studied. Blood samples were obtained from all the patients. Screening for TERTp mutations was performed by PCR amplification followed by Sanger sequencing. A series of 33 sporadic thyroid adenomas was used as control.
RESULTS: TERTp mutations were detected in six of the 28 patients with adenoma (21.4%) and in four of the 27 patients with carcinoma (14.8%). Three tumours (two carcinomas and one adenoma) had the tandem mutation -124/-125 GG>AA (30.0%), whereas the remaining seven had the -124G > A. The 20.7% frequency of TERTp mutations in adenomas contrasts with the absence of mutations in the adenomas from the control group and from most series on record, whereas the one found in carcinomas (11.8%) is similar to those reported in the literature for sporadic carcinomas.
CONCLUSION: TERTp mutations, including the tandem mutation -124/-125 GG>AA not described previously in thyroid tumours, appear to represent a genetic signature for thyroid tumours in patients submitted to low-dose X-ray irradiation. The high frequency of TERTp mutations in the adenomas of our cohort contrasts with their absence in sporadically occurring, as well as in adenomas of the Chernobyl series.

Lobo J, Machado B, Vieira R, Bartosch C
The challenge of diagnosing a malignancy metastatic to the ovary: clinicopathological characteristics vary and morphology can be different from that of the corresponding primary tumor.
Virchows Arch. 2017; 470(1):69-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
An accurate diagnosis of metastases to the ovary is essential for adequate patient management. The aim of this retrospective study was to characterize clinicopathological features of metastatic malignancies that presented as an ovarian mass and compare them with their corresponding primary tumors. We reviewed clinical files and histological material of 120 patients with metastases to the ovary, diagnosed in our center between 2000 and 2014. Metastases were diagnosed before (18 %), synchronously (33 %), or after (49 %) the primary tumor was identified; 25 % were single, 40 % were unilateral; 47 % were ≥13 cm. Most originated from the gastrointestinal tract (73 %), followed by breast (13 %), and female reproductive organs (10 %). Gross features varied with primary tumor site. Metastases from gastrointestinal malignancies were significantly larger and frequently showed necrosis. Metastases to the appendix were cystic (94 %), and almost all metastases to the stomach (96 %) and breast (87 %) were solid. The predominant histological pattern was discordant in 44 % cases, mostly due to cystic changes in ovarian metastases which were observed across several histological types. Other metastases showed a predominant histological pattern which was present only focally in the primary tumor. Metastases showed significantly more edema, necrosis, and hemorrhage, but less lymphovascular invasion and inflammatory infiltrate than the corresponding primary tumors. Metastases to the ovary present highly variable clinicopathological features which frequently differ from those of the corresponding primary tumor. A metastasis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an ovarian mass. All clinical, imaging, macroscopic, and histological aspects must be taken into account to establish a correct diagnosis which is essential for adequate treatment.

Lamas-Pinheiro R, Rodesch G, Devalck C, et al.
Pulmonary Myofibroblastic Tumour Involving the Pericardium and Left Atrium in an 18 Month Infant.
Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2016; 22(5):312-314 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is the most frequent primary lung tumor in children and it may be locally aggressive. The management of a locally advanced pulmonary IMT in an 18 month-old female child is presented.A left pulmonary mass was incidentally found on the computerized tomography (CT) scan of a child with persistent systemic inflammatory syndrome. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis; after preoperative corticotherapy, left pneumonectomy was performed. The pericardium and left atrium were invaded and resected, requiring pericardial reconstruction. There is no relapse at four years of follow-up.Steroids play a role in tumor size reduction, but marginal resection is the gold standard. Extended approaches are feasible and often required in advanced cases.

Coelho M, Soares-Silva C, Brandão D, et al.
β-Adrenergic modulation of cancer cell proliferation: available evidence and clinical perspectives.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(2):275-291 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: In this review, we aimed to present and discuss the available preclinical and epidemiological evidences regarding the modulation of cancer cell proliferation by β-adrenoceptors (β-AR), with a specific focus on the putative effects of β-blockers according to their pharmacological properties.
METHODS: A comprehensive review of the published literature was conducted, and the evidences concerning the involvement of β-AR in cancer as well as the possible role of β-blockers were selected and discussed.
RESULTS: The majority of reviewed studies show that: (1) All the cancer types express both β1- and β2-AR, with the exception of neuroblastoma only seeming to express β2-AR; (2) adrenergic agonists are able to increase proliferation of several types of cancers; (3) the proliferative effect seems to be mediated by both β1- and β2-AR; (4) binding to β-AR results in a cAMP transient flux which activates two major downstream effector systems: protein kinase A and EPAC and (5) β-blockers might be putative adjuvants for cancer treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the reviewed studies show strong evidences that β-AR activation, through several intracellular mechanisms, modulate tumor cell proliferation suggesting β-blockers can be a feasible therapeutic approach to antagonize β-adrenergic response or have a protective effect per se. This review highlight the need for intensifying the research not only on the molecular mechanisms underlying the β-adrenergic influence in cancer, but also on the implications of biased agonism of β-blockers as potential antitumor agents.

Alves D, Calmeiro ME, Silva R, Coelho H
Small-cell neuroendocrine cancer of the prostate: an atypical presentation of a common disease.
BMJ Case Rep. 2016; 2016 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 70-year-old man with a history of prostate cancer, previously submitted to surgical castration and trans-urethral resection of the prostate, was admitted to Accident and Emergency department. He had been suffering from osteoarticular and abdominal pain, and recent weight loss. An abdominal and a pelvic CT showed multiple hepatic metastases and a pelvic mass, but his prostate-specific antigen values were low (0.26 n/mL). A biopsy of a hepatic metastasis and of the pelvic mass revealed a small-cell neuroendocrine prostate cancer, a rare and aggressive androgen-independent form of prostate cancer with a poor prognosis. Our purpose was to report a clinical case of a rare and aggressive variant of a common disease. A high index of suspicion is required to make an early diagnosis and to ensure a proper therapeutic approach.

Ramos C, Leal I, Marôco AL, Tedeschi RG
The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory: Factor Structure and Invariance in a Sample of Breast Cancer Patients and in a Non-Clinical Sample.
Span J Psychol. 2016; 19:E64 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) is frequently used to assess positive changes following a traumatic event. The aim of the study is to examine the factor structure and the latent mean invariance of PTGI. A sample of 205 (M age = 54.3, SD = 10.1) women diagnosed with breast cancer and 456 (M age = 34.9, SD = 12.5) adults who had experienced a range of adverse life events were recruited to complete the PTGI and a socio-demographic questionnaire. We use Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to test the factor-structure and multi-sample CFA to examine the invariance of the PTGI between the two groups. The goodness of fit for the five-factor model is satisfactory for breast cancer sample (χ2(175) = 396.265; CFI = .884; NIF = .813; RMSEA [90% CI] = .079 [.068, .089]), and good for non-clinical sample (χ2(172) = 574.329; CFI = .931; NIF = .905; RMSEA [90% CI] = .072 [.065, .078]). The results of multi-sample CFA show that the model fit indices of the unconstrained model are equal but the model that uses constrained factor loadings is not invariant across groups. The findings provide support for the original five-factor structure and for the multidimensional nature of posttraumatic growth (PTG). Regarding invariance between both samples, the factor structure of PTGI and other parameters (i.e., factor loadings, variances, and co-variances) are not invariant across the sample of breast cancer patients and the non-clinical sample.

Deans ZC, Costa JL, Cree I, et al.
Integration of next-generation sequencing in clinical diagnostic molecular pathology laboratories for analysis of solid tumours; an expert opinion on behalf of IQN Path ASBL.
Virchows Arch. 2017; 470(1):5-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The clinical demand for mutation detection within multiple genes from a single tumour sample requires molecular diagnostic laboratories to develop rapid, high-throughput, highly sensitive, accurate and parallel testing within tight budget constraints. To meet this demand, many laboratories employ next-generation sequencing (NGS) based on small amplicons. Building on existing publications and general guidance for the clinical use of NGS and learnings from germline testing, the following guidelines establish consensus standards for somatic diagnostic testing, specifically for identifying and reporting mutations in solid tumours. These guidelines cover the testing strategy, implementation of testing within clinical service, sample requirements, data analysis and reporting of results. In conjunction with appropriate staff training and international standards for laboratory testing, these consensus standards for the use of NGS in molecular pathology of solid tumours will assist laboratories in implementing NGS in clinical services.

Andrade JP, Figueiredo S, Matias J, Almeida AC
Surgical resection of invasive adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland and wound closure using a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flap.
BMJ Case Rep. 2016; 2016 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 64-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of recurrent conjunctivitis. He was evaluated by an ophthalmologist and submitted to a CT scan that revealed an intraconic mass with invasion of the lateral orbital wall. He was operated, the mass was completely removed (with preservation of the intraorbital structures) and the lateral orbital wall rebuilt. The histopathological analysis revealed an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland. 4 months later a painful recurrence of the lesion was diagnosed with invasion of the orbital roof and eyelids. After a multidisciplinary discussion and request from the patient, an exenteration of the orbit and removal of the lateral and superior orbital wall and dura mater was performed with the objective of a total resection. The wound and orbit were closed with a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flap to ensure closure.

DA Cruz Paula A, Marques O, Sampaio R, et al.
Characterization of CD44+ALDH1+Ki-67- Cells in Non-malignant and Neoplastic Lesions of the Breast.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(9):4629-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells are tumor cells that present self-renewal, clonal tumor initiation capacity and clonal long-term repopulation potential. We have previously demonstrated that the co-expression of the breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) markers hyaluronan receptor (CD44) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) in ductal carcinomas in situ could be determinant for disease progression. Combining these established BCSC markers with Ki-67 to evaluate quiescence we sought to identify, evaluate the distribution and estimate the mean percentages of CD44(+)ALDH1(+)Ki-67(-) breast cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Triple-immunohistochemistry for CD44, ALDH1 and Ki-67 was applied in a series of 16 normal, 54 non-malignant and 155 malignant breast tissues. Clinical relevance was inferred by associations with markers of breast cancer behavior, progression and survival.
RESULTS: The mean percentages of cells with this phenotype increased significantly from non-malignant lesions to high-grade ductal carcinomas in situ, decreasing in invasive ductal carcinomas, as also evidenced by an inverse correlation with histological grade and tumor size. The mean percentage of CD44(+)ALDH1(+)Ki-67(-) cells was also significantly higher in women who developed distant metastasis and died due to breast cancer, and a significant association with human epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2) negativity was observed.
CONCLUSION: Our novel findings indicate that CD44(+)ALDH1(+)Ki-67(-) tumor cells may favor distant metastasis and can predict overall survival in patients with ductal carcinomas of the breast. More importantly, quiescence may have a crucial role for tumor progression, treatment resistance and metastatic ability of BCSCs.

Hellquist H, Skalova A, Azadeh B
Salivary gland hybrid tumour revisited: could they represent high-grade transformation in a low-grade neoplasm?
Virchows Arch. 2016; 469(6):643-650 [PubMed] Related Publications
Salivary gland hybrid tumour, first described in 1996, is a very rare neoplasm for which exact morphological criteria have not been universally agreed upon. In contrast, the concept of high-grade transformation (HGT) in salivary neoplasms has been widely accepted during the last decade, and the number of reported cases is rapidly increasing. A review of the literature revealed 38 cases of hybrid tumour reported in 22 publications. During approximately the same time period, well over 100 cases of HGT in salivary neoplasms have been reported. There are important histological similarities between hybrid tumours and salivary tumours with HGT. In the latter, containing one tumour component of low-grade malignancy and the other of high grade, the two tumour components are not entirely separated and appear to originate in the same area. Virtually, all cases reported as hybrid tumour had no clear lines of demarcation between the two tumour types. We are inclined to suggest that most of the 38 cases of hybrid tumours described in the literature would today better be called tumour with HGT rather than hybrid tumour. The relative proportion of the two components may vary, and the high-grade component is sometimes very small, which emphasises the importance of very generous sampling of the surgical specimen. The molecular genetic mechanisms responsible for HGT, including what used to be called hybrid tumour, remain largely unknown. Abnormalities of a few genes (including p53, C-MYC, cyclin D1, HER-2/neu) have been documented. As insufficient data exist on gene abnormalities in these lesions, conclusions as to whether or not they have a common origin and which mechanisms are involved in transformation cannot be drawn. Due to the small number of cases reported, many of which lack follow-up details; indicators of prognosis of hybrid tumours are not available, but their behaviour seems to be similar to that of tumours with HGT, i.e. an accelerated aggressive course. HGT of salivary gland neoplasms greatly influences macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of the specimen but also, given the high incidence of metastases and morbidity, carries significant treatment implications.

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