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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 8.4m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 41,100
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 254.1
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:25.5%
People dying from cancer /yr: 20,400
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Austria: Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications related to Austria

Austria: Cancer Organisations and Resources (11 links)

Latest Research Publications related to Austria

Foukakis T, von Minckwitz G, Bengtsson NO, et al.
Effect of Tailored Dose-Dense Chemotherapy vs Standard 3-Weekly Adjuvant Chemotherapy on Recurrence-Free Survival Among Women With High-Risk Early Breast Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
JAMA. 2016; 316(18):1888-1896 [PubMed] Related Publications
Importance: Standard dosing of chemotherapy based on body surface area results in marked interpatient variation in pharmacokinetics, toxic effects, and efficacy. Whether tailored dosing can improve outcomes is unknown, as is the role of dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy.
Objective: To determine whether tailored dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy improves the outcomes of early breast cancer compared with a standard 3-weekly chemotherapy schedule.
Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial of women aged 65 years and younger who had surgery for nonmetastatic node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer at 86 sites in Sweden, Germany, and Austria between February 20, 2007, and September 14, 2011.
Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 either to 4 cycles of leukocyte nadir-based tailored and dose-dense adjuvant epirubicin and cyclophosphamide every 2 weeks followed by 4 cycles of tailored dose-dense docetaxel every 2 weeks, or to standard-interval chemotherapy with 3 cycles of fluorouracil and epirubicin-cyclophosphamide every 3 weeks followed by 3 cycles of docetaxel every 3 weeks.
Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was breast cancer recurrence-free survival (BCRFS). Secondary end points included 5-year event-free survival (EFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS), overall survival (OS), and rates of grade 3 or 4 toxic effects.
Results: Among 2017 randomized patients (1006 in the tailored dose-dense group and 1011 in the control group; median [IQR] age, 51 [45-58] years; 80% with hormone receptor-positive tumors; 97% with node-positive disease), 2000 received study treatment (≥1 cycle of chemotherapy; 1001 in the tailored dose-dense group and 999 in the control group). After a median follow-up of 5.3 years (IQR, 4.5-6.1 years), 269 BCRFS events were reported, 118 in the tailored dose-dense group and 151 in the control group (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.01; log-rank P = .06; 5-year BCRFS, 88.7% vs 85.0%). The tailored dose-dense group had significantly better EFS than the control group (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63-0.99; P = .04; 5-year EFS, 86.7% vs 82.1%). The groups did not differ in OS (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.57-1.05; P = .09; 5-year OS, 92.1% vs 90.2%) or DDFS (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.64-1.08; P = .17; 5-year DDFS, 89.4% vs 86.7%). Grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic toxic effects occurred in 527 (52.6%) in the tailored dose-dense group and 366 (36.6%) in the control group.
Conclusions and Relevance: Among women with high-risk early breast cancer, the use of tailored dose-dense chemotherapy compared with standard adjuvant chemotherapy did not result in a statistically significant improvement in breast cancer recurrence-free survival. Nonhematologic toxic effects were more frequent in the tailored dose-dense group.
Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00798070; isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN39017665.

Giesinger JM, Kuijpers W, Young T, et al.
Thresholds for clinical importance for four key domains of the EORTC QLQ-C30: physical functioning, emotional functioning, fatigue and pain.
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2016; 14:87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The EORTC QLQ-C30 is one of the most widely used quality of life questionnaires in cancer research. Availability of thresholds for clinical importance for the individual questionnaire domains could help to increase its interpretability. The aim of our study was to identify thresholds for clinical importance for four EORTC QLQ-C30 scales: Physical Functioning (PF), Emotional Functioning (EF), Pain (PA) and Fatigue (FA).
METHODS: We recruited adult cancer patients from Austria, the Netherlands, Poland and the UK. No restrictions were placed on diagnosis or type or stage of treatment. Patients completed the QLQ-C30 and three anchor items reflecting potential attributes of clinically important levels of PF, EF, PA and FA. We merged the anchor items assessing perceived burden, limitations in daily activities and need for help into a dichotomous external criterion to estimate thresholds for clinical importance using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis.
RESULTS: In our sample of 548 cancer patients (mean age 60.6 years; 54 % female), the QLQ-C30 scales showed high diagnostic accuracy in identifying patients reporting burden, limitations and/or need for help related to PF, EF, PA and FA. All areas under the curve were above 0.86.
CONCLUSIONS: We were able to estimate thresholds for clinical importance for four QLQ-C30 scales. When used in daily clinical practice, these thresholds can help to identify patients with clinically important problems requiring further exploration and possibly intervention by health care professionals.

Gamper EM, Petersen MA, Aaronson N, et al.
Development of an item bank for the EORTC Role Functioning Computer Adaptive Test (EORTC RF-CAT).
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2016; 14:72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Role functioning (RF) as a core construct of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) comprises aspects of occupational and social roles relevant for patients in all treatment phases as well as for survivors. The objective of the current study was to improve its assessment by developing a computer-adaptive test (CAT) for RF. This was part of a larger project whose objective is to develop a CAT version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 which is one of the most widely used HRQOL instruments in oncology.
METHODS: In accordance with EORTC guidelines, the development of the RF-CAT comprised four phases. Phase I involved the conceptualization of RF. In Phase II, a provisional list of items was defined and revised by experts in the field. In phase III, feedback was obtained from cancer patients in various countries. Phase IV comprised field testing in an international sample, calibration of the item bank, and evaluation of the psychometric performance of the RF-CAT.
RESULTS: Phases I-III yielded a list of 12 items eligible for phase IV field-testing. The field-testing sample included 1,023 patients from Austria, Denmark, Italy, and the UK. Psychometric evaluation and item response theory analyses yielded 10 items with good psychometric properties. The resulting item bank exhibits excellent reliability (mean reliability = 0.85, median = 0.95). Using the RF-CAT may allow sample size savings from 11 % up to 50 % compared to using the QLQ-C30 RF scale.
CONCLUSIONS: The RF-CAT item bank improves the precision and efficiency with which RF can be assessed, promoting its integration into oncology research and clinical practice.

Pleyer L, Burgstaller S, Stauder R, et al.
Azacitidine front-line in 339 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukaemia: comparison of French-American-British and World Health Organization classifications.
J Hematol Oncol. 2016; 9:39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The MDS-IWG and NCCN currently endorse both FAB and WHO classifications of MDS and AML, thus allowing patients with 20-30 % bone marrow blasts (AML20-30, formerly MDS-RAEB-t) to be categorised and treated as either MDS or AML. In addition, an artificial distinction between AML20-30 and AML30+ was made by regulatory agencies by initially restricting approval of azacitidine to AML20-30. Thus, uncertainty prevails regarding the diagnosis, prognosis and optimal treatment timing and strategy for patients with AML20-30. Here, we aim to provide clarification for patients treated with azacitidine front-line.
METHODS: The Austrian Azacitidine Registry is a multicentre database (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01595295). For this analysis, we selected 339 patients treated with azacitidine front-line. According to the WHO classification 53, 96 and 190 patients had MDS-RAEB-I, MDS-RAEB-II and AML (AML20-30: n = 79; AML30+: n = 111), respectively. According to the FAB classification, 131, 101 and 111 patients had MDS-RAEB, MDS-RAEB-t and AML, respectively.
RESULTS: The median ages of patients with MDS and AML were 72 (range 37-87) and 77 (range 23-93) years, respectively. Overall, 80 % of classifiable patients (≤30 % bone marrow blasts) had intermediate-2 or high-risk IPSS scores. Most other baseline, treatment and response characteristics were similar between patients diagnosed with MDS or AML. WHO-classified patients with AML20-30 had significantly worse OS than patients with MDS-RAEB-II (13.1 vs 18.9 months; p = 0.010), but similar OS to patients with AML30+ (10.9 vs 13.1 months; p = 0.238). AML patients that showed MDS-related features did not have worse outcomes compared with patients who did not (13.2 vs 8.9 months; p = 0.104). FAB-classified patients with MDS-RAEB-t had similar survival to patients with AML30+ (12.8 vs 10.9 months; p = 0.376), but significantly worse OS than patients with MDS-RAEB (10.9 vs 24.4 months; p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate the validity of the WHO classification of MDS and AML, and its superiority over the former FAB classification, for patients treated with azacitidine front-line. Neither bone marrow blast count nor presence of MDS-related features had an adverse prognostic impact on survival. Patients with AML20-30 should therefore be regarded as having 'true AML' and in our opinion treatment should be initiated without delay.

Karim-Kos HE, Hackl M, Mann G, et al.
Trends in incidence, survival and mortality of childhood and adolescent cancer in Austria, 1994-2011.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2016; 42:72-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This is the first study on trends in cancer incidence, survival and mortality for children and adolescents in Austria. The aim was to assess to what extent progress against childhood and adolescent cancer has been made in Austria since the 1990s and to complement the childhood and adolescent cancer trends for Central Europe.
METHODS: All malignant neoplasms and non-malignant tumours of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in patients aged less than 20 years and diagnosed between 1994 and 2011 (N=5425) were derived from the Austrian National Cancer Registry (ANCR). Incidence and mortality trends were evaluated by the average annual percentage change (AAPC). Observed survival rates were calculated based on follow-up until December 31st 2013.
RESULTS: Childhood cancer remained stable with 182 cases per million in 2011, but rose among girls by 1.4% (95% CI: .1, 3.6) annually due to an increase of non-malignant CNS tumours and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Adolescent cancer rose by 1.5% (95% CI: .4, 2.6) annually, from 182 cases per million in 1994-269 in 2011, especially leukaemia, CNS tumours (including non-malignant types) and epithelial tumours. Five-year survival improved by 5-7% reaching 86% for both groups (p<.05). Mortality declined by -2.4% (95% CI: -3.7, -1.2) and -2.0% (95% CI: -4.6, .5), respectively, especially for childhood leukaemia.
CONCLUSION: Progress is demonstrated by improved survival and declined mortality most likely related to improved diagnostic techniques, more effective therapeutic regimes, supportive care and a central advisory function of experts in the Austrian paediatric oncology.

Fridrik MA, Jaeger U, Petzer A, et al.
Cardiotoxicity with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone compared to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone in frontline treatment of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A randomised phase-III study from the Austrian Cancer Drug Therapy Working Group [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Medikamentöse Tumortherapie AGMT](NHL-14).
Eur J Cancer. 2016; 58:112-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chemoimmunotherapy containing rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) is the standard treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Doxorubicin may induce early and late cardiotoxicity. Non-pegylated liposomal (NPL) doxorubicin may reduce cardiotoxicity.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with untreated CD20+ DLBCL were randomised to conventional R-CHOP chemoimmunotherapy or rituximab, cyclophosphamide, non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-COMP) with doxorubicin substituted by NPL-doxorubicin. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured before each treatment cycle and after the end of treatment.
RESULTS: The mean LVEF of 178 and 158 measurements in the R-COMP and R-CHOP arms was 63.31% and 62.25%, respectively (P = 0.167). During treatment the LVEF measurements were below 50% in 10/218 (4.6%) in the R-COMP arm and 31/196 (15.8%) in the R-CHOP arm (P<0.001). Thirty-six of 40 (90%) patients in the R-COMP arm, but only 24/36 (66.7%) in the R-CHOP arm had all NT-proBNP levels below 400 pg/ml during and at the end of treatment (P = 0.013). There were more serious adverse events in the R-CHOP arm (26 versus 40, P = 0.029). Infections were more common (15 versus 28) in the R-CHOP arm.
INTERPRETATION: In patients with normal cardiac function, six cycles of R-CHOP resulted in a low rate of early cardiotoxicity. NPL-doxorubicin did not reduce cardiotoxicity, although cardiac safety signals were elevated in R-CHOP compared to R-COMP.
FUNDING: Cephalon provided the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Medikamentöse Tumortherapie with NPL-doxorubicin and an unrestricted grant, but was not involved in the study protocol, data acquisition, data analysis or the writing of the paper.

Oliveira A, Zalaudek I, Arzberger E, et al.
Reflectance Confocal Microscopy for Diagnosis of Mammary Paget's Disease.
Acta Derm Venereol. 2016; 96(7):980-982 [PubMed] Related Publications
is missing (Short communication).

Willenbacher E, Weger R, Rochau U, et al.
Real-World Use of 3rd Line Therapy for Multiple Myeloma in Austria: An Austrian Myeloma Registry (AMR) Analysis of the Therapeutic Landscape and Clinical Outcomes prior to the Use of Next Generation Myeloma Therapeutics.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0147381 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Clinical trials demonstrate improving survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) after treatment. However, it is unclear whether increased survival translates to a similar benefit in a real world setting.
METHODS: We analyzed the overall survival of 347 multiple myeloma patients in Austria by means of a national registry (AMR), focused on results from 3rd and later lines of therapy. This benchmark was chosen to define a baseline prior to the broad application of upcoming 2nd generation drugs (carfilzomib, pomalidomide).
RESULTS: Projected 10 years survival for patients with MM in Austria is estimated to be 56% in patients diagnosed in between the years 2011-2014, 21% in patients with a diagnosis made between 2000-2005, and 39% in those with a diagnosis made between 2006-2010). For the same intervals a significant increase in the use of both bortezomib, lenalidomide and thalidomide-so called IMiDs (from 2005 onwards) and their simultaneous use in combination therapies (from 2010 onwards) could be shown. The use of autologous transplantation (ASCT) remained more or less constant at ~ 35% of patients in the 1st line setting over the whole period, comparing well to international practice patterns, while the use of 2nd line ASCT increased from 5.5% to 18.7% of patients. Patients in 3rd or later line treatment (n = 105), showed that even in relapsed and refractory disease median survival was 27 months with a considerable proportion of long-term survivors (~20%).
CONCLUSION & PERSPECTIVE: With the expected emergence of additional active anti-myeloma compounds, we aim to assess survival in patients with relapsed and refractory MM.

Haluza D, Simic S, Moshammer H
Sunbed Use Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016; 13(2):231 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recreational sunbed use accounts for the main non-solar source of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in fair-skinned Western populations. Indoor tanning is associated with increased risks for acute and chronic dermatological diseases. The current community-based study assessed the one-year prevalence of sunbed use and associated skin health habits among a representative, gender-balanced sample of 1500 Austrian citizens. Overall one-year prevalence of sunbed use was 8.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.5%-10.4%), with slightly higher prevalence in females (9.2%, 95% CI 7.3%-11.2%) compared to males (8.6%, 95% CI 6.7%-10.6%). Factors predicting sunbed use were younger age (by trend decreasing with older age), place of living, smoking, skin type (by trend increasing with darker skin), sun exposure, motives to tan, and use of UV-free tanning products. Despite media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight and sunbed exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunbed use among Austrian citizens. From a Public (Skin) Health perspective, the current research extends the understanding of prevailing leisure time skin health habits in adding data on prevalence of sunbed use in the general Austrian population.

Hobusch GM, Tiefenboeck TM, Patsch J, et al.
Do Patients After Chondrosarcoma Treatment Have Age-appropriate Bone Mineral Density in the Long Term?
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2016; 474(6):1508-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In long-term survivors of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma treated with the addition of radio- and chemotherapy, low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures have been observed, presumably resulting from these adjuvants. Because patients with chondrosarcoma usually are not treated with conventional adjuvant treatment, observation of low BMD in patients with chondrosarcoma presumably would be the result of other mechanisms. However, BMD in patients with a history of chondrosarcoma has not been well characterized.
QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The aim of our study was to address the following questions: (1) Do long-term survivors of chondrosarcoma have normal BMD and, if not, which factors contribute to low BMD? (2) Is there a greater risk of fracture and does the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX(®)) score reflect fracture likelihood?
METHODS: All known patients with a history of chondrosarcoma treated at our institution before 2006 were identified. Of 127 patients believed to be alive at the time of this study, 30 agreed to participate in this study (11 females, 19 males; mean age at surgery, 39 ± 12 years; mean followup, 12 ± 5 years). With the data available, the 30 participants were not different from the 97 nonparticipants in terms of age, sex, BMI, tumor grade, tumor location (axial versus appendicular, lower extremity versus elsewhere), and use of any treatment known to influence osteopenia (chemotherapy, lower extremity surgery). BMD was measured and history of fractures was assessed using a questionnaire. The patients´ BMD measurements in this study were sex- and age-matched with a normative sex- and age-categorized reference population reported by Kudlacek et al. Associations were tested by univariate regressions and ANOVAs of all measures of BMD and eligible oncologic and demographic factors.
RESULTS: Eighteen of 30 (60%) patients had a pathologic BMD according to the WHO dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry definition, 15 (50%) had osteopenia, and three (10%) had osteoporosis. T-scores in the study cohort were lower than reference values for the femur neck (mean difference, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.27-1.01; p < 0.0015), but not for the spine (mean difference, 0.39; 95% CI, -0.06 to 0.84; p = 0.09). Thirteen patients (45%) reported a history of fractures not distinguishing between low and high impact. The incidence of fractures was 2.8 greater than expected from a comparison with a published microcensus survey of the Austrian population. No effect of the FRAX(®) score on fracture risk could be identified (p = 0.057).
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survivors of chondrosarcoma appear to be at greater risk for having low BMD develop than the healthy population. Although these results are preliminary and based on a very small sampling of patients, if they can be confirmed in larger studies, BMD assessment by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry might be considered as these patients are followed posttreatment by sarcoma care units. The reasons for low BMD still must be elucidated.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, prognostic study.

Farkas K, Deák BK, Sánchez LC, et al.
The CYLD p.R758X worldwide recurrent nonsense mutation detected in patients with multiple familial trichoepithelioma type 1, Brooke-Spiegler syndrome and familial cylindromatosis represents a mutational hotspot in the gene.
BMC Genet. 2016; 17:36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Multiple familial trichoepithelioma type 1 (MFT1; MIM 601606), a rare monogenic skin disease with autosomal dominant inheritance, is characterized by the development of multiple skin-colored papules on the central area of the face, frequently occurring in the nasolabial area. The disease is associated with various mutations in the cylindromatosis (CYLD; MIM 605018) gene that are also responsible for familial cylindromatosis (FC) and Brooke-Spiegler syndrome (BSS).
METHODS: Recently we have identified a Spanish MFT1 pedigree with two affected family members (father and daughter). Direct sequencing of the CYLD gene revealed a worldwide recurrent heterozygous nonsense mutation (c.2272C/T, p.R758X) in the patients.
RESULTS: This mutation has already been detected in patients with all three clinical variants - BSS, FC and MFT1 - of the CYLD-mutation spectrum. Haplotype analysis was performed for the Spanish patients with MFT1, Dutch patients with FC and an Austrian patient with BSS, all of whom carry the same heterozygous nonsense p.R758X CYLD mutation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that this position is a mutational hotspot on the gene and that patients carrying the mutation exhibit high phenotypic diversity.

Ponholzer A, Loidl W, Bektic J, et al.
Austrian recommendations on Targeted Hormone Therapy for metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2016; 128(3-4):156-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
In recent years, new therapeutic options have brought improvements in the treatment of metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer. Targeted Hormone Therapy (THT) represents a novel therapeutic component for which recent studies have shown a maximum benefit in the time between failure of androgen deprivation therapy (patient is metastatic and still pain-free) and prior to chemotherapy. Prostate cancer experts of the Austrian Society of Urology and Andrology (ÖGU), the Working Group for Urologic Oncology as part of the ÖGU, and the Professional Association of Austrian Urologists (BvU) have developed recommendations for the treatment of patients with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer. The definition of failure of classical hormonal therapy has been based on the guidelines of the German Society of Urology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie, DGU) and the European Association of Urology (EAU). Criteria for the initiation of treatment with hormonal or chemotherapy include: Castration resistance with increase of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) Evidence of metastases in imaging No or mild symptoms Quality of Life Index of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 0-1 (ECOG 2 requires individualized decision) [1]. Treatment should only be initiated when all of these four criteria are applicable, with the age of the patient being no exclusion criterion. First-line therapies for these patients include abiraterone, enzalutamide, and docetaxel as well as radium-223. The manuscript refers only to treatment regimens available in Austria.Selection of the initial treatment option-starting with THT or chemotherapy-should be determined based on the individual patient characteristics. When using abiraterone or enzalutamide, re-staging within 3-6 months is recommended.

Monshi B, Vujic M, Kivaranovic D, et al.
The burden of malignant melanoma--lessons to be learned from Austria.
Eur J Cancer. 2016; 56:45-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM OF STUDY: Incidence rates of melanoma, generated by cancer registries (CRs), are susceptible to reporting inconsistencies due to increasing decentralisation of diagnosis. We therefore independently assessed the burden of melanoma in Austria.
METHODS: We collected histopathological reports on melanoma of all patients diagnosed in Austria in 2011. Demographic and clinical characteristics, histopathological tumour stages were assessed. Their regional distributions and incidence rates were analysed and compared with data of national and international CRs.
RESULTS: A total of 5246 patients were diagnosed with 1951 in-situ and 3295 invasive melanomas in Austria in 2011 (population 8.4 million). Age, sex and anatomic distribution corresponded to findings in other European countries, however, the incidence of 25/100,000 (world age-standardised rate) for invasive melanomas was two-fold higher than published by the Austrian CR (12/100,000). Varying frequencies in diagnosing thin melanomas (≤1 mm; n = 4415) accounted exclusively for significant regional disparities, while advanced tumours (>1 mm; n = 761) were evenly distributed. Western Austria showed the highest rates (36/100,000). Patients from eastern Austria whose melanomas were diagnosed in laboratories in western Austria (n = 76) showed significantly higher proportions of in-situ lesions (n = 43; 57%) compared to those whose tumours were diagnosed in eastern Austria (n = 4014; in-situ = 1369; 34%) (p < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: In Austria, the melanoma burden and its potential socio-economic implications are significantly underestimated. Similarities of incidences indicate this could affect other European countries with well-established CRs and compromise international comparability of data. Austrian regional disparities suggest overdiagnosis of thin melanomas due to the variability of pathologists' thresholds for the diagnosis of early stage tumours.

Haluza D, Simic S, Moshammer H
Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016; 13(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48%) compared to females (46%). Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin) Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

Arzberger E, Curiel-Lewandrowski C, Blum A, et al.
Teledermoscopy in High-risk Melanoma Patients: A Comparative Study of Face-to-face and Teledermatology Visits.
Acta Derm Venereol. 2016; 96(6):779-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Teledermoscopy is considered a reliable tool for the evaluation of pigmented skin lesions. We compared the management decision in face-to-face visits vs. teledermatology in a high-risk melanoma cohort using total-body photography, macroscopic and dermoscopic images of single lesions. Patients were assessed both face-to face and by 4 remote teledermatologists. Lesions identified as suspicious for skin cancer by face-to-face evaluation underwent surgical excision. The teledermatologists recommended "self-monitoring", "short-term monitoring", or "excision". A 4-year monitoring was completed in a cohort of participating subjects. The general agreement, calculated by prevalence and bias-adjusted κ (PABAK), showed almost perfect agreement (PABAK 0.9-0.982). A total of 23 lesions were excised; all teledermatologists identified the 9 melanomas. The greatest discrepancy was detected in "short-term monitoring". During 4-year monitoring one melanoma was excised that had been considered benign. In conclusion, melanoma identification by experts in pigmented lesions appears to be equivalent between face-to-face and teledermatological consultation.

Maehr B, Keilani M, Wiltschke C, et al.
Cancer rehabilitation in Austria--aspects of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.
Wien Med Wochenschr. 2016; 166(1-2):39-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
In Austria, cancer rehabilitation is an important issue in the management of cancer patients. Survival rates and survival time of cancer patients are increasing, and cancer rehabilitation is an important part in the treatment and care of cancer patients with the goal to improve functional status, quality of life, and (social) participation. Today, in Austria there are approximately 600 beds for inpatient rehabilitation. The field of outpatient rehabilitation will maybe be expanded after evaluating the existing pilot projects. Beside other specialities, the field of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) plays an important role in cancer rehabilitation. In cancer rehabilitation, especially activating modalities from PM&R such as exercise are very important and well-accepted parts to improve functional status, quality of life, and participation of patients.

Posch F, Riedl J, Reitter EM, et al.
Hypercoagulabilty, venous thromboembolism, and death in patients with cancer. A Multi-State Model.
Thromb Haemost. 2016; 115(4):817-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication of malignancy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether multi-state modelling may be a useful quantitative approach to dissect the complex epidemiological relationship between hypercoagulability, VTE, and death in cancer patients. We implemented a three-state/three-transition unidirectional illness-death model of cancer-associated VTE in data of 1,685 cancer patients included in a prospective cohort study, the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study (CATS). During the two-year follow-up period, 145 (8.6 %) patients developed VTE, 79 (54.5 %) died after developing VTE, and 647 (38.4 %) died without developing VTE, respectively. VTE events during follow-up were associated with a three-fold increase in the risk of death (Transition Hazard ratio (HR)=2.98, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 2.36-3.77, p< 0.001). This observation was independent of cancer stage. VTE events that occurred later during follow-up exerted a stronger impact on the risk of death than VTE events that occurred at earlier time points (HR for VTE occurrence one year after baseline vs at baseline=2.30, 95 % CI: 1.28-4.15, p=0.005). Elevated baseline D-dimer levels emerged as a VTE-independent risk factor for mortality (HR=1.07, 95 % CI: 1.05-1.08, p< 0.001), and also predicted mortality risk in patients who developed VTE. A higher Khorana Score predicted both the risk for VTE and death, but did not predict mortality after cancer-associated VTE. In conclusion, multi-state modeling represents a very potent approach to time-to-VTE cohort data in the cancer population, and should be used for both observational and interventional studies on cancer-associated VTE.

Schütte P, Möricke A, Zimmermann M, et al.
Preexisting conditions in pediatric ALL patients: Spectrum, frequency and clinical impact.
Eur J Med Genet. 2016; 59(3):143-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The etiology of acute lymphoblastic leukemia remains undisclosed in the majority of cases. A number of rare syndromic conditions are known to predispose to different forms of childhood cancer including ALL. The present study characterized the spectrum and clinical impact of preexisting diseases in a cohort of ALL patients from Germany, Austria and Switzerland with a focus on genetic diseases predisposing to cancer development.
METHODS: Retrospective database and study chart review included all patients from Germany, Austria and Switzerland (n = 4939) enrolled into multicenter clinical trial AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000 between July 1999 and June 2009. Patients enrolled into study AIEOP-BFM ALL 2009 - which was initiated subsequent to AIEP-BFM ALL 2000 - who were reported with a cancer prone syndrome or chromosomal abnormality were additionally included in this study to increase conclusiveness of observations.
RESULTS: A total of 233 patients with at least one reported condition could be identified. The following conditions were reported in more than one patient: Gilbert's disease (n = 13), neurofibromatosis type I (n = 8), ataxia telangiectasia (n = 8), thalassemia (n = 7), Nijmegen Breakage syndrome (n = 6), cystic fibrosis (n = 4), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (n = 4), Noonan syndrome (n = 2), Klinefelter syndrome (n = 2), alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (n = 2), primary ciliary dyskinesia (n = 2). Especially those syndromes with a known cancer predisposition (NF type I, Ataxia telangiectasia, Nijmegen Breakage syndrome etc.) were associated with certain general and ALL-related characteristics, high therapy-related toxicity and reduced survival.
CONCLUSION: The spectrum of underlying diseases within ALL patients is dispersed. A small number of ALL patients are reported with cancer predisposition syndromes at initial diagnosis which are associated with high rates of therapy-related toxicity and a markedly reduced chance of survival. The true prevalence of these conditions within the ALL population remains unknown due to inapparent clinical presentation. A targeted clinical and/or genetic examination for certain diagnoses like NF type I, Ataxia telangiectasia or Nijmegen Breakage syndrome could identify patients who benefit from adjustment of antileukemic therapy or intensification of supportive care.

Meyer C, Hansen J, Becker A, et al.
The Adoption of Nephron-Sparing Surgery in Europe - A Trend Analysis in Two Referral Centers from Austria and Germany.
Urol Int. 2016; 96(3):330-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To compare the trends of partial nephrectomy (PN) and radical nephrectomy (RN) in 2 European tertiary referral centers with regards to guideline changes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,573 patients who underwent RN or PN for localized (≤T2) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were included. Logistic regression analyses assessed the predictors of PN and laparoscopy over time.
RESULTS: Out of the total, 1,013 patients (65.6%) were treated with RN and 560 patients (34.4%) with PN. Also, 1,233 patients (80%) had open surgery whereas 340 patients (22%) were treated with a laparoscopic approach. Laparoscopic RN and PN were performed in 216 (13.7%) and 124 (7.8%) patients, respectively. T1b tumors were 73% less likely (p < 0.001) to be treated with PN compared to T1a tumors. The odds of undergoing PN or laparoscopy in 2008-2010 relative to 2000-2001 were 6.5-fold (p < 0.001) and 36-fold higher (p < 0.001), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Tumor size and year of surgery are independent predictors of PN in our cohort. Our data exemplify the adoption of PN for RCC in tertiary care centers in Austria and Germany in line with implemented guideline changes. The utilization of PN has increased over time regardless of surgical approach. Further studies need to address the use of robot-assisted surgery and care in community hospitals.

Watrowski R, Castillo-Tong DC, Schuster E, et al.
Association of HER2 codon 655 polymorphism with ovarian cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):7239-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) codon 655 (Ile655Val) polymorphism in ovarian cancer is not fully understood. Two studies indicated a possible association between the Val allele and elevated risk or reduced prognosis of ovarian cancer. We investigated the HER2 codon 655 (rs1136201) polymorphism in 242 Austrian women-142 ovarian cancer patients and 100 healthy controls-by polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing. Associations between Ile655Val polymorphism and clinicopathological variables (e.g., age, FIGO stage, grading, serous vs. non-serous histology) were evaluated. The genotype distributions in ovarian cancer patients and controls were: AA; 66.2 %, AG; 25.35 %, GG; 8.45 %, and AA; 63 %, AG; 34 %, GG; 3.7 %, respectively (OR 1.15, CI 95 % 0.67-1.96). We observed a non-significant trend toward elevated cancer risk in Val/Val genotype (OR 2.98, CI 95 % 0.82-10.87, p = 0.10). Of note, 11 out of 12 Val/Val homozygotes were postmenopausal. The link between the Val/Val homozygosity and age over 50 years at diagnosis (OR 0.15, CI 95 % 0.02-1.2) was barely significant (p = 0.056). Summarizing, our data indicated a non-significant trend toward increased ovarian cancer risk in the Val/Val homozygosity, especially in women aged above 50 years. Further large-cohort studies focusing on the role of the HER2 codon 655 Val allele are needed.

Scheidl SJ, Kusej M, Flick H, et al.
Clinical Manifestations of Respiratory Bronchiolitis as an Incidental Finding in Surgical Lung Biopsies: A Retrospective Analysis of a Large Austrian Registry.
Respiration. 2016; 91(1):26-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: While respiratory bronchiolitis (RB) is a frequent histopathological finding in smoker's lungs, RB-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD) remains a rare disease.
OBJECTIVES: We analyzed how the histological finding of RB was associated with clinical information in a series of 684 consecutive surgical lung biopsies.
METHODS: Retrospective analysis with delineation of clinical manifestations, smoking habits, pulmonary function test, and blood gas analysis in patients with RB in surgical lung biopsy. In 240 of these biopsies, RB was diagnosed, and in 146 of these cases a full clinical dataset was available.
RESULTS: The final diagnosis of these 146 patients was consistent with RB-ILD (n = 18), pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (n = 7), various ILD (n = 9), spontaneous pneumothorax (n = 43), traumatic pneumothorax (n = 5), lung cancer (n = 41), various benign lung tumors (n = 8), and chronic pulmonary effusion (n = 15). Smoking history was positive in 93% of patients, 72% revealed centrilobular emphysema in their biopsy, and 58% described dyspnea as the main symptom. Amongst these diagnoses there were significant differences in age and smoking habits, but only small distinctions in pulmonary function test and blood gas analysis. Out of the patients with RB-ILD, 17% developed lung cancer in the later course.
CONCLUSION: RB is strongly related to smoking, emphysema, and dyspnea and frequently associated with lung cancer. RB-ILD is a rare disease that may represent a considerable risk for lung cancer. Pulmonary function testing and blood gas analysis do not differ between RB-associated diseases. The finding of RB should prompt further diagnostic workup, and in case of RB-ILD, entail regular screening for lung cancer.

Nagel G, Oberaigner W, Peter RS, et al.
Evaluation of a mammography screening program within the population-based Vorarlberg Health Monitoring & Prevention Program (VHM&PP).
Cancer Epidemiol. 2015; 39(6):812-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To describe the mammography screening program from 1989 to 2005 within a population-based prevention program in Austria and to appraise it according to recommended quality indicators.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: From 01.01.1989 all women aged 40 years or older participating in the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring & Prevention Program (VHM&PP) was offered to undergo additionally a "screening mammography". Passive follow-up has been performed by record linkages with the Vorarlberg cancer registry and mortality statistics for information on outcome variables. Interval cancer rates have been estimated and the survival after breast cancer has been calculated by life table technique by examination period and age groups (40-49 years, 50-69 years).
RESULTS: Between 1989 and 2005 50,100 women aged 40 to 69 years participated in the program, of which 123,652 mammogram results have been collected. In the target population the participation rate was 65.1%. During median follow-up time 13.5 years and 633,342 person-years overall 665 invasive cancer and 87 ductal carcinoma in situ (11.6%) cases have been identified. Between 1996 and 2004 the detection rates were 239.9 per 100.000 among women aged 40-49 years and 543.2 per 100,000 among women aged 50-69 years. The rates for interval cancers were 160.4 and 277.4 per 100 000 negative screens, respectively. During median follow-up of 13.5 years 165 deaths occurred with no difference in survival between patients with interval and screen detected cancers.
CONCLUSION: A mammography screening program has been performed between 1989 and 2005 in Vorarlberg. Till 2005 most quality indicators improved and met the EU-recommendations suggesting that alternative approaches to organized mammography screening based on routine data should be explored.

Watrowski R, Castillo-Tong DC, Wolf A, et al.
HER2 Codon 655 (Ile/Val) Polymorphism and Breast Cancer in Austrian Women.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(12):6667-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in breast cancer (BC) is associated with impaired prognosis. Data concerning the HER2 codon 655 polymorphism (Ile/Val) and BC risk are conflicting.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the HER2 codon 655 (rs1136201) polymorphism in 80 Austrian patients with BC and 100 healthy volunteers by pyrosequencing and polymerase chain reaction. Associations between codon 655 allelic variants and clinicopathological variables (e.g. age, stage of disease, tumor type, grading, and receptor status) were studied with 2×2 tables.
RESULTS: The genotypic distributions in patients with BC (AA: 63.75%, AG: 32.5%, GG: 3.75%) and controls (AA: 63%, AG: 34%, GG: 3.7%) were virtually identical (odds ratio=1.03, 95% confidence interval=0.56-1.90). A non-significant link between carrying at least one G allele and more aggressive tumor type (estrogen receptor-negative p=0.08, G3 tumor p=0.19) was observed.
CONCLUSION: Genotypic variation within the codon 655 of HER2 does not alter the BC risk in Caucasian Austrian women. The association between the G allele and more aggressive tumor types requires further investigation.

Rásky É, Stolz E, Burkert NT, Großschädl F
Potentially preventable premature deaths in women and men from the two leading causes of death in Austria, mortality statistics of the nine federal states 2010-2012.
BMC Public Health. 2015; 15:1177 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In Austria, mortality from diseases of the circulatory system and malignant neoplasms is high and varies among the federal states. Lower mortality in some states indicates a preventive potential in those states with higher mortality.
METHODS: We computed the number of premature deaths, for women and men separately, from the two leading causes of death, diseases of the circulatory system (ICD-10: I00-I09) and cancer (ICD-10: C00-C97), in the nine Austrian federal states between 2010-2012. The potentially preventable deaths per federal state and sex were calculated by subtracting expected deaths from observed deaths.
RESULTS: The western federal states had the lowest death rates, and thus the smallest preventive potential. In death from circulatory diseases and from cancer the differences between women and men varied remarkably between the federal states. For circulatory diseases among all federal states the highest difference in percent was given in Vorarlberg (6.2%) with more potentially preventable deaths for men. For cancer, Burgenland had the highest difference (8.6%) in comparison with the other federal states, again with the higher preventive potential for men.
CONCLUSIONS: Intervention programs as lifestyle modification interventions as well as improvements in health care services provision, should focus on the characteristics of the specific federal state, which are setting-oriented and account for social determinants including sex/gender differences and economic factors. Relevant data gathering is therefore, urgently needed.

Haluza D, Schwab M, Simic S, et al.
Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin) Health: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Telephone Survey.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015; 12(11):14260-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Individual skin health attitudes are influenced by various factors, including public education campaigns, mass media, family, and friends. Evidence-based, educative information materials assist communication and decision-making in doctor-patient interactions. The present study aims at assessing the prevailing use of skin health information material and sources and their impact on skin health knowledge, motives to tan, and sun protection. We conducted a questionnaire survey among a representative sample of Austrian residents. Print media and television were perceived as the two most relevant sources for skin health information, whereas the source physician was ranked third. Picking the information source physician increased participants' skin health knowledge (p = 0.025) and sun-protective behavior (p < 0.001). The study results highlight the demand for targeted health messages to attain lifestyle changes towards photo-protective habits. Providing resources that encourage pro-active counseling in every-day doctor-patient communication could increase skin health knowledge and sun-protective behavior, and thus, curb the rise in skin cancer incidence rates.

Singer CF, Tea MK, Pristauz G, et al.
Clinical Practice Guideline for the prevention and early detection of breast and ovarian cancer in women from HBOC (hereditary breast and ovarian cancer) families.
Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2015; 127(23-24):981-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
An estimated 10% of breast cancer cases exhibit a higher familial incidence, and functional mutations in BRCA (breast cancer-gene) 1 or 2 are responsible for the development of malignant tumors in approximately half of these cases. Women with a germline mutation in either of the two genes have a lifetime risk of up to 85% to develop breast cancer, and of up to 60% risk to develop ovarian cancer. This clinical practice guideline defines the individual and familial tumor constellations that represent an indication for BRCA germline testing. It also describes the therapeutic options (early detection programme vs prophylactic surgery) that arise from the result of a BRCA mutational analysis. This guideline further includes recommendations regarding the use of multigene panels and therapeutic aspects that arise from the selective use of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in patients with known BRCA1 or 2 mutations. It replaces the previous version of the "Clinical Practice Guideline for the Prevention and Early Detection of Breast- and Ovarian Cancer in women from HBOC (hereditary breast and ovarian cancer) families" which was published in 2012.

Watrowski R, Castillo-Tong DC, Wolf A, et al.
HER2 Codon 655 (Ile/Val) Polymorphism and Breast Cancer in Austrian Women.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(11):5901-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in breast cancer (BC) is associated with impaired prognosis. Data concerning the HER2 codon 655 polymorphism (Ile/Val) and BC risk are conflicting.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the HER2 codon 655 (rs1136201) polymorphism in 80 Austrian patients with BC and 100 healthy volunteers by pyrosequencing and polymerase chain reaction. Associations between codon 655 allelic variants and clinicopathological variables (e.g. age, stage of disease, tumor type, grading, and receptor status) were studied with 2×2 tables.
RESULTS: The genotypic distributions in patients with BC (AA: 63.75%, AG: 32.5%, GG: 3.75%) and controls (AA: 63%, AG: 34%, GG: 3.7%) were virtually identical (odds ratio=1.03, 95% confidence interval=0.56-1.90). A non-significant link between carrying at least one G allele and more aggressive tumor type (estrogen receptor-negative p=0.08, G3 tumor p=0.19) was observed.
CONCLUSION: Genotypic variation within the codon 655 of HER2 does not alter the BC risk in Caucasian Austrian women. The association between the G allele and more aggressive tumor types requires further investigation.

Bodekær M, Harrison GI, Philipsen P, et al.
Personal UVR exposure of farming families in four European countries.
J Photochem Photobiol B. 2015; 153:267-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The main risk factor for skin cancer is ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Farming families living in rural areas with easy outdoor access may experience excessive UVR exposure. Differences between countries in latitude, altitude and sun behaviour could result in different personal UVR exposures. However, no studies have examined this until now.
OBJECTIVES: To determine personal UVR exposure in work and leisure situations among farming families in Europe.
METHODS: Prospective cohort study of farmers, their partners (spouses) and children in Denmark (DK), Poland (PL), Austria (AT), and Spain (ES) from 2009 to 2011. Personal UVR exposure and sun behaviour were recorded by dosimetry and diaries.
RESULTS: Farmers' average daily UVR exposure on working days ranged from 1.4 SED (DK, AT) to 2.7 SED (ES). Corresponding figures for partners were: 0.6 SED (DK) to 1.9 SED (PL), and for children (day-care/school days): 0.7 SED (ES) to 1.3 SED (PL).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Farmers' UVR exposure was comparable to that of outdoor workers in previous studies and exceeded the recommended UVR exposure limits on 36% (DK, AT), 29% (PL) and 56% (ES) of their working days. Attention to sun protection for outdoor workers across Europe in preventing UVR-induced skin cancer is still needed.

Haluza D, Simic S, Höltge J, et al.
Gender aspects of recreational sun-protective behavior: results of a representative, population-based survey among Austrian residents.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2016; 32(1):11-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Lifetime risk for melanoma skin cancer is enlarged by sunlight exposure and reduced by sun protection. Austrian melanoma incidence and mortality rates are constantly rising with higher rates in males. Thus, we aimed at investigating gender-specific recreational sun exposure habits among the Austrian population.
METHODS: We conducted a telephone survey among 1500 adults (50.5% females) representing sociodemographic characteristics of the Austrian population. Using a structured questionnaire, we studied gender-specific sun exposure-related knowledge, motives to tan, and behavior.
RESULTS: Overall, using sunscreen, wearing sunglasses, and seeking shade were among the three most frequent sun safe measures. Basic skin health knowledge and tanning motives were similar among genders, although females protected themselves more. In general, sunburn occurrence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.8), skin type IV (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.3-4.5), ex-/non-smoking (OR = 1.4-1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.1), low motives to tan (both OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.0-1.7), no outdoor sport (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.0-1.7), all P < 0.05, as well as the use of sunscreen with lower SPF values (OR = 1.0-3.0, 95% CI = 1.4-4.3) and male gender (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2-2.0), both P < 0.001, increased the odds of practicing low sun protection.
CONCLUSION: The results of this investigation suggest considering gender specificity when planning Public (Skin) Health-related educative campaigns and programs, for example, by highlighting the appearance-related benefits of sun light avoidance.

Feller A, Mark MT, Steiner A, Clough-Gorr KM
Time trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring European countries 1996-2010.
Swiss Med Wkly. 2015; 145:w14184 [PubMed] Related Publications
QUESTION UNDER STUDY: What are the trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring countries?
METHODS: Mortality data and population estimates 1996-2010 were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office for Switzerland and the World Health Organization Mortality Database (http://www.who.int/healthinfo/mortality_data/en/) for Austria, Germany, France and Italy. Age standardised mortality rates (ASMRs, European standard) per 100 000 person-years were calculated for the population <75 years old by sex for the following groups of cancer deaths: (1) avoidable through primary prevention; (2) avoidable through early detection and treatment; (3) avoidable through improved treatment and medical care; and (4) remaining cancer deaths. To assess time trends in ASMRs, estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated.
RESULTS: In Switzerland and neighbouring countries cancer mortality in persons <75 years old continuously decreased 1996-2010. Avoidable cancer mortality decreased in all groups of avoidable cancer deaths in both sexes, with one exception. ASMRs for causes avoidable through primary prevention increased in females in all countries (in Switzerland from 16.2 to 20.3 per 100 000 person years, EAPC 2.0 [95% CI 1.4 to 2.6]). Compared with its neighbouring countries, Switzerland showed the lowest rates for all groups of avoidable cancer mortality in males 2008-2010.
CONCLUSION: Overall avoidable cancer mortality decreased, indicating achievements in cancer care and related health policies. However, increasing trends in avoidable cancer mortality through primary prevention for females suggest there is a need in Switzerland and its European neighbouring countries to improve primary prevention.

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