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Liposomal Doxorubicin

Web Resources: Liposomal Doxorubicin
Recent Research Publications

Web Resources: Liposomal Doxorubicin (5 links)

Recent Research Publications

Qu CP, Sun GX, Yang SQ, et al.
Toxicities of different first-line chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer: A network meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(2):e5797 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the 5th leading cause of cancer-related deaths around the world, and several chemotherapy regimens have been applied in the treatment of OC. We aim to compare toxicities of different chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) using network meta-analysis.
METHODS: Literature research in Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EMBASE was performed up to November 2015. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of different chemotherapy regimens were included. Network meta-analysis combined direct and indirect evidence to assess pooled odds ratios (ORs) and draw the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curves.
RESULTS: Thirteen eligible RCTs were included in this network meta-analysis, including 8 chemotherapy regimens (paclitaxel + carboplatin [PC], pegylated liposomal doxorubicin [PLD] + carboplatin, carboplatin, gemcitabine + carboplatin, paclitaxel, PC + epirubicin, PC + topotecan, docetaxel + carboplatin). Gemcitabine + carboplatin regimen exerted higher incidence of anemia when compared with carboplatin and paclitaxel regimens. The incidence of febrile neutropenia of gemcitabine + carboplatin regimen was higher than that of PC, PLD + carboplatin, carboplatin, and PC + topotecan regimens. Topotecan PC + epirubicin regimen had a higher toxicity, comparing with PC, PLD + carboplatin, and PC + topotecan regimens. As for thrombocytopenia, gemcitabine + carboplatin chemotherapy regimen produced an obviously higher toxicity than PC and carboplatin. As for nausea, PLD + carboplatin chemotherapy regimen had a significantly higher toxicity than that of carboplatin chemotherapy regimen. Moreover, when compared with PC and carboplatin chemotherapy regimens, the toxicity of PC + epirubicin was greatly higher to patients with AOC.
CONCLUSION: The nonhematologic toxicity of PLD + carboplatin regimen was higher than other regimens, which was clinically significant for the treatment of AOC.

Shah SA, Aslam Khan MU, Arshad M, et al.
Doxorubicin-loaded photosensitive magnetic liposomes for multi-modal cancer therapy.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2016; 148:157-164 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multifunctional magnetic nanosystems have attracted an enormous attention of researchers for their potential applications in cancer diagnostics and therapy. The localized nanotherapies triggered by the external stimuli, like magnetic fields and visible light, are significant in clinical applications. We report a liposomal system that aims to treat cancer by magnetic hyperthermia, photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy simultaneously. The liposomes enclose clinically used photosensitizer m-THPC (Foscan) and anti-cancer drug doxorubicin, in its hydrophobic lipid bilayers, and contains magnetite nanoparticles in hydrophilic core. Three different sizes of magnetic nanoparticles (10, 22 and 30nm) and liposomes (40, 70 and 110nm) were used in this study. Magnetite single domain nanoparticles forming the magnetic core were superparamagnetic but liposomes expressed slight coercivity and hysteresis due to the clustering of nanoparticles in the core. This enhanced the heating efficiency (specific power loss) of the liposomes under an AC field (375kHz, 170Oe). Cell viability and toxicity were studied on HeLa cells using MTT assay and proteomic analysis. Confocal and fluorescence microscopy were used to study the photosensitizer's profile and cells response to combined therapy. It revealed that combined therapy almost completely eliminated the cancer cells as opposed to the separate treatments. Magnetic hyperthermia and photodynamic therapies were almost equally effective whereas chemotherapy showed the least effect.

Hilal Z, Schultheis B, Hartmann F, et al.
What Characterizes Long-term Survivors of Recurrent Ovarian Cancer? Case Report and Review of the Literature.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(10):5365-5371 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Women with recurrent ovarian cancer have a poor prognosis and short survival. However, some women are long-term survivors and it is unclear whether they share specific common characteristics.
CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with histologically-proven recurrent ovarian cancer and a survival time of 16 years after the diagnosis of recurrence. She underwent initial debulking surgery in 1994, followed by 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and paclitaxel. After recurrent disease was diagnosed by re-laparotomy in 2000, she underwent four lines of systemic chemotherapy from 2000 to 2009 (carboplatin/paclitaxel, topotecan, etoposide/treosulfan and liposomal doxorubicin) and four lines of endocrine therapy between 2002 and 2014 (tamoxifen, goserelin, tamoxifen and exemestane). In 2014, she underwent secondary debulking surgery and was tumor-free until 2015. Upon progression, she was then started on the fifth-line of endocrine therapy, fulvestrant, which was changed to the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in June 2016. In a PUBMED literature search, 360 cases of long-term survivors of recurrent ovarian cancer (LTSROC), defined as women with survival >5 years after the diagnosis of recurrence, were identified with a mean post-recurrence survival time of 7.5 years. Comparing the patient and therapy details of these women, we identified common characteristics of LTSROC, i.e. young age and optimal debulking at initial surgery, a long time span between first-line therapy and first recurrence and the combined use of optimal cytoreductive surgery and systemic chemotherapy.
CONCLUSION: LTSROC are rare, with 360 cases described in the literature. LTSROC are characterized by young age, low tumor stage, long recurrence-free interval and combined modality treatment with optimal cytoreductive surgery and systemic chemotherapy.

Wollina U, Langner D, Hansel G, Haroske G
Pegylated liposomal-encapsulated doxorubicin in cutaneous composite lymphoma: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(43):e4796 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous composite lymphomas are very rare. Their treatment depends upon the different contributing lymphoma entities. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, (PTCL-NOS) represents an aggressive lymphoma subtype. Follicular cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (FCBCL) runs an indolent course. Treatment with pegylated liposomal encapsulated doxorubicin (PLE-DOXO) has yet not been reported in this entity.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old male patient presented with 3 rapidly growing, painful nodules on his left leg. He was diagnosed as composite cutaneous lymphoma consisting of PTCL-NOS and FCBCL. All lesions had been surgically removed. Staging was unremarkable. After 4 months a relapse occurred with involvement of inguinal lymph nodes and systemic treatment with PEL-DOXO 20 mg/ m every 3 weeks was initiated. After 6 cycles PLE-DOXO, which were well tolerated without grade 3 or 4 toxicities, a mixed response was obtained with complete remission of cutaneous lesions.Lymph nodes were treated by radiotherapy. A second relapse occurred after 8 months and various polychemotherapy regimens were applied without remission. The overall survival was 28 months.
CONCLUSION: PEL-DOXO is a possible initial systemic treatment in case of PCTL-NOS. Whether polychemotherapy offers an advantage for survival remains questionable but further investigations are needed.

Monk BJ, Lorusso D, Italiano A, et al.
Trabectedin as a chemotherapy option for patients with BRCA deficiency.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2016; 50:175-182 [PubMed] Related Publications
Trabectedin is a marine-derived product that was originally isolated from the Caribbean sea squirt Ecteinascidia turbinata and the first anticancer marine drug to be approved by the European Union. It is currently used as a single agent for the treatment of patients with soft tissue sarcoma after failure of anthracyclines and ifosfamide, or for those patients who are unsuited to receive these agents, and in patients with relapsed, platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. Trabectedin has a unique multi-faceted mechanism of action that involves transcription regulation and DNA repair systems, including transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination repair (HRR) as the main hallmarks of its antiproliferative activity. In addition, trabectedin has shown the ability to modulate the tumor microenvironment. Indeed, the activity of trabectedin is related to altered function and expression of DNA repair genes, such as BRCA1 (BReast-CAncer susceptibility gene 1) and BRCA2. The particular sensitivity of sarcoma, ovarian and breast cancer cells deficient in HRR, previously observed in preclinical models, now has been confirmed in the clinical setting as well, suggesting that BRCA mutations are associated with improved clinical responses to trabectedin. Current efforts are focused on the evaluation of these unique features of trabectedin and on the identification of predictive factors for patients with an objective to determine whether a deficiency of HRR DNA repair pathway could impact the clinical benefit achieved from trabectedin.

Ferreira Ddos S, Faria SD, Lopes SC, et al.
Development of a bone-targeted pH-sensitive liposomal formulation containing doxorubicin: physicochemical characterization, cytotoxicity, and biodistribution evaluation in a mouse model of bone metastasis.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2016; 11:3737-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in cancer therapy, the treatment of bone tumors remains a major challenge. A possible underlying hypothesis, limitation, and unmet need may be the inability of therapeutics to penetrate into dense bone mineral, which can lead to poor efficacy and high toxicity, due to drug uptake in healthy organs. The development of nanostructured formulations with high affinity for bone could be an interesting approach to overcome these challenges.
PURPOSE: To develop a liposomal formulation with high affinity for hydroxyapatite and the ability to release doxorubicin (DOX) in an acidic environment for future application as a tool for treatment of bone metastases.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liposomes were prepared by thin-film lipid hydration, followed by extrusion and the sulfate gradient-encapsulation method. Liposomes were characterized by average diameter, ζ-potential, encapsulation percentage, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Release studies in buffer (pH 7.4 or 5), plasma, and serum, as well as hydroxyapatite-affinity in vitro analysis were performed. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay against the MDA-MB-231 cell line, and biodistribution was assessed in bone metastasis-bearing animals.
RESULTS: Liposomes presented suitable diameter (~170 nm), DOX encapsulation (~2 mg/mL), controlled release, and good plasma and serum stability. The existence of interactions between DOX and the lipid bilayer was proved through differential scanning calorimetry and small-angle X-ray scattering. DOX release was faster when the pH was in the range of a tumor than at physiological pH. The bone-targeted formulation showed a strong affinity for hydroxyapatite. The encapsulation of DOX did not interfere in its intrinsic cytotoxicity against the MDA-MB-231 cell line. Biodistribution studies demonstrated high affinity of this formulation for tumors and reduction of uptake in the heart.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that bone-targeted pH-sensitive liposomes containing DOX can be an interesting strategy for selectively delivering this drug into bone-tumor sites, increasing its activity, and reducing DOX-related toxicity.

Popadiuk C, Power P
Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Is an Active Agent for Chemotherapy-Resistant Choriocarcinoma: A Report of Two Cases.
J Reprod Med. 2016 May-Jun; 61(5-6):215-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and supportive treatments, a significant proportion of high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease patients develop resistant disease and die. Of those cured, protracted treatments can lead to long-term morbidity or later toxicity and death. Here we describe 2 patients with brain metastases who failed multiple lines of standard chemotherapy and radiation but had complete response to pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD).
CASE 1: A 35-year-old woman presented with choriocarcinoma in the brain, lungs, and subcutaneous tissues 11 months after full-term delivery. Her FIGO risk score was 14. Over 3 years she was treated with EMA-CO, EMA-CE, Taxol, gemcitabine, brain radiation, and excisional craniotomy for recurrent choriocarcinoma. She showed complete response of choriocarcinoma brain metastases following 2 cycles of PLD. She was choriocarcinoma free until her death 9 months later from acute myelogenous leukemia.
CASE 2: A 52-year-old multigravid woman presented with choriocarcinoma 3 years following miscarriage. Her FIGO score was 16. Over 18 months she was treated with EMA-CO, TP/TE and IT MTX, and radiation. Her disease proved resistant and midbrain tumor unresectable. She showed complete response to PLD following 3 cycles but ultimately died from neurologic complications.
CONCLUSION: PLD is an active agent in the treatment of high-risk choriocarcinoma.

Fransson Å, Glaessgen D, Alfredsson J, et al.
Strong synergy with APR-246 and DNA-damaging drugs in primary cancer cells from patients with TP53 mutant High-Grade Serous ovarian cancer.
J Ovarian Res. 2016; 9(1):27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mutation in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 is an early event in the development of high-grade serous (HGS) ovarian cancer and is identified in more than 96 % of HGS cancer patients. APR-246 (PRIMA-1(MET)) is the first clinical-stage compound that reactivates mutant p53 protein by refolding it to wild type conformation, thus inducing apoptosis. APR-246 has been tested as monotherapy in a Phase I/IIa clinical study in hematological malignancies and prostate cancer with promising results, and a Phase Ib/II study in combination with platinum-based therapy in ovarian cancer is ongoing. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer effects of APR-246 in combination with conventional chemotherapy in primary cancer cells isolated from ascitic fluid from 10 ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer patients, 8 of which had HGS cancer.
METHODS: Cell viability was assessed with fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) and Combination Index was calculated using the Additive model. p53 status was determined by Sanger sequencing and single strand conformation analysis, and p53 protein expression by western blotting.
RESULTS: We observed strong synergy with APR-246 and cisplatin in all tumor samples carrying a TP53 missense mutation, while synergistic or additive effects were found in cells with wild type or TP53 nonsense mutations. Strong synergy was also observed with carboplatin or doxorubicin. Moreover, APR-246 sensitized TP53 mutant primary ovarian cancer cells, isolated from a clinically platinum-resistant patient, to cisplatin; the IC50 value of cisplatin decreased 3.6 fold from 6.5 to 1.8 μM in the presence of clinically relevant concentration of APR-246.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that combination treatment with APR-246 and DNA-damaging drugs could significantly improve the treatment of patients with TP53 mutant HGS cancer, and thus provide strong support for the ongoing clinical study with APR-246 in combination with carboplatin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients with recurrent HGS cancer.

Kato H, Yanagisawa N, Morioka H, et al.
Laryngeal Kaposi's Sarcoma Complicated by the Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in an HIV-infected Patient.
Intern Med. 2016; 55(8):1001-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
We herein report a case of laryngeal Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) complicated by immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient. The patient initially presented with KS involving the larynx, which was successfully treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) and antiretroviral therapy (ART). PLD was discontinued after 2 courses because of a marked clinical improvement; however, the patient experienced progressive odynophagia and dyspnea 2 months after the initiation of ART. Laryngoscopy revealed a severely swollen, inflamed epiglottis. The readministration of PLD was successful, and the patient was thereafter discharged without any subsequent complications.

Vieira DB, Gamarra LF
Advances in the use of nanocarriers for cancer diagnosis and treatment.
Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2016 Jan-Mar; 14(1):99-103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The use of nanocarriers as drug delivery systems for therapeutic or imaging agents can improve the pharmacological properties of commonly used compounds in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Advances in the surface engineering of nanoparticles to accommodate targeting ligands turned nanocarriers attractive candidates for future work involving targeted drug delivery. Although not targeted, several nanocarriers have been approved for clinical use and they are currently used to treat and/or diagnosis various types of cancers. Furthermore, there are several formulations, which are now in various stages of clinical trials. This review examined some approved formulations and discussed the advantages of using nanocarriers in cancer therapy.

Fridrik MA, Jaeger U, Petzer A, et al.
Cardiotoxicity with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone compared to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone in frontline treatment of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A randomised phase-III study from the Austrian Cancer Drug Therapy Working Group [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Medikamentöse Tumortherapie AGMT](NHL-14).
Eur J Cancer. 2016; 58:112-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chemoimmunotherapy containing rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) is the standard treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Doxorubicin may induce early and late cardiotoxicity. Non-pegylated liposomal (NPL) doxorubicin may reduce cardiotoxicity.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with untreated CD20+ DLBCL were randomised to conventional R-CHOP chemoimmunotherapy or rituximab, cyclophosphamide, non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-COMP) with doxorubicin substituted by NPL-doxorubicin. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured before each treatment cycle and after the end of treatment.
RESULTS: The mean LVEF of 178 and 158 measurements in the R-COMP and R-CHOP arms was 63.31% and 62.25%, respectively (P = 0.167). During treatment the LVEF measurements were below 50% in 10/218 (4.6%) in the R-COMP arm and 31/196 (15.8%) in the R-CHOP arm (P<0.001). Thirty-six of 40 (90%) patients in the R-COMP arm, but only 24/36 (66.7%) in the R-CHOP arm had all NT-proBNP levels below 400 pg/ml during and at the end of treatment (P = 0.013). There were more serious adverse events in the R-CHOP arm (26 versus 40, P = 0.029). Infections were more common (15 versus 28) in the R-CHOP arm.
INTERPRETATION: In patients with normal cardiac function, six cycles of R-CHOP resulted in a low rate of early cardiotoxicity. NPL-doxorubicin did not reduce cardiotoxicity, although cardiac safety signals were elevated in R-CHOP compared to R-COMP.
FUNDING: Cephalon provided the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Medikamentöse Tumortherapie with NPL-doxorubicin and an unrestricted grant, but was not involved in the study protocol, data acquisition, data analysis or the writing of the paper.

Zahmatkeshan M, Gheybi F, Rezayat SM, Jaafari MR
Improved drug delivery and therapeutic efficacy of PEgylated liposomal doxorubicin by targeting anti-HER2 peptide in murine breast tumor model.
Eur J Pharm Sci. 2016; 86:125-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Targeted cancer therapy is a powerful therapeutic strategy to management of cancer. HER2 as an anticancer target has long been studied. Its overexpression plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progressiveness of breast and other cancers. To establish efficient and reliable drug delivery to HER2-overexpressing cells, the authors of this study have developed anti-HER2 (ErbB2) peptide-liposomal formulations of doxorubicin (DOX) by an engineered breast tumor-targeting peptide ligand, AHNP, Anti-HER2/neu peptide, (FCDGFYACYADV) with three glycine amino acids as spacer before its original sequencing. Towards this goal, PEGylated liposome doxorubicin (PLD) bearing different ligand densities of AHNP was prepared and characterized for their size, zeta potential and peptide conjugation. The AHNP functionalization and density effects on breast tumor cell uptake, selective cytotoxicity, prevention of tumor growth and the tissue biodistribution of encapsulated DOX were studied in mice bearing TUBO breast cancer tumor model. The findings demonstrated that increasing the ligand density of AHNP increases cytotoxicity and cell-uptake in SKBR3 and TUBO cells which overexpress HER2 but not in MDA-MB-231with low HER2 expression profile. The anticancer activity was also superior for targeted liposomal DOX with more AHNP densities. Overall, the results showed that optimum AHNP density functionalization of PLD can significantly improve selectivity and the therapeutic index of liposomal DOX in the treatment of HER2 positive breast cancer and merits further investigation.

Ratner ES, Zhu YL, Penketh PG, et al.
Triapine potentiates platinum-based combination therapy by disruption of homologous recombination repair.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 114(7):777-86 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Platinum resistance may be attributable to inherent or acquired proficiency in homologous recombination repair (HRR) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the small molecule inhibitor triapine to disrupt HRR and sensitise BRCA wild-type EOC cells to platinum-based combination therapy in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: The sensitivity of BRCA wild-type cancer cells to olaparib, cisplatin, carboplatin, doxorubicin, or etoposide in combination with triapine was evaluated by clonogenic survival assays. The effects of triapine on HRR activity in cells were measured with a DR-GFP reporter assay. The ability of triapine to enhance the effects of the carboplatin-doxil combination on EOC tumour growth delay was determined using a xenograft tumour mouse model.
RESULTS: Platinum resistance is associated with wild-type BRCA status. Triapine inhibits HRR activity and enhances the sensitivity of BRCA wild-type cancer cells to cisplatin, olaparib, and doxorubicin. However, sequential combination of triapine and cisplatin is necessary to achieve synergism. Moreover, triapine potentiates platinum-based combination therapy against BRCA wild-type EOC cells and produces significant delay of EOC tumour growth.
CONCLUSIONS: Triapine promises to augment the clinical efficacy of platinum-based combination regimens for treatment of platinum-resistant EOC with wild-type BRCA and proficient HRR activity.

Uriarte-Pinto M, Escolano-Pueyo Á, Gimeno-Ballester V, et al.
Trastuzumab, non-pegylated liposomal-encapsulated doxorubicin and paclitaxel in the neoadjuvant setting of HER-2 positive breast cancer.
Int J Clin Pharm. 2016; 38(2):446-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUD: Neoadjuvant treatment based on the combination of trastuzumab plus chemotherapy is the standard of care in patients with HER2-positive early or locally advanced breast cancer. The concurrent use of trastuzumab, anthracyclines and taxanes is frequently used in this setting despite the potential cardiotoxicity of both anthracyclines and trastuzumab. However, not much information is available about this chemotherapy scheme.
OBJECTIVE: We wanted to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of the combination of trastuzumab, liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin and paclitaxel as neoadjuvant scheme. We also tried to establish predictive factors of pathologic complete response.
SETTING: The study was carried out in a tertiary University Hospital of Spain.
METHOD: This is a descriptive study of the clinical practice performed in our hospital.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Efficacy was measured in terms of pathologic complete response, which was defined as the absence of invasive cancer cells in the breast and the axilla after neoadjuvant treatment.
RESULTS: Thirty patients were included, the median age was 48. Seventeen (56.7 %) were hormonal receptor (HR) positive, 14 (46.6 %) had IIIa-b clinical stage and one of them had inflammatory breast cancer. 12 patients (40 %) achieved pCR. Patients with HR-negative BC achieved a higher pCR rate than those ones with HR-positive BC (61.5 % and 23.5 %, respectively; p value = 0.035). 21 patients (70 %) underwent breast conservative surgery. The treatment was in general well tolerated, most frequent grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (20 %), asthenia and liver enzyme alteration (10 %) and febrile neutropenia (6.7 %). No patient developed heart failure, but one (3.3 %) presented a 10 % asymptomatic absolute reduction in left ventricular fraction ejection.
CONCLUSIONS: The studied treatment for the neoadjuvant setting of HER2 positive breast cancer seems to be an effective therapeutic option. Despite the expected high rate of cardiotoxicity of this regimen, the study results shows that this treatment regimen appears to be safe. The combination of trastuzumab, non-pegylated liposomal-encapsulated doxorubicin and paclitaxel should be considered for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer.

van Dalen EC, van der Pal HJ, Kremer LC
Different dosage schedules for reducing cardiotoxicity in people with cancer receiving anthracycline chemotherapy.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016; 3:CD005008 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This review update has been managed by both the Childhood Cancer and Cochrane Gynaecological, Neuro-oncology and Orphan Cancer Groups.The use of anthracycline chemotherapy is limited by the occurrence of cardiotoxicity. To prevent this cardiotoxicity, different anthracycline dosage schedules have been studied.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the occurrence of cardiotoxicity with the use of different anthracycline dosage schedules (that is peak doses and infusion durations) in people with cancer.
SEARCH METHODS: We searched the databases of the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, Issue 11, 2015), MEDLINE (1966 to December 2015), and EMBASE (1980 to December 2015). We also searched reference lists of relevant articles, conference proceedings, experts in the field, and ongoing trials databases.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which different anthracycline dosage schedules were compared in people with cancer (children and adults).
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently performed the study selection, the 'Risk of bias' assessment, and data extraction. We performed analyses according to the guidelines of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions.
MAIN RESULTS: We identified 11 studies: 7 evaluated different infusion durations (803 participants), and 4 evaluated different peak doses (5280 participants). Seven studies were RCTs addressing different anthracycline infusion durations; we identified long-term follow-up data for one of the trials in this update. The meta-analysis showed a statistically significant lower rate of clinical heart failure with an infusion duration of six hours or longer as compared to a shorter infusion duration (risk ratio (RR) 0.27; 95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.81; 5 studies; 557 participants). The majority of participants included in these studies were adults with different solid tumours. For different anthracycline peak doses, we identified two RCTs addressing a doxorubicin peak dose of less than 60 mg/m(2) versus 60 mg/m(2) or more, one RCT addressing a liposomal doxorubicin peak dose of 25 mg/m(2) versus 50 mg/m(2), and one RCT addressing an epirubicin peak dose of 83 mg/m(2) versus 110 mg/m(2). A significant difference in the occurrence of clinical heart failure was identified in none of the studies. The participants included in these studies were adults with different solid tumours. High or unclear 'Risk of bias' issues were present in all studies.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: An anthracycline infusion duration of six hours or longer reduces the risk of clinical heart failure, and it seems to reduce the risk of subclinical cardiac damage. Since there is only a small amount of data for children and data obtained in adults cannot be extrapolated to children, different anthracycline infusion durations should be evaluated further in children.We identified no significant difference in the occurrence of clinical heart failure in participants treated with a doxorubicin peak dose of less than 60 mg/m(2) or 60 mg/m(2) or more. Only one RCT was available for the other identified peak doses, so we can make no definitive conclusions about the occurrence of cardiotoxicity. More high-quality research is needed, both in children and adults and in leukaemias and solid tumours.

Luealon P, Khempech N, Vasuratna A, et al.
Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Different Management Strategies between Best Supportive Care and Second-line Chemotherapy for Platinum-resistant or Refractory Ovarian Cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(2):799-805 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is no standard treatment for patients with platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer. Single agent chemotherapies have evidence of more efficacy and less toxicity than combination therapy. Most are very expensive, with appreciable toxicity and minimal survival. Since it is difficult to make comparison between outcomes, economic analysis of single-agent chemotherapy regimens and best supportive care may help to make decisions about an appropriate management for the affected patients.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of second-line chemotherapy compared with best supportive care for patients with platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Markov model was used to estimate the effectiveness and total costs associated with treatments. The hypothetical patient population comprised women aged 55 with platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer. Four types of alternative treatment options were evaluated: 1) gemcitabine followed by BSC; 2) pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) followed by BSC; 3) gemcitabine followed by topotecan; and 4) PLD followed by topotecan. Baseline comparator of alternative treatments was BSC. Time horizon of the analysis was 2 years. Health care provider perspective and 3% discount rate were used to determine the costs of medical treatment in this study. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) were used to measure the treatment effectiveness. Treatment effectiveness data were derived from the literature. Costs were calculated from unit cost treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer patients at various stages of disease in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH) in the year 2011. Parameter uncertainty was tested in probabilistic sensitivity analysis by using Monte Carlo simulation. One-way sensitivity analysis was used to explore each variable's impact on the uncertainty of the results.
RESULTS: Approximated life expectancy of best supportive care was 0.182 years and its total cost was 26,862 Baht. All four alternative treatments increased life expectancy. Life expectancy of gemcitabine followed by BSC, PLD followed by BSC, gemcitabine followed by topotecan and PLD followed by topotecan was 0.510, 0.513, 0.566, and 0.570 years, respectively. The total cost of gemcitabine followed by BSC, PLD followed by BSC, gemcitabine followed by topotecan and PLD followed by topotecan was 113,000, 124,302, 139,788 and 151,135 Baht, respectively. PLD followed by topotecan had the highest expected quality-adjusted life-years but was the most expensive of all the above strategies. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of gemcitabine followed by BSC, PLD followed by BSC, gemcitabine followed by topotecan and PLD followed by topotecan was 344,643, 385,322, 385,856, and 420,299 Baht, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: All of the second-line chemotherapy strategies showed certain benefits due to an increased life- year gained compared with best supportive care. Moreover, gemcitabine as second-line chemotherapy followed by best supportive care in progressive disease case was likely to be more effective strategy with less cost from health care provider perspective. Gemcitabine was the most cost-effective treatment among all four alternative treatments. ICER is only an economic factor. Treatment decisions should be based on the patient benefit.

Lu YC, Ou-Yang FU, Hsieh CM, et al.
Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin as Adjuvant Therapy for Stage I-III Operable Breast Cancer.
In Vivo. 2016 Mar-Apr; 30(2):159-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Conventional anthracyclines play an essential role for the treatment of breast cancer and have potent cytotoxic activity, but are associated with severe toxicity. In metastatic breast cancer, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) is a formulation with efficacy similar to conventional doxorubicin but with reduced toxicity. This multicenter study evaluated the efficacy and safety of PLD-based adjuvant chemotherapy for women with stage I-III operable breast cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and eighty women with stage I-III breast cancer who received PLD-based adjuvant chemotherapy at six different Institutions in Taiwan from February 2002 to March 2008 were included and followed-up until April 2015. Treatment efficacy was determined by disease-free survival (DFS) rate and safety was evaluated by adverse events.
RESULTS: The 5- and 10-year DFS rates were 76.3 and 72.6%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that tumor size >5 cm (p=0.045; hazard ratio=3.31) and stage III (hazard ratio=3.54; p=0.019) were each associated with shorter DFS. Only stage III (hazard ratio=5.60; p=0.018) retained statistical significance with regard to DFS in the multivariate analysis. Grade 3/4 hematological toxicity was neutropenia (n=13; 7.2%). The women receiving PLD had low-grade 3 or 4 nausea/vomiting, mucositis, and alopecia. Grade 3 hand-foot syndrome occurred in three patients (1.7%).
CONCLUSION: PLD could be considered an effective and safe alternative to conventional anthracyclines in the treatment of stage I-III operable breast cancer.

Giovinazzo H, Kumar P, Sheikh A, et al.
Technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid phenotypic probe for the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin in women with ovarian cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(3):565-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Significant variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) exists. PLD undergoes clearance via the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid (TSC) is approved for imaging MPS cells. We investigated TSC as a phenotypic probe of PLD pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in women with epithelial ovarian cancer.
METHODS: TSC 10 mCi IVP was administered and followed by dynamic planar and SPECT/CT imaging and blood pharmacokinetics sampling. PLD 30-40 mg/m(2) IV was administered with or without carboplatin, followed by plasma pharmacokinetics sampling.
RESULTS: There was a linear relationship between TSC clearance and encapsulated doxorubicin clearance (R(2) = 0.61, p = 0.02), particularly in patients receiving PLD alone (R(2) = 0.81, p = 0.04). There was a positive relationship (ρ = 0.81, p = 0.01) between maximum grade palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia toxicity developed and estimated encapsulated doxorubicin concentration in hands.
CONCLUSIONS: TSC is a phenotypic probe for PLD pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and may be used to individualize PLD therapy in ovarian cancer and for other nanoparticles in development.

Nagao S, Iwasa N, Kurosaki A, et al.
The Efficacy of Low-Dose Paclitaxel Added to Combination Chemotherapy of Carboplatin and Gemcitabine or Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2016; 26(3):443-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Paclitaxel is known to produce the "platelet-sparing effect" that prevents the carboplatin-induced decrease in platelet count. We conducted a pilot study to assess whether the addition of low-dose paclitaxel to carboplatin-based combination chemotherapy prevents thrombocytopenia.
METHODS: Patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer received intravenous (IV) paclitaxel at 60 mg/m(2) followed by IV carboplatin at an area under the curve of 6 and IV pegylated liposomal doxorubicin at 30 mg/m(2) on day 1 in a 28-day cycle (DC-LOP) or IV gemcitabine at 1000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 in a 21-day cycle (GC-LOP).
RESULTS: During May 2011 to December 2011, 7 patients received 29 cycles of DC-LOP; during January 2012 to May 2013, 15 patients received 88 cycles of GC-LOP. Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia occurred in 2 (33%) of 6 and 9 (56%) of 16 patients in the DC-LOP and GC-LOP groups, respectively. No grade 3/4 nonhematological toxicity was observed. Only one patient who received GC-LOP had grade 2 sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy. Paclitaxel-related toxicities, including muscle pain, arthralgia, and peripheral neuropathy, were consistently rare and mild. The response rates of DC-LOP and GC-LOP were 33% (0, complete response; 2, partial response; 3, stable disease; 1, progression disease) and 50% (2, complete response; 6, partial response; 7, stable disease; 1, progression disease), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Although low-dose paclitaxel addition did not alleviate thrombocytopenia in the setting of this pilot study, the results do not deny the existence of the "platelet-sparing effect" by low-dose paclitaxel. Further investigation of the carboplatin-based combination chemotherapy including a drug with mild hematological toxicity is warranted.

Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) Guidelines for Front-Line Systemic Therapy of Newly Diagnosed Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.
Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2015; 44(10):421-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The SCAN gynaecological cancers systemic therapy workgroup aimed to develop Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) clinical practice guidelines for front-line systemic therapy of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The workgroup utilised a modified ADAPTE process to calibrate high quality international evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to our local setting.
RESULTS: Five international guidelines were evaluated- those developed by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2013), the European Society of Medical Oncology (2013), the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (2011), the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (2011) and the Greater Metropolitan Clinical Taskforce (2009). Recommendations on the role of systemic therapy with intravenous chemotherapy, intraperitoneal chemotherapy, anti-angiogenic agents and neoadjuvant chemotherapy in newly diagnosed advanced epithelial ovarian cancer were developed.
CONCLUSION: These adapted guidelines form the SCAN Guidelines 2015 for front-line systemic therapy of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

Espelin CW, Leonard SC, Geretti E, et al.
Dual HER2 Targeting with Trastuzumab and Liposomal-Encapsulated Doxorubicin (MM-302) Demonstrates Synergistic Antitumor Activity in Breast and Gastric Cancer.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(6):1517-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Trastuzumab is the standard of care for HER2-positive breast cancer patients, markedly improving disease-free and overall survival. Combined with chemotherapy, it enhances patient outcomes, but cardiotoxicity due to the trastuzumab treatment poses a serious adverse effect. MM-302 is a HER2-targeted PEGylated liposome that encapsulates doxorubicin to facilitate its delivery to HER2-overexpressing tumor cells while limiting exposure to nontarget tissues, including the heart. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and preclinical activity of combining MM-302 with trastuzumab. MM-302 and trastuzumab target different domains of the HER2 receptor and thus could simultaneously bind HER2-overexpressing tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, trastuzumab did not disrupt the mechanism of action of MM-302 in delivering doxorubicin to the n0ucleus and inducing DNA damage. Reciprocally, MM-302 did not interfere with the ability of trastuzumab to block prosurvival p-Akt signaling. Interestingly, coadministration of the two agents acutely increased the deposition of MM-302 in human xenograft tumors and subsequently increased the expression of the DNA damage marker p-p53. Finally, the combination of MM-302 and trastuzumab induced synergistic antitumor activity in HER2-overexpressing xenograft models of breast and gastric cancer. Collectively, our findings highlight a novel combination therapy that efficiently targets HER2-overexpressing cells through multiple mechanisms and support the ongoing investigation of combined MM-302/trastuzumab therapy for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer in a randomized phase II clinical trial.

Moriceau G, Rivoirard R, Méry B, et al.
Real-World Outcomes of Combination Chemotherapy with Trabectedin plus Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin in Patients with Recurrent Ovarian Cancer: A Single-Center Experience.
Chemotherapy. 2016; 61(3):122-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Trabectedin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) proved efficacious as second-line treatment for patients with recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC).
METHODS: We report a single-center retrospective analysis of the efficacy and tolerance of trabectedin 1.1 mg/m2 every 3 weeks in a cohort of real-life ROC patients.
RESULTS: From February 2012 to January 2014, 17 patients were treated with trabectedin alone or combined with PLD. Median age was 61 years (range: 48-78). Performance status was 0-1 in 16 patients (94%). Disease response rate was 53% and disease control rate was 76%. At the end of the follow-up, 8 patients (47%) were alive. Median overall survival was 17.6 months (95% CI 13.6 to not reached). Median progression-free survival was 6.7 months (95% CI 5.4-10.0). The most frequent grade 3-4 toxicities were neutropenia (n = 4, 24%) and nausea/vomiting (n = 4, 24%).
CONCLUSION: Trabectedin combined with PLD seems efficient in and well tolerated by real-life ROC patients.

Walls ZF, Gong H, Wilson RJ
Liposomal Coencapsulation of Doxorubicin with Listeriolysin O Increases Potency via Subcellular Targeting.
Mol Pharm. 2016; 13(3):1185-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liposomal doxorubicin is a clinically important drug formulation indicated for the treatment of several different forms of cancer. For doxorubicin to exert a therapeutic effect, it must gain access to the nucleus. However, a large proportion of the liposomal doxorubicin dose fails to work because it is sequestered within endolysosomal organelles following endocytosis of the liposomes due to the phenomenon of ion trapping. Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a pore-forming protein that can provide a mechanism for endosomal escape. The present study demonstrates that liposomal coencapsulation of doxorubicin with LLO enables a significantly larger percentage of the dose to colocalize with the nucleus compared to liposomes containing doxorubicin alone. The change in intracellular distribution resulted in a significantly more potent formulation of liposomal doxorubicin as demonstrated in both the ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 and its doxorubicin-resistant derivative A2780ADR.

Wang X, Chen X, Yang X, et al.
A nanomedicine based combination therapy based on QLPVM peptide functionalized liposomal tamoxifen and doxorubicin against Luminal A breast cancer.
Nanomedicine. 2016; 12(2):387-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Though combination chemotherapy or antitumor nanomedicine is extensively investigated, their combining remains in infancy. Additionally, enhanced delivery of estrogen or its analogs to tumor with highly-expressed estrogen-receptor (ER) is seldom considered, despite its necessity for ER-positive breast cancer treatment. Here, nanomedicine based combination therapy using QLPVM conjugated liposomal tamoxifen (TAM) and doxorubicin (DOX) was designed and testified, where the penta-peptide was derived from Ku70 Bax-binding domain. Quantitative, semi-quantitative and qualitative approaches demonstrated the enhanced endocytosis and cytotoxicity of QLPVM conjugated sterically stabilized liposomes (QLPVM-SSLs) in vitro and in vivo. Mechanism studies of QLPVM excluded the possible electrostatic, hydrophobic or receptor-ligand interactions. However, as a weak cell-penetrating peptide, QLPVM significantly induced drug release from QLPVM-SSLs during their interaction with cells, which was favorable for drug internalization. These findings suggested that the nanomedicine based combination therapy using QLPVM-SSL-TAM and QLPVM-SSL-DOX might provide a rational strategy for Luminal A breast cancer.
FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR: Breast cancer remains a leading cause of mortality in women worldwide. Although combined therapy using hormonal antagonist and chemotherapy is the norm nowadays, the use of these agents together in a single delivery system has not been tested. Here, the authors investigated this approach using QLPVM conjugated liposomes in in-vitro and in-vivo models. The positive findings may provide a novel direction for breast cancer treatment in the near future.

Martínková J, Bláha M, Kubeček O, et al.
Plasmafiltration as a possible contributor to kinetic targeting of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in order to prevent organ toxicity and immunosuppression.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(2):429-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To examine the removal of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) during plasmafiltration (PF) and determine whether the drug could be withheld prior to its organ distribution responsible for mucocutaneous toxicity.
METHODS: Six patients suffering from platinum-resistant ovarian cancer were treated with a 1-h IV infusion 50 mg/m(2) of PLD/cycle-for three cycles q4w. Over 44 (46)-47(49) h postinfusion, five patients (14 cycles in total) underwent PF using a cascade PF method consisted of plasma separation by centrifugation and plasma treatment using filtration based one volume of plasma treatment, i.e., 3.18 L (±0.6 L) and plasma flow 1.0 L/h (0.91-1.48 L/h). Doxorubicin concentration in blood was monitored by a high-performance liquid chromatography method for 116 h postinfusion. Pharmacokinetic parameters determined from plasma concentration included volume of distribution, total body clearance, half-life of elimination, and area under the plasma concentration versus time. The amount of doxorubicin in the body eliminated by the patient and via extracorporeal treatment was evaluated. Toxicity was tested using CTCAE v4.0.
RESULTS: The efficacy of PF and early responses to PLD/PF combination strategy were as follows: over 44(46) h postinfusion considered necessary for target distribution of PLD to tumor, patients eliminated 46 % (35-56 %) of the dose administered. Over 44(46)-47(49) h postinfusion, a single one-volume plasma filtration removed 40 % (22-45 %) (Mi5) of the remaining doxorubicin amount in the body. Total fraction eliminated attained 81 % (75-86 %). The most common treatment-related adverse events (grade 1-2) such as nausea (4/14 cycles-28 %) and vomiting (3/14 cycles-21 %) appeared during 44 h postinfusion. Hematological toxicity-anemia (5/14 cycles-35 %) was reported after cycle II termination. Symptoms of PPE-like syndrome (grade 1-2) appeared in one patient concomitantly with thrombophlebitis and malignant effusion. In this study, only one adverse reaction (1/14-7 %) as short-term malaise and nausea was reported by the investigator as probably related to PF.
CONCLUSION: A single one-volume PF does remove a clinically important amount of doxorubicin in a kinetic targeting approach. There were no serious signs of drug toxicity and/or PF-related adverse events. Kinetically guided therapy with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin combined with PF may be a useful tool to the higher efficacy and tolerability of therapy with PLD.

Lucas AT, O'Neal SK, Santos CM, et al.
A sensitive high performance liquid chromatography assay for the quantification of doxorubicin associated with DNA in tumor and tissues.
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2016; 119:122-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/03/2017 Related Publications
Doxorubicin, a widely used anticancer agent, exhibits antitumor activity against a wide variety of malignancies. The drug exerts its cytotoxic effects by binding to and intercalating within the DNA of tumor and tissue cells. However, current assays are unable to accurately determine the concentration of the intracellular active form of doxorubicin. Thus, the development of a sample processing method and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methodology was performed in order to quantify doxorubicin that is associated with DNA in tumors and tissues, which provided an intracellular cytotoxic measure of doxorubicin exposure after administration of small molecule and nanoparticle formulations of doxorubicin. The assay uses daunorubicin as an internal standard; liquid-liquid phase extraction to isolate drug associated with DNA; a Shimadzu HPLC with fluorescence detection equipped with a Phenomenex Luna C18 (2μm, 2.0×100mm) analytical column and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in water or acetonitrile for separation and quantification. The assay has a lower limit of detection (LLOQ) of 10ng/mL and is shown to be linear up to 3000ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision of the assay expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV%) ranged from 4.01 to 8.81%. Furthermore, the suitability of this assay for measuring doxorubicin associated with DNA in vivo was demonstrated by using it to quantify the doxorubicin concentration within tumor samples from SKOV3 and HEC1A mice obtained 72h after administration of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil(®); PLD) at 6mg/kg IV x 1. This HPLC assay allows for sensitive intracellular quantification of doxorubicin and will be an important tool for future studies evaluating intracellular pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin and various nanoparticle formulations of doxorubicin.

Kim KH, Jelovac D, Armstrong DK, et al.
Phase 1b safety study of farletuzumab, carboplatin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients with platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2016; 140(2):210-4 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/03/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Farletuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to folate receptor alpha, over-expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) but largely absent in normal tissue. Previously, carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin showed superior progression-free survival and an improved therapeutic index compared with carboplatin/paclitaxel in relapsed platinum-sensitive EOC. This study assessed safety of farletuzumab/carboplatin/pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in women with platinum-sensitive recurrent EOC.
METHODS: This multicenter, single-arm study enrolled patients with platinum-sensitive EOC in first or second relapse for treatment with weekly farletuzumab 2.5mg/kg plus carboplatin AUC5-6 and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin 30mg/m(2) every 4weeks for 6cycles. Subsequently, maintenance with single-agent farletuzumab 2.5mg/kg once weekly or farletuzumab 7.5mg/kg once every three weeks continued until progression. The primary objective was to assess the safety of farletuzumab/carboplatin/pegylated liposomal doxorubicin.
RESULTS: Fifteen patients received a median of 12.0cycles (range, 3-26) of farletuzumab as combination therapy or maintenance, for a median of 45.0weeks (range 9-95). Farletuzumab/carboplatin/pegylated liposomal doxorubicin was generally well tolerated, with no farletuzumab-related grades 3-4 adverse events. The most commonly reported adverse events were associated with combination chemotherapy: fatigue (73.3%), nausea (46.7%), and neutropenia (40%). Ten patients had grade ≥3 adverse events, most frequently neutropenia and fatigue. No cardiac toxicity was seen. Best overall responses (RECIST) were a complete response for one patient, partial responses for 10 patients, and stable disease for four patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Farletuzumab plus carboplatin/pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in women with platinum-sensitive EOC demonstrated a safety profile consistent with that of carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin.

Landrum LM, Brady WE, Armstrong DK, et al.
A phase I trial of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), carboplatin, bevacizumab and veliparib in recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian, primary peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer: An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
Gynecol Oncol. 2016; 140(2):204-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/03/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of veliparib combined with PLD and carboplatin (CD) in patients with recurrent, platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer. To determine the tolerability at the MTD combined with bevacizumab.
METHODS: Patients received PLD (30mg/m(2), IV) and carboplatin (AUC 5, IV) on day 1 with veliparib on days 1-7 (intermittent) or days 1-28 (continuous). Standard 3+3 design was used in the dose escalation phase with DLTs based on the first cycle. Once the MTDs were determined, cohorts of 6 patients were enrolled to each regimen with bevacizumab (10mg/kg on days 1 and 15) to assess feasibility. DLTs were based on the first 4cycles of treatment in the bevacizumab cohorts.
RESULTS: In the dose-escalation phase, 27 patients were treated at 3 dose levels with DLTs noted in 6 patients including grade 4 thrombocytopenia (n=4), and prolonged neutropenia >7days (n=3). At the MTD of veliparib (80mg p.o. b.i.d. for both dosing arms), myelosuppression was the DLT. At MTD, 12 additional patients were treated with bevacizumab with 9 patients experiencing DLTs including grade 4 thrombocytopenia (n=4), prolonged neutropenia >7days (n=1), grade 3 hypertension (n=5), and grade 5 sepsis (n=1).
CONCLUSIONS: The MTD of veliparib combined with CD is 80mg p.o. b.i.d. in women with recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. With bevacizumab, DLTs were noted in 9 out of 12 patients. Lower doses of veliparib will need to be considered when given in combination with platinum-based therapies.

D'Incalci M, Zambelli A
Trabectedin for the treatment of breast cancer.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2016; 25(1):105-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Trabectedin is an anti-tumor compound registered in Europe and in several other countries, for the second-line treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and for ovarian cancer in combination with liposomal doxorubicin. Trabectedin inhibits cancer cell proliferation mainly affecting the transcription regulation. Trabectedin also acts as a modulator of tumor microenvironment by reducing the number of tumor associated macrophages (TAM). Because of its unique mechanism of action, trabectedin has the potential to act as antineoplastic agent also in several solid malignancies, including breast cancer (BC).
AREAS COVERED: This article reviews the preclinical and clinical data of trabectedin focusing on development in metastatic BC (mBC). Comments regarding the nature and the results of these trials are included.
EXPERT OPINION: Trabectedin is thought to have a crucial activity with defective DNA-repair machinery and also in modulating the tumor micro-environment and the immune-system of cancer patients. From the current available data, we recognize a potential activity of trabectedin in mBC and support the renewed efforts to better elucidate the value of trabectedin in this indication.

Luo D, Carter KA, Razi A, et al.
Porphyrin-phospholipid liposomes with tunable leakiness.
J Control Release. 2015; 220(Pt A):484-94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/03/2017 Related Publications
Drug bioavailability is a key consideration for drug delivery systems. When loaded with doxorubicin, liposomes containing 5 molar % porphyrin-phospholipid (HPPH liposomes) exhibited in vitro and in vivo serum stability that could be fine-tuned by varying the drug-to-lipid ratio. A higher drug loading ratio destabilized the liposomes, in contrast to standard liposomes which displayed an opposite and less pronounced trend. Following systemic administration of HPPH liposomes, near infrared laser irradiation induced vascular photodynamic damage, resulting in enhanced liposomal doxorubicin accumulation in tumors. In laser-irradiated tumors, the use of leaky HPPH liposomes resulted in improved doxorubicin bioavailability compared to stable standard liposomes. Using this approach, a single photo-treatment with 10mg/kg doxorubicin rapidly eradicated tumors in athymic nude mice bearing KB or MIA Paca-2 xenografts.

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