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Langerhan's Cell Histiocytosis

Langerhan's Cell Histiocytosis (also known as Histiocytosis X) is a rare disease. It is not really a cancer, though it may behave like one in some respects. Histiocytes are normal cells found throughout the body, in this disease abnormally large numbers are found. LCH is more common in children but it is often seen in adults too. The disease will be classed as either single-system or multi-system depending on how many of the body's systems are effected.

JournalsIn a study of 314 people treated for LCH at the Mayo Clinic (Howarth et al, Cancer 1999;85:2278-90) 69% had single-system disease and 31% had multi-system LCH. Approximately half of those treated at Mayo were under 25 years old at diagnosis. Of people with single-system disease the system involved was bone (52%), pulmonary (lung) (40%), skin/mucous membrane (7%) and other sites (1%). Bone involvement was more common in younger patients while pulmonary involvement was mostly seen in those over 15 years old at diagnosis.

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    MeSH term: Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell
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Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Huo Z, Lu T, Liang Z, et al.
Clinicopathological features and BRAF(V600E) mutations in patients with isolated hypothalamic-pituitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
Diagn Pathol. 2016; 11(1):100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Isolated hypothalamic-pituitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (HPLCH) is very rare. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics, endocrine function changes, BRAF(V600E) mutations and treatments of isolated HPLCH.
METHODS: We identified seven patients with isolated HPLCH by reviewing the clinical and pathological files in our hospital from 2007 to 2015. The clinical characteristics of the seven patients were retrospectively reviewed, especially the endocrine function changes. Immunostaining and mutation profiling of BRAF(V600E) were performed.
RESULTS: The seven HPLCH patients included three men and four women, aged 9-47 years. All patients presented with symptoms of central diabetes insipidus (CDI), and four displayed anterior pituitary hypofunction as well. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hypothalamic-pituitary axis involvement in all patients. There was no evidence for the involvement of other organs in all seven patients. Langerhans cell histiocytosis was confirmed by neuroendoscopic procedures, and immunohistochemical staining showed that all cases (7/7) were positive for CD68, CD1a, Langerin, and S-100. The BRAF(V600E) mutation was detected in three of the six cases (3/6). Six patients had follow-up information; all received desmopressin acetate and high-dose corticosteroid therapy, and two patients received radiotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that all patients with isolated HPLCH had CDI as the earliest symptom, and more than half of the patients had anterior pituitary deficiencies. The BRAF(V600E) mutation is a common genetic change in HPLCH patients. Treatment of HPLCH patients is difficult, and the progressive loss of endocrine function is irreversible in most cases.

Skowronska-Jozwiak E, Sporny S, Szymanska-Duda J, et al.
Hypopituitarism and goitre as endocrine manifestation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Case Report.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2016; 37(3):174-178 [PubMed] Related Publications
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in adults is a rare disorder of unknown etiology characterized by monoclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. It belongs to dendritic cell disorders and occurs in 1-2 adults per million. The most common endocrine manifestation of classical LCH is associated with the posterior pituitary, with clinical symptoms of diabetes insipidus. Less than 80 reported cases of LCH involving the thyroid gland have been published so far. We present the case of a 39 years old woman with 10 years history of diabetes insipidus and secondary amenorrhoea, which appeared after second delivery. She was suspected for lymphocytic inflammation of pituitary and she was administered steroid treatment. She was also treated symptomatically with desmopressin, L-thyroxine, estrogen and progestagen replacement therapy due to diabetes insipidus, secondary hypothyroidism and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. In September 2014, she noticed a painless, firm tumour of the neck. Ultrasound (US) examination demonstrated bilateral, solid, hypoechogenic thyroid nodules. The result of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was not diagnostic. Due to rapid progression and US image of the tumour, she was referred for surgery. In postoperative histopathology tumour cells were positive for CD1a and S-100 protein, therefore diagnosis of LCH was established. Postoperatively, the results of thoracic computed tomography scan, abdominal US and bone scintigraphy revealed no evidence of multifocal disease. We have not observed any disease recurrence in the patient after a year of follow-up in postoperative course. This case illustrates diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties in patient with LCH.

Sharma S, Dey P
Childhood pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis in bronchoalveolar lavage: A case report along with review of literature.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2016; 44(12):1102-1106 [PubMed] Related Publications
Isolated pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is rare in childhood, and few cases have been diagnosed on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) smears. We hereby report a child with cystic lesions in both lungs diagnosed as LCH on BAL smears and compare the cytomorphologic findings with BAL smears of five patients with various pathologies. The BAL smears of the index case showed numerous macrophages with many atypical histiocytes showing coffee bean-shaped nuclei, nuclear grooving along with few giant cells. Immunocytochemistry for S-100 protein and CD1a was positive in these cells (16.5%). The mean percentage of macrophages showing nuclear grooving, bi-nucleation, and multinucleation was much higher in the case with LCH compared to the other cases. Review of literature and the present case study shows that in the presence of appropriate radiologic findings, characteristic morphologic features and demonstration of 5% or more CD1a positive cells in BAL is strongly suggestive of pulmonary LCH. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:1102-1106. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

DeMartino E, Go RS, Vassallo R
Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis and Other Histiocytic Diseases of the Lung.
Clin Chest Med. 2016; 37(3):421-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several histiocytic disorders may affect the thoracic cavity. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is the histiocytic disorder that most frequently manifests with thoracic involvement in adults and is associated with cigarette smoking. The histiocytic disorders follow variable clinical courses ranging from benign disease to life-threatening aggressive disorders. Although the pathogenesis is not fully understood, it is now apparent that some of these disorders are associated with activating mutations in cell proliferative/regulatory pathways. Management of these rare disorders must be individualized. Pharmacologic treatment may include the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Smoking cessation is imperative in the management of pulmonary LCH.

Tatsuno M, Shioda Y, Iwafuchi H, et al.
BRAF V600 mutations in Langerhans cell histiocytosis with a simple and unique assay.
Diagn Pathol. 2016; 11:39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: BRAF (V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) is a serine-threonine protein kinase involved in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. The most common missense mutation of BRAF (mainly V600E) contributes to the incidence of various cancers, including Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). BRAF inhibitors molecularly targeting the V600E mutation have been developed to counteract the effect of the mutation. To ensure the administration of effective pharmacotherapy, it is therefore imperative to develop an effective assay to screen LCH patients for the V600E mutation. However, tumor tissues of LCH typically contain many inflammatory cells which make a correct judgement of the mutation status difficult in the DNA sequence analysis.
RESULTS: In this study, we present a new, highly sensitive analyzing method combining PCR, restriction enzyme digestion, and a sequencing assay using DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens. TspRI is a restriction enzyme that cleaves the sequence encompassing the wild-type BRAF codon 600 into two fragments, which cannot be used as a template for subsequent BRAF PCR amplification. We therefore evaluated the sensitivity of BRAF V600 mutation detection by amplifying the primary PCR product digested with TspRI and sequencing the secondary PCR products. The V600E mutation was detected in FFPE tissue samples from 32 LCH patients; our assay was able to identify mutations in four samples that gave inconclusive results, and ten that were negative, according to standard PCR and sequencing.
CONCLUSIONS: We presented a new and highly sensitive method to detect BRAF V600 mutations. This screening method is expected to play an important role to select the most effective therapies.

Martín JM, Jordá E, Martín-Gorgojo A, et al.
Histiocytosis with mixed cell populations.
J Cutan Pathol. 2016; 43(5):456-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) are thought to originate from a common stem cell precursor, with divergent differentiation under different microenvironmental conditions. We describe an exceptional case of multiple cutaneous lesions in a 10-year-old boy, in which the coexistence of both LCH and JXG cell populations is found in every single lesion. The presence of Birbeck granules and CD207 (langerin) immunostaining in the LCH component would argue against the diagnosis of indeterminate cell histiocytosis (ICH). This unique case gives additional support to the hypothesis of a potentially common histogenesis for LCH and JXG.

Perić P, Antić B, Knezević-Usaj S, et al.
Successful treatment with cladribine of Erdheim-Chester disease with orbital and central nervous system involvement developing after treatment of Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
Vojnosanit Pregl. 2016; 73(1):83-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare, systemic form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the juvenile xanthogranuloma family with characteristic bilateral symmetrical long bone osteosclerosis, associated with xanthogranulomatous extra skeletal organ involvement. In ECD, central nervous system (CNS) and orbital lesions are frequent, and more than half of ECD pa tients carry the V600E mutation of the protooncogene BRAF. The synchronous or metachronous development of ECD and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in the same patients is rare, and the possible connection between them is still obscure. Cladribine is a purine substrate analogue that is toxic to lymphocytes and monocytes with good hematoencephalic penetration.
CASE REPORT: We presented a 23-year-old man successfully treated with cladribine due to BRAF V600E-mutation-negative ECD with bilateral orbital and CNS involvement ECD developed metachronously, 6 years after chemotherapy for multisystem LCH with complete disease remission and remaining central diabetes insipidus. During ECD treatment, the patient received 5 single-agent chemotherapy courses of cladribine (5 mg/m2 for 5 consecutive days every 4 weeks), with a reduction in dose to 4 mg/m2 in a fifth course, delayed due to severe neutropenia and thoracic dermatomal herpes zoster infection following the fourth course. Radiologic signs of systemic and CNS disease started to resolve 3 months after the end of chemotherapy, and CNS lesions completely resolved within 2 years after the treatment After 12-year follow-up, there was no recurrence or appearance of new systemic or CNS xanthogranulomatous lesions or second malignancies.
CONCLUSION: In accordance with our findings and recommendations provided by other authors, cladribine can be considered an effective alternative treatment for ECD, especially with CNS involvement and BRAF V600E-mutation-negative status, when interferon-alpha as the first-line therapy fails.

Karki P, Hirano H, Yamahata H, et al.
Solitary Cranial Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: Two case reports.
Hiroshima J Med Sci. 2015; 64(4):59-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a proliferation of Langerhans cells intermixed with inflammatory cells, in particular eosinophils, that may manifest as a unisystem (unifocal or multifocal) or multisystem disease. We describe the clinical and histologic spectrum of LCH of the orbit and skull in our two cases. Both cases had unifocal erosive skull lesions with a history of trauma. Typical histologic features included numerous histiocytes with varying degrees of giant cell formation and scattered eosinophilic granulocytes. The presence of Langerhans cells was confirmed by CD1a and S100 immunohistochemistry. LCH has an excellent prognosis when treated with surgical resection, steroids and radiotherapy or chemotherapy. One of our patients is disease free at 7 year follow-up and one patient had regression of lesion on follow-up.

Lian C, Lu Y, Shen S
Langerhans cell histiocytosis in adults: a case report and review of the literature.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(14):18678-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a proliferative disease of histiocyte-like cells that generally affects children. Immunohistochemistry is essential to obtain the correct diagnosis, and treatment protocols are controversial.
OBJECTIVE: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is easy to be misdiagnosed because of its various clinic features and laboratory results. This research focused on the clinicopathological, histopathological, immunohistochemical and other features of LCH and aimed to analyze LCH clinical features for improving diagnosis and decreasing misdiagnosis rate.
CASE REPORT: A case of rare adult LCH was reported and the clinicopathological features were summarized by literature review. The multifocal form of this case includes diabetes insipidus, exophthalmos and mucocutaneous lesions in axillae and anogenital regions, such as infiltrated nodules, extensive coalescing, scaling, crusted papules and ulcerated plaques. The Langerhans cells diffusely infiltrated in the dermis and the tumor cells were positive for CD1a and S-100 expression. The diagnosis was Langerhans cell histiocytosis based on the pathological and immunohistochemical changes.
CONCLUSION: LCH has high rate of misdiagnosis and definitive diagnosis depends on pathological biopsy and X-ray examination. The prognosis is related to the onset age and the quantity of affected organs. Although specific therapeutic approach hasn't been well established, combined chemotherapy for multisystem lesions and surgical operation or radiotherapy for unifocal lesions may improve the therapy.

Kinoshita Y, Watanabe K, Sakamoto A, Hidaka K
Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis-associated Pulmonary Hypertension Showing a Drastic Improvement Following Smoking Cessation.
Intern Med. 2016; 55(5):491-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare, smoking-related, interstitial lung disease, and pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with mortality. We herein report a case of PLCH complicated by severe PH and respiratory impairment. After developing PH, the patient displayed a cystic pattern on chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). This, in turn, corresponded with the scarring stage of PLCH. However, the patient's PH and respiratory impairment improve dramatically following smoking cessation. PLCH patients with a cystic pattern on chest HRCT may still be able to improve their PH and respiratory impairment when they are able to quit smoking.

Roden AC, Yi ES
Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: An Update From the Pathologists' Perspective.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2016; 140(3):230-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare histiocytic disorder that almost exclusively affects the lungs of smokers. PLCH is characterized by bronchiolocentric nodules and/or cysts in an upper and mid lung distribution with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The diagnosis can be challenging and often requires transbronchial biopsy or surgical lung biopsy. Pulmonary hypertension is a relatively common and sometimes severe complication of PLCH. The pathogenesis of PLCH is still debated. Recently, BRAF V600E mutation and BRAF expression have been identified in some patients with PLCH, suggesting that at least a subset of PLCH has a clonal proliferation. While smoking cessation is the first-line treatment of PLCH, some patients might require additional treatment and eventually transplant. Given that the lesional cells of PLCH express BRAF in some patients, MAPKinase pathway-targeted treatment might be useful for therapy-resistant patients.
OBJECTIVE: To present the more recently recognized clinical and pathologic aspects of PLCH, including pulmonary hypertension in PLCH, pathogenesis, and treatment, as well as the basic diagnostic approach to PLCH.
DATA SOURCES: Authors' own research, and search of literature database (PubMed) and UpToDate.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the recent progress, more studies are needed to elucidate the biology of PLCH for identification of prognostic factors and appropriate treatment options, especially for therapy-refractory PLCH cases.

Zinn DJ, Chakraborty R, Allen CE
Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: Emerging Insights and Clinical Implications.
Oncology (Williston Park). 2016; 30(2):122-32, 139 [PubMed] Related Publications
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a disorder characterized by lesions that include CD207+ dendritic cells along with an inflammatory infiltrate. Langerhans cell histiocytosis has a highly variable clinical presentation, ranging from a single lesion to potentially fatal disseminated disease. The uncertainty as to whether Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a reactive or a neoplastic disease has resulted in a long-standing debate on this question, and the limited understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease has impeded clinical improvement for patients. The current standard of care for multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis, empirically derived chemotherapy with vinblastine and prednisone, cures fewer than 50% of patients, and optimal therapies for relapse and neurodegenerative disease remain uncertain. Recent research advances support a model in which Langerhans cell histiocytosis arises due to pathologic activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in myeloid precursors. Redefinition of Langerhans cell histiocytosis as a myeloid neoplastic disorder driven by hyperactive ERK supports the potential of chemotherapy with efficacy against immature myeloid cells, as well as mutation-specific targeted therapy.

Patne SC, Dwivedi S, Katiyar R, et al.
Langerhans cell histiocytosis diagnosed by FNAC of lymph nodes.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2015 Oct-Dec; 11(4):1028 [PubMed] Related Publications
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare clonal disorder of unknown etiology and characterized by the proliferation of dendritic cells. LCH most commonly involves the bone followed by the skin and the lymph nodes. Recently, only a few cases of LCH with predominant lymph node involvement have been diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). A 2-year-old boy presented with generalized lymphadenopathy, fever, and cough. The patient had hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, and lytic lesions in the skull. FNAC from the largest submandibular lymph node showed features of LCH. The large cells of LCH showed positive immunostaining for S-100 protein on FNAC smears. Later, lymph node biopsy and immunohistochemistry against S-100 protein and CD1a confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and he is under regular follow-up. This case report highlights the importance of FNAC as a rapid and accurate investigation in the diagnosis of lymph node predominant LCH.

Duan MH, Han X, Li J, et al.
Comparison of vindesine and prednisone and cyclophosphamide, etoposide, vindesine, and prednisone as first-line treatment for adult Langerhans cell histiocytosis: A single-center retrospective study.
Leuk Res. 2016; 42:43-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy and clinical outcomes of vindesine and prednisone (VP) and cyclophosphamide, etoposide, vindesine, and prednisone (CEVP) regimens as first-line treatment for multisystem (MS) or multifocal single system (SS-m) adult Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH).
METHOD: Clinical features, treatment response, and survival of adults with Langerhans cell histiocytosis treated at our center from January 2001 to January 2015 were reviewed retrospectively.
RESULTS: Forty-five adult MS or SS-m LCH patients were treated (N=31, CEVP group; N=14, VP group). Both treatment groups had similar gender distributions, patient ages, and extent of disease. The non-active disease rate for both groups was 70.0% and 64.3% (P=0.775), respectively. Median follow-up was 74.9 (range: 2.8-183.6) months and recurrence rates were 71.0% and 78.6% (P=0.593), respectively. The need for second-line therapy was 64.5% and 71.4% (P=0.649), respectively, and mortality rates were 9.7% and 15.4% (P=0.586), respectively. Neutropenia occurred in 48.4% of CEVP-treated patients and 7.1% of VP-treated patients (P=0.008).
CONCLUSIONS: CEVP or VP regimens for the treatment of adult SS-m or MS LCH showed similar efficacies, and both regimens were associated with high disease recurrence and the need for second-line therapy.

Sacco O, Moscatelli A, Conte M, et al.
Long-Term Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation as Bridging Strategies to Lung Transplantation in Rapidly Devastating Isolated Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016; 63(5):941-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Isolated pulmonary involvement in pediatric Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is extremely rare. While the multisystem-LCH course varies from spontaneous remission to rapid deterioration with lethal outcome, single system involvement is generally associated with favorable prognosis. A child with isolated pulmonary LCH had an extremely rapid progression leading to respiratory failure, despite treatment with prednisone and vinblastine. Since lung hyperinflation and cystic degeneration contraindicated conventional mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was chosen for 50 days as a bridge to lung transplantation. The mechanisms involved in disease progression and the usefulness of long-term ECMO are discussed.

Tazi A, de Margerie-Mellon C, Vercellino L, et al.
Extrathoracic investigation in adult patients with isolated pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis.
Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2016; 11:11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: An important objective on diagnosis of patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is to determine the extent of disease. However, whether systematic extrathoracic investigation is needed in adult patients with clinically isolated pulmonary LCH (PLCH) has not been evaluated.
METHODS: In this prospective, multicentre study, 54 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed clinically isolated PLCH were systematically evaluated at inclusion by bone imaging and blood laboratory testing to search for subclinical extrapulmonary LCH involvement. The patients were followed over a 2-year period. At each visit, they were asked about the presence of extrapulmonary manifestations of LCH.
RESULTS: In the absence of bone symptoms, the skeletal X-ray survey results were normal for all but two patients who had a localised bone lesion consistent with possible LCH involvement, that remained unchanged over 2 years of follow-up. Whole-body bone scintigraphy did not add information to the plain radiography findings for the detection of asymptomatic bone involvement in isolated PLCH. Conversely, it showed nonspecific focal bone uptake in 18% of the patients, mainly corresponding to post-traumatic or degenerative abnormalities unrelated to LCH. Mild leucocytosis due to neutrophilia was observed in 22% of the patients and was not related to their smoking habits. Three patients had mild isolated lymphocytosis without haematological disease, whereas two patients had mild lymphopaenia. A mild inflammatory biological syndrome was observed in a minority of patients without infection or constitutional symptoms and was not associated with progressive disease. A substantial proportion (24.5%) of the patients had abnormal biological liver test results, including elevated liver enzymes and/or cholestasis, which were not linked to LCH involvement in this cohort.
CONCLUSIONS: Obtaining a thorough history and performing comprehensive physical examination are essential for staging patients diagnosed with PLCH. In the absence of symptoms or signs suggestive of extrapulmonary LCH involvement, the systematic performing of recommended bone imaging does not appear informative. Although the observed blood laboratory abnormalities were not specifically related to LCH, performing these tests in the diagnostic workup for PLCH is useful because some of these alterations may impact patient management.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: No. NCT01225601; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

Takpradit C, Vathana N, Narkbunnam N, et al.
Bisphosphonate Therapy for Refractory Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: A Case Report.
J Med Assoc Thai. 2015; 98(11):1145-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although patients diagnosed as Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) with bone lesion initially respond well to treatment, some may experience relapse or refractory disease. Pamidronate, a potent N-bisphosphonate, has been used in several primary bone diseases, benign bone tumors, and metastatic bone cancers. The mechanism includes an inhibitory effect on osteoclast activity by decreasing development and recruitment of osteoclast progenitors and promoting osteoclast apoptosis. Herein, we introduce a seven-month-old Thai girl who was diagnosed as multiple-relapse LCH with refractory bone lesions and was treated with standard and salvage steroid-based therapies. After receiving two courses of intravenous pamidronate, she had marked clinical and radiographical improvement without any adverse events. She has been in remission for two years after receiving six courses of therapy. This report supports the efficacy ofpamidronate in LCH-related bone lesions, but further studies in large cohort are warranted.

Tsutsumi S, Nakajima S, Oda H, Yasumoto Y
Langerhans cell histiocytosis with seborrheic eczema of the scalp and extensive calvarial involvement.
Childs Nerv Syst. 2016; 32(7):1337-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology and characterized by accumulation of histiocytes in various tissues.
CASE REPORT: A 3-year-old, previously healthy girl presented with progressive flattening of the parietal convexity for 6 months and seborrheic eczema of the scalp. At presentation, the patient showed no neurological deficit. The eczemas were extensively distributed over the scalp, but not found in any other site of the body. Blood examination revealed a marked increase in soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels. Neuroimages revealed multiple calvarial defects that were replaced by well-demarcated, enhancing extracerebral masses. A biopsy surgery confirmed the diagnosis as LCH.
CONCLUSION: LCH may cause progressive calvarial defects. If seborrheic eczemas are concurrent, they may suggest prompt histological verification and treatments be initiated.

Samet J, Weinstein J, Fayad LM
MRI and clinical features of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in the pelvis and extremities: can LCH really look like anything?
Skeletal Radiol. 2016; 45(5):607-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical and MRI features of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in the pelvis and extremities.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MRI and clinical features of 21 pathologically proven cases of LCH involving the pelvis and extremities were studied. Multiple characteristics of the lesions were evaluated (location, size, T1/ T2/post-contrast features, perilesional bone and soft tissue signal, endosteal scalloping, periosteal reaction, soft tissue mass, pathologic fracture). Pre-biopsy radiologic diagnoses were collected from the original clinical reports. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), temperature, and white blood cell count (WBC) were collected at the time of diagnosis when available.
RESULTS: The locations of the LCH lesions included five humerus, four femur, five ilium, one tibia, one clavicle, and three scapula. Lesional size ranged from 1.8 to 7.1 cm, with a mean of 3.6 cm. All lesions demonstrated perilesional bone marrow edema, periosteal reaction, endosteal scalloping, and post-contrast enhancement. An associated soft tissue mass was present in 15/21 (71.4 %). Clinically, the WBC, ESR, and CRP were elevated in 2/14 (14 %), 8/12 (67 %), and 4/10 (40 %) of cases, respectively. Fever was documented in 1/15 (7 %) patients and pain was reported in 15/15 (100 %).
CONCLUSIONS: The clinical and radiologic features of LCH in the pelvis and extremities overlap with infection and malignancy, but LCH must be considered in the differential diagnosis, as it routinely presents with aggressive MRI features, including endosteal scalloping, periosteal reaction, perilesional edema, and a soft tissue mass. Furthermore, an unknown skeletal lesion at presentation without aggressive MRI features is unlikely to represent LCH.

Preto-Zamperlini M, Weerdenburg K, Zamperlini-Netto G, Fischer JW
Point-of-Care Ultrasound Findings Associated With Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in the Pediatric Emergency Department.
J Ultrasound Med. 2016; 35(2):449-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease characterized by clonal proliferation of Langerhans-type cells, causing local or systemic effects. One of the most affected sites in children is the skull. We describe 2 cases of children presenting to the pediatric emergency department with symptoms isolated to the scalp and the point-of-care focused skull ultrasound findings, which assisted in the diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in both cases.

Agarwal KK, Seth R, Behra A, et al.
18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in Langerhans cell histiocytosis: spectrum of manifestations.
Jpn J Radiol. 2016; 34(4):267-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this article is to provide an illustrative tutorial highlighting the utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging to detect the spectrum of manifestations in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. FDG PET/CT is a powerful tool for making an early diagnosis; it allows higher diagnostic confidence with regard to lesions, measuring the extent of disease (staging) and assessing disease activity, and is consequently useful for evaluating the response to therapy in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

Sadashiva N, Rajalakshmi P, Mahadevan A, et al.
Surgical treatment of Langerhans cell histiocytosis of cervical spine: case report and review of literature.
Childs Nerv Syst. 2016; 32(6):1149-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare condition, and even rare is cervical spine involvement.
CASE REPORT: A 9-year-old girl had neck pain, neck tilt and left upper limb weakness, occasional fever and positive family history of tuberculosis. Imaging showed C5 vertebral body collapse with epidural and prevertebral soft tissue collection causing cord and nerve root compression. The patient underwent C5 corpectomy and fusion. Histopathological was suggestive of LCH. She underwent radiotherapy and was asymptomatic at 1-year follow-up.
CONCLUSION: Despite the rarity of the condition, the possibility of LCH should be considered in such cases. When neurologic deficits are present, operative treatment should be considered.

Gonçalves CF, Morais MO, de Cássia Gonçalves Alencar R, et al.
Solitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis in an adult: case report and literature review.
BMC Res Notes. 2016; 9:19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a disease that often affects children, but can also occur in adults and smokers. Oral manifestations are unusual and are characterized by bone pain, tooth mobility, necrotic ulcers and local edema. The aim of this paper is to describe a clinical case of LCH in an oral cavity that mimicked oral squamous cell carcinoma.
CASE PRESENTATION: A male, 63 years old, complaining about a "wound in the mouth" for 6 months, without any pain or spontaneous bleeding. His medical history was free of disease. The patient was a smoker for 33 years. Intraoral examination revealed a destructive ulcerative lesion around the upper left first and second molars that resembled an oral squamous cell carcinoma. Biopsy of the ulcerative lesion was performed and the microscopic features showed an inflammatory infiltrate rich in plasma cells. Based on this microscopical finding, the final diagnosis was periodontal disease associated with a proliferative non-neoplastic lesion. The patient was referred to a specialized dental surgeon and underwent periodontal therapy including surgical procedures. After that, according to follow-up with the patient, there were no signs of disease remission. The lesion increased in size, although the patient did not complain of any symptoms. A second biopsy was performed and the microscopic features again showed a rich inflammatory infiltrate with mononuclear cells and histiocytic cells, characterized by pale histiocytes with lobed nuclei, resembling a bean. A varying number of eosinophils also were observed, without any evidence of atypical cells present in this infiltrate. An immunohistochemical staining panel was done to determine the nature of this inflammatory infiltrate by using antibodies S-100, CD1a, CD-68 and CD45RO that were positive. These immunohistochemical findings were fundamental for the final diagnosis of LCH. The treatment included surgical extraction of all superior teeth, radiation and systemic corticoid therapies. After 8 years of treatment, the patient is free of disease.
CONCLUSION: Although LCH is an unusual lesion in an oral cavity, it can be present. Biopsy and a histological exam are essential to establish the diagnosis. Immunohistochemicals were fundamental to exclude malignant lesion and to confirm the diagnosis of LCH.

Yang S, Chen X, Zhang J, Fang Q
Isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the sublingual gland in an adult.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(10):13647-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by the proliferation of pathologic Langerhans cells. Its clinical presentation is highly variable, that range from single-system, limited disease to severe, multi-organ disease with high mortality. LCH usually affects children and young adults. The most frequent sites for LCH are the bone, skin, lung, pituitary gland, and lymph nodes. Salivary gland involvement by LCH is extremely rare, and only a few cases of LHC involving the parotid glands have been reported in the English literature. To our knowledge, the involvement of the sublingual gland as a part of single or multisystem LCH has not been previously described. Herein we reported the first case of primary LCH of the sublingual gland. A 40-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of a painless mass on the right sublingual area. Excision of the lesion including the right sublingual gland was performed. Histopathological diagnosis of LCH was rendered. The patient remains free of symptoms 17 months after surgery.

Zhou Y, Li Y, Fan L, Liu S
A solitary pulmonary ground-glass nodule in adult systemic langerhans' cell histiocytosis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(10):13561-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
During a thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan, a 36-year-old male was diagnosed with a solitary oval pulmonary mixed ground-glass nodule in the right upper lobe of the lung. The edge of the nodule was well-defined, and its largest axial size was approximately 1.1 × 0.9 cm(2). This nodule was slightly lobulated, but not obviously speculated. Solid components, micro-cystic lucency shadow, small high-density rings and tiny vascular branches were all visible in the nodule. During hospitalization, a technetium 99 m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99 m MDP) bone scan was performed, which showed a skeletal foci with abnormal uptake in the left iliac. A pulmonary lobectomy of the right upper lobe of the lung by video-assisted thoracoscopy was performed. In post-operative pathological photomicrographs, proliferative Langerhans' cells, eosinophils and lymphocytes were found. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of S-100 protein, CD1a, and CD68 antigen all stained positive. Since Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) that is also associated with isolated mixed ground-glass nodules is relatively rare, such a multi-systemic LCH case as identified herein, is reported.

Cisternino A, Asa'ad F, Fusco N, et al.
Role of multidisciplinary approach in a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis with initial periodontal manifestations.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(10):13539-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare inflammatory myeloid neoplasia of unknown etiology occurring in both children and adults. This condition is characterized by an abnormal proliferation of Langerhans cells that may virtually affect all sites in the human body. Oral manifestations of LCH could be the first clinical sign of disease and its periodontal localization could be easily mistaken for other more common entities, such as chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-years old female visited a private dental practice with a chief complaint of sensitivity in the mandibular left first molar. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed deep periodontal pocket, recession, furcation involvement, mobility, severe alveolar bone destruction and a diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis was rendered. Multiple tooth extractions were carried out due to progressive periodontal destruction with impaired healing and development of ulcerative lesions. Multidisciplinary investigation demonstrated that the periodontal involvement was a manifestation of an underlying systemic disease. A biopsy of a bone lesion was therefore performed, revealing the presence of multifocal single system LCH.
CONCLUSION: The identification of periodontal LCH is not trivial given that it may clinically resemble other periodontal disease entities. The dentist can be the first health care personnel to unravel the presence of an underlying systemic LCH.

Nielsen N, Akalin A, Sirkis HM, Most MJ
Multifocal Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult.
Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2015; 44(12):563-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is the most common and benign form of the spectrum of disorders referred to as Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Langerhans cell histiocytosis is primarily regarded as a pediatric disease, with few adult cases of multifocal EG of bone reported. We report a case of multifocal EG in a 48-year-old woman, who presented with right knee pain. Radiographs showed a small lytic lesion in the medial femoral condyle. Diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound-guided biopsy. She had had a previous EG lesion excised from her skull. Whole-body bone scan demonstrated a new skull lesion in the right diploic space, which was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. The patient underwent curettage, bone grafting, and prophylactic internal fixation of the right distal femur lesion. The skull lesion was treated with repeat craniectomy. Two years later, she developed a new lesion in the right distal femoral metaphysis, which was treated with intralesional corticosteroid injections. Now, more than 1 year later, the patient is pain-free with no evidence of new or recurrent disease. Because multifocal EG is a rare diagnosis in adults, appropriate clinical suspicion, in combination with radiographic findings and histologic examination, is essential for correct diagnosis and treatment.

Abla O, Weitzman S
Treatment of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: role of BRAF/MAPK inhibition.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2015; 2015:565-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonally derived neoplasm with a highly variable clinical course. Although LCH was once considered a disorder of immune regulation, the identification of activating mutations in the proto-oncogene BRAF-V600E in ~50%-60% of cases and MEK and ERK phosphorylation in 100% of examined cases, has changed the definition of LCH to a dendritic cell neoplasm with a strong inflammatory component. Current international LCH trials are focused on further improving the outcome of high-risk multisystem LCH patients, by decreasing the reactivation rate, optimizing early salvage regimens, and preventing late sequelae. Anecdotal responses to vemurafenib, a BRAF-V600E inhibitor, have been reported in a few cases of LCH and Erdheim-Chester disease. However, the development of resistance, as well as the potential risks of cutaneous and pancreatic cancers in patients with BRAF-V600E-mutated melanoma treated with single inhibitors, suggest the need for prospective trials with BRAF inhibitors, alone or in combination with other inhibitors of this pathway, for patients with refractory or multiply-relapsed LCH. The recent discovery of somatic mutations in ARAF and in MAP2K1, which lead to activation of the RAS-RAF-MEK -ERK pathway in the setting of wild-type BRAF, as well as the finding that activating mutation in MAP2K1 are relatively insensitive to MEK inhibitors, suggest that a more detailed understanding of this pathway in LCH may be necessary for the development of more effective targeted therapies.

Allen CE, Parsons DW
Biological and clinical significance of somatic mutations in Langerhans cell histiocytosis and related histiocytic neoplastic disorders.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2015; 2015:559-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG), and Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) represent histiocytic disorders with a wide range of clinical manifestations. Until recently, mechanisms of pathogenesis have been speculative and debate has focused on classification of these conditions as reactive versus neoplastic. Genomic studies have been challenged by scarce tissue specimens, as well as heterogeneous nature of the lesions with variable infiltration of pathologic histiocytes. Whole-exome sequencing recently revealed a very low frequency of somatic mutations in LCH, JXG, and ECD compared to other neoplastic disorders. However, at least in the cases of LCH and ECD, there is a very high frequency of activating mutations in MAPK pathway genes, most notably BRAF-V600E, as well as MAP2K1, in LCH and NRAS in ECD. In ECD, recurrent mutations in the PI3K pathway gene PIK3CA have also been described. The heterogeneous clinical manifestations of these disorders may therefore be the cumulative result of activation of MAPK mutations (along with modifying signals from other pathways) at distinct stages of myeloid differentiation. Implications of this model include redefinition of LCH, JXG, and ECD as a group of clinically diverse myeloid neoplastic disorders with a common mechanism of pathogenesis. This model supports refocusing therapeutic strategies for these diseases on a personalized approach based on specific mutations and the cell(s) of origin.

Das DK, Sheikh ZA, Alansary TA, et al.
A case of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma: Fine-needle aspiration cytologic and histopathological features.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2016; 44(2):128-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) can be associated with a variety of malignant neoplasms, the most common being malignant lymphoma, especially Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). In this report, we describe the fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic features of a case with concurrent LCH and HL in a lymph node. A 20-year-old man presented with an enlarged left upper cervical lymph node. FNA smears from the swelling revealed numerous CD1a+ and S-100+ Langerhans-type cells (LCs) along with many eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes; there were also large atypical cells with enlarged nuclei having prominent nucleoli. The cytodiagnosis was LCH and the possibility of association with or trans-differentiation into a lymphoma was suggested. The histopathological diagnosis of the excised left cervical lymph node was classical HL-nodular sclerosis type (CHL-NS) with LCH. The lacunar type Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells were positive for CD30 and CD15, and the LCs were positive for CD1a and S-100 protein. PET/CT imaging demonstrated hypermetabolic lymph nodes in neck, abdomen, thorax and pelvis as well as pulmonary nodules and a splenic mass. The patient received 13 courses of chemotherapy and two years later, the enhanced CT revealed regressive course of the disease.

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