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Czech Republic

Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 10.6m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 57,600
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 293.8
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:29.3%
People dying from cancer /yr: 26,900
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Czech Cancer Organisations
Major Cancer Centres
Latest Research Publications from the Czech Republic

Czech Cancer Organisations (9 links)


Major Cancer Centres (4 links)


Latest Research Publications from the Czech Republic

Fiala O, Pesek M, Skrickova J, et al.
Thyroid transcription factor 1 expression is associated with outcome of patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer treated with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317691186 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pemetrexed is an antifolate cytostatic agent targeting several folate-dependent enzymatic pathways, widely used in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic stage non-small cell lung cancer. Aside from the non-squamous histology, there is still no available molecular biomarker predicting treatment efficacy of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the association of thyroid transcription factor 1 expression with outcome of a large cohort of patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer treated with pemetrexed. We retrospectively analysed clinical data of 463 patients with advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (IIIB or IV) treated with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy. Thyroid transcription factor 1 expression was assessed using indirect immunohistochemical detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour tissue at the time of diagnosis. Thyroid transcription factor 1 expression was detected in the tumour tissue from 76.0% of patients, and tumours from 24.0% of patients were thyroid transcription factor 1 negative. The median progression-free survival and overall survival for patients with thyroid transcription factor 1 positive tumours were 4.8 and 11.8 months compared to 2.8 and 8.3 months for those with thyroid transcription factor 1 negative tumours (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001). The multivariable Cox proportional hazards model revealed that thyroid transcription factor 1 expression was significantly associated with progression-free survival (hazard ratio = 1.57, p < 0.001) and also with overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.73, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the results of the conducted retrospective study suggest that the thyroid transcription factor 1 expression was independently associated with progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with advanced-stage non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer treated with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy.

Živný JH, Leahomschi S, Klener P, et al.
Comparison of Plasma Osteopontin Levels between Patients with Borderline Ovarian Tumours and Serous Ovarian Carcinoma.
Folia Biol (Praha). 2016; 62(6):258-262 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteopontin (OPN) is a novel biomarker of various cancers including ovarian carcinoma. OPN is a promising adjunct to a major biomarker of ovarian cancer, CA125, in diagnosis, differential diagnosis and prognosis. The aim of our study was to measure the plasma level of OPN and CA125 in patients with borderline ovarian tumours (BOTs), serous ovarian carcinoma, and controls to determine its potential role in the differential diagnosis between serous ovarian carcinoma and BOT. The plasma samples of 66 women were analysed using Luminex technology, designed to simultaneously measure multiple specific protein targets. The mean OPN plasma level for the control group was 23.3 ng/ml; for BOT 26.3 ng/ml; and for patients with serous ovarian carcinoma 59.5 ng/ml. Specifically, there was a significant difference between the OPN levels in patients with ovarian carcinoma and BOT (P < 0.001) as well as controls (P < 0.001). There was no difference between the mean levels of OPN in patients with BOT and the control group (P = 0.286). Using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC), we determined the utility of OPN and CA125 to differentiate between BOT and serous ovarian carcinoma. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for OPN was 0.793 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.669-0.917, P < 0.001) and for CA125 0.766 (95% CI 0.626-0.907, P = 0.002). Based on our data, we suggest that OPN can be used as a possible differential diagnostic biomarker to distinguish between malignant serous ovarian carcinoma and BOT.

Vonka V, Petráčková M, Humlová Z, et al.
The Relationship of Kynurenine and Neopterin Levels and Their Association with a Selection of Other Immune Markers in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia Patients.
Folia Biol (Praha). 2016; 62(6):235-240 [PubMed] Related Publications
Among malignant diseases, chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is one of the best suited candidates for immunotherapy. For this purpose it is necessary to broaden the present knowledge on the immunology of this disease. As a part of such a project, the levels of kynurenine (KYN) and neopterin (NPT) were studied in 28 CML patients and in the same number of healthy subjects. At diagnosis, both KYN and NPT levels were found to be elevated in a significant portion of the patients and dependent on their leukocyte count. As in the case of KYN, increased NPT levels dropped after achieving remission. When correlating KYN and NPT levels with a selection of other markers tested, significant association was revealed only in the case of CRP and IL-6. However, there were several patients with increased KYN levels in whom NPT was not detected, and vice versa. The relapse of the disease observed in two patients was accompanied by an increased level of NPT in both cases, but by an increased level of KYN in only one of them. No significant correlation was found between KYN and NPT levels in sera taken at diagnosis. However, when the whole set of sera was taken into consideration, the association became statistically significant. Although the data obtained revealed a number of similarities between KYN and NPT production in CML patients, it also suggested a difference in the kinetics of these two biomarkers' production.

Vrana D, Matzenauer M, Aujesky R, et al.
Potential Predictive Role of MicroRNAs in the Neoadjuvant Treatment of Esophageal Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):403-412 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal cancer is a disease with disappointing prognosis. Currently, there are no predictive factors that can identify patients who on the one hand would likely benefit from tri-modality management and, on the other hand, would not be significantly affected by the morbidity accompanying the treatment. MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs responsible for post-transcriptional modification of gene expression by binding to 3'-UTR of messenger RNA and represent emerging potential predictive biomarkers of treatment (chemotherapy and radiotherapy) efficacy and toxicity. We reviewed the current literature, addressing the potential predictive role of microRNAs for efficacy of chemotherapy (specifically cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin and paclitaxel) and radiotherapy, including predicted targets in the cell. Altogether 82 articles were identified and included in this review. This may be the first review on this topic specifically focusing on neoadjuvant treatment of esophageal cancer.

Duricova D
What Can We Learn from Epidemiological Studies in Inflammatory Bowel Disease?
Dig Dis. 2017; 35(1-2):69-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Population-based studies represent the whole spectrum of patient population and should represent the mainstay when evaluating patients' prognosis. A high number of CD patients need surgical intervention during the disease course. The disease course of inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is quite varied and still quite unpredictable. Key Messages: According to earlier studies, up to 60% of patients undergo at least one operation after 10 years of CD duration. Newer cohorts report lower cumulative probability of surgery of approximately 40% after 10 years. The colectomy rate in UC is approximately 10% after 10 years from diagnosis with a geographic difference. Similarly to CD, the colectomy rate seems to decrease over time. There is some evidence that the increasing use of immunosuppressive and/or biological therapy might have been responsible for this favourable trend. However, other factors may have an impact on decreasing surgical trend over time. The relative risk (RR) of colorectal cancer (CRC) in UC is approximately doubled compared to background population. However, the absolute risk in general is relatively low between 1.1 and 5.3% after 20 years of disease duration. Furthermore, a decreasing trend in the incidence of CRC has been reported in recent studies. Importantly, several factors such as disease extent, activity, age at UC onset, and so on may increase/modify an individual risk. Similar to UC, CD patients have approximately 2 times higher RR of cancer compared to background population. The risk is higher for colon than for rectum cancer and present only in CD patients with colonic involvement.
CONCLUSIONS: The surgery rate in CD has decreased over the time period. The evidence on colectomy rate in UC is less conclusive. The RR of CRC in UC and CD is approximately doubled compared to that of the background population, but it seems to be decreasing in more recent cohorts.

Čada Z, Balatková Z, Chovanec M, et al.
Vertigo Perception and Quality of Life in Patients after Surgical Treatment of Vestibular Schwannoma with Pretreatment Prehabituation by Chemical Vestibular Ablation.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:6767216 [PubMed] Related Publications
Surgical removal of vestibular schwannoma causes acute vestibular symptoms, including postoperative vertigo and oscillopsia due to nystagmus. In general, the dominant symptom postoperatively is vertigo. Preoperative chemical vestibular ablation can reduce vestibular symptoms postoperatively. We used 1.0 mL of 40 mg/mL nonbuffered gentamicin in three intratympanic installations over 2 days, 2 months preoperatively in 10 patients. Reduction of vestibular function was measured by the head impulse test and the caloric test. Reduction of vestibular function was found in all gentamicin patient groups. After gentamicin vestibular ablation, patients underwent home vestibular exercising for two months. The control group consisted of 10 patients who underwent only home vestibular training two months preoperatively. Postoperative rates of recovery and vertigo in both groups were evaluated with the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI), the Glasgow Health Status Inventory (GHSI), and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory questionnaires, as well as survey of visual symptoms by specific questionnaire developed by us. There were no statistically significant differences between both groups with regard to the results of questionnaires. Patients who received preoperative gentamicin were more resilient to optokinetic and optic flow stimulation (p < 0.05). This trial is registered with clinical study registration number NCT02963896.

Vejvodova S, Spidlen V, Mukensnabl P, et al.
Solitary Fibrous Tumor - Less Common Neoplasms of the Pleural Cavity.
Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017; 23(1):12-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) represent a heterogeneous group of primary pleural neoplasms with a low incidence rate and of which the biological origin, which consists of mesenchymal cells, is uncertain.
METHODS: The authors present herewith a retrospective analysis of 22 patients with SFTs who were diagnosed and surgically treated between the years 2000-2015. The preoperative tumors were successfully verified morphologically by transthoracic core needle biopsy under CT control in 27.3% of patients. Surgical approaches were either posterolateral thoracotomy or videothoracoscopy. The follow-up median was 45 months (range 1-188 months).
RESULTS: Twenty tumors were surgically removed radically, two tumors were found to be unresectable due to the considerable tumor size. From histological point of view 81.8% of tumors were SFT with low malignant potential, 18.2% of tumors with high malignant potential. Despite the radical extirpation of the SFT, it relapsed in two patients.
CONCLUSION: The gold standard of SFT treatment is radical surgical removal; however, patients at risk of recurrence require additional follow-ups. The results of adjuvant therapy in recurrent and malignant forms of SFTs are the subject of discussion and further study.

Polivka J, Polivka J, Holubec L, et al.
Advances in Experimental Targeted Therapy and Immunotherapy for Patients with Glioblastoma Multiforme.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(1):21-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents the most malignant primary brain tumor in adults with generally dismal prognosis, early clinical deterioration and high mortality. GBM is extremely invasive, characterized by intense and aberrant vascularization and high resistance to multimodal treatment. Standard therapy (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy with temozolomide) has very limited effectiveness, with median overall survival of patients no longer than 15 months. Progress in genetics and epigenetics of GBM over the past decade has revealed various aberrations in cellular signaling pathways, the tumor microenvironment, and pathological angiogenesis. A number of targeted anticancer drugs, such as small-molecule kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, have been evaluated in clinical trials with newly-diagnosed, as well as recurrent GBM. Unfortunately, to date, only a single anti-angiogenic agent, bevacizumab, has been approved for the treatment of recurrent GBM in the USA and Canada. The novel possibilities of cancer immunotherapy, especially immune checkpoint inhibitors, are being evaluated in clinical trials of patients with GBM. The most recent clinical experiences with targeted therapy as well as immunotherapy of GBM are given in this review. The relative lack of success of some of these approaches recently revealed in well-designed randomized clinical trials is also discussed.

Kramář F, Minárik M, Benešová L, et al.
IDH1/2 Mutation and MGMT Promoter Methylation - the Relevant Survival Predictors in Czech Patients with Brain Gliomas.
Folia Biol (Praha). 2016; 62(5):194-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gliomas are a heterogeneous group of tumours varying in prognosis, treatment approach, and overall survival. Recently, novel markers have been identified which are linked to patient prognosis and therapeutic response. Especially the mutation of the enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1/2) gene and the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status seem to be the most important predictors of survival. From 2012 to 2015, 94 Czech patients with primary brain tumours were enrolled into the study. The IDH1/2 mutation was detected by denaturing capillary electrophores.The methylation status of the MGMT gene and other 46 genes was revealed by MS-MLPA. In all 94 patients, the clinical data were correlated with molecular markers by Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox regression model. The MGMT promoter methylation status was established and compared to clinical data. In our study eight different probes were used to elucidate the MGMT methylation status; hypermethylation was proclaimed if four and more probes were positive. This 3 : 5 ratio was tested and confirmed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox analyses. The study confirmed the importance of the IDH1/2 mutation and hypermethylation of the MGMT gene promoter being present in tumour tissue. Both markers are independent positive survival predictors; in the Cox model the IDH hazard ratio was 0.10 and in the case of MGMT methylation it reached 0.32. The methylation analysis of the panel of additional 46 genes did not reveal any other significant epigenetic markers; none of the candidate genes have been confirmed in the Cox regression analyses as an independent prognostic factor.

Vellani C, Hodolič M, Chytiris S, et al.
Early and Delayed 18F-FCH PET/CT Imaging in Parathyroid Adenomas.
Clin Nucl Med. 2017; 42(2):143-144 [PubMed] Related Publications
Preoperative localization with Tc-sestaMIBI or ultrasound is a common prerequisite for successful minimally invasive parathyroid adenoma (PA) surgery. SPECT/CT with Tc-sestaMIBI and PET/CT with F-FCH offer the possibility of attenuation correction and coregistration of functional and anatomical images providing more accurate PA localization. F-FCH PET/CT is used predominantly in patients with prostate cancer and is under investigation in PA. We report the case of a 43-year-old man with early FCH uptake in a cystic PA with delayed washout at 60 minutes.

Lukesova L, Vrana D, Svach I, et al.
Prognostic Influence of Internal Mammary Node Drainage in Patients with Early-stage Breast Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(12):6641-6646 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The management of internal mammary nodes (IMNs) during multidisciplinary treatment of breast cancer has been debated for the last four decades without unequivocal conclusion.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with breast cancer who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy at our center from 2008 until 2012. IMN drainage was assessed as a potential risk factor for local and distant disease recurrence.
RESULTS: We identified 712 patients, with incidence of drainage to IMNs of 18.4%. No detrimental effect of the pattern of drainage to IMNs was found after a median follow-up of 58 months. A similar outcome was observed when drainage to IMNs was evaluated as a risk factor for patient survival. The potential risk factors for drainage to IMNs during sentinel lymph node biopsy were younger age (p=0.002) and tumor location in lower-outer, lower-inner, and upper-inner versus upper-outer quadrant (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSION: The drainage to IMNs is unlikely to have a detrimental effect on patient outcome.

Iliev R, Fedorko M, Machackova T, et al.
Expression Levels of PIWI-interacting RNA, piR-823, Are Deregulated in Tumor Tissue, Blood Serum and Urine of Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(12):6419-6423 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common neoplasm of adult kidney accounting for about 3% of adult malignancies. P-Element induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a new class of naturally occurring, short non-coding RNAs involved in silencing of transposable elements and in sequence-specific chromatin modifications. There were preliminary data published indicating that piR-823 expression is deregulated in circulating tumor cells and tumor tissue in gastric and kidney cancer, respectively.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In our study, we analyzed piR-823 levels in 588 biological specimens: tumor tissue (N=153), adjacent renal parenchyma (N=121), blood serum (N=178) and urine (N=20) of patients undergoing nephrectomy for RCC; and in blood serum (N=101) and urine (N=15) of matched healthy controls. Expression levels of piR-823 were determined in all biological specimens by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, compared in patients and controls, and correlated with clinicopathological features of RCC.
RESULTS: We identified a significant down-regulation of piR-823 in tumor tissue [p<0.0001, area under the curve (AUC)=0.7945]. On the contrary in blood serum and urine, the expression of piR-823 was significantly higher in patients with RCC compared to healthy individuals (p=0.0005, AUC=0.6264 and p=0.0157, AUC=0.7433, respectively). We further observed higher levels of piR-823 in tumor tissue to be associated with shorter disease-free survival of patients (p=0.0186) and a trend for higher piR-823 levels in serum to be associated with advanced clinical stages of RCC (p=0.0691). There were no other significant associations of piR-823 levels in any type of biological specimen with clinicopathological features of RCC.
CONCLUSION: piR-823 is down-regulated in tumor tissue, but positively correlated with worse outcome, indicating its complex role in RCC pathogenesis. In blood serum, piR-823 is up-regulated, but with unsatisfactory analytical performance. Preliminary data indicate the promising diagnostic utility of urinary piR-823 in patients with RCC.

Malikova H, Koubska E, Weichet J, et al.
Can morphological MRI differentiate between primary central nervous system lymphoma and glioblastoma?
Cancer Imaging. 2016; 16(1):40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare, aggressive brain neoplasm that accounts for roughly 2-6% of primary brain tumors. In contrast, glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and severe glioma subtype, accounting for approximately 50% of diffuse gliomas. The aim of the present study was to evaluate morphological MRI characteristics in histologically-proven PCNSL and GBM at the time of their initial presentation.
METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated standard diagnostic MRI examinations in 54 immunocompetent patients (26 female, 28 male; age 62.6 ± 11.5 years) with histologically-proven PCNSL and 54 GBM subjects (21 female, 33 male; age 59 ± 14 years).
RESULTS: Several significant differences between both infiltrative brain tumors were found. PCNSL lesions enhanced homogenously in 64.8% of cases, while nonhomogeneous enhancement was observed in 98.1% of GBM cases. Necrosis was present in 88.9% of GBM lesions and only 5.6% of PCNSL lesions. PCNSL presented as multiple lesions in 51.9% cases and in 35.2% of GBM cases; however, diffuse infiltrative type of brain involvement was observed only in PCNSL (24.1%). Optic pathways were infiltrated more commonly in PCNSL than in GBM (42.6% vs. 5.6%, respectively, p <0.001). Other cranial nerves were affected in 5.6% of PCNSL, and in none of GBM. Signs of bleeding were rare in PCNSL (5.6%) and common in GBM (44.4%); p < 0.001. Both supratentorial and infratentorial localization was present only in PCNSL (27.7%). Involvement of the basal ganglia was more common in PCNSL (55.6%) than in GBM (18.5%); (p < 0.001). Cerebral cortex was affected significantly more often in GBM (83.3%) than in PCNSL (51.9%); mostly by both enhancing and non-enhancing infiltration.
CONCLUSION: Routine morphological MRI is capable of differentiating between GBM and PCNSL lesions in many cases at time of initial presentation. A solitary infiltrative supratentorial lesion with nonhomogeneous enhancement and necrosis was typical for GBM. PCNSL presented with multiple lesions that enhanced homogenously or as diffuse infiltrative type of brain involvement, often with basal ganglia and optic pathways affection.

Kacerovska D, Drlik L, Slezakova L, et al.
Cutaneous Sebaceous Lesions in a Patient With MUTYH-Associated Polyposis Mimicking Muir-Torre Syndrome.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2016; 38(12):915-923 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 76-year-old white male with a history of adenocarcinoma of the rectosigmoideum and multiple colonic polyps removed at the age of 38 and 39 years by an abdominoperitoneal amputation and total colectomy, respectively, presented with multiple whitish and yellowish papules on the face and a verrucous lesion on the trunk. The lesions were surgically removed during the next 3 years and a total of 13 lesions were investigated histologically. The diagnoses included 11 sebaceous adenomas, 1 low-grade sebaceous carcinoma, and 1 squamous cell carcinoma. In some sebaceous lesions, squamous metaplasia, intratumoral heterogeneity, mucinous changes, and peritumoral lymphocytes as sometimes seen in sebaceous lesions in Muir-Torre syndrome were noted. Mutation analysis of the peripheral blood revealed a germline mutation c.692G>A,p.(Arg231His) in exon 9 and c.1145G>A, p.(Gly382Asp) in exon 13 of the MUTYH gene. A KRAS mutation G12C (c.34G>T, p.Gly12Cys) was detected in 1 sebaceous adenoma and a NRAS mutation Q61K (c.181C>A, p.Gln61Lys) was found in 2 other sebaceous adenomas. No germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 genes, no microsatellite instability, no aberrant methylation of MLH1 promoter, and no somatic mutations in MSH2 and MSH6 were found. An identical MUTYH germline mutation was found in the patient's daughter. Despite striking clinicopathological similarities with Muir-Torre syndrome, the molecular biologic testing confirmed the final diagnosis of MUTYH-associated polyposis.

Koubska E, Weichet J, Malikova H
Central nervous system lymphoma: a morphological MRI study.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2016; 37(4):318-324 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate morphological MRI findings in histologically-proven central nervous system lymphoma (CNSL) at time of their first appearance, and to describe dynamic changes on repeat MRI before the diagnosis was histologically proven.
METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the MRI examinations of 74 patients with histologically-proven CNSL (10 secondary CNSL, 64 primary PCNSL; 10 immunocompromised, 54 immunocompetent). In 43 patients, we evaluated the evolution of CNSL on MRI before the diagnosis was proven.
RESULTS: Primary CNSL was typically localized supratentorially (63%), with multiple (59%) or infiltrative (36%) lesions showing diffusion restriction (98%), often (87%) reaching the brain surface. In approximately 50% of patients, meningeal, ependymal or cranial nerve involvement was found. We detected significant differences in enhancement patterns between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients; non-homogenous enhancement present in 50% of immunocompromised patients. We did not find any significant differences in MRI appearance between primary and secondary CNSL. Regression was evident after corticosteroid treatment in 52% of patients; however, in 16% of cases overall progression was observed.
CONCLUSION: CNSL generally presents as an infiltrative lesion or multiple homogenously-enhancing lesions of the brain in contact with the brain surface. Involvement of the corpus callosum, cranial nerves, ependyma or meninges is common. No significant differences between primary and secondary CNSL were detected, however differences in enhancement type between immunocompromised and immunocompetent primary CNSL patients were found. We stress the variability of MRI findings in the course of the disease and also the variable response to corticotherapy.

Hubacek M, Kripnerova T, Nemcikova M, et al.
Odontogenic keratocysts in the Basal Cell Nevus (Gorlin-Goltz) Syndrome associated with paresthesia of the lower jaw: Case report, retrospective analysis of a representative Czech cohort and recommendations for the early diagnosis.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2016; 37(4):269-276 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Identification of early presenting signs of the Basal Cell Nevus (BCNS; synonyme Gorlin-Goltz) syndrome, which is associated with a principal triad of multiple basal cell nevi, jaw odontogenic keratocysts, and skeletal anomalies, in stomatological and neurological practices. Proposal of multidisciplinary diagnostic algorithm comprising other medical specialists, including pathology, imaging, laboratory and molecular analyses based on the study outcomes.
DESIGN: Case report of a male patient reporting paresthesia of their lower jaw, with right facial asymmetry (maxilla and mandible) and radiological detection of large osteolytic lesions in both jaws, including a retrospective analysis of a representative Czech cohort with BCNS from within the last decade.
SETTING: Clinical, imaging and laboratory analyses were carried out at a national tertiary centre.
RESULTS: A multidisciplinary clinical approach followed by surgical management lead to the identification of odontogenic cysts, which were substantiated by histological examination. DNA sequencing of the PTCH1 gene detected a c.2929dupT resulting in p. Tyr977Leufs*16 pathogenic variant. This finding confirmed the clinical and laboraoty diagnosis of BCNS. Parental DNA analysis showed that this causal genetic defect arose de novo. Surgical management and orthodontic therapy were successful.
CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the reported case and retrospective data analysis provided evidence that paresthesia of the lower jaw should be considered as one of the early presenting signs of this rare disorder in stomatological and neurological practice. Obtained results allowed us to formulate recommendations for diagnostic practice in stomatology and neurology.

Pencak M, Krasny J, Veith M, Vokrojova M
Macular telangiectasia type 2 accompanied by solitary retinal astrocytic hamartoma (case report).
BMC Ophthalmol. 2016; 16(1):200 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To present a coincidence of macular telangiectasia type 2 and solitary retinal astrocytic hamartoma in one patient.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old woman was examined in the Department of Ophthalmology of University hospital Kralovske Vinohrady for complaints of metamorphopsia in her left eye. Her uncorrected visual acuity (VA) was 4/4 on Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study charts (ETDRS), on the retina of her left eye white, prominent, partially calcified tumour 1 disc diameter in diameter, 1,5 disc diameter from the foveola was detected on the retina. In the macular region of both eyes, parafoveal greying with crystalline deposits and changes in retinal vasculature were visible. We performed following examinations: fluorescein angiography (FA), B-scan ultrasound, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) including photo documentation. FA showed partial hyperfluorescence of mulberry-like surface of the tumour typical for retinal astrocytic hamartoma. Parafoveally in both eyes, leakage from parafoveal telangiectasia was apparent. SD-OCT showed cystoid space in the macular region of both eyes as well as changes in inner and outer photoreceptor segment junction in left eye. SD-OCT of the tumour showed proliferation in retinal nerve fibre layer with normal structure of underlying retinal layers and choroid. Ultrasound examination of the tumour detected solid, highly echogenic prominent tumour with high reflectivity and acoustic shadow.
CONCLUSION: A coincidence of two relatively rare clinical units, macular telangiectasia type 2 and solitary astrocytic hamartoma was detected as a unique and rare observation.

Holubova M, Miklikova M, Leba M, et al.
Cryopreserved NK cells in the treatment of haematological malignancies: preclinical study.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(12):2561-2567 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Leukaemia is an aggressive cancer of haematopoiesis. Despite increasing treatment success, the relapse rate is still high. Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in the immune response to malignancies; thus, it is conceivable that NK cell-based immunotherapy may control relapses, while extending the disease-free survival. In our study, we investigated whether cryopreserved NK cells are able to kill the leukaemic K562 cell line, the necessity of IL-2 co-application and the association of activation marker expression (NKp44, NKG2D and CD25) with cytotoxic potential.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: K562 cells were added to NK cell cultures in different ratios, i.e. 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20 (K562/NK), immediately after thawing NK cells or after 3-6-12-24 h of re-cultivation with or without IL-2.
RESULTS: Our results demonstrated the ability of cryopreserved NK cells to kill K562 in all ratios, times and culture conditions. The number of dead K562 cells depended on the number of NK cells and on the presence of IL-2. NK cells cytotoxic potential decreased gradually in the culture without IL-2. In contrast, NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity remained the same during the entire re-culture period after IL-2 re-application.
CONCLUSION: Our study proved the efficacy of using cryopreserved ready-for-use NK cells in relapse treatment and the need for simultaneous administration of IL-2.

Tesarova P
Specific Aspects of Breast Cancer Therapy of Elderly Women.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:1381695 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women, and its incidence increases with age. The average age at diagnosis is 61 years, and the majority of deaths occurs after the age of 65 years. Optimal approach to elderly women with breast cancer is still a major challenge. Elderly patients with cancer should have at least a brief geriatric assessment to detect potentially treatable problems not always adequately evaluated by the oncologists. Therapeutic nihilism should be avoided and effective treatment provided, unless there are compelling reasons against it. Sharing the care for the patient with geriatricians or primary care physicians trained in geriatrics should be considered for all vulnerable and frail elderly patients.

Hortobagyi GN, Stemmer SM, Burris HA, et al.
Ribociclib as First-Line Therapy for HR-Positive, Advanced Breast Cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(18):1738-1748 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background The inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) could potentially overcome or delay resistance to endocrine therapy in advanced breast cancer that is positive for hormone receptor (HR) and negative for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Methods In this randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the selective CDK4/6 inhibitor ribociclib combined with letrozole for first-line treatment in 668 postmenopausal women with HR-positive, HER2-negative recurrent or metastatic breast cancer who had not received previous systemic therapy for advanced disease. We randomly assigned the patients to receive either ribociclib (600 mg per day on a 3-weeks-on, 1-week-off schedule) plus letrozole (2.5 mg per day) or placebo plus letrozole. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival, overall response rate, and safety. A preplanned interim analysis was performed on January 29, 2016, after 243 patients had disease progression or died. Prespecified criteria for superiority required a hazard ratio of 0.56 or less with P<1.29×10(-5). Results The duration of progression-free survival was significantly longer in the ribociclib group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.72; P=3.29×10(-6) for superiority). The median duration of follow-up was 15.3 months. After 18 months, the progression-free survival rate was 63.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.6 to 70.3) in the ribociclib group and 42.2% (95% CI, 34.8 to 49.5) in the placebo group. In patients with measurable disease at baseline, the overall response rate was 52.7% and 37.1%, respectively (P<0.001). Common grade 3 or 4 adverse events that were reported in more than 10% of the patients in either group were neutropenia (59.3% in the ribociclib group vs. 0.9% in the placebo group) and leukopenia (21.0% vs. 0.6%); the rates of discontinuation because of adverse events were 7.5% and 2.1%, respectively. Conclusions Among patients receiving initial systemic treatment for HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer, the duration of progression-free survival was significantly longer among those receiving ribociclib plus letrozole than among those receiving placebo plus letrozole, with a higher rate of myelosuppression in the ribociclib group. (Funded by Novartis Pharmaceuticals; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01958021 .).

Karas M, Steinerova K, Lysak D, et al.
Pre-transplant Quantitative Determination of NPM1 Mutation Significantly Predicts Outcome of AIlogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Normal Karyotype AML in Complete Remission.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(10):5487-5498 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Minimal residual disease (MRD) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) can influence the results of therapy. With the aim of evaluating the potential role of pre-transplant MRD, we studied the impact of pre-transplant MRD level on the outcome of alloHSCT in patients with AML in complete remission (CR).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 2/2005 to 9/2014, 60 patients with a median age of 54 years (range=30-66 years) with normal karyotype-AML harboring nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) mutation [53% Fms-related tyrosine kinase receptor 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3/ITD)-positive] in first (n=45) or second (n=15) CR underwent myeloablative (n=16) or reduced-intensity (n=44) alloHSCT (27% related, 73% unrelated). The MRD level was determined from bone marrow samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of NPM1 mutations before starting the conditioning regimen.
RESULTS: The estimated probabilities of 3-year relapse, event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for the whole cohort were 28%, 54%, and 59%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that only age over 63 years and high MRD level affected alloHSCT outcome. Pre-transplant MRD level of 10 mutant copies of NPM1 per 10,000 Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (ABL) copies had the strongest statistical significance, and detection of higher MRD level (>10 NPM1-mutant copies) before alloHSCT was associated with increased overall mortality (hazard ratio=3.71; 95% confidence interval=1.55-9.06; p=0.004). The estimated probabilities of 3-year relapse, EFS, and OS were 6%, 72%, and 75% for patients with a low level of MRD and 48%, 35%, and 40% for patients with a higher level.
CONCLUSION: Our data showed that the pre-transplant level of MRD in patients with normal karyotype AML harboring NPM1 mutation in CR provides important prognostic information, which as an independent prognostic factor predicts transplant results.

Sarlinova M, Halasa M, Mistuna D, et al.
miR-21, miR-221 and miR-150 Are Deregulated in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Colorectal Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(10):5449-5454 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Aim of this study was to evaluate the expression levels of miR-21, miR-221, miR-150, let-7a and miR-126a in peripheral blood of 71 patients with colorectal cancer and 80 matched healthy control individuals. We determined expression levels of these microRNAs in peripheral blood samples and used small nucleolar RNA (RNU48) as an internal control. Expression levels of miR-21 (p<0.0001) and miR-221 (p<0.0001) were significantly higher, whereas expression levels of miR-150 (p=0.0054) were significantly lower in the blood samples of patients with colorectal cancer in comparison to the control group. The combination of these three microRNAs enabled us to distinguish patients with colorectal cancer from healthy donors with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 74% (p<0.0001). We did not observe any correlation of the studied microRNAs with clinicopathological features of colorectal cancer, indicating that expression of these microRNAs is more likely related to the host response to the tumour than the tumour itself.

Smetana K, Lacina L, Szabo P, et al.
Ageing as an Important Risk Factor for Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(10):5009-5017 [PubMed] Related Publications
An ageing population is a typical feature of many developed countries across the world. Analyzed from a biomedical and philosophical point of view, this phenomenon is also a potential risk factor for social sustainability of communities. The association between ageing and cancer seems to be more than apparent. Therefore, the further increase of epidemic-like incidence of malignant tumors in a population can be expected in the near future. Elderly people usually suffer from age-dependent diseases, and such polymorbidity can seriously affect the treatment of malignant tumors. Such an impending situation may be associated with multiple medical, social and economic issues. This article summarizes data about the possible molecular mechanism influencing rapid spreading of tumors in the elderly population. Reduction of the activity of DNA repair machinery is a likely genetic cause. Besides this, even epigenetic mechanisms can influence this process. In this context, the role of cancer stroma in controlling multiple biological properties of tumors is a prospective target for translational research with potential therapeutic outcomes.

Ohtsuka M, Ling H, Ivan C, et al.
H19 Noncoding RNA, an Independent Prognostic Factor, Regulates Essential Rb-E2F and CDK8-β-Catenin Signaling in Colorectal Cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 13:113-124 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The clinical significance of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely unexplored. Here, we analyzed a large panel of lncRNA candidates with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) CRC dataset, and identified H19 as the most significant lncRNA associated with CRC patient survival. We further validated such association in two independent CRC cohorts. H19 silencing blocked G1-S transition, reduced cell proliferation, and inhibited cell migration. We profiled gene expression changes to gain mechanism insight of H19 function. Transcriptome data analysis revealed not only previously identified mechanisms such as Let-7 regulation by H19, but also RB1-E2F1 function and β-catenin activity as essential upstream regulators mediating H19 function. Our experimental data showed that H19 affects phosphorylation of RB1 protein by regulating gene expression of CDK4 and CCND1. We further demonstrated that reduced CDK8 expression underlies changes of β-catenin activity, and identified that H19 interacts with macroH2A, an essential regulator of CDK8 gene transcription. However, the relevance of H19-macroH2A interaction in CDK8 regulation remains to be experimentally determined. We further explored the clinical relevance of above mechanisms in clinical samples, and showed that combined analysis of H19 with its targets improved prognostic value of H19 in CRC.

Bubendorf L, Büttner R, Al-Dayel F, et al.
Testing for ROS1 in non-small cell lung cancer: a review with recommendations.
Virchows Arch. 2016; 469(5):489-503 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Rearrangements of the ROS1 gene occur in 1-2 % of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Crizotinib, a highly effective inhibitor of ROS1 kinase activity, is now FDA-approved for the treatment of patients with advanced ROS1-positive NSCLC. Consequently, focus on ROS1 testing is growing. Most laboratories currently rely on fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) assays using a dual-colour break-apart probe to detect ROS1 rearrangements. Given the rarity of these rearrangements in NSCLC, detection of elevated ROS1 protein levels by immunohistochemistry may provide cost-effective screening prior to confirmatory FISH testing. Non-in situ testing approaches also hold potential as stand-alone methods or complementary tests, including multiplex real-time PCR assays and next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms which include commercial test kits covering a range of fusion genes. In order to ensure high-quality biomarker testing, appropriate tissue handling, adequate control materials and participation in external quality assessment programmes are essential, irrespective of the testing technique employed. ROS1 testing is often only considered after negative tests for EGFR mutation and ALK gene rearrangement, based on the assumption that these oncogenic driver events tend to be exclusive. However, as the use of ROS1 inhibitors becomes routine, accurate and timely detection of ROS1 gene rearrangements will be critical for the optimal treatment of patients with NSCLC. As NGS techniques are introduced into routine diagnostic practice, ROS1 fusion gene testing will be provided as part of the initial testing package.

Hudcova K, Raudenska M, Gumulec J, et al.
Expression profiles of miR-29c, miR-200b and miR-375 in tumour and tumour-adjacent tissues of head and neck cancers.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12627-12633 [PubMed] Related Publications
Altered expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been shown in many types of malignancies including the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Although there are many new and innovative approaches in the treatment of HNSCC, a clear marker of this disease is still missing. Three candidate miRNAs (miR-29c-3p, miR-200b-5p and miR-375-3p) were studied in connection with HNSCC using quantitative real-time PCR expression levels in 42 tissue samples of HNSCC patients and histologically normal tumour-adjacent tissue samples of these patients. Primary HNSCC carcinoma tissues can be distinguished from histologically normal-matched noncancerous tumour-adjacent tissues based on hsa-miR-375-3p expression (sensitivity 87.5 %, specificity 65 %). Additionally, a significant decrease of hsa-miR-200b-5p expression was revealed in tumour-adjacent tissue samples of patients with node positivity. Lower expression of hsa-miR-200b-5p and hsa-miR-29c-3p in HNSCC tumour tissue was associated with higher tumour grade. Consequently, survival analysis was performed. Lower expression of hsa-miR-29c-3p in tumour-adjacent tissue was associated with worse overall and disease-specific survivals. Lower expression of miR-29c-3p in tumourous tissue was associated with worse relapse-free survival. hsa-miR-375-3p seems to be a relatively promising diagnostic marker in HNSCC but is not suitable for prognosis of patients. Furthermore, this study highlighted the importance of histologically normal tumour-adjacent tissue in HNSCC progress (significant decrease of hsa-miR-200b-5p expression in tumour-adjacent tissue of patients with node positivity and low expression of hsa-miR-29c-3p in HNSCC tumour-adjacent tissue associated with worse prognosis).

Brynychova V, Ehrlichova M, Hlavac V, et al.
Genetic and functional analyses do not explain the association of high PRC1 expression with poor survival of breast carcinoma patients.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 83:857-864 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microtubules are vitally important for eukaryotic cell division. Therefore, we evaluated the relevance of mitotic kinesin KIF14, protein-regulating cytokinesis 1 (PRC1), and citron kinase (CIT) for the prognosis of breast carcinoma patients. Transcript levels were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR in tissues from two independent groups of breast carcinoma patients and compared with clinical data. Tissue PRC1 protein levels were estimated using immunoblotting, and the PRC1 tagged haplotype was analyzed in genomic DNA. A functional study was performed in MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. KIF14, PRC1, and CIT transcripts were overexpressed in tumors compared with control tissues. Tumors without expression of hormonal receptors or high-grade tumors expressed significantly higher KIF14 and PRC1 levels than hormonally-positive or low-grade tumors. Patients with high intra-tumoral PRC1 levels had significantly worse disease-free survival than patients with low levels. PRC1 rs10520699 and rs11852999 polymorphisms were associated with PRC1 transcript levels, but not with patientś survival. Paclitaxel-induced PRC1 expression, but PRC1 knockdown did not modify the paclitaxel cytotoxicity in vitro. PRC1 overexpression predicts poor disease-free survival of patients with breast carcinomas. Genetic variability of PRC1 and the protein interaction with paclitaxel cytotoxicity do not explain this association.

Konstantinova AM, Shelekhova KV, Stewart CJ, et al.
Depth and Patterns of Adnexal Involvement in Primary Extramammary (Anogenital) Paget Disease: A Study of 178 Lesions From 146 Patients.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2016; 38(11):802-808 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare neoplasm usually presenting in the anogenital area, most commonly in the vulva. Adnexal involvement in primary EMPD is a very common feature and serves as a pathway for carcinoma to spread into deeper tissue. The depth of carcinomatous spread along the appendages and the patterns of adnexal involvement were studied in 178 lesions from 146 patients with primary EMPD. Hair follicles and eccrine ducts were the adnexa most commonly affected by carcinoma cells. The maximal depth of involvement was 3.6 mm in this series. When planning topical therapy or developing novel local treatment modalities for EMPD, this potential for significant deep spread along adnexa should be taken into account.

Švajdler M, Michal M, Dubinský P, et al.
Endometrial Endometrioid Carcinoma With Large Cystic Growth Configuration and Deceptive Pattern of Invasion Associated With Abundant Nodular Fasciitis-like Stroma: A Unique Hitherto Unreported Histology in Endometrioid Carcinoma.
Adv Anat Pathol. 2016; 23(6):381-384 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe a case of an unusual endometrial endometrioid carcinoma occurring in a 67-year-old woman. The tumor involved uterine corpus as well as lower uterine segment and presented as polypoid tumor protruding through the cervical orifice. Microscopically, the tumor was characterized by broad zones of cytologically bland fibromyxoid stroma resembling nodular fasciitis, showing vaguely nodular architecture. Neoplastic glands were characterized by interconnected elongated slit-like and large cystic profiles, mostly lined by flattened epithelium with variable squamous differentiation, whereas typical columnar endometrioid cells were only focally present. Voluminous nodules of the stroma produced phyllodes-like appearance of the tumor. The tumor showed some resemblance to the microcystic, elongated, and fragmented (MELF) glands growth pattern, but in contrast with MELF pattern, where fibromyxoid change occurs focally, in the presented case abundant myofibroblastic proliferation was present throughout the tumor and the neoplastic glands showed anastomosing "large cystic" rather than "small cystic" profiles. Some of the neoplastic glands presented almost complete or complete squamous differentiation, with relatively bland-looking squamous cells and no hint of endometrioid differentiation, which resulted in initial misdiagnosis of Müllerian adenofibroma. We believe that nodular fasciitis-like pattern represents yet undescribed, and diagnostically challenging pattern of invasion in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma.

Kubícková KN, Subhanová I, Konícková R, et al.
Predictive role BLVRA mRNA expression in hepatocellular cancer.
Ann Hepatol. 2016 Nov-Dec 2016; 15(6):881-887 [PubMed] Related Publications
 Introduction and aim. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant liver tumor. It is primarily caused by hepatic cirrhosis or chronic viral hepatitis. Hepatic carcinogenesis is associated with increased oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of our study was to assess expression of the genes involved in the homeostasis of oxidative stress in patients with HCC.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed on 32 patients with primary HCC (verified by liver histology in 29 patients) and 27 control subjects (in 11 subjects, liver histology was available either with no or minimal changes in the liver tissue). Gene expressions of heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), biliverdin reductase A/B (BLVRA/B), NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and p22phox were analyzed in the liver and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) in the subjects.
RESULTS: Compared to controls, almost a 3 times higher mRNA level of BLVRA was detected in livers of HCC patients (p = 0.002); while those of BLVRB as well as HMOX1 were unchanged (p > 0.05). In accord with these results in the liver tissue, BLVRA mRNA levels in PBL were also significantly increased in HCC patients (p = 0.012). mRNA levels of NOX2 and p22phox in the liver tissue, although higher in HCC patients, did not differ significantly compared to control subjects (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, NOX2 mRNA level in PBL was significantly higher in HCC patients (p = 0.003).
CONCLUSIONS: BLVRA mRNA levels in the liver as well as in PBL are significantly higher in HCC patients most likely as a feedback mechanism to control increased oxidative stress associated with HCC progression.

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