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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 46.8m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 215,500
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 249.1
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:25.1%
People dying from cancer /yr: 102,800
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)

Spanish Cancer Organisations and resources
Recent Research Publications from Spain

Spanish Cancer Organisations and resources (14 links)

Recent Research Publications from Spain

Strosberg J, El-Haddad G, Wolin E, et al.
Phase 3 Trial of (177)Lu-Dotatate for Midgut Neuroendocrine Tumors.
N Engl J Med. 2017; 376(2):125-135 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background Patients with advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors who have had disease progression during first-line somatostatin analogue therapy have limited therapeutic options. This randomized, controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of lutetium-177 ((177)Lu)-Dotatate in patients with advanced, progressive, somatostatin-receptor-positive midgut neuroendocrine tumors. Methods We randomly assigned 229 patients who had well-differentiated, metastatic midgut neuroendocrine tumors to receive either (177)Lu-Dotatate (116 patients) at a dose of 7.4 GBq every 8 weeks (four intravenous infusions, plus best supportive care including octreotide long-acting repeatable [LAR] administered intramuscularly at a dose of 30 mg) ((177)Lu-Dotatate group) or octreotide LAR alone (113 patients) administered intramuscularly at a dose of 60 mg every 4 weeks (control group). The primary end point was progression-free survival. Secondary end points included the objective response rate, overall survival, safety, and the side-effect profile. The final analysis of overall survival will be conducted in the future as specified in the protocol; a prespecified interim analysis of overall survival was conducted and is reported here. Results At the data-cutoff date for the primary analysis, the estimated rate of progression-free survival at month 20 was 65.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.0 to 76.8) in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group and 10.8% (95% CI, 3.5 to 23.0) in the control group. The response rate was 18% in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group versus 3% in the control group (P<0.001). In the planned interim analysis of overall survival, 14 deaths occurred in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group and 26 in the control group (P=0.004). Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and lymphopenia occurred in 1%, 2%, and 9%, respectively, of patients in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group as compared with no patients in the control group, with no evidence of renal toxic effects during the observed time frame. Conclusions Treatment with (177)Lu-Dotatate resulted in markedly longer progression-free survival and a significantly higher response rate than high-dose octreotide LAR among patients with advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors. Preliminary evidence of an overall survival benefit was seen in an interim analysis; confirmation will be required in the planned final analysis. Clinically significant myelosuppression occurred in less than 10% of patients in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group. (Funded by Advanced Accelerator Applications; NETTER-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01578239 ; EudraCT number 2011-005049-11 .).

Balar AV, Galsky MD, Rosenberg JE, et al.
Atezolizumab as first-line treatment in cisplatin-ineligible patients with locally advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma: a single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial.
Lancet. 2017; 389(10064):67-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: First-line chemotherapy for patients with cisplatin-ineligible locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma is associated with short response duration, poor survival, and high toxicity. This study assessed atezolizumab (anti-programmed death-ligand 1 [PD-L1]) as treatment for metastatic urothelial cancer in cisplatin-ineligible patients.
METHODS: For this single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 study, in 47 academic medical centres and community oncology practices in seven countries in North America and Europe, we recruited previously untreated patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer who were cisplatin ineligible. Patients were given 1200 mg intravenous atezolizumab every 21 days until progression. The primary endpoint was independently confirmed objective response rate per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 (central review), assessed in prespecified subgroups based on PD-L1 expression and in all patients. All participants who received one or more doses of atezolizumab were included in the primary and safety analyses. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02108652.
FINDINGS: Between June 9, 2014, and March 30, 2015, we enrolled 123 patients, of whom 119 received one or more doses of atezolizumab. At 17·2 months' median follow-up, the objective response rate was 23% (95% CI 16 to 31), the complete response rate was 9% (n=11), and 19 of 27 responses were ongoing. Median response duration was not reached. Responses occurred across all PD-L1 and poor prognostic factor subgroups. Median progression-free survival was 2·7 months (2·1 to 4·2). Median overall survival was 15·9 months (10·4 to not estimable). Tumour mutation load was associated with response. Treatment-related adverse events that occurred in 10% or more of patients were fatigue (36 [30%] patients), diarrhoea (14 [12%] patients), and pruritus (13 [11%] patients). One treatment-related death (sepsis) occurred. Nine (8%) patients had an adverse event leading to treatment discontinuation. Immune-mediated events occurred in 14 (12%) patients.
INTERPRETATION: Atezolizumab showed encouraging durable response rates, survival, and tolerability, supporting its therapeutic use in untreated metastatic urothelial cancer.
FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche, Genentech.

Bruix J, Qin S, Merle P, et al.
Regorafenib for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who progressed on sorafenib treatment (RESORCE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.
Lancet. 2017; 389(10064):56-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There are no systemic treatments for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) whose disease progresses during sorafenib treatment. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of regorafenib in patients with HCC who have progressed during sorafenib treatment.
METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3 trial done at 152 sites in 21 countries, adults with HCC who tolerated sorafenib (≥400 mg/day for ≥20 of last 28 days of treatment), progressed on sorafenib, and had Child-Pugh A liver function were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned (2:1) by a computer-generated randomisation list and interactive voice response system and stratified by geographical region, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, macrovascular invasion, extrahepatic disease, and α-fetoprotein level to best supportive care plus oral regorafenib 160 mg or placebo once daily during weeks 1-3 of each 4-week cycle. Investigators, patients, and the funder were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival (defined as time from randomisation to death due to any cause) and analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01774344.
FINDINGS: Between May 14, 2013, and Dec 31, 2015, 843 patients were screened, of whom 573 were enrolled and randomised (379 to regorafenib and 194 to placebo; population for efficacy analyses), and 567 initiated treatment (374 received regorafenib and 193 received placebo; population for safety analyses). Regorafenib improved overall survival with a hazard ratio of 0·63 (95% CI 0·50-0·79; one-sided p<0·0001); median survival was 10·6 months (95% CI 9·1-12·1) for regorafenib versus 7·8 months (6·3-8·8) for placebo. Adverse events were reported in all regorafenib recipients (374 [100%] of 374) and 179 (93%) of 193 placebo recipients. The most common clinically relevant grade 3 or 4 treatment-emergent events were hypertension (57 patients [15%] in the regorafenib group vs nine patients [5%] in the placebo group), hand-foot skin reaction (47 patients [13%] vs one [1%]), fatigue (34 patients [9%] vs nine patients [5%]), and diarrhoea (12 patients [3%] vs no patients). Of the 88 deaths (grade 5 adverse events) reported during the study (50 patients [13%] assigned to regorafenib and 38 [20%] assigned to placebo), seven (2%) were considered by the investigator to be related to study drug in the regorafenib group and two (1%) in the placebo group, including two patients (1%) with hepatic failure in the placebo group.
INTERPRETATION: Regorafenib is the only systemic treatment shown to provide survival benefit in HCC patients progressing on sorafenib treatment. Future trials should explore combinations of regorafenib with other systemic agents and third-line treatments for patients who fail or who do not tolerate the sequence of sorafenib and regorafenib.

Rugo HS, Barve A, Waller CF, et al.
Effect of a Proposed Trastuzumab Biosimilar Compared With Trastuzumab on Overall Response Rate in Patients With ERBB2 (HER2)-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
JAMA. 2017; 317(1):37-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Importance: Treatment with the anti-ERBB2 humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab and chemotherapy significantly improves outcome in patients with ERBB2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer; a clinically effective biosimilar may help increase access to this therapy.
Objective: To compare the overall response rate and assess the safety of a proposed trastuzumab biosimilar plus a taxane or trastuzumab plus a taxane in patients without prior treatment for ERBB2-positive metastatic breast cancer.
Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, phase 3 equivalence study in patients with metastatic breast cancer. From December 2012 to August 2015, 500 patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a proposed biosimilar or trastuzumab plus a taxane. Chemotherapy was administered for at least 24 weeks followed by antibody alone until unacceptable toxic effects or disease progression occurred.
Interventions: Proposed biosimilar (n = 230) or trastuzumab (n = 228) with a taxane.
Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was week 24 overall response rate (ORR) defined as complete or partial response. Equivalence boundaries were 0.81 to 1.24 with a 90% CI for ORR ratio (proposed biosimilar/trastuzumab) and -15% to 15% with a 95% CI for ORR difference. Secondary outcome measures included time to tumor progression, progression-free and overall survival at week 48, and adverse events.
Results: Among 500 women randomized, the intention-to-treat population included 458 women (mean [SD] age, 53.6 [11.11] years) and the safety population included 493 women. The ORR was 69.6% (95% CI, 63.62%-75.51%) for the proposed biosimilar vs 64.0% (95% CI, 57.81%-70.26%) for trastuzumab. The ORR ratio (1.09; 90% CI, 0.974-1.211) and ORR difference (5.53; 95% CI, -3.08 to 14.04) were within the equivalence boundaries. At week 48, there was no statistically significant difference with the proposed biosimilar vs trastuzumab for time to tumor progression (41.3% vs 43.0%; -1.7%; 95% CI, -11.1% to 6.9%), progression-free survival (44.3% vs 44.7%; -0.4%; 95% CI, -9.4% to 8.7%), or overall survival (89.1% vs 85.1%; 4.0%; 95% CI, -2.1% to 10.3%). In the proposed biosimilar and trastuzumab groups, 239 (98.6%) and 233 (94.7%) had at least 1 adverse event, the most common including neutropenia (57.5% vs 53.3%), peripheral neuropathy (23.1% vs 24.8%), and diarrhea (20.6% vs 20.7%).
Conclusions and Relevance: Among women with ERBB2-positive metastatic breast cancer receiving taxanes, the use of a proposed trastuzumab biosimilar compared with trastuzumab resulted in an equivalent overall response rate at 24 weeks. Further study is needed to assess safety and long-term clinical outcome.
Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02472964; EudraCT Identifier: 2011-001965-42.

Mateos MV, Oriol A, Martínez-López J, et al.
Outcomes with two different schedules of bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (VMP) for previously untreated multiple myeloma: matched pair analysis using long-term follow-up data from the phase 3 VISTA and PETHEMA/GEM05 trials.
Ann Hematol. 2016; 95(12):2033-2041 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone (VMP) is a standard-of-care for previously untreated, transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma (MM). Here, we compared outcomes between VMP regimens in the VISTA trial (9-cycle VMP schedule, including 4 cycles of twice weekly bortezomib) and the PETHEMA/GEM05 trial (less intensive 6-cycle VMP schedule with 1 cycle of twice weekly and 5 cycles of weekly bortezomib, then bortezomib-based maintenance). A total of 113 patient pairs matched by propensity score (estimated using logistic regression and incorporating eight exposure/outcome-related parameters) were included in this retrospective analysis. Median cumulative bortezomib dose was higher in PETHEMA/GEM05 than VISTA (49.6 vs 37.0 mg/m(2)); median dose intensity was lower (2.0 vs 5.1 mg/m(2)/month). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and time-to-progression (TTP) were significantly longer in PETHEMA/GEM05 than VISTA (PFS, 30.5 vs 20.0 months, p = 0.0265; TTP, 33.8 vs 24.2 months, p = 0.0049) after a median follow-up of 77.2 and 26.0 months, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was similar (61.3 vs 61.0 months, p = 0.6528; median follow-up, 77.6 vs 60.1 months). Post-induction complete response rate was lower in PETHEMA/GEM05 than VISTA (19 vs 31 %; p = 0.03318); on-study (including maintenance) rate was similar (30 vs 31 %; p = 0.89437). This analysis suggests that the less-intensive PETHEMA/GEM05 VMP regimen plus maintenance may improve PFS and TTP, but not OS, compared with the VISTA VMP regimen.

Hortobagyi GN, Stemmer SM, Burris HA, et al.
Ribociclib as First-Line Therapy for HR-Positive, Advanced Breast Cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(18):1738-1748 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background The inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) could potentially overcome or delay resistance to endocrine therapy in advanced breast cancer that is positive for hormone receptor (HR) and negative for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Methods In this randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the selective CDK4/6 inhibitor ribociclib combined with letrozole for first-line treatment in 668 postmenopausal women with HR-positive, HER2-negative recurrent or metastatic breast cancer who had not received previous systemic therapy for advanced disease. We randomly assigned the patients to receive either ribociclib (600 mg per day on a 3-weeks-on, 1-week-off schedule) plus letrozole (2.5 mg per day) or placebo plus letrozole. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival, overall response rate, and safety. A preplanned interim analysis was performed on January 29, 2016, after 243 patients had disease progression or died. Prespecified criteria for superiority required a hazard ratio of 0.56 or less with P<1.29×10(-5). Results The duration of progression-free survival was significantly longer in the ribociclib group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.72; P=3.29×10(-6) for superiority). The median duration of follow-up was 15.3 months. After 18 months, the progression-free survival rate was 63.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.6 to 70.3) in the ribociclib group and 42.2% (95% CI, 34.8 to 49.5) in the placebo group. In patients with measurable disease at baseline, the overall response rate was 52.7% and 37.1%, respectively (P<0.001). Common grade 3 or 4 adverse events that were reported in more than 10% of the patients in either group were neutropenia (59.3% in the ribociclib group vs. 0.9% in the placebo group) and leukopenia (21.0% vs. 0.6%); the rates of discontinuation because of adverse events were 7.5% and 2.1%, respectively. Conclusions Among patients receiving initial systemic treatment for HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer, the duration of progression-free survival was significantly longer among those receiving ribociclib plus letrozole than among those receiving placebo plus letrozole, with a higher rate of myelosuppression in the ribociclib group. (Funded by Novartis Pharmaceuticals; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01958021 .).

Valls-Mateus M, Ortega A, Blanch JL, et al.
Long-term quality of life after transoral laser microsurgery for laryngeal carcinoma.
J Surg Oncol. 2016; 114(7):789-795 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies showed good short-term Quality of life (QOL) after Transoral Laser Microsurgery (TLM) for laryngeal cancer. Here, we aimed to evaluate QOL after TLM in the long-term.
METHODS: Prospective longitudinal study. Sixty-two consecutive disease-free patients were evaluated using UW-QOL v4 and SF-12 questionnaires, 1 and 5 years after TLM. Changes over time were assessed according to age, location, and tumor size. Long-term VHI-10 was also evaluated.
RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 5.41 ± 2.02 years. No differences in the global UW-QOL score were observed between 1 and 5 years after TLM (1135.00 vs. 1127.20; P = 0.4). Activity worsened slightly in the long-term (93.03 vs. 87.70; P = 0.02). Forty-two and 58% of the patients reported that their health 1 and 5 years after treatment was much better than prior to diagnosis. Initially, 3.3% considered their health much worse, which was reduced to 1.7% at 5 years. SF-12 scores remained unchanged for both physical and mental aspects (P > 0.05). The VHI-10 was 3.81 ± 5.7 for supraglottic and 7.2 ± 9.6 for glottic tumors.
CONCLUSION: Patients treated with TLM present a very good long-term QOL. Only activity deteriorates over time, while voice and swallowing remain satisfactory in the majority of patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:789-795. © 2016 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Casas F, Henríquez I, Bejar A, et al.
Intermittent versus continuous androgen deprivation therapy to biochemical recurrence after external beam radiotherapy: a phase 3 GICOR study.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2017; 19(3):373-378 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We compared biochemical control and quality of life with intermittent (6 months) versus continuous (36 months) androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in a non-inferiority randomized phase 3 trial in patients with biochemical failure (BF) after external beam radical radiotherapy (EBRT).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were stratified according to the Gleason score (GS) and were classified as low risk with a GS < 6 and 7 (3 + 4) and high risk with a GS of 7 (4 + 3) and >7. Patients were followed with PSA determinations and quality-of-life assessments (QLQ C-30 and QLQ PR-25) every 6 months for a period of 3 years. BF after radiation was defined as a PSA level of nadir +2 ng/ml. Disease progression (DP) after ADT was defined as PSA ≥4 ng/ml (BF) and/or metastases.
RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were included in this multicenter phase 3 trial from 2005 to 2009. Thirty-eight and 39 patients were included in the intermittent and continuous groups, respectively. The median follow-up for both groups was 48 months (40-68). DP after ADT in the intermittent group was seen in three patients (distant metastases in one patient) versus 0 in the continuous group. The QLQ-C30 and QLQ PR-25 scores did not show any statistically difference between the two ADT groups.
CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences were seen in DP and QLQ between intermittent (6 months) and continuous (36 months) ADT in patients with BF after EBRT.

Reck M, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Robinson AG, et al.
Pembrolizumab versus Chemotherapy for PD-L1-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(19):1823-1833 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against programmed death 1 (PD-1) that has antitumor activity in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with increased activity in tumors that express programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Methods In this open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 305 patients who had previously untreated advanced NSCLC with PD-L1 expression on at least 50% of tumor cells and no sensitizing mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene or translocation of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene to receive either pembrolizumab (at a fixed dose of 200 mg every 3 weeks) or the investigator's choice of platinum-based chemotherapy. Crossover from the chemotherapy group to the pembrolizumab group was permitted in the event of disease progression. The primary end point, progression-free survival, was assessed by means of blinded, independent, central radiologic review. Secondary end points were overall survival, objective response rate, and safety. Results Median progression-free survival was 10.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.7 to not reached) in the pembrolizumab group versus 6.0 months (95% CI, 4.2 to 6.2) in the chemotherapy group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.68; P<0.001). The estimated rate of overall survival at 6 months was 80.2% in the pembrolizumab group versus 72.4% in the chemotherapy group (hazard ratio for death, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.89; P=0.005). The response rate was higher in the pembrolizumab group than in the chemotherapy group (44.8% vs. 27.8%), the median duration of response was longer (not reached [range, 1.9+ to 14.5+ months] vs. 6.3 months [range, 2.1+ to 12.6+]), and treatment-related adverse events of any grade were less frequent (occurring in 73.4% vs. 90.0% of patients), as were grade 3, 4, or 5 treatment-related adverse events (26.6% vs. 53.3%). Conclusions In patients with advanced NSCLC and PD-L1 expression on at least 50% of tumor cells, pembrolizumab was associated with significantly longer progression-free and overall survival and with fewer adverse events than was platinum-based chemotherapy. (Funded by Merck; KEYNOTE-024 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02142738 .).

Dimopoulos MA, Oriol A, Nahi H, et al.
Daratumumab, Lenalidomide, and Dexamethasone for Multiple Myeloma.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(14):1319-1331 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background Daratumumab showed promising efficacy alone and with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in a phase 1-2 study involving patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Methods In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 569 patients with multiple myeloma who had received one or more previous lines of therapy to receive lenalidomide and dexamethasone either alone (control group) or in combination with daratumumab (daratumumab group). The primary end point was progression-free survival. Results At a median follow-up of 13.5 months in a protocol-specified interim analysis, 169 events of disease progression or death were observed (in 53 of 286 patients [18.5%] in the daratumumab group vs. 116 of 283 [41.0%] in the control group; hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27 to 0.52; P<0.001 by stratified log-rank test). The Kaplan-Meier rate of progression-free survival at 12 months was 83.2% (95% CI, 78.3 to 87.2) in the daratumumab group, as compared with 60.1% (95% CI, 54.0 to 65.7) in the control group. A significantly higher rate of overall response was observed in the daratumumab group than in the control group (92.9% vs. 76.4%, P<0.001), as was a higher rate of complete response or better (43.1% vs. 19.2%, P<0.001). In the daratumumab group, 22.4% of the patients had results below the threshold for minimal residual disease (1 tumor cell per 10(5) white cells), as compared with 4.6% of those in the control group (P<0.001); results below the threshold for minimal residual disease were associated with improved outcomes. The most common adverse events of grade 3 or 4 during treatment were neutropenia (in 51.9% of the patients in the daratumumab group vs. 37.0% of those in the control group), thrombocytopenia (in 12.7% vs. 13.5%), and anemia (in 12.4% vs. 19.6%). Daratumumab-associated infusion-related reactions occurred in 47.7% of the patients and were mostly of grade 1 or 2. Conclusions The addition of daratumumab to lenalidomide and dexamethasone significantly lengthened progression-free survival among patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Daratumumab was associated with infusion-related reactions and a higher rate of neutropenia than the control therapy. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; POLLUX ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02076009 .).

Schulz C, Müller J, Sauter J, et al.
Superiority of a Split-dose Regimen of Sodium Picosulfate/Magnesium Citrate (SPMC) in Comparison to a Prior-day Schedule (AM/PM) for Colonoscopy Preparation. A Randomized Single-blinded Study.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2016; 25(3):295-302 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Split-dose regimens are generally recommended for bowel cleansers. However, other regimens still remain in the summary of product characteristics of some bowel cleansers in Europe. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of a split-dose regimen of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (SPMC) with a prior-day schedule (AM/PM).
METHODS: Multicenter, randomized (EudraCT no. 2013-001620-20), endoscopist-blinded, parallel study, carried out in subjects 18 years or older undergoing elective colonoscopy. The primary endpoint was the bowel cleansing assessment using a binary transformation (adequate/inadequate) of the Global Preparation Assessment (GPA) scale. Additional parameters analyzed were the segmental assessment of bowel cleansing (RSS), the adenoma detection rate and safety evaluations.
RESULTS: 315 subjects comprised the ITT set. A significantly higher proportion of patients in the split-dose regimen had an adequate bowel preparation (AM/PM: 30.8% vs split-dose: 79.9%; p<0.0001). The mean global RSS was significantly lower in the split-dose group (AM/PM: 5.0 [SD: 2.91] vs split-dose: 2.6 [SD: 2.14]; p<0.0001). Flat polyps were detected in a higher proportion of subjects in the split-dose group compared with the AM/PM group (AM/PM: 16.0% vs split-dose: 22.0%). Both regimens were equally safe and well tolerated, with no serious treatment-emergent adverse events or discontinuations due to adverse events.
CONCLUSION: A split-dose regimen of SPMC is superior to the AM/PM regimen administered the day before colonoscopy. Split regimen of SPMC should be considered the standard of use.

Calvo E, Braiteh F, Von Hoff D, et al.
Phase I Study of CHK1 Inhibitor LY2603618 in Combination with Gemcitabine in Patients with Solid Tumors.
Oncology. 2016; 91(5):251-260 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: LY2603618, a selective inhibitor of checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) and key regulator of the DNA damage checkpoint, may enhance the effects of antimetabolites. This phase I study defined the recommended phase II dose of LY2603618 combined with gemcitabine.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced/metastatic disease were administered doses of LY2603618 (70-250 mg/m2 or flat-fixed doses of 200 or 230 mg) after gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2). Safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) were assessed.
RESULTS: Among the 50 patients enrolled, frequent adverse events possibly related to study drug treatment included fatigue (44%), decreased platelets (42%), decreased neutrophils (32%), nausea (26%), and decreased hemoglobin (20%). Systemic exposure of LY2603618 increased dose dependently, while clearance was relatively dose independent. The mean LY2603618 half-life varied; however, the durations were still suitable for maintaining human exposures while minimizing accumulation. LY2603618 PK were not altered by gemcitabine administration. Plasma exposures that correlate with the maximal pharmacodynamic effect in nonclinical models were achieved for all doses. One patient with non-small cell lung cancer carcinoma achieved a partial response; 22 patients had stable disease.
CONCLUSIONS: The maximum tolerated dose of LY2603618 combined with gemcitabine was 200 mg/m2, but a fixed LY2603618 dose of 230 mg combined with gemcitabine was selected as the recommended phase II dose.

de Morrée ES, Vogelzang NJ, Petrylak DP, et al.
Association of Survival Benefit With Docetaxel in Prostate Cancer and Total Number of Cycles Administered: A Post Hoc Analysis of the Mainsail Study.
JAMA Oncol. 2017; 3(1):68-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Importance: The optimal total number of docetaxel cycles in patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCPRC) has not been investigated yet. It is unknown whether it is beneficial for patients to continue treatment upon 6 cycles.
Objective: To investigate whether the number of docetaxel cycles administered to patients deriving clinical benefit was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) in a post hoc analysis of the Mainsail trial.
Design, Setting, and Participants: The Mainsail trial was a multinational randomized phase 3 study of 1059 patients with mCRPC receiving docetaxel, prednisone, and lenalidomide (DPL) or docetaxel, prednisone, and a placebo (DP). Study patients were treated until progressive disease or unacceptable adverse effects occurred. Median OS was found to be inferior in the DPL arm compared with the DP arm. As a result of increased toxic effects with the DPL combination, patients on DPL received fewer docetaxel cycles (median, 6) vs 8 cycles in the control group. As the dose intensity was comparable in both treatment arms, we investigated whether the number of docetaxel cycles administered to patients deriving clinical benefit on Mainsail was an independent prognostic factor for OS. We conducted primary univariate and multivariate analyses for the intention-to-treat population. Additional sensitivity analyses were done, excluding patients who stopped treatment for reasons of disease progression and those who received 4 or fewer cycles of docetaxel for other reasons, minimizing the effect of confounding factors.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Total number of docetaxel cycles delivered as an independent factor for OS.
Results: Overall, all 1059 patients from the Mainsail trial were included (mean [SD] age, 68.7 [7.89] years). Treatment with 8 or more cycles of docetaxel was associated with superior OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.909; 95% CI, 1.660-2.194; P < .001), irrespective of lenalidomide treatment (HR, 1.060; 95% CI, 0.924-1.215; P = .41). Likewise, in the sensitivity analysis, patients who received a greater number of docetaxel cycles had superior OS; patients who received more than 10 cycles had a median OS of 33.0 months compared with 26.9 months in patients treated with 8 to 10 cycles; and patients who received 5 to 7 cycles had a median OS of 22.8 months (P < .001).
Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that continuation of docetaxel chemotherapy contributes to the survival benefit. Prospective validation is warranted.

Palumbo A, Chanan-Khan A, Weisel K, et al.
Daratumumab, Bortezomib, and Dexamethasone for Multiple Myeloma.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(8):754-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Daratumumab, a human IgGκ monoclonal antibody that targets CD38, induces direct and indirect antimyeloma activity and has shown substantial efficacy as monotherapy in heavily pretreated patients with multiple myeloma, as well as in combination with bortezomib in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.
METHODS: In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 498 patients with relapsed or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma to receive bortezomib (1.3 mg per square meter of body-surface area) and dexamethasone (20 mg) alone (control group) or in combination with daratumumab (16 mg per kilogram of body weight) (daratumumab group). The primary end point was progression-free survival.
RESULTS: A prespecified interim analysis showed that the rate of progression-free survival was significantly higher in the daratumumab group than in the control group; the 12-month rate of progression-free survival was 60.7% in the daratumumab group versus 26.9% in the control group. After a median follow-up period of 7.4 months, the median progression-free survival was not reached in the daratumumab group and was 7.2 months in the control group (hazard ratio for progression or death with daratumumab vs. control, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.53; P<0.001). The rate of overall response was higher in the daratumumab group than in the control group (82.9% vs. 63.2%, P<0.001), as were the rates of very good partial response or better (59.2% vs. 29.1%, P<0.001) and complete response or better (19.2% vs. 9.0%, P=0.001). Three of the most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events reported in the daratumumab group and the control group were thrombocytopenia (45.3% and 32.9%, respectively), anemia (14.4% and 16.0%, respectively), and neutropenia (12.8% and 4.2%, respectively). Infusion-related reactions that were associated with daratumumab treatment were reported in 45.3% of the patients in the daratumumab group; these reactions were mostly grade 1 or 2 (grade 3 in 8.6% of the patients), and in 98.2% of these patients, they occurred during the first infusion.
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with relapsed or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma, daratumumab in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone resulted in significantly longer progression-free survival than bortezomib and dexamethasone alone and was associated with infusion-related reactions and higher rates of thrombocytopenia and neutropenia than bortezomib and dexamethasone alone. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02136134.).

Fogarasi A, De Waele L, Bartalini G, et al.
EFFECTS: an expanded access program of everolimus for patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex.
BMC Neurol. 2016; 16:126 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, has been shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The Everolimus For Fast Expanded aCcess in TSC SEGA (EFFECTS) study was designed to provide everolimus access to patients with SEGA associated with TSC and to mainly assess the safety and also efficacy of everolimus in a real-world setting.
METHODS: EFFECTS was a phase 3b, open-label, noncomparative, multicenter, expanded access study. Eligible patients were ≥ 3 years of age, with a definite diagnosis of TSC, and with at least one SEGA lesion identified by MRI or CT scan. Patients received once daily everolimus (dose adjusted to attain a trough level of 5-15 ng/mL). Safety evaluation was the primary objective and included collection of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs, with their severity and relationship to everolimus. Efficacy evaluation, which was the secondary objective, was based on the best overall response as per medical judgment.
RESULTS: Of the 120 patients enrolled, 100 (83.3%) completed the study. Median age of patients was 11 years (range, 1-47). Median daily dose of everolimus was 5.82 mg (range, 2.0-11.8). Median duration of exposure was 56.5 weeks (range, 0.3-130). The overall incidence of AEs was 74.2%. Aphthous stomatitis (18 [15.0%]), pyrexia (18 [15.0%]), bronchitis (11 [9.2%]), and stomatitis (10 [8.3%]) were the most common AEs reported. Overall, 25 patients had grade 3 AEs; most frequent was stomatitis (4 [3.3%]). Grade 4 AEs were reported in three (2.5%) patients. A total of 62 (51.7%) patients had suspected drug-related AEs, of which 15 (12.5%) were of grade 3 or 4. In eight (6.7%) patients, AEs led to drug discontinuation. With regard to efficacy, 81 (67.5%) patients had a partial response, 35 (29.2%) had a stable disease, and one (0.8%) had progressive disease. The response was unknown in three (2.5%) patients.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms the acceptable safety profile of everolimus in patients with SEGA associated with TSC in a real-world setting. The results further support the efficacy of everolimus in the treatment of SEGA associated with TSC. (EudraCT: 2010-022583-13).

Longo-Muñoz F, Argiles G, Tabernero J, et al.
Efficacy of trifluridine and tipiracil (TAS-102) versus placebo, with supportive care, in a randomized, controlled trial of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from Spain: results of a subgroup analysis of the phase 3 RECOURSE trial.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2017; 19(2):227-235 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: TAS-102 is a combination of the thymidine-based nucleoside analog trifluridine and the thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor tipiracil. Efficacy and safety of TAS-102 in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) refractory or intolerant to standard therapies were evaluated in the phase 3 RECOURSE trial. Results of RECOURSE demonstrated significant improvement in overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) with TAS-102 versus placebo [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.68 and 0.48 for OS and PFS, respectively; both P < 0.001]. The current analysis evaluates efficacy and safety of TAS-102 in the RECOURSE Spanish subgroup.
METHODS: Primary and key secondary endpoints were evaluated in a post hoc analysis of the RECOURSE Spanish subgroup, using univariate and multivariate analyses. Safety and tolerability were reported with descriptive statistics.
RESULTS: The RECOURSE Spanish subgroup included 112 patients (mean age 61 years, 62 % male). Median OS was 6.8 months in the TAS-102 group (n = 80) versus 4.6 months in the placebo group (n = 32) [HR = 0.47; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.28-0.78; P = 0.0032). Median PFS was 2.0 months in the TAS-102 group and 1.7 months in the placebo group (HR = 0.47; 95 % CI: 0.30-0.74; P = 0.001). Eighty (100 %) TAS-102 versus 31 (96.9 %) placebo patients had adverse events (AEs). The most common drug-related ≥Grade 3 AE was neutropenia (40 % TAS-102 versus 0 % placebo). There was 1 (1.3 %) case of febrile neutropenia in the TAS-102 group versus none in the placebo group.
CONCLUSIONS: In the RECOURSE Spanish subgroup, TAS-102 was associated with significantly improved OS and PFS versus placebo, consistent with the overall RECOURSE population. No new safety signals were identified. CLINICALTRIALS.

Moya P, Soriano-Irigaray L, Ramirez JM, et al.
Perioperative Standard Oral Nutrition Supplements Versus Immunonutrition in Patients Undergoing Colorectal Resection in an Enhanced Recovery (ERAS) Protocol: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial (SONVI Study).
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(21):e3704 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To compare immunonutrition versus standard high calorie nutrition in patients undergoing elective colorectal resection within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program.Despite progress in recent years in the surgical management of patients with colorectal cancer (ERAS programs), postoperative complications are frequent. Nutritional supplements enriched with immunonutrients have recently been introduced into clinical practice. However, the extent to which the combination of ERAS protocols and immunonutrition benefits patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery is unknown.The SONVI study is a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial with 2 parallel treatment groups receiving either the study product (an immune-enhancing feed) or the control supplement (a hypercaloric hypernitrogenous supplement) for 7 days before colorectal resection and 5 days postoperatively.A total of 264 patients were randomized. At baseline, both groups were comparable in regards to age, sex, surgical risk, comorbidity, and analytical and nutritional parameters. The median length of the postoperative hospital stay was 5 days with no differences between the groups. A decrease in the total number of complications was observed in the immunonutrition group compared with the control group, primarily due to a significant decrease in infectious complications (23.8% vs. 10.7%, P = 0.0007). Of the infectious complications, wound infection differed significantly between the groups (16.4% vs. 5.7%, P = 0.0008). Other infectious complications were lower in the immunonutrition group but were not statistically significantly different.The implementation of ERAS protocols including immunonutrient-enriched supplements reduces the complications of patients undergoing colorectal resection.This study is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02393976.

Kempf E, Desamericq G, Vieites B, et al.
Clinical and pathologic features of patients with non-epithelial ovarian cancer: retrospective analysis of a single institution 15-year experience.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2017; 19(2):173-179 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Non-epithelial ovarian cancers (NEOCs) are rare diseases. Despite their overall good prognosis, the best management and current prognostic factors remain unclear. The objective of our study was to assess the clinical and pathological features of NEOC patients treated in our institution in the last 15 years and to explore risk factors for relapse and survival.
METHODS/PATIENTS: All patients with a pathological diagnosis of NEOC referred to the medical oncology department at Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio between 1999 and 2014 were included. Demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment procedures, and clinical follow-up were retrospectively collected. Risk factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed.
RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients were included, 33 (58 %) had a sex cord-stromal tumor (SCST) and 24 (42 %) had a germ-cell tumor (GCT). Median age, non-conservative surgery rates and DFS were lower in the GCT cohort; however, salvage chemotherapy led to a high proportion of complete responses in this group translating into a 90 % 3-year OS rate in both NEOC subtypes. The only identified risk factors statistically significant were stage and tumour relapse that associated, respectively, with DFS (HR = 8.84; 95 % CI 1.85-42) and OS (HR = 11.02; 95 % CI 1.76-68.7).
CONCLUSIONS: Despite their rarity, NEOCs remain a highly curable group of neoplasm. In our series, a more conservative treatment approach in ovarian GCTs revealed comparable OS outcomes to SCST. No new risk factors that would help in patient stratification were identified.

González-Barca E, Canales MA, Salar A, et al.
Long-Term Follow-Up of a Phase II Trial of Six Cycles of Dose-Dense R-CHOP-14 for First-Line Treatment of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in Young and Elderly Patients.
Acta Haematol. 2016; 136(2):76-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Rituximab-cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) every 14 days seems to achieve better outcomes than R-CHOP every 21 days in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Currently, the standard regimen is R-CHOP every 21 days.
METHODS: This is a phase II clinical trial of treatment with 6 cycles of R-CHOP-14 with pegfilgrastim support in 2 populations of previously untreated DLBCL patients aged ≥65 years (n = 73) or <65 years (n = 51) with low-risk International Prognostic Index scores (0-2).
RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 63.7 months, the 5-year event-free survival rate was 53.8% in patients aged ≥65 years and 71.0% in patients aged <65 years. The 5-year overall survival rate was 71.4 and 89.8%, respectively. The complete remission rate was 69.9% for older and 80.4% for younger patients. The median relative dose intensity of cytotoxic drugs was 143.2% in the elderly and 149.1% in the young patients. Febrile neutropenia was the most common grade 3-4 adverse event, being higher in elderly patients (21.3 vs. 9.3%). Eight deaths (7 in elderly patients) were considered treatment related.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the R-CHOP-14 regimen is feasible and very active, though it is more toxic in elderly patients mainly due to an increased incidence of infections. New strategies, such as new monoclonal antibodies or new targeted therapies, are needed to improve the outcomes of DLBCL patients.

Calvo Temprano D, Esteban E, Jiménez Fonseca P, Fernández-Mariño B
CT scan prior to radiotherapy in unresectable, locally advanced, non-small cell carcinoma of the lung: is it always necessary?
Clin Transl Oncol. 2017; 19(1):105-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: There is broad consensus regarding evaluating response to chemotherapy (CHT) by means of computerized tomography (CT) in patients with localized or locally advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We present a study comparing the usefulness of CT versus chest X-ray (XR) and clinical findings when indicating radiotherapy (RT) following CHT.
METHODS: Ninety-eight of 150 subjects with unresectable locally advanced NSCLC were blindly and independently evaluated by XR and CT, with pairs of chest XR and CT (before and after CHT). A null hypothesis (H0) was established of the conditioned probability of detecting progression by CT and not by XR of 10 % or more, with a statistical power of 80 %.
RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of XR versus CT were 98, 89, 99, and 80 % respectively. A 4 % (p = 0.0451) probability of improvement of CT versus XR was calculated, enabling the H0 to be ruled out.
CONCLUSION: The CT failed to prove to be significantly superior to the chest XR + clinical picture in indicating a change in treatment approach in patients with unresectable locally advanced NSCLC after CHT.

Awada A, Colomer R, Inoue K, et al.
Neratinib Plus Paclitaxel vs Trastuzumab Plus Paclitaxel in Previously Untreated Metastatic ERBB2-Positive Breast Cancer: The NEfERT-T Randomized Clinical Trial.
JAMA Oncol. 2016; 2(12):1557-1564 [PubMed] Related Publications
Importance: Efficacious ERBB2 (formerly HER2 or HER2/neu)-directed treatments, in addition to trastuzumab and lapatinib, are needed.
Objective: To determine whether neratinib, an irreversible pan-ERBB tyrosine kinase inhibitor, plus paclitaxel improves progression-free survival compared with trastuzumab plus paclitaxel in the first-line treatment of recurrent and/or metastatic ERBB2-positive breast cancer.
Design, Setting, and Participants: In the randomized, controlled, open-label NEfERT-T trial conducted from August 2009 to December 2014 at 188 centers in 34 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America, 479 women with previously untreated recurrent and/or metastatic ERBB2-positive breast cancer were randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms (neratinib-paclitaxel [n = 242] or trastuzumab-paclitaxel [n = 237]). Women with asymptomatic central nervous system metastases were eligible, and randomization was stratified by prior trastuzumab and lapatinib exposure, hormone-receptor status, and region.
Interventions: Women received neratinib (240 mg/d orally) or trastuzumab (4 mg/kg then 2 mg/kg weekly), each combined with paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days). Primary prophylaxis for diarrhea was not mandatory.
Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome was progression-free survival. Secondary end points were response rate, clinical benefit rate, duration of response, frequency, and time to symptomatic and/or progressive central nervous system lesions, and safety.
Results: The intent-to-treat population comprised 479 women 18 years or older (neratinib-paclitaxel, n = 242; trastuzumab-paclitaxel, n = 237) randomized and stratified in their respective treatment arms by prior trastuzumab and lapatinib exposure, hormone-receptor status, and region. Median progression-free survival was 12.9 months (95% CI, 11.1-14.9) with neratinib-paclitaxel and 12.9 months (95% CI, 11.1-14.8) with trastuzumab-paclitaxel (hazard ratio [HR], 1.02; 95% CI, 0.81-1.27; P =.89). With neratinib-paclitaxel, the incidence of central nervous system recurrences was lower (relative risk, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.29-0.79; P = .002) and time to central nervous system metastases delayed (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.26-0.78; P = .004). Common grade 3 to 4 adverse events were diarrhea (73 of 240 patients [30.4%] with neratinib-paclitaxel and 9 of 234 patients [3.8%] with trastuzumab-paclitaxel), neutropenia (31 patients [12.9%] vs 34 patients [14.5%]) and leukopenia (19 patients [7.9%] vs 25 patients [10.7%]); no grade 4 diarrhea was observed.
Conclusions and Relevance: In first-line ERBB2-positive metastatic breast cancer, neratinib-paclitaxel was not superior to trastuzumab-paclitaxel in terms of progression-free survival. In spite of similar overall efficacy, neratinib-paclitaxel may delay the onset and reduce the frequency of central nervous system progression, a finding that requires a larger study to confirm.
Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00915018.

Teixeira SC, Rebolleda JF, Koolen BB, et al.
Evaluation of a Hanging-Breast PET System for Primary Tumor Visualization in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer: Comparison With Standard PET/CT.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2016; 206(6):1307-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the performance of a mammography with molecular imaging PET (MAMMI-PET) system for breast imaging in the hanging-breast position for the visualization of primary breast cancer lesions and to compare this method with whole-body PET/CT.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Between March 2011 and March 2014, a prospective evaluation included women with one or more histologically confirmed primary breast cancer lesions (index lesions). After injection of 180-240 MBq of (18)F-FDG, whole-body PET/CT and MAMMI-PET acquisitions were performed, index lesions were scored 0, 1, or 2 for FDG uptake relative to background. Detection and FDG uptake were compared by breast length, maximal tumor diameter, affected breast quadrants, tumor grade, and histologic and immunologic sub-types. Finally, the two PET modalities were compared for detection of index lesions.
RESULTS: For 234 index lesions (diameter, 5-170 mm), the overall sensitivity was 88.9% for MAMMI-PET and 91% for PET/CT (p = 0.61). Twenty-three (9.8%) index lesions located too close to the pectoral muscle were missed with MAMMI-PET, and 20 index lesions were missed with PET/CT. Lesion visibility on MAMMI-PET images was influenced by tumor grade (p = 0.034) but not by cancer subtype (p = 0.65).
CONCLUSION: Although in an overall evaluation MAMMI-PET was not superior to PET/CT, MAMMI-PET does have higher sensitivity for primary breast cancer lesions within the scanning range of the device. Optimization of the positioning device may increase visualization of the most dorsal lesions.

Ledermann JA, Embleton AC, Raja F, et al.
Cediranib in patients with relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer (ICON6): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.
Lancet. 2016; 387(10023):1066-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is a validated clinical target in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cediranib is an oral antiangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1-3 inhibitor that has shown antitumour activity in recurrent ovarian cancer. We assessed efficacy and safety of cediranib in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy and as continued maintenance treatment in patients with first relapse of platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer.
METHODS: In this randomised, three-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients aged 18 years or older with relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer at 63 centres in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Spain, and the UK. Participants received up to six cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy (once every 3 weeks) then entered a maintenance phase. Participants were randomly allocated (2:3:3), with five stratification factors and in alternating blocks, to receive placebo alongside chemotherapy and then placebo only maintenance (arm A; reference), cediranib 20 mg once-daily alongside chemotherapy then placebo only maintenance (arm B; concurrent), or cediranib 20 mg once-daily alongside chemotherapy then cediranib 20 mg once-daily maintenance (arm C; maintenance). Patients continued treatment to progression or excessive toxic effects. The primary efficacy endpoint was progression-free survival between arms A and C. Efficacy analysis was by intention to treat. Safety was assessed in all patients who received the allocated study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00532194; the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN68510403; and ANZ Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN1261000016003.
FINDINGS: We randomly assigned 486 [corrected] women between Nov 13, 2007, and Dec 23, 2011; results presented are for 456 patients randomly assigned subsequent to the 30mg safety phase. During a median of 19·5 months (IQR 14-26) follow-up, 113 (96%) of 118 women assigned to arm A and 141 (86%) of 164 assigned to arm C had disease progression. Median progression-free survival was 11·0 months (95% CI 10·4-11·7) in arm C and 8·7 months (7·7-9·4) in arm A (hazard ratio 0·56, 0·44-0·72, p<0·0001). 156 (90%) of 174 patients in arm B had disease progression, and median progression-free survival was 9·9 months (95% CI 9·4-10·5). Diarrhoea, neutropenia, hypertension, and voice changes were significantly more common, during chemotherapy with cediranib, and diarrhoea, hypothyroidism and voice changes were more common during maintenance. Poor compliance with cediranib was noted during maintenance treatment with toxic effects being the most common cause for discontinuation.
INTERPRETATION: Cediranib, when given orally with chemotherapy and continued as maintenance, yielded a meaningful improvement [corrected] in progression-free survival in women with recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer, albeit with added toxic effects. The positive results in ICON6 could provide women with a new therapeutic option for recurrent ovarian cancer. Assessment of the secondary endpoint of overall survival will need longer follow-up.
FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute, Cancer Australia, National Gynecological Cancer Centre, and AstraZeneca.

Duran I, Hagen C, Arranz JÁ, et al.
SNPs associated with activity and toxicity of cabazitaxel in patients with advanced urothelial cell carcinoma.
Pharmacogenomics. 2016; 17(5):463-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: We aimed to identify SNPs associated with cabazitaxel toxicity and response within a Phase II clinical trial using this compound in advanced transitional cell carcinoma after progression to a platinum-based regimen.
PATIENTS & METHODS: Eleven SNPs in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C8, ABCB1 and TUBB1 were genotyped in 45 patients.
RESULTS: CYP3A5 rs776746 A allele was associated with protection against gastrointestinal toxicity (odds ratio: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.007-0.63, p = 0.018) and with reduced progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 5.1, 95% CI: 1.7-15.1, p = 0.0038, multivariable analysis). ABCB1 SNPs were associated with total number of grade 3-4 toxicity events (p-values of 0.009, 0.041 and 0.043, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms in CYP3A5 and ABCB1 may define a subset of patients with different cabazitaxel toxicity and efficacy and therefore could be used as markers for treatment optimization.

Llombart-Cussac A, Ramos M, Dalmau E, et al.
Incidence of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting associated with docetaxel and cyclophosphamide in early breast cancer patients and aprepitant efficacy as salvage therapy. Results from the Spanish Breast Cancer Group/2009-02 study.
Eur J Cancer. 2016; 58:122-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Docetaxel-cyclophosphamide (TC) has become a common regimen in moderate-high-risk early breast cancer (EBC), but the incidence of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) with this regimen is not well established. This trial investigates the effect of guideline-consistent prophylaxis on CINV related to TC regimen and explores the efficacy of aprepitant among resistant patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective multicentre study enrolled 212 chemotherapy-naïve EBC patients receiving T-75 mg/m(2) and C-600 mg/m(2). Antiemetic therapy on the first cycle consisted of dexamethasone for 3 d plus 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) antagonists on day 1, according to Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer guidelines. The primary end-point was complete response (CR) (no emesis and no need of rescue treatment within the initial 120 h). Patients failing CR on cycle 1 entered in a single-arm study exploring the efficacy of aprepitant on the second cycle. Patients' diaries and Functional Living Index-Emesis (FLIE) questionnaires were collected in cycles 1 and 2.
RESULTS: Among the 185 evaluable patients on cycle 1, 161 (87%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 82.2-91.8) achieved a CR. Twenty-three patients received aprepitant on cycle 2, and 12 reached a CR (52.2%, 95% CI: 31.8-72.6). The absence of CR had a very substantial impact on quality of life on cycles 1 (FLIE before and after: 23.8-38.1, p = 0.0124) and 2 (18.3-42.9, p = 0.0059).
CONCLUSIONS: Guideline-consistent antiemetic prophylaxis for the TC regimen is associated with a low incidence of CINV. Aprepitant is effective as secondary prevention of CINV and should be considered as rescue therapy in patients treated with moderate emetogenic chemotherapy.

Gratwohl A, Iacobelli S, Bootsman N, et al.
Splenic irradiation before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia: long-term follow-up of a prospective randomized study.
Ann Hematol. 2016; 95(6):967-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the context of discussions on the reproducibility of clinical studies, we reanalyzed a prospective randomized study on the role of splenic irradiation as adjunct to the conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Between 1986 and 1989, a total of 229 patients with CML were randomized; of these, 225 (98 %; 112 with, 113 without splenic irradiation) could be identified in the database and their survival updated. Results confirmed the early findings with no significant differences in all measured endpoints (overall survival at 25 years: 42.7 %, 32.0-52.4 % vs 52.9 %, 43.2-62.6 %; p = 0.355, log rank test). Additional splenic irradiation failed to reduce relapse incidence. It did not increase non-relapse mortality nor the risk of late secondary malignancies. Comforting are the long-term results from this predefined consecutive cohort of patients: more than 60 % were alive at plus 25 years when they were transplanted with a low European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) risk sore. This needs to be considered today when treatment options are discussed for patients who failed initial tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy and have an available low risk HLA-identical donor.

Mollà Armadà M, Saez J, Ramos M, et al.
Hypofractionated 3D radiotherapy for inoperable T1-3 N0-1 non-small-cell lung cancer.
Br J Radiol. 2016; 89(1062):20150824 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the toxicity and clinical outcomes of three-dimensional (3D) hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) for medically inoperable T1-3 N0-1 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
METHODS: 34 patients with inoperable early-stage NSCLC were treated from August 2008 to April 2013. Prior to enrolment, patients were required to be evaluated by an experienced thoracic surgeon to determine the "operability". All received 57 Gy in 19 fractions followed by escalated doses of 3-Gy fractions, up to a total dose of 66 Gy using a 3D conformal technique. Toxicities were measured using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects v. 4.0.
RESULTS: The median follow-up was 33 months (7-74 months). Toxicity grades ≥3 were not observed. Local control (LC) was 80.4% at 2 years, whereas regional control (RC) was 78%. The overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP) and time to distant metastasis (TTM) at 2 years were 60%, 59% and 80%, respectively. For patients with T1-2 N0 and a tumour size <45 mm (n = 19), rates of OS, TTP and TTM at 2 years were 71%, 75% and 94%, respectively. LC and RC at 2 years were 85% and 94%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: HFRT using 3.0-Gy fractions amounting to a total dose of 66 Gy is the recommended dose. A Phase 2 trial is warranted in order to assess the safety and efficacy of this fractionation scheme.
ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: HFRT results in a favourable outcome in early-stage lung cancer without the usual restrictions in tumour size and/or location associated with previous treatment methods. No special equipment is required, therefore permitting its application in any centre.

Arance AM, Berrocal A, Lopez-Martin JA, et al.
Safety of vemurafenib in patients with BRAF (V600) mutated metastatic melanoma: the Spanish experience.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2016; 18(11):1147-1157 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Vemurafenib tolerability was assessed in a large, open-label, multicentre study in patients with BRAF (V600) mutated advanced melanoma. We investigated safety, tolerability and efficacy of vemurafenib in Spanish patients participating in that study.
METHODS: Patients with previously treated or treatment-naive, unresectable stage IIIC or stage IV, BRAF (V600) mutation-positive melanoma received vemurafenib 960 mg twice daily until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, withdrawal of consent or death. The primary endpoint was safety; secondary endpoints included overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: 301 Spanish patients were included, 70 % with M1c disease, 22 % with brain metastases and 51 % with prior systemic therapy for metastatic disease. Most frequent adverse events included fatigue (48 %), arthralgia (45 %), rash (41 %), photosensitivity (34 %) and skin neoplasms (21 %). Grade 3/4 adverse events occurred in 156 patients (52 %), including cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (including keratoacanthoma; 16 %), fatigue (6 %) and arthralgia (5 %). The ORR was 28 % (95 % CI 23-34 %). Responses occurred in patients with brain metastases (18 %), elevated baseline lactate dehydrogenase (19 %) and poor performance status (15 %), and elderly patients (22 %). Median PFS was 5.8 (95 % CI 5.0-6.4) months; median OS was 10.5 (95 % CI 9.5-13.5) months.
CONCLUSION: Our results for Spanish patients in the vemurafenib safety study indicate similar efficacy and a comparable safety profile in Spanish patients with no new safety signals compared with the overall population. Clinical benefit was demonstrated in poor-prognosis patients and in those with favourable baseline characteristics, suggesting that poor-prognosis patients may also benefit from vemurafenib treatment.

Fehrenbacher L, Spira A, Ballinger M, et al.
Atezolizumab versus docetaxel for patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (POPLAR): a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 randomised controlled trial.
Lancet. 2016; 387(10030):1837-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Outcomes are poor for patients with previously treated, advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody atezolizumab is clinically active against cancer, including NSCLC, especially cancers expressing PD-L1 on tumour cells, tumour-infiltrating immune cells, or both. We assessed efficacy and safety of atezolizumab versus docetaxel in previously treated NSCLC, analysed by PD-L1 expression levels on tumour cells and tumour-infiltrating immune cells and in the intention-to-treat population.
METHODS: In this open-label, phase 2 randomised controlled trial, patients with NSCLC who progressed on post-platinum chemotherapy were recruited in 61 academic medical centres and community oncology practices across 13 countries in Europe and North America. Key inclusion criteria were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1, measurable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors version 1.1 (RECIST v1.1), and adequate haematological and end-organ function. Patients were stratified by PD-L1 tumour-infiltrating immune cell status, histology, and previous lines of therapy, and randomly assigned (1:1) by permuted block randomisation (with a block size of four) using an interactive voice or web system to receive intravenous atezolizumab 1200 mg or docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) once every 3 weeks. Baseline PD-L1 expression was scored by immunohistochemistry in tumour cells (as percentage of PD-L1-expressing tumour cells TC3≥50%, TC2≥5% and <50%, TC1≥1% and <5%, and TC0<1%) and tumour-infiltrating immune cells (as percentage of tumour area: IC3≥10%, IC2≥5% and <10%, IC1≥1% and <5%, and IC0<1%). The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population and PD-L1 subgroups at 173 deaths. Biomarkers were assessed in an exploratory analysis. We assessed safety in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01903993.
FINDINGS: Patients were enrolled between Aug 5, 2013, and March 31, 2014. 144 patients were randomly allocated to the atezolizumab group, and 143 to the docetaxel group. 142 patients received at least one dose of atezolizumab and 135 received docetaxel. Overall survival in the intention-to-treat population was 12·6 months (95% CI 9·7-16·4) for atezolizumab versus 9·7 months (8·6-12·0) for docetaxel (hazard ratio [HR] 0·73 [95% CI 0·53-0·99]; p=0·04). Increasing improvement in overall survival was associated with increasing PD-L1 expression (TC3 or IC3 HR 0·49 [0·22-1·07; p=0·068], TC2/3 or IC2/3 HR 0·54 [0·33-0·89; p=0·014], TC1/2/3 or IC1/2/3 HR 0·59 [0·40-0·85; p=0·005], TC0 and IC0 HR 1·04 [0·62-1·75; p=0·871]). In our exploratory analysis, patients with pre-existing immunity, defined by high T-effector-interferon-γ-associated gene expression, had improved overall survival with atezolizumab. 11 (8%) patients in the atezolizumab group discontinued because of adverse events versus 30 (22%) patients in the docetaxel group. 16 (11%) patients in the atezolizumab group versus 52 (39%) patients in the docetaxel group had treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events, and one (<1%) patient in the atezolizumab group versus three (2%) patients in the docetaxel group died from a treatment-related adverse event.
INTERPRETATION: Atezolizumab significantly improved survival compared with docetaxel in patients with previously treated NSCLC. Improvement correlated with PD-L1 immunohistochemistry expression on tumour cells and tumour-infiltrating immune cells, suggesting that PD-L1 expression is predictive for atezolizumab benefit. Atezolizumab was well tolerated, with a safety profile distinct from chemotherapy.
FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech Inc.

Petty R, Anthoney A, Metges JP, et al.
Phase Ib/II study of elisidepsin in metastatic or advanced gastroesophageal cancer (IMAGE trial).
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(4):819-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To determine the recommended dose and antitumor activity of single-agent elisidepsin as a 24-h intravenous (i.v.) infusion fortnightly [biweekly, d1 and 15 every 4 weeks (q4wk); Arm A, dose-intensity strategy] or as a 3-h i.v. infusion weekly (d1, 8, 15 and 22 q4wk; Arm B, dose-density strategy) in adult patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic pretreated esophageal, gastroesophageal junction and gastric cancer.
METHODS: Patients were randomized to one of two elisidepsin dosing schedules. Phase Ib starting doses were 8.0 mg flat dose (FD) in Arm A and 3.0 mg FD in Arm B. Phase II subsequently explored antitumor activity of both dosing schedules at the respective recommended doses.
RESULTS: Forty-four patients received elisidepsin: 12 in stage Ib and 32 in stage II. The recommended doses were defined as 10 mg FD (Arm A) and 3.75 mg FD (Arm B). Both schedules were well tolerated. Most adverse events were mild or moderate, reversible and predictable with no meaningful differences between schedules. The pharmacokinetic profiles of both schedules were similar to those reported previously in patients with solid tumors treated with a comparable dose. An interim analysis found tumor control in one patient receiving elisidepsin fortnightly, and in none given elisidepsin weekly; patient accrual was therefore discontinued due to lack of efficacy.
CONCLUSIONS: Both schedules at the recommended doses presented an acceptable safety profile, but lack of response means that we do not recommend further evaluation of single-agent elisidepsin as chemotherapy for unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic gastroesophageal cancer.

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