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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 46.8m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 215,500
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 249.1
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:25.1%
People dying from cancer /yr: 102,800
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)

Spanish Cancer Organisations and resources
Recent Research Publications from Spain

Spanish Cancer Organisations and resources (14 links)

Recent Research Publications from Spain

Loriot Y, Necchi A, Park SH, et al.
Erdafitinib in Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma.
N Engl J Med. 2019; 381(4):338-348 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Alterations in the gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor (
METHODS: In this open-label, phase 2 study, we enrolled patients who had locally advanced and unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma with prespecified
RESULTS: A total of 99 patients in the selected-regimen group received a median of five cycles of erdafitinib. Of these patients, 43% had received at least two previous courses of treatment, 79% had visceral metastases, and 53% had a creatinine clearance of less than 60 ml per minute. The rate of confirmed response to erdafitinib therapy was 40% (3% with a complete response and 37% with a partial response). Among the 22 patients who had undergone previous immunotherapy, the confirmed response rate was 59%. The median duration of progression-free survival was 5.5 months, and the median duration of overall survival was 13.8 months. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher, which were managed mainly by dose adjustments, were reported in 46% of the patients; 13% of the patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. There were no treatment-related deaths.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of erdafitinib was associated with an objective tumor response in 40% of previously treated patients who had locally advanced and unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma with

Spicka I, Ocio EM, Oakervee HE, et al.
Randomized phase III study (ADMYRE) of plitidepsin in combination with dexamethasone vs. dexamethasone alone in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(9):2139-2150 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The randomized phase III ADMYRE trial evaluated plitidepsin plus dexamethasone (DXM) versus DXM alone in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma after at least three but not more than six prior regimens, including at least bortezomib and lenalidomide or thalidomide. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive plitidepsin 5 mg/m

Rodríguez-Veiga R, Montesinos P, Boluda B, et al.
Incidence and outcome of invasive fungal disease after front-line intensive chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia: impact of antifungal prophylaxis.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(9):2081-2088 [PubMed] Related Publications
Few reports analyze the incidence and clinical outcome of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing intensive chemotherapy, and thus the impact of different antifungal prophylactic regimens remains unclear. We analyze the incidence and clinical outcome of IFD in a large series of adult AML patients undergoing front-line intensive induction and consolidation chemotherapy between 2004 and 2015 in a single institution. Three antifungal prophylaxis regimens were given (2004-2005 oral fluconazole, 2006-2012 intravenous itraconazole, and 2013-2015 voriconazole). Overall, 285 patients and 589 intensive chemotherapy episodes were assessed (47%) (induction courses 47% and consolidation 53%). The median age was 51 years (range, 17-65). We observed 56 (10%) episodes of IFD. According to the EORTC 2008 criteria, IFD was classified as possible (29, 52%), probable (17, 30%), and proven (10, 18%). Possible/probable/proven IFD rate was significantly lower during HiDAC consolidation as compared to any anthracycline-containing chemotherapy courses (2% vs. 11%, P = 0.001), and under voriconazole prophylaxis as compared to itraconazole and fluconazole (6% vs. 11% vs. 15%, P = 0.007), and the multivariate analysis showed that they were independent risk factors. Patients under voriconazole prophylaxis had shorter hospitalization duration and less frequent use of empirical or directed antifungal therapy. In conclusion, IFD was a frequent complication during upfront intensive chemotherapy courses for adult AML patients. This retrospective study shows that voriconazole prophylaxis was feasible and associated with a lower risk of IFD compared with intravenous itraconazole or oral fluconazole schedules.

Tap WD, Gelderblom H, Palmerini E, et al.
Pexidartinib versus placebo for advanced tenosynovial giant cell tumour (ENLIVEN): a randomised phase 3 trial.
Lancet. 2019; 394(10197):478-487 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tenosynovial giant cell tumour (TGCT), a rare, locally aggressive neoplasm, overexpresses colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1). Surgery is standard with no approved systemic therapy. We aimed to evaluate pexidartinib, a CSF1 receptor inhibitor, in patients with TGCT to provide them with a viable systemic treatment option, especially in cases that are not amenable to surgical resection.
METHODS: This phase 3 randomised trial had two parts. Part one was a double-blind study in which patients with symptomatic, advanced TGCT for whom surgery was not recommended were randomly assigned via an integrated web response system (1:1) to the pexidartinib or placebo group. Individuals in the pexidartinib group received a loading dose of 1000 mg pexidartinib per day orally (400 mg morning; 600 mg evening) for the first 2 weeks, followed by 800 mg per day (400 mg twice a day) for 22 weeks. Part two was an open-label study of pexidartinib for all patients. The primary endpoint, assessed in all intention-to-treat patients, was overall response at week 25, and was centrally reviewed by RECIST, version 1.1. Safety was analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of the study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02371369.
FINDINGS: Between May 11, 2015, and Sept 30, 2016, of 174 patients assessed for eligibility, 120 patients were randomly assigned to, and received, pexidartinib (n=61) or placebo (n=59). There were 11 dropouts in the placebo group and nine in the pexidartinib group. Emergence of mixed or cholestatic hepatotoxicity caused the data monitoring committee to stop enrolment six patients short of target. The proportion of patients who achieved overall response was higher for pexidartinib than placebo at week 25 by RECIST (24 [39%] of 61 vs none of 59; absolute difference 39% [95% CI 27-53]; p<0·0001). Serious adverse events occurred in eight (13%) of 61 patients in the pexidartinib group and one (2%) of 59 patients in the placebo group. Hair colour changes (67%), fatigue (54%), aspartate aminotransferase increase (39%), nausea (38%), alanine aminotransferase increase (28%), and dysgeusia (25%) were the most frequent pexidartinib-associated adverse events. Three patients given pexidartinib had aminotransferase elevations three or more times the upper limit of normal with total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase two or more times the upper limit of normal indicative of mixed or cholestatic hepatotoxicity, one lasting 7 months and confirmed by biopsy.
INTERPRETATION: Pexidartinib is the first systemic therapy to show a robust tumour response in TGCT with improved patient symptoms and functional outcomes; mixed or cholestatic hepatotoxicity is an identified risk. Pexidartinib could be considered as a potential treatment for TGCT associated with severe morbidity or functional limitations in cases not amenable to improvement with surgery.
FUNDING: Daiichi Sankyo.

Chi KN, Agarwal N, Bjartell A, et al.
Apalutamide for Metastatic, Castration-Sensitive Prostate Cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2019; 381(1):13-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Apalutamide is an inhibitor of the ligand-binding domain of the androgen receptor. Whether the addition of apalutamide to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) would prolong radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival as compared with placebo plus ADT among patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer has not been determined.
METHODS: In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer to receive apalutamide (240 mg per day) or placebo, added to ADT. Previous treatment for localized disease and previous docetaxel therapy were allowed. The primary end points were radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival.
RESULTS: A total of 525 patients were assigned to receive apalutamide plus ADT and 527 to receive placebo plus ADT. The median age was 68 years. A total of 16.4% of the patients had undergone prostatectomy or received radiotherapy for localized disease, and 10.7% had received previous docetaxel therapy; 62.7% had high-volume disease, and 37.3% had low-volume disease. At the first interim analysis, with a median of 22.7 months of follow-up, the percentage of patients with radiographic progression-free survival at 24 months was 68.2% in the apalutamide group and 47.5% in the placebo group (hazard ratio for radiographic progression or death, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.60; P<0.001). Overall survival at 24 months was also greater with apalutamide than with placebo (82.4% in the apalutamide group vs. 73.5% in the placebo group; hazard ratio for death, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.89; P = 0.005). The frequency of grade 3 or 4 adverse events was 42.2% in the apalutamide group and 40.8% in the placebo group; rash was more common in the apalutamide group.
CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer, overall survival and radiographic progression-free survival were significantly longer with the addition of apalutamide to ADT than with placebo plus ADT, and the side-effect profile did not differ substantially between the two groups. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; TITAN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02489318.).

Rini BI, Powles T, Atkins MB, et al.
Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab versus sunitinib in patients with previously untreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma (IMmotion151): a multicentre, open-label, phase 3, randomised controlled trial.
Lancet. 2019; 393(10189):2404-2415 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A phase 2 trial showed improved progression-free survival for atezolizumab plus bevacizumab versus sunitinib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who express programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). Here, we report results of IMmotion151, a phase 3 trial comparing atezolizumab plus bevacizumab versus sunitinib in first-line metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
METHODS: In this multicentre, open-label, phase 3, randomised controlled trial, patients with a component of clear cell or sarcomatoid histology and who were previously untreated, were recruited from 152 academic medical centres and community oncology practices in 21 countries, mainly in Europe, North America, and the Asia-Pacific region, and were randomly assigned 1:1 to either atezolizumab 1200 mg plus bevacizumab 15 mg/kg intravenously once every 3 weeks or sunitinib 50 mg orally once daily for 4 weeks on, 2 weeks off. A permuted-block randomisation (block size of 4) was applied to obtain a balanced assignment to each treatment group with respect to the stratification factors. Study investigators and participants were not masked to treatment allocation. Patients, investigators, independent radiology committee members, and the sponsor were masked to PD-L1 expression status. Co-primary endpoints were investigator-assessed progression-free survival in the PD-L1 positive population and overall survival in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02420821.
FINDINGS: Of 915 patients enrolled between May 20, 2015, and Oct 12, 2016, 454 were randomly assigned to the atezolizumab plus bevacizumab group and 461 to the sunitinib group. 362 (40%) of 915 patients had PD-L1 positive disease. Median follow-up was 15 months at the primary progression-free survival analysis and 24 months at the overall survival interim analysis. In the PD-L1 positive population, the median progression-free survival was 11·2 months in the atezolizumab plus bevacizumab group versus 7·7 months in the sunitinib group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·74 [95% CI 0·57-0·96]; p=0·0217). In the ITT population, median overall survival had an HR of 0·93 (0·76-1·14) and the results did not cross the significance boundary at the interim analysis. 182 (40%) of 451 patients in the atezolizumab plus bevacizumab group and 240 (54%) of 446 patients in the sunitinib group had treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events: 24 (5%) in the atezolizumab plus bevacizumab group and 37 (8%) in the sunitinib group had treatment-related all-grade adverse events, which led to treatment-regimen discontinuation.
INTERPRETATION: Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab prolonged progression-free survival versus sunitinib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma and showed a favourable safety profile. Longer-term follow-up is necessary to establish whether a survival benefit will emerge. These study results support atezolizumab plus bevacizumab as a first-line treatment option for selected patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.
FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd and Genentech Inc.

Mussetti A, Pellegrinelli A, Cieri N, et al.
PD-L1, LAG3, and HLA-DR are increasingly expressed during smoldering myeloma progression.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(7):1713-1720 [PubMed] Related Publications
Symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm that represents the final stage of a continuum of clinical conditions that start from monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), then transits in the more advance, but still asymptomatic, smoldering MM (SMM), with a final evolution in symptomatic MM. To investigate SMM microenvironment modifications, we studied 16 patients diagnosed at our hospital. Eight of them (group A) developed MM within 2 years from diagnosis while the others (group B) had stable SMM. Samples were bone marrow biopsies at diagnosis and after 2 years (± 4 months) and were analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis. Firstly, we found a significant increase in both CD4+ cells (11 vs 17%, p < 0.01) and CD8+ cells (15 vs 18%, p < 0.01) between diagnosis and at follow-up samples (whole cohort). This was associated to an increase in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio (0.74 vs 0.93, p < 0.01). Secondly, we discovered an increased expression of T cell inhibitory molecules during SMM evolution. In fact, plasma cell PD-L1 and microenvironment cell LAG3 expression increased from 1 to 12% (p = 0.03) and 4 to 10% (p = 0.04), respectively, from diagnosis to follow-up. Also, plasma cells and microenvironment cells HLA-DR expression augmented during SMM evolution from 7 to 10% (p = 0.04) and 29 to 39% (p = 0.01), respectively. When comparing group A vs group B, we found an increased CD68-KP1+ cell infiltration in favor of group B at diagnosis (23 vs 28%, p = 0.01) and a greater plasma cell infiltration at follow-up (50 vs 26%, p < 0.01). Our findings suggest how immune escape mechanisms appear earlier during multiple myeloma evolution, and that LAG3 could be a possible immunologic target in this setting.

Lavezzi SM, de Jong J, Neyens M, et al.
Systemic Exposure of Rituximab Increased by Ibrutinib: Pharmacokinetic Results and Modeling Based on the HELIOS Trial.
Pharm Res. 2019; 36(7):93 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: In the HELIOS trial, bendamustine/rituximab (BR) plus ibrutinib (BR-I) improved disease outcomes versus BR plus placebo in previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Here, we describe the pharmacokinetic (PK) observations, along with modeling to further explore the interaction between ibrutinib and rituximab.
METHODS: 578 subjects were randomized to ibrutinib or placebo with BR (6 cycles). Ibrutinib PK samples and tumor measurements were obtained from all subjects; a subset was evaluated for bendamustine and rituximab PK. Population rituximab PK was assessed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling.
RESULTS: Dose-normalized plasma concentration-time bendamustine data were comparable between the arms. Systemic rituximab exposure was higher with BR-I versus BR; mean trough serum concentrations were 2- to 3-fold higher in the first three cycles and 1.2- to 1.7-fold higher subsequently. No relevant safety differences were observed. In the modeling, including treatment arm as a categorical covariate and tumor burden as a continuous time-varying covariate on overall rituximab clearance significantly improved fitting of the data.
CONCLUSIONS: BR-I led to higher dose-normalized systemic rituximab exposure versus BR and more rapid steady-state achievement. The modeling data suggest that rituximab disposition is, at least in part, target mediated. Determining the clinical significance of these findings requires further assessments.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01611090 .

Rodon J, Soria JC, Berger R, et al.
Genomic and transcriptomic profiling expands precision cancer medicine: the WINTHER trial.
Nat Med. 2019; 25(5):751-758 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Precision medicine focuses on DNA abnormalities, but not all tumors have tractable genomic alterations. The WINTHER trial ( NCT01856296 ) navigated patients to therapy on the basis of fresh biopsy-derived DNA sequencing (arm A; 236 gene panel) or RNA expression (arm B; comparing tumor to normal). The clinical management committee (investigators from five countries) recommended therapies, prioritizing genomic matches; physicians determined the therapy given. Matching scores were calculated post-hoc for each patient, according to drugs received: for DNA, the number of alterations matched divided by the total alteration number; for RNA, expression-matched drug ranks. Overall, 303 patients consented; 107 (35%; 69 in arm A and 38 in arm B) were evaluable for therapy. The median number of previous therapies was three. The most common diagnoses were colon, head and neck, and lung cancers. Among the 107 patients, the rate of stable disease ≥6 months and partial or complete response was 26.2% (arm A: 23.2%; arm B: 31.6% (P = 0.37)). The patient proportion with WINTHER versus previous therapy progression-free survival ratio of >1.5 was 22.4%, which did not meet the pre-specified primary end point. Fewer previous therapies, better performance status and higher matching score correlated with longer progression-free survival (all P < 0.05, multivariate). Our study shows that genomic and transcriptomic profiling are both useful for improving therapy recommendations and patient outcome, and expands personalized cancer treatment.

Cortes JE, Gambacorti-Passerini C, Deininger MW, et al.
Patient-reported outcomes in the phase 3 BFORE trial of bosutinib versus imatinib for newly diagnosed chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(6):1589-1599 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In the phase 3 BFORE trial (NCT02130557), treatment with bosutinib resulted in a significantly higher major molecular response rate at 12 months versus imatinib in the modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population of patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP CML). Assessment of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) was an exploratory objective.
METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed CP CML were randomized 1:1 to receive once-daily bosutinib 400 mg or imatinib 400 mg as first-line therapy. Patients completed the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Leukemia (FACT-Leu) and EuroQoL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaires at baseline, every 3 months for the first 24 months of treatment, every 6 months thereafter, and at treatment completion. We report PRO results at month 12 in the mITT population (bosutinib: n = 246; imatinib: n = 241).
RESULTS: Mean FACT-Leu combined and subscale scores were similar at baseline in the bosutinib and imatinib arms; at month 12, all scores demonstrated improvement or maintenance of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in both treatment arms. Repeated-measures mixed-effects models showed no significant difference between bosutinib and imatinib for any FACT-Leu score. Functional health status, as measured by EQ-5D, also demonstrated improvement or maintenance with bosutinib and imatinib at month 12.
CONCLUSIONS: Similar improvements in PROs compared with baseline were seen after 12 months of treatment with first-line bosutinib or imatinib in the BFORE trial. Newly diagnosed patients with CP CML receiving bosutinib or imatinib can preserve or improve HRQoL during treatment, although clinical efficacy was superior with bosutinib.

Pradier MF, Reis B, Jukofsky L, et al.
Case-control Indian buffet process identifies biomarkers of response to Codrituzumab.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):278 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Codrituzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against Glypican-3 (GPC3), which is expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), was tested in a randomized phase II trial in advanced HCC patients who had failed prior systemic therapy. Biomarker analysis was performed to identify a responder population that benefits from treatment.
METHODS: A novel statistical method based on the Indian buffet process (IBP) was used to identify biomarkers predictive of response to treatment with Codrituzumab. The IBP is a novel method that allows flexibility in analysis design, and which is sensitive to slight, but meaningful between-group differences in biomarkers in very complex datasets RESULTS: The IBP model identified several subpopulations of patients having defined biomarker values. Tumor necrosis and viable cell content in the tumor were identified as prognostic markers of disease progression, as were the well-known HCC prognostic markers of disease progression, alpha-fetoprotein and Glypican-3 expression. Predictive markers of treatment response included natural killer (NK) cell surface markers and parameters influencing NK cell activity, all related to the mechanism of action of this drug CONCLUSIONS: The Indian buffet process can be effectively used to detect statistically significant signals with high sensitivity in complex and noisy biological data TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01507168 , January 6, 2012.

Alejo LB, Pagola-Aldazabal I, Fiuza-Luces C, et al.
Exercise prehabilitation program for patients under neoadjuvant treatment for rectal cancer: A pilot study.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2019 Jan-Mar; 15(1):20-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Context: Prehabilitation is emerging as a method of preparing patients physically and mentally for the often disabling effects of cancer treatment.
Aims: This study aims to assess the feasibility and to explore the potential effects of a prehabilitation program consisting of educational physical exercise sessions in patients with rectal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy treatment (NCRT).
Settings and Design: This was a pilot study with 12 patients (3 males and 9 females, age 61 ± 7 years).
Subjects and Methods: The program included six educational sessions of exercise during NCRT. Adherence to the intervention; quality of life (QoL); anxiety and depression; body mass index; physical fitness (peak oxygen uptake (VO
Statistical Analysis Used: Data are reported as the mean ± standard deviation or medians and interquartile ranges for questionnaire-derived data. Secondary outcome measures were compared using the nonparametric Wilcoxon test. The threshold P value for significance was calculated after correction for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method.
Results: Adherence to the program was 64 of 72 possible exercise education sessions completed, i.e., 89%. We detected a trend toward a significant improvement in VO
Conclusions: Exercise might be an effective prehabilitation strategy for surgery during the period of NCRT.

Chia SKL, Martin M, Holmes FA, et al.
PIK3CA alterations and benefit with neratinib: analysis from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III ExteNET trial.
Breast Cancer Res. 2019; 21(1):39 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neratinib is an irreversible pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways after HER2 receptor activation. The ExteNET study showed that neratinib significantly improved 5-year invasive disease-free survival (iDFS) in women who completed trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer (EBC). We assessed the prognostic and predictive significance of PIK3CA alterations in patients in ExteNET.
METHODS: Participants were women aged ≥ 18 years (≥ 20 years in Japan) with stage 1-3c (modified to stage 2-3c in February 2010) operable breast cancer, who had completed (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab ≤ 2 years before randomization, with no evidence of disease recurrence or metastatic disease at study entry. Patients were randomized to oral neratinib 240 mg/day or placebo for 1 year. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary tumor specimens underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) PIK3CA testing for two hotspot mutations in exon 9, one hot-spot mutation in exon 20, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for PIK3CA amplification. The primary endpoint (iDFS) was tested with log-rank test and hazard ratios (HRs) estimated using Cox proportional-hazards models.
RESULTS: Among the intent-to-treat population (n = 2840), tumor specimens were available for PCR testing (991 patients) and PIK3CA FISH (702 patients). Overall, 262 samples were PIK3CA altered: 201 were mutated (77%), 52 (20%) were amplified, and 9 (3%) were mutated and amplified. iDFS was non-significantly worse in placebo-treated patients with altered vs wild-type PIK3CA (HR 1.34; 95% CI 0.72-2.50; P = 0.357). Neratinib's effect over placebo was significant in patients with PIK3CA-altered tumors (HR 0.41; 95% CI 0.17-0.90, P = 0.028) but not PIK3CA wild-type tumors (HR 0.72; 95% CI 0.36-1.41; P = 0.34). The interaction test was non-significant (P = 0.309).
CONCLUSIONS: Although there was a greater absolute risk reduction associated with neratinib treatment of patients with PIK3CA-altered tumors in ExteNET, current data do not support PIK3CA alteration as a predictive biomarker of response to neratinib in HER2-positive EBC.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT00878709 . Trial registered April 9, 2009.

Griesshammer M, Kiladjian JJ, Besses C
Thromboembolic events in polycythemia vera.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(5):1071-1082 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Thromboembolic events and cardiovascular disease are the most prevalent complications in patients with polycythemia vera (PV) compared with other myeloproliferative disorders and are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. Moreover, a vascular complication such as arterial or venous thrombosis often leads to the diagnosis of PV. The highest rates of thrombosis typically occur shortly before or at diagnosis and decrease over time, probably due to the effects of treatment. Important risk factors include age (≥ 60 years old) and a history of thrombosis; elevated hematocrit and leukocytosis are also associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. The goal of therapy is to reduce the risk of thrombosis by controlling hematocrit to < 45%, a target associated with reduced rates of cardiovascular death and major thrombosis. Low-risk patients (< 60 years old with no history of thrombosis) are managed with phlebotomy and low-dose aspirin, whereas high-risk patients (≥ 60 years old and/or with a history of thrombosis) should be treated with cytoreductive agents. Interferon and ruxolitinib are considered second-line therapies for patients who are intolerant of or have an inadequate response to hydroxyurea, which is typically used as first-line therapy. In this review, we discuss factors associated with thrombosis and recent data on current treatments, including anticoagulation, highlighting the need for more controlled studies to determine the most effective cytoreductive therapies for reducing the risk of thrombosis in patients with PV.

Alvarez-Gonzalez MA, Pantaleon MA, Flores-Le Roux JA, et al.
Randomized Clinical Trial: A Normocaloric Low-Fiber Diet the Day Before Colonoscopy Is the Most Effective Approach to Bowel Preparation in Colorectal Cancer Screening Colonoscopy.
Dis Colon Rectum. 2019; 62(4):491-497 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines recommend either a clear-liquid diet or a low-fiber diet for colonoscopy preparation. Participants in a screening program are usually motivated healthy individuals in which a good tolerability is important to improve adherence to potential surveillance colonoscopies.
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess whether or not a normocaloric low-fiber diet followed the day before a screening colonoscopy compromises the efficacy of bowel cleansing and may improve the tolerability of bowel preparation.
DESIGN: This is a randomized, endoscopist-blinded, noninferiority clinical trial.
SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a tertiary care center.
PATIENTS: A total of 276 consecutive participants of the Barcelona colorectal cancer screening program were included.
INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to a clear-liquid diet or a normocaloric low-fiber diet the day before the colonoscopy. Both groups received 4 L of polyethylene glycol in a split-dose regimen.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was the adequate bowel preparation rate measured with the Boston bowel preparation scale. Secondary outcomes included tolerability, fluid-intake perception, hunger, side effects, and acceptability.
RESULTS: Participants in both groups were similar in baseline characteristics. Adequate bowel preparation was achieved in 89.1% vs 95.7% in clear-liquid diet and low-fiber diet groups, showing not only noninferiority, but also superiority (p = 0.04). Low-fiber diet participants reported less fluid-intake perception (p = 0.04) and less hunger (p = 0.006), with no differences in bloating or nausea.
LIMITATIONS: The single-center design of the study could limit the external validity of the results. The present findings may not be comparable to other clinical settings.
CONCLUSION: A normocaloric low-fiber diet the day before a screening colonoscopy achieved better results than a clear-liquid diet in terms of adequate colon preparation. Moreover, it also improved the perception of hunger and excessive fluid intake. Registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02401802. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A829.

Méndez M, Torrente M, Sánchez-Beato M, et al.
Transformed follicular lymphoma in the rituximab era: A report from the Spanish Lymphoma Oncology Group.
Hematol Oncol. 2019; 37(2):143-150 [PubMed] Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtype. The histological transformation (HT) of FL is an event considered frequent in the natural history of this tumor. We studied the transformation rates, predictive factors, and treatment characteristics that may impact in the survival of patients with FL and HT. A total of 1074 patients diagnosed with FL were prospectively enrolled from 1990 to 2016 in a Spanish registry. Sixty-four HTs were recorded based on clinical criteria (55%) or histological confirmation (45%). The cumulative incidence rate of transformation at 5 years is 7.3%. The 5-year overall survival (OS) without HT was 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70%-90%) vs 66% (95% CI, 51%-76%; P = 0.0012) with HT. Factors associated with HT were elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (odds ratio [OR] 1.83), intermediate-high Follicular lymphoma international prognostic index (FLIPI) (OR 2.16-OR 3.21), B symptoms (OR 2.46), or Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 1 (OR 2.35). Treatment options related to HT were "watch and wait" or no rituximab or anthracyclines initially. A 5-year OS for patients treated with chemotherapy before HT was 55% (95% CI, 38%-69%) versus 81% (95% CI, 53%-93%; P = 0.009) for those who had not received it. The HT rate has decreased after the introduction of rituximab, as has been previously described. The timing of this treatment had an impact on the survival of these patients.

Waller CF, Ranganna GM, Pennella EJ, et al.
Randomized phase 3 efficacy and safety trial of proposed pegfilgrastim biosimilar MYL-1401H in the prophylactic treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(5):1217-1224 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Pegfilgrastim is indicated for reducing the duration of neutropenia and incidence of febrile neutropenia in patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. Here, safety and efficacy of MYL-1401H, a proposed pegfilgrastim biosimilar, were investigated as prophylaxis for chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. This was a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group equivalence trial of MYL-1401H vs European Union-sourced reference pegfilgrastim. Patients with newly diagnosed stage II/III breast cancer eligible to receive (neo) adjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide every 3 weeks for 6 cycles were enrolled and randomized 2:1 to 6 mg of MYL-1401H or reference pegfilgrastim 24 h (+ 2-h window after the first 24 h) after the end of chemotherapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was the duration of severe neutropenia in cycle 1 (i.e., days with absolute neutrophil count (ANC) < 0.5 × 10

Schuler M, Tan EH, O'Byrne K, et al.
First-line afatinib vs gefitinib for patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC (LUX-Lung 7): impact of afatinib dose adjustment and analysis of mode of initial progression for patients who continued treatment beyond progression.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(6):1569-1579 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
PURPOSE: In the randomized phase IIb LUX-Lung 7 trial, afatinib significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) and time-to-treatment failure vs gefitinib in patients with treatment-naïve epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer. We report post hoc analyses of tolerability-guided dose adjustment for afatinib and summarize the clinical characteristics of patients who continued afatinib/gefitinib beyond initial radiological progression in LUX-Lung 7.
METHODS: Patients received afatinib 40 mg/day or gefitinib 250 mg/day until investigator-assessed progression or beyond if beneficial. In case of selected treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs), the afatinib dose could be reduced by 10-mg decrements to minimum 20 mg (only dose interruptions were permitted with gefitinib).
RESULTS: All randomized patients were treated (afatinib, n = 160; gefitinib, n = 159). Sixty-three patients had afatinib dose reduction (< 40 mg/day; 47 within first 6 months). Dose reduction decreased TRAE incidence/severity (before vs after; all grade/grade 3: 100.0%/63.5% vs 90.5%/23.8%). There was no evidence of significant difference in PFS for patients who received < 40 mg/day vs ≥ 40 mg/day for the first 6 months [median: 12.8 vs 11.0 months; hazard ratio 1.34 (95% confidence interval 0.90-2.00)]. Twenty-four and 26 patients continued afatinib and gefitinib, respectively, beyond progression in target lesions; median time from nadir of target lesion diameters to initial progression was 6.7 months and 5.6 months. Of these patients, ~ 70% had objective response or non-complete response/non-progressive disease in non-target lesions at initial progression.
CONCLUSIONS: Protocol-defined dose adjustment of afatinib may allow patients to remain on treatment longer, maximizing clinical benefit even in the presence of radiological progression.

Gökbuget N, Dombret H, Giebel S, et al.
Minimal residual disease level predicts outcome in adults with Ph-negative B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Hematology. 2019; 24(1):337-348 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Detectable minimal residual disease (MRD) after therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the strongest predictor of hematologic relapse. This study evaluated outcomes of patients with B-cell precursor ALL with MRD of ≥10
RESULTS: Of 272 patients in CR1, baseline MRD was ≥10
DISCUSSION: In conclusion, RFS, DoR, and OS are relatively short in patients with MRD-positive ALL, particularly at higher MRD levels. AlloHSCT may improve survival but has limitations. Alternative approaches are needed to improve outcomes in MRD-positive ALL.

Schalper KA, Rodriguez-Ruiz ME, Diez-Valle R, et al.
Neoadjuvant nivolumab modifies the tumor immune microenvironment in resectable glioblastoma.
Nat Med. 2019; 25(3):470-476 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma is the most common primary central nervous system malignancy and has a poor prognosis. Standard first-line treatment, which includes surgery followed by adjuvant radio-chemotherapy, produces only modest benefits to survival

Kato K, Shah MA, Enzinger P, et al.
KEYNOTE-590: Phase III study of first-line chemotherapy with or without pembrolizumab for advanced esophageal cancer.
Future Oncol. 2019; 15(10):1057-1066 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Treatment options for patients with advanced esophageal or esophagogastric junction (EGJ) cancer are limited. Current guidelines for first-line treatment of advanced esophageal or EGJ cancer recommend chemotherapy containing a platinum and a fluoropyrimidine agent. Pembrolizumab demonstrated antitumor activity in previously treated patients with advanced esophageal cancer and in patients with gastroesophageal junction cancer.
AIM: To describe the design and rationale for the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III KEYNOTE-590 study, which will be conducted to investigate pembrolizumab in combination with chemotherapy as first-line treatment in patients with advanced esophageal or EGJ cancer. Clinical trial registry & ID: ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT03189719.

Bonifazi F, Solano C, Wolschke C, et al.
Acute GVHD prophylaxis plus ATLG after myeloablative allogeneic haemopoietic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation from HLA-identical siblings in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia in remission: final results of quality of life and long-term outcome analysis of a phase 3 randomised study.
Lancet Haematol. 2019; 6(2):e89-e99 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that human anti-T-lymphocyte globulin (ATLG) plus ciclosporin and methotrexate given to patients with acute leukaemia in remission, having allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation with peripheral blood stem cells from an HLA-identical sibling donor after myeloablative conditioning, significantly reduced 2-year chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) incidence and severity, without increasing disease relapse and infections, and improves cGVHD-free and relapse-free survival (cGRFS). The aim of an extended follow-up study was the assessment of long-term outcomes, which are, in this context, scarcely reported in the literature. We report unpublished data on quality of life (QoL) from the original study and the results of a follow-up extension.
METHODS: In the original open-label study, patients with acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukaemia in first or subsequent remission, having sibling HLA-identical allogeneic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive ATLG plus standard GVHD prophylaxis with ciclosporin and short-term methotrexate (ATLG group) or standard GVHD prophylaxis without ATLG (non-ATLG group). Conditioning regimens were cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg with either total body irradiation (12 Gy) or busulfan (12·8 mg/kg intravenously or 16 mg/kg orally), with or without etoposide (30-60 mg/kg). Randomisation was stratified according to centre and disease risk. The primary endpoint was cumulative incidence of cGVHD at 2 years. The primary and secondary endpoints, excluding QoL, have been published. QoL, assessed using European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-HDC29 questionnaires, was an unpublished secondary endpoint, which we now report here. A follow-up extension was then done, with the primary endpoint cumulative incidence of cGVHD. Enrolment has been completed for both studies. The original trial (number, NCT00678275) and follow-up extension (number, NCT03042676) are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov.
FINDINGS: In the original study, from Dec 14, 2006, to Feb 2, 2012, 161 patients were enrolled and 155 were randomly assigned to either the ATLG group (n=83) or to the non-ATLG group (n=72). In the follow-up study, which started on Feb 7, 2017, and was completed on June 30, 2017, 61 patients were included in the ATLG group and 53 were included in the non-ATLG group. Global health status showed a more favourable time course in the ATLG group compared with the non-ATLG group (p=0·02; treatment by visit interaction). ATLG was descriptively superior to non-ATLG at 24 months for physical function (points estimate -14·8 [95% CI -26·4 to -3·1]; p=0·014) and social function (-19·1 [-38·0 to -0·2]; p=0·047), gastrointestinal side-effects (8·8 [2·5-15·1]; p=0·008) and effect on family (13·5 [1·2-25·8]; p=0·032). Extended follow-up (median 5·9 years [IQR 1·7-7·9]) confirmed a lower 5-year cGVHD incidence (30·0% [95% CI 21·4-41·9] vs 69·1% [59·1-80·1]; analysis for entire follow-up, p<0·001), no increase in relapses (35·4% [26·4-47·5] vs 22·5% [14·6-34·7]; p=0·09), improved cGRFS (34·3% [24·2-44·5] vs 13·9% [7·1-22·9]; p=0·005), and fewer patients still in immunosuppression (9·6% vs 28·3%; p=0·017) in the ATLG group compared with the non-ATLG group. 5-year overall survival, relapse-free survival, and non-relapse mortality did not differ significantly between groups.
INTERPRETATION: The addition of ATLG to standard GVHD prophylaxis improves the probability of surviving without disease relapse and cGVHD after myeloablative peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor for patients with acute leukaemia in remission. Further additional benefits are better QoL and shorter immunosuppressive treatment compared with standard GVHD prophylaxis without ATLG. Therefore, in this setting, ATLG plus standard GVHD prophylaxis should be preferred over the standard GVHD prophylaxis alone.
FUNDING: Neovii Biotech.

van Rooijen S, Carli F, Dalton S, et al.
Multimodal prehabilitation in colorectal cancer patients to improve functional capacity and reduce postoperative complications: the first international randomized controlled trial for multimodal prehabilitation.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):98 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most prevalent type of cancer in the world. Surgery is the only curative option. However, postoperative complications occur in up to 50% of patients and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates, lower health related quality of life (HRQoL) and increased expenditure in health care. The number and severity of complications are closely related to preoperative functional capacity, nutritional state, psychological state, and smoking behavior. Traditional approaches have targeted the postoperative period for rehabilitation and lifestyle changes. However, recent evidence shows that the preoperative period might be the optimal moment for intervention. This study will determine the impact of multimodal prehabilitation on patients' functional capacity and postoperative complications.
METHODS/DESIGN: This international multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled trial will include 714 patients undergoing colorectal surgery for cancer. Patients will be allocated to the intervention group, which will receive 4 weeks of prehabilitation (group 1, prehab), or the control group, which will receive no prehabilitation (group 2, no prehab). Both groups will receive perioperative care in accordance with the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) guidelines. The primary outcomes for measurement will be functional capacity (as assessed using the six-minute walk test (6MWT)) and postoperative status determined with the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI). Secondary outcomes will include HRQoL, length of hospital stay (LOS) and a cost-effectiveness analysis.
DISCUSSION: Multimodal prehabilitation is expected to enhance patients' functional capacity and to reduce postoperative complications. It may therefore result in increased survival and improved HRQoL. This is the first international multicenter study investigating multimodal prehabilitation for patients undergoing colorectal surgery for cancer.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial Registry: NTR5947 - date of registration: 1 August 2016.

Malpique R, Sánchez-Infantes D, Garcia-Beltran C, et al.
Towards a circulating marker of hepato-visceral fat excess: S100A4 in adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome - Evidence from randomized clinical trials.
Pediatr Obes. 2019; 14(5):e12500 [PubMed] Related Publications
S100A4 is a marker of subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is often driven by hepato-visceral adiposity. PCOS phenotypes are normalized more by reduction of central fat with spironolactone/pioglitazone/metformin (SPIOMET) than by oral contraceptive (OC) treatment. We studied whether circulating S100A4 concentrations are high in adolescents with PCOS and, if so, whether they normalize more with OC or SPIOMET. Assessments included circulating S100A4, endocrine markers, body composition, abdominal fat partitioning in controls (n = 12) and girls with PCOS (n = 51; age 15.8 y; body mass index [BMI] 24.5 kg/m

Younes A, Brody J, Carpio C, et al.
Safety and activity of ibrutinib in combination with nivolumab in patients with relapsed non-Hodgkin lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a phase 1/2a study.
Lancet Haematol. 2019; 6(2):e67-e78 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have shown synergistic antitumour effects between ibrutinib and immune-checkpoint blockade. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and activity of ibrutinib in combination with nivolumab in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell malignant diseases.
METHODS: We did a two-part, open-label, phase 1/2a study at 21 hospitals in Australia, Israel, Poland, Spain, Turkey, and the USA. The primary objective of part A (dose escalation) was to assess the safety of daily oral ibrutinib (420 mg or 560 mg) in combination with intravenous nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks) to ascertain a recommended phase 2 dose in patients with relapsed or refractory high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (del17p or del11q), follicular lymphoma, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Dose optimisation was investigated using a modified toxicity probability interval design. The primary objective of the part B expansion phase was to establish the preliminary activity (the proportion of patients who achieved an overall response) of the combination of ibrutinib and nivolumab in four cohorts: relapsed or refractory high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (del17p or del11q), follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and Richter's transformation. All participants who received at least one dose of treatment were included in the primary analysis and analyses were done by disease cohort. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02329847. The trial is ongoing.
FINDINGS: Between March 12, 2015, and April 11, 2017, 144 patients were enrolled in the study. Three patients died before receiving study treatment; thus, 141 patients were included in the analysis, 14 in part A and 127 in part B. One dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 hyperbilirubinaemia) was reported at the 420 mg dose in the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cohort, which resolved after 5 days. The combination of ibrutinib and nivolumab led to overall responses in 22 (61%) of 36 patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma, 13 (33%) of 40 patients with follicular lymphoma, 16 (36%) of 45 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and 13 (65%) of 20 patients with Richter's transformation. The most common all-grade adverse events were diarrhoea (47 [33%] of 141 patients), neutropenia (44 [31%]), and fatigue (37 [26%]). 11 (8%) of 141 patients had adverse events leading to death; none were reported as drug-related. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (40 [28%] of 141 patients) and anaemia (32 [23%]). The incidence of grade 3-4 neutropenia ranged from eight (18%) of 45 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma to 19 (53%) of 36 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma; incidence of grade 3-4 anaemia ranged from five (13%) of 40 patients with follicular lymphoma to seven (35%) of 20 patients with Richter's transformation. The most common serious adverse events included anaemia (six [4%] of 141 patients) and pneumonia (five [4%]). The most common grade 3-4 immune-related adverse events were rash (11 [8%] of 141 patients) and increased alanine aminotransferase (three [2%]).
INTERPRETATION: The combination of ibrutinib and nivolumab had an acceptable safety profile and preliminary activity was similar to that reported with single-agent ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The clinical response in patients with Richter's transformation was promising and supports further clinical assessment.
FUNDING: Janssen R&D.

Fabbro M, Moore KN, Dørum A, et al.
Efficacy and safety of niraparib as maintenance treatment in older patients (≥ 70 years) with recurrent ovarian cancer: Results from the ENGOT-OV16/NOVA trial.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 152(3):560-567 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the safety and efficacy of niraparib in patients aged ≥70 years with recurrent ovarian cancer in the ENGOT-OV16/NOVA trial.
METHODS: The trial enrolled 2 independent cohorts with histologically diagnosed recurrent ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer who responded to platinum rechallenge, on the basis of germline breast cancer susceptibility gene mutation (gBRCAmut) status. Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive niraparib (300 mg) or placebo once daily until disease progression. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) by blinded independent central review. Adverse events (AEs) of special interest were based on the known safety profile of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors.
RESULTS: Patients aged ≥70 years in the gBRCAmut cohort receiving niraparib (n = 14) had not yet reached a median PFS compared with a median PFS of 3.7 months for the same age group in the placebo arm (hazard ratio [HR], 0.09 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.01 to 0.73]). Non-gBRCAmut patients aged ≥70 years receiving niraparib (n = 47) had a median PFS of 11.3 months compared with 3.8 months in the placebo arm (HR, 0.35 [95% CI, 0.18 to 0.71]). Median duration of follow-up in the niraparib arm was 17.3 months in patients ≥70 years and 17.2 months in patients <70 years. Frequency, severity of AEs, and dose reductions in the niraparib arm were similar in patients aged <70 and ≥ 70 years population. The most common grade ≥ 3 AEs in patients ≥70 years were hematologic: thrombocytopenia event (34.4%), anemia event (13.1%), and neutropenia event (16.4%).
CONCLUSIONS: For patients ≥70 years of age receiving niraparib as maintenance treatment in the ENGOT-OV16/NOVA trial, PFS benefits and incidence of any grade or serious treatment-emergent AEs were comparable to results in the younger population. Use of niraparib should be considered in this population.

Perestelo-Perez L, Rivero-Santana A, Torres-Castaño A, et al.
Effectiveness of a decision aid for promoting colorectal cancer screening in Spain: a randomized trial.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2019; 19(1):8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has shown to reduce incidence and mortality rates, and therefore is widely recommended for people above 50 years-old. However, despite the implementation of population-based screening programs in several countries, uptake rates are still low. Decision aids (DAs) may help patients to make informed decisions about CRC screening.
METHODS: We performed a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a DA developed to promote CRC screening, with patients from two primary care centers in Spain who never had underwent CRC screening. Contrary to center B (n = 24), Center A (n = 83) attended patients from an area where the population-based screening program was not implemented at that moment. Outcome measures were decisional conflict, knowledge of the disease and available screening options, intention to uptake the test, and concordance between patients' goals/concerns and intention.
RESULTS: In center A, there were significant differences favoring the DA in decisional conflict (p < 0.001) and knowledge (p < 0.001). The absolute differences favoring DA group in intention to undergo fecal occult blood test (10.5%) and colonoscopy (13.7%) were significant only before correction for attenuation. In center B the differences were significant only for knowledge (p < 0.001). Patients' goals and concerns regarding the screening did not significantly predict their intention, and therefore we could not calculate a measure of concordance between the two constructs.
CONCLUSIONS: A DA improved the decisional process of participants who had never been invited to participate in the Spanish public CRC screening program, replicating previous results in this field. Future research is needed to identify subgroups that could benefit more from these interventions.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Registered Clinical/social Study Number: ISRCTN98108615 (Retrospectively registered on 27 December 2018).

Heidenreich A, Gillessen S, Heinrich D, et al.
Radium-223 in asymptomatic patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases treated in an international early access program.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):12 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Radium-223, a targeted alpha therapy, is used to treat symptomatic patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and bone metastases. Data for radium-223 in asymptomatic CRPC patients with bone metastases are lacking.
METHODS: This was a prospective, single-arm phase 3b study. Patients with metastatic CRPC (malignant lymphadenopathy not exceeding 6 cm was allowed, visceral disease was excluded) received radium-223, 55 kBq/kg intravenously, every 4 weeks for up to 6 cycles. Co-primary endpoints were safety and overall survival. Post hoc analyses were performed according to baseline asymptomatic or symptomatic disease status. Asymptomatic status was defined as no pain and no opioid use at baseline.
RESULTS: Seven hundred eight patients received ≥1 radium-223 injection: 548 (77%) were symptomatic to various degrees, and 135 (19%) were asymptomatic. Asymptomatic patients had more favorable baseline disease characteristics than symptomatic. A lower proportion of asymptomatic versus symptomatic patients had received prior abiraterone (25% vs 35%) and prior docetaxel (52% vs 62%). A higher proportion of asymptomatic (71%) versus symptomatic (55%) patients completed radium-223 treatment. Overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.486), time to disease progression (HR 0.722) and time to first symptomatic skeletal event (HR 0.328) were better in asymptomatic than symptomatic patients. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) response rates were similar (46% vs 47%), and ALP normalization (44% vs 25%) and prostate-specific antigen response rates (21% vs 13%) were higher in asymptomatic than symptomatic patients. A lower proportion of asymptomatic patients reported treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs, 61% vs 79%), grade 3-4 TEAEs (29% vs 40%) and drug-related TEAEs (28% vs 44%). There were two treatment-related deaths, both in patients with baseline symptomatic disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Using radium-223 earlier in the disease course, when patients are asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, may enable patients to complete treatment and optimize treatment outcome compared to symptomatic patients, and therefore may allow sequencing with other life-prolonging therapies.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov , number NCT01618370 on June 13, 2012 and the European Union Clinical Trials Register, EudraCT number 2012-000075-16 on April 4, 2012.

Pujol-Blaya V, Salinas-Huertas S, Catasús ML, et al.
Effectiveness of a precast adjustable compression system compared to multilayered compression bandages in the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphoedema: a randomized, single-blind clinical trial.
Clin Rehabil. 2019; 33(4):631-641 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE:: To compare the effectiveness of a precast adjustable compression system with that of multilayered compression bandages in the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphoedema.
DESIGN:: Multicenter, randomized, single-blind parallel-group clinical trial.
SETTING:: The rehabilitation services of four general university hospitals.
SUBJECTS:: Patients with upper limb breast cancer-related lymphoedema.
INTERVENTIONS:: All the patients received manual lymphatic drainage, followed by a precast adjustable compression system or multilayered compression bandages, according to the group allocation. The treatment included 10 consecutive sessions over a two-week period from Monday to Friday, followed by some sessions on three alternate days per week, until the patient received a tailored compression garment.
PRIMARY MEASUREMENTS:: The patients were evaluated just before the treatment, after 10 sessions and at three months posttreatment. The primary outcome was the change in excess lymphoedema volume. Secondary outcomes were changes in the symptoms of pain, heaviness, tightness and hardness. Analyses were performed using an intention-to-treat approach.
RESULTS:: In all, 42 patients were included; there were 22 in the precast adjustable compression system group and 20 in the multilayered compression bandages group. Both groups exhibited significant decreases in excess volume and symptoms after 10 sessions and at three months. There were no significant differences regarding excess volume or symptoms between the precast adjustable compression system and multilayered compression bandages groups after 10 sessions and at the three-month follow-up exam.
CONCLUSION:: The precast adjustable compression system and the multilayered compression bandages have similar efficacy for the reduction of excess lymphoedema volume or symptoms.

Ocana A, Gil-Martin M, Antolín S, et al.
Efficacy and safety of dasatinib with trastuzumab and paclitaxel in first line HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer: results from the phase II GEICAM/2010-04 study.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 174(3):693-701 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: An important proportion of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients do not respond to trastuzumab. The combination of dasatinib and trastuzumab has shown to be synergistic in preclinical models.
METHODS: We conducted a phase II trial combining dasatinib 100 mg once daily with trastuzumab 2 mg/kg and paclitaxel 80 mg/m
RESULTS: From June 2013 to December 2015, 29 patients were included. Median number of cycles was 12 (1-49). Only 6 patients discontinued due to adverse events. ORR was 79.3% (95% CI 60.3-92), clinical benefit rate 82.8% (95% CI 64.2-94.2). Median time to progression 23.9 months (95% CI 14.9-not reached [NR]), median progression-free survival 23.9 months (95% CI 10.3-NR). No grade 4 toxicity was seen. Grade 3 toxicities included: ejection fraction decrease, neutropenia, hyponatremia, fatigue and sensory neuropathy and one left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Phosphorylated (p)-SRC was reduced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Phosphorylated SRC, ERK and AKT were also reduced in epidermal keratinocytes.
CONCLUSIONS: Dasatinib can be safely combined with trastuzumab and paclitaxel. The combination is active with an ORR of almost 80%.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01306942, EudraCT 2010-023304-27.

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