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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 4.9m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 28,200
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 318.3
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:31.5%
People dying from cancer /yr: 10,600
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Norway: Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications related to Norway

Norway: Cancer Organisations and Resources (17 links)

Latest Research Publications related to Norway

Torfoss D, Fladhagen T, Holte H, et al.
Benzylpenicillin plus an aminoglycoside versus meropenem in neutropenic lymphoma and leukaemia patients with a suspected bacterial infection: a randomized, controlled trial.
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2017; 23(3):179-187 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: In Norway, initial treatment of febrile neutropenia (FN) has traditionally been benzylpenicillin plus an aminoglycoside. Internationally, FN is often treated with a broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic. We aimed to compare these two regimens in a prospective, randomized, trial in patients with lymphoma or leukaemia with an expected period of neutropenia ≥7 days, and a suspected bacterial infection.
METHODS: Adult neutropenic patients with lymphoma or leukaemia, and a suspected bacterial infection, were randomized for treatment with benzylpenicillin plus an aminoglycoside or meropenem. The primary endpoint was clinical success, defined as no modification of antibiotics and clinical stability 72 h after randomization.
RESULTS: Among 322 randomized patients, 297 proved evaluable for analyses. Fifty-nine per cent (95% CI 51%-66%), (87/148) of the patients given benzylpenicillin plus an aminoglycoside were clinically stable, and had no antibiotic modifications 72 h after randomization, compared with 82% (95% CI 75%-87%), (122/149) of the patients given meropenem (p <0.001). When the antibiotic therapy was stopped, 24% (95% CI 18%-32%), (36/148) of the patients given benzylpenicillin plus an aminoglycoside, compared with 52% (95% CI 44%-60%), (78/149) of the patients given meropenem, had no modifications of their regimens (p <0.001). In the benzylpenicillin plus an aminoglycoside arm, the all-cause fatality within 30 days of randomization was 3.4% (95% CI 1.2%-7.9%), (5/148) of the patients, compared with 0% (95% CI 0.0%-3.0%), (0/149) of the patients in the meropenem arm (p 0.03).
CONCLUSION: Clinical success was more common in FN patients randomized to meropenem compared with the patients randomized to benzylpenicillin plus an aminoglycoside. The all-cause fatality was higher among the patients given benzylpenicillin plus an aminoglycoside.

Skorstad M, Kent A, Lieng M
Preoperative evaluation in women with uterine leiomyosarcoma. A nationwide cohort study.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2016; 95(11):1228-1234 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The goal of this study was to assess the sensitivity of different preoperative diagnostic tools used in women with uterine leiomyosarcomas.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all women with verified uterine leiomyosarcoma in Norway in the period 2000 to 2012. Data were collected from the Cancer Registry of Norway and medical records.
RESULTS: There were 212 women diagnosed with uterine leiomyosarcoma in the 13-year period. Histopathological examinations by fractional curettage or endometrial biopsies verified malignancy in 55/142 (38.7%). MRI suggested malignancy in 45/55 (81%) of the examinations. CT evaluations indicated suspected malignancy in 64/107 women (59.8%). Biomarkers had low sensitivity for leiomyosarcoma, but suggested more advanced stage disease when high values were detected. Stage IV disease was present in 53.1% versus 25.5% (p = 0.01) of women with CA 125 values above 35 kU/L, compared with women with normal CA 125 values. In 115/212 (54.2%), leiomyosarcoma was only diagnosed postoperatively by histopathological examination of the removed specimen.
CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative diagnostic modalities appear to have low sensitivity for differentiating leiomyosarcoma from fibroids. In Norway, approximately 54% of uterine leiomyosarcoma are unidentified before surgery. MRI evaluation was the imaging modality with the greatest sensitivity in identifying leiomyosarcoma preoperatively.

Bringeland EA, Wasmuth HH, Mjønes P, et al.
A population-based study on incidence rates, Lauren distribution, stage distribution, treatment, and long-term outcomes for gastric adenocarcinoma in Central Norway 2001-2011.
Acta Oncol. 2017; 56(1):39-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Population-based studies for gastric adenocarcinoma are scarce, particularly studies conducted within a defined geographical area with publicly available censuses that allow incidence rates to be calculated.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Population-based study in Central Norway from 2001 to 2011, covering a population of 636 000-680 000, respectively. Patients were identified through the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Patient Register, and were characterized by data from individual electronic patient records. Outcomes were compared across the early and the late half of the study period.
RESULTS: A total of 878 patients were identified with a median age of 76.2 years. The male to female ratio was 1.72. Annual world age-standardized incidence was 8.0/10(5) and 3.6/10(5), respectively. The Lauren diffuse type was significantly more frequent among patients below 60 years, among females and for non-cardia cancers, compared to their counterparts (p < .001). The Lauren mixed type had a stable proportion of around 13% irrespective of age, sex or tumor location. Early gastric cancers (EGC) represented 8.3% of the cases, whereas 44% of all patients were diagnosed with metastatic disease. In males, the proportion of cardia cancers increased from 29.7% to 39.1% during the study period (p = .005). The five-year overall survival was 16%, and was substantially better for the Lauren intestinal type compared to the diffuse type, log-rank p = .003. The R0-R1 resection rate was 39%, with a corresponding five-year survival of 40.9%.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides population-derived data lacking in hospital-based studies. Lauren categories with epidemiological aspects and clinical outcomes are displayed. Gastric cancer was associated with a dismal prognosis. Few patients had EGC and close to 50% had metastatic disease. Many were too old or frail to be considered for surgery.

Sommerbakk R, Haugen DF, Tjora A, et al.
Barriers to and facilitators for implementing quality improvements in palliative care - results from a qualitative interview study in Norway.
BMC Palliat Care. 2016; 15:61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Implementation of quality improvements in palliative care (PC) is challenging, and detailed knowledge about factors that may facilitate or hinder implementation is essential for success. One part of the EU-funded IMPACT project (IMplementation of quality indicators in PAlliative Care sTudy) aiming to increase the knowledge base, was to conduct national studies in PC services. This study aims to identify factors perceived as barriers or facilitators for improving PC in cancer and dementia settings in Norway.
METHODS: Individual, dual-participant and focus group interviews were conducted with 20 employees working in different health care services in Norway: two hospitals, one nursing home, and two local medical centers. Thematic analysis with a combined inductive and theoretical approach was applied.
RESULTS: Barriers and facilitators were connected to (1) the innovation (e.g. credibility, advantage, accessibility, attractiveness); (2) the individual professional (e.g. motivation, PC expertise, confidence); (3) the patient (e.g. compliance); (4) the social context (e.g. leadership, culture of change, face-to-face contact); (5) the organizational context (e.g. resources, structures/facilities, expertise); (6) the political and economic context (e.g. policy, legislation, financial arrangements) and (7) the implementation strategy (e.g. educational, meetings, reminders). Four barriers that were particular to PC were identified: the poor general condition of patients in need of PC, symptom assessment tools that were not validated in all patient groups, lack of PC expertise and changes perceived to be at odds with staff's philosophy of care.
CONCLUSION: When planning an improvement project in PC, services should pay particular attention to factors associated with their chosen implementation strategy. Leaders should also involve staff early in the improvement process, ensure that they have the necessary training in PC and that the change is consistent with the staff's philosophy of care. An important consideration when implementing a symptom assessment tool is whether or not the tool has been validated for the relevant patient group, and to what degree patients need to be involved when using the tool.

Søreide JA, Sandvik OM, Søreide K
Improving pancreas surgery over time: Performance factors related to transition of care and patient volume.
Int J Surg. 2016; 32:116-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreas surgery has evolved with better diagnostic imaging, changing indications, and improved patient selection. Outside high-volume tertiary centers, the documented effect of evolution in care and volumes are limited. Thus, we aimed to review indications and outcomes in pancreas surgery during the transition from community-based hospital to a university hospital.
METHODS: All pancreatic surgeries performed between 1986 and 2012 within a well-defined Norwegian population were identified from the hospital's database. Indications and postoperative outcomes, including mortality, were investigated.
RESULTS: Of the 219 included patients (54% males; median age, 64 years), 150 (69%) underwent pancreatoduodenectomy; 55 (25%), distal resection; and 5 (2%), enucleation. The annual number of operations increased during the study period (from <10/yr to >20/yr). Most patients (169; 77%) underwent surgery for suspected malignancy. The 30-day mortality decreased significantly over time among patients treated for pancreatic cancer (from 16.1% to 3.5%; p = 0.012). Over time, significant reductions in median hospitalization time (19 versus 12 days; p < 0.001), re-operation rate (37.1% versus 8.4%; p < 0.001), and median ICU stay (3 versus 0 days; p < 0.001) were observed.
CONCLUSION: The transition to university hospital and increase in volume has led to significant improvements in several performance metrics and reduced postoperative mortality. We believe improved perioperative management and focused, multidisciplinary care-bundles to be of importance.

Skorstad M, Kent A, Lieng M
Uterine leiomyosarcoma - incidence, treatment, and the impact of morcellation. A nationwide cohort study.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2016; 95(9):984-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The risk of morcellation of occult uterine leiomyosarcomas (LMS) during laparoscopic procedures has been under scrutiny over recent years. The objective of this study was to assess the operative treatment performed in women with uterine LMS in Norway in 2000-2012, including the number of morcellated LMS.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective nationwide cohort study. The study participants were all women with histopathologically verified uterine LMS in Norway during 2000-2012. The data were collected from the Cancer Registry of Norway, National Patient Registry and medical records.
RESULTS: There were 212 women diagnosed with uterine LMS in Norway in 2000-2012. Mean age at time of diagnosis was 58.1 years (SD ± 12.5). The most frequent symptom in women suffering from LMS was abnormal uterine bleeding [110/212 (51.9%)]. LMS was histopathologically verified in 49/212 (23.1%) preoperatively. In 48/212 (22.6%), a malignant condition was suspected and they were treated accordingly. In 115/212 (54.2%), malignancy was not suspected at time of surgery and the women were treated according to the treatment protocol for fibroids. In only four patients was tissue retrieval by power morcellation conducted, accounting for 1.9% of all LMS cases.
CONCLUSIONS: In more than 50% of women suffering from LMS, a malignant diagnosis was not confirmed or suspected prior to surgery. In our material, power morcellation of LMS has not lead to reduced survival. We suggest that power morcellators may be used in surgical treatment of selected cases of premenopausal women with symptomatic, presumed benign uterine leiomyomas.

Aahlin EK, Olsen F, Uleberg B, et al.
Major postoperative complications are associated with impaired long-term survival after gastro-esophageal and pancreatic cancer surgery: a complete national cohort study.
BMC Surg. 2016; 16(1):32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Some studies have reported an association between complications and impaired long-term survival after cancer surgery. We aimed to investigate how major complications are associated with overall survival after gastro-esophageal and pancreatic cancer surgery in a complete national cohort.
METHODS: All esophageal-, gastric- and pancreatic resections performed for cancer in Norway between January 1, 2008, and December 1, 2013 were identified in the Norwegian Patient Registry together with data concerning major postoperative complications and survival.
RESULTS: When emergency cases were excluded, there were 1965 esophageal-, gastric- or pancreatic resections performed for cancer in Norway between 1 January 2008, and 1 December 2013. A total of 248 patients (12.6 %) suffered major postoperative complications. Complications were associated both with increased early (90 days) mortality (OR = 4.25, 95 % CI = 2.78-6.50), and reduced overall survival when patients suffering early mortality were excluded (HR = 1.23, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.50).
CONCLUSIONS: Major postoperative complications are associated with impaired long-term survival after gastro-esophageal and pancreatic cancer surgery.

Frøysnes IS, Larsen SG, Spasojevic M, et al.
Complete cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal peritoneal metastasis in Norway: Prognostic factors and oncologic outcome in a national patient cohort.
J Surg Oncol. 2016; 114(2):222-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) can offer long-term survival to patients with resectable peritoneal metastasis (PM) from colorectal cancer (CRC), a condition with otherwise dismal prognosis. This study describes short- and long-term outcome in a national patient cohort and aims to identify prognostic factors.
METHODS: All patients treated with CRS-HIPEC for non-appendiceal PM-CRC in Norway 2004-2013 were included (n = 119), and outcome and potential prognostic factors were examined using survival- and ROC-curve analysis.
RESULTS: Five-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 36% and 14%, respectively, with 45 months median follow-up. The only factor associated with OS in multivariable analysis was peritoneal cancer index (PCI), with HR 1.05 (1.01-1.09) for every increase in PCI-score (P = 0.015). Peritoneal relapse was associated with shorter OS than distant metastasis (P = 0.002). ROC-curves identified PCI > 12 as a marker with 100% specificity for prediction of disease relapse. Severe postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo ≥ 3) occurred in 15% of patients and there was no 100-day mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term outcome was in line with published results, morbidity was acceptable and there was no 100-day mortality. The results reemphasize CRS-HIPEC as an important treatment option in PM-CRC, with particularly good results in patients with PCI < 12. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:222-227. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Kiserud CE, Fagerli UM, Smeland KB, et al.
Pattern of employment and associated factors in long-term lymphoma survivors 10 years after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation.
Acta Oncol. 2016; 55(5):547-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background This study examined employment patterns and associated factors in lymphoma survivors treated with high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT-ASCT) from diagnosis to a follow-up survey at a mean of 10 years after HDT-ASCT. Patients and methods All lymphoma survivors aged ≥18 years at HDT-ASCT in Norway from 1987 to 2008, and alive at the end of 2011 were eligible for this cross-sectional study performed in 2012/2013. Participants completed a mailed questionnaire. Job status was dichotomized as either employed (paid work) or not-employed (disability and retirement pension, on economic support, home-makers, or students). Results The response rate was 78%, and the sample (N = 312) contained 60% men. Mean age at HDT-ASCT was 44.3 and at survey 54.0 years. At diagnosis 85% of survivors were employed, 77% before and 77% after HDT-ASCT, and 58% at follow-up. Forty seven percent of the survivors were employed at all time points. The not-employed group at survey was significantly older and included significantly more females than the employed group. No significant between-group differences were observed for lymphoma-related variables. Fatigue, mental distress and type D personality were significantly higher among those not-employed, while quality of life was significantly lower compared to the employed group. Older age at survey, being female, work ability and presence of type D personality remained significantly related to being not-employed at survey in the multivariable analysis. Conclusions Our findings show that not-employed long-term survivors after HDT-ASCT for lymphoma have more comorbidity, cognitive problems and higher levels of anxiety/depression than employed survivors. These factors should be checked and eventually treated in order to improve work ability.

Enerly E, Bonde J, Schee K, et al.
Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0151978 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance. To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup) or visiting their physician for a cervical smear. Self-sampled specimens were split and analyzed for the presence of high-risk (hr) HPV by the CLART® HPV2 test and the digene® Hybrid Capture (HC)2 test. The control group consisted of 2593 women who received a 2nd reminder letter according to the current guidelines of the NCCSP. The attendance rates were 33.4% in the intervention group and 23.2% in the control group, with similar attendance rates for both self-sampling devices. Women in the self-sampling subgroup responded favorably to both self-sampling devices and cited not remembering receiving a call for screening as the most dominant reason for previous non-attendance. Thirty-two of 34 (94.1%) hrHPV-positive women in the self-sampling subgroup attended follow-up. In conclusion, self-sampling increased attendance rates and was feasible and well received. This study lends further support to the proposal that self-sampling may be a valuable alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway.

Antoni S, Soerjomataram I, Møller B, et al.
An assessment of GLOBOCAN methods for deriving national estimates of cancer incidence.
Bull World Health Organ. 2016; 94(3):174-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of the GLOBOCAN methods for deriving national estimates of cancer incidence.
METHODS: We obtained incidence and mortality data from Norway by region, year of diagnosis, cancer site, sex and 5-year age group for the period 1983-2012 from the NORDCAN database. Estimates for the year 2010 were derived using nine different methods from GLOBOCAN. These included the projection of national historical rates, the use of regional proxies and the combination of national mortality data with mortality to incidence ratios or relative survival proportions. We then compared the national estimates with recorded cancer incidence data.
FINDINGS: Differences between the estimates derived using different methods varied by cancer site and sex. Methods based on projections performed better where major changes in recent trends were absent. Methods based on mortality data performed less well for cancers associated with small numbers of deaths and for cancers detectable by screening. In countries with longstanding cancer registries of high quality, regional-based, or trends-based incidence estimates perform reasonably well in comparison with recorded incidence.
CONCLUSION: Although the performance of the GLOBOCAN methods varies by cancer site and sex in this study, the results emphasize a need for more high-quality population-based cancer registries - either regional or, where practical and feasible, national registries - to describe cancer patterns and trends for planning cancer control priorities.

Lund E, Holden L, Bøvelstad H, et al.
A new statistical method for curve group analysis of longitudinal gene expression data illustrated for breast cancer in the NOWAC postgenome cohort as a proof of principle.
BMC Med Res Methodol. 2016; 16:28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The understanding of changes in temporal processes related to human carcinogenesis is limited. One approach for prospective functional genomic studies is to compile trajectories of differential expression of genes, based on measurements from many case-control pairs. We propose a new statistical method that does not assume any parametric shape for the gene trajectories.
METHODS: The trajectory of a gene is defined as the curve representing the changes in gene expression levels in the blood as a function of time to cancer diagnosis. In a nested case-control design it consists of differences in gene expression levels between cases and controls. Genes can be grouped into curve groups, each curve group corresponding to genes with a similar development over time. The proposed new statistical approach is based on a set of hypothesis testing that can determine whether or not there is development in gene expression levels over time, and whether this development varies among different strata. Curve group analysis may reveal significant differences in gene expression levels over time among the different strata considered. This new method was applied as a "proof of concept" to breast cancer in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) postgenome cohort, using blood samples collected prospectively that were specifically preserved for transcriptomic analyses (PAX tube). Cohort members diagnosed with invasive breast cancer through 2009 were identified through linkage to the Cancer Registry of Norway, and for each case a random control from the postgenome cohort was also selected, matched by birth year and time of blood sampling, to create a case-control pair. After exclusions, 441 case-control pairs were available for analyses, in which we considered strata of lymph node status at time of diagnosis and time of diagnosis with respect to breast cancer screening visits.
RESULTS: The development of gene expression levels in the NOWAC postgenome cohort varied in the last years before breast cancer diagnosis, and this development differed by lymph node status and participation in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. The differences among the investigated strata appeared larger in the year before breast cancer diagnosis compared to earlier years.
CONCLUSIONS: This approach shows good properties in term of statistical power and type 1 error under minimal assumptions. When applied to a real data set it was able to discriminate between groups of genes with non-linear similar patterns before diagnosis.

Román M, Castells X, Hofvind S, von Euler-Chelpin M
Risk of breast cancer after false-positive results in mammographic screening.
Cancer Med. 2016; 5(6):1298-306 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Women with false-positive results are commonly referred back to routine screening. Questions remain regarding their long-term outcome of breast cancer. We assessed the risk of screen-detected breast cancer in women with false-positive results. We conducted a joint analysis using individual level data from the population-based screening programs in Copenhagen and Funen in Denmark, Norway, and Spain. Overall, 150,383 screened women from Denmark (1991-2008), 612,138 from Norway (1996-2010), and 1,172,572 from Spain (1990-2006) were included. Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of screen-detected cancer for women with false-positive versus negative results. We analyzed information from 1,935,093 women 50-69 years who underwent 6,094,515 screening exams. During an average 5.8 years of follow-up, 230,609 (11.9%) women received a false-positive result and 27,849 (1.4%) were diagnosed with screen-detected cancer. The adjusted RR of screen-detected cancer after a false-positive result was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.93-2.09). Women who tested false-positive at first screen had a RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.77-1.96), whereas those who tested false-positive at third screening had a RR of 2.42 (95% CI: 2.21-2.64). The RR of breast cancer at the screening test after the false-positive result was 3.95 (95% CI: 3.71-4.21), whereas it decreased to 1.25 (95% CI: 1.17-1.34) three or more screens after the false-positive result. Women with false-positive results had a twofold risk of screen-detected breast cancer compared to women with negative tests. The risk remained significantly higher three or more screens after the false-positive result. The increased risk should be considered when discussing stratified screening strategies.

Reigstad MM, Larsen IK, Myklebust TÅ, et al.
Risk of Cancer in Children Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technology.
Pediatrics. 2016; 137(3):e20152061 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: An increasing number of children are born after assisted reproductive technology (ART), and monitoring their long-term health effects is of interest. This study compares cancer risk in children conceived by ART to that in children conceived without.
METHODS: The Medical Birth Registry of Norway contains individual information on all children born in Norway (including information of ART conceptions). All children born between 1984 and 2011 constituted the study cohort, and cancer data were obtained from the Cancer Registry of Norway. Follow-up started at date of birth and ended on the date of the first cancer diagnosis, death, emigration, or December 31, 2011. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of overall cancer risk between children conceived by ART and those not. Cancer risk was also assessed separately for all childhood cancer types.
RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 1 628 658 children, of which 25 782 were conceived by ART. Of the total 4554 cancers, 51 occurred in ART-conceived children. Risk of overall cancer was not significantly elevated (HR 1.21; 95% CI 0.90-1.63). However, increased risk of leukemia was observed for children conceived by ART compared with those who were not (HR 1.67; 95% CI 1.02-2.73). Elevated risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma was also found for ART-conceived children (HR 3.63; 95% CI 1.12-11.72), although this was based on small numbers.
CONCLUSIONS: This population-based cohort study found elevated risks of leukemia and Hodgkin's lymphoma in children conceived by ART.

Murbraech K, Wethal T, Smeland KB, et al.
Valvular Dysfunction in Lymphoma Survivors Treated With Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A National Cross-Sectional Study.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016; 9(3):230-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the prevalence and associated risk factors for valvular dysfunction (VD) observed in adult lymphoma survivors (LS) after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT), and to determine whether anthracycline-containing chemotherapy (ACCT) alone in these patients is associated with VD.
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of and risk factors for VD in LS after auto-HCT is unknown. Anthracyclines may induce heart failure, but any association with VD is not well-defined.
METHODS: This national cross-sectional study included all adult LS receiving auto-HCT from 1987 to 2008 in Norway. VD was defined by echocardiography as either more than mild regurgitation or any stenosis. Observations in LS were compared with a healthy age- and gender-matched (1:1) control group.
RESULTS: In total, 274 LS (69% of all eligible) participated. Mean age was 56 ± 12 years, mean follow-up time after lymphoma diagnosis was 13 ± 6 years, and 62% of participants were males. Mean cumulative anthracycline dosage was 316 ± 111 mg/m(2), and 35% had received radiation therapy involving the heart (cardiac-RT). VD was observed in 22.3% of the LS. Severe VD was rare (n = 9; 3.3% of all LS) and mainly aortic stenosis (n = 7). We observed VD in 16.7% of LS treated with ACCT alone (n = 177), corresponding with a 3-fold increased VD risk (odds ratio: 2.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 5.8; p = 0.002) compared with controls. Furthermore, the presence of aortic valve degeneration was increased in the LS after ACCT alone compared with controls (13.0% vs. 2.9%; p < 0.001). Female sex, age >50 years at lymphoma diagnosis, ≥3 lines of chemotherapy before auto-HCT, and cardiac-RT >30 Gy were identified as independent risk factors for VD in the LS.
CONCLUSIONS: In LS, ACCT alone was significantly associated with VD and related to valvular degeneration. Overall, predominantly moderate VD was prevalent in LS, and longer observation time is needed to clarify the clinical significance of this finding.

Lumme S, Tenkanen L, Langseth H, et al.
Longitudinal biobanks-based study on the joint effects of infections, nutrition and hormones on risk of prostate cancer.
Acta Oncol. 2016; 55(7):839-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background To evaluate the individual and combined effects of enterolactone, vitamin D, free testosterone, Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV-18 on the risk of prostate cancer in a large population-based biochemical material that combined three Nordic serum sample banks. Material and methods A joint cohort of 209 000 healthy men was followed using cancer registry linkages. From this cohort altogether 699 incident cases of prostate cancer were identified. Four controls were selected by incidence density sampling and matching for country, age and date of the blood sampling. Complete data for all investigated exposures was available for 483 eligible cases and 1055 eligible controls. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to investigate the solitary and combined effects. Results The solitary effects were small. Significantly increased risk [rate ratio 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.5)] was found in those seronegative for C. trachomatis infection. The joint effect in risk levels of enterolactone and vitamin D was antagonistic [observed rate ratio (RR) 1.4 (1.0-2.1), expected RR 2.0 (1.0-4.1)] as well as that of HPV-18 and C. trachomatis [observed RR 1.9 (0.8-4.5), expected RR 9.9 (1.1-87.0)]. Conclusion A large follow-up study combining data from several previously investigated exposures to investigate joint effects found no evidence that exposure to two risk factors would increase the risk of prostate cancer from that expected on basis of exposure to one risk factor. If anything, the results were consistent with antagonistic interactions.

Gansmo LB, Bjørnslett M, Halle MK, et al.
The MDM4 SNP34091 (rs4245739) C-allele is associated with increased risk of ovarian-but not endometrial cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):10697-702 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The MDM4 protein (also known as MDMX or HDMX) is a negative regulator of p53, not only by direct interaction but also through its interaction with MDM2. Further, MDM4 overexpression and amplification have been observed in several cancer forms. Recently, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 3' untranslated region of the MDM4 gene, SNP34091A > C (rs4245739) was reported to alter MDM4 messenger RNA (mRNA) stability by modulating a microRNA binding site, thereby leading to decreased MDM4 levels. In this case-control study, we aimed to evaluate the possible association between MDM4 SNP34091 status and cancer risk by comparing the genotype frequencies in large hospital-based cohorts of endometrial- (n = 1404) and ovarian (n = 1385) cancer patients with healthy female controls (n = 1870). Genotype frequencies were compared by odds ratio (OR) estimates and Fisher exact tests. We found that individuals harboring the MDM4 SNP34091AC/CC genotypes had a significantly elevated risk for serous ovarian cancer (SOC) in general and high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) in particular (SOC: OR = 1.18., 95 % CI = 1.01-1.39; HGSOC: OR = 1.25, CI = 1.02-1.53). No association between SNP34091 genotypes and endometrial cancer risk was observed. Our data indicate the MDM4 SNP34091AC/CC genotypes to be associated with an elevated risk for SOC and in particular the HGSOC type.

Kirkøen B, Berstad P, Botteri E, et al.
Do no harm: no psychological harm from colorectal cancer screening.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 114(5):497-504 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Participation in cancer screening programmes might cause worries in the population outweighting the benefits of reduced mortality. The present study aimed to investigate possible psychological harm of participation in a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening pilot in Norway.
METHODS: In a prospective, randomised trial participants (aged 50-74 years) were invited to either flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening, faecal immunochemical test (FIT), or no screening (the control group; 1 : 1: 1). Three thousand two hundred and thirteen screening participants (42% of screened individuals) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire as well as the SF-12-a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaire when invited to screening and when receiving the screening result. A control group was invited to complete the questionnaires only. Two thousand six hundred and eighteen control participants (35% of invited individuals) completed the questionnaire.
RESULTS: A positive screening result did not increase participants' level of anxiety or depression, or decrease participants' level of HRQOL. Participants who received a negative result reported decreased anxiety and improvement on some HRQOL dimensions. However, no change was considered to be of clinical relevance.
CONCLUSION: The current study showed no clinically relevant psychological harm of receiving a positive CRC screening result or of participating in FS or FIT screening, in a Norwegian population.

Sert BM, Boggess JF, Ahmad S, et al.
Robot-assisted versus open radical hysterectomy: A multi-institutional experience for early-stage cervical cancer.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2016; 42(4):513-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To compare perioperative and clinico-pathological outcomes of patients with early-stage cervical cancer who underwent robot-assisted radical hysterectomy (RRH) and open radical hysterectomy (ORH).
METHODS: This retrospective multi-center study abstracted demographic, clinico-pathological and perioperative outcomes data from medical records of 491 cervical cancer patients treated with RRH (n = 259) ORH (n = 232) between 2005 and 2011 at two American and one Norwegian University Cancer Centres.
RESULTS: Mean estimated blood loss (EBL) and transfusion rates were less for RRH than for ORH (97 vs. 49 mL, p < 0.001, and 3% vs. 7%, p = 0.018, respectively). Mean length of hospital stay (LOS) was significantly shorter in RRH versus ORH (1.8 vs. 5.1 days, p < 0.001). Mean operative time was longer for RRH than ORH (220 vs. 156 min, p < 0.001). Although overall complications were similar (p = 0.49), intra-operative complications were less common in the RRH group than ORH (4% vs. 10%, p = 0.004). In multivariate regression analyses longer operative time, less EBL and intra-operative complications, shorter LOS, and more pre-operative cone were significantly associated with RRH versus ORH. Recurrence and death rates were not statistically different for the two groups at a mean follow-up time of 39 months (p = 1.00 and p = 0.48, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: RRH had improved clinical outcomes compared to ORH in the treatment of early-stage cervical cancer in terms of EBL, intra-operative complications, transfusion rates, LOS, and pre-operative cone. Disease recurrence and survival were comparable for the two procedures.

Lousdal ML, Kristiansen IS, Møller B, Støvring H
Effect of organised mammography screening on stage-specific incidence in Norway: population study.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 114(5):590-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We aimed to estimate the effect of organised mammography screening on breast cancer stage distribution by comparing changes in women eligible for screening, based on birth cohort, to the concurrent changes in younger, ineligible women.
METHODS: In an open cohort study in Norway, which introduced national mammography screening county-by-county from 1995 to 2004, we identified women (n=49 883) diagnosed with in situ or invasive breast cancer (ICD10 codes: D05 or C50) during the period 1987-2011 and born between 1917 and 1980. We estimated relative incidence rate ratios (rIRRs) comparing the development in the screening vs historic group to the younger vs younger historic group.
RESULTS: Including the compensatory drop, eligible women experienced a 68% higher increase in localised cancers (rIRR=1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.51-1.87) than younger women, while the increase in incidence of advanced cancers was similar (rIRR=1.11, 95% CI: 0.90-1.36). Excluding the prevalence round, eligible women experienced a 60% higher increase in localised cancers (rIRR=1.60, 95% CI: 1.42-1.79), while the increase in incidence of advanced cancers remained similar (rIRR=1.08, 95% CI: 0.86-1.35).
CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of organised mammography screening was followed by a significant increase in localised and no change in advanced-stage cancers in women eligible for screening relative to younger, ineligible women.

Björnsson B, Sparrelid E, Røsok B, et al.
Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy in patients with colorectal liver metastases--Intermediate oncological results.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2016; 42(4):531-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) not amenable for resection have grave prognosis. One limiting factor for surgery is a small future liver remnant (FLR). Early data suggests that associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) effectively increases the volume of the FLR allowing for resection in a larger fraction of patients than conventional two-stage hepatectomy (TSH) with portal vein occlusion (PVO). Oncological results of the treatment are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the intermediate oncological outcomes after ALPPS in patients with CRLM.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all patients with CRLM operated with ALPPS at the participating centres between December 2012 and May 2014.
RESULTS: Twenty-three patients (16 male, 7 female), age 67 years (28-80) were operated for 6.5 (1-38) metastases of which the largest was 40 mm (14-130). Six (27.3%) patients had extra-hepatic metastases, 16 (72.7%) synchronous presentation. All patients received chemotherapy, 6 cycles (3-25) preoperatively and 16 (70%) postoperatively. Ten patients (43%) were rescue ALPPS after failed PVO. Severe complications occurred in 13.6% and one (4.5%) patient died within 90 days of surgery. After a median follow-up of 22.5 months from surgery and 33.5 months from diagnosis of liver metastases estimated 2 year overall survival was 59% (from surgery) and 73% (from diagnosis). Liver only recurrences (n = 8), were treated with reresection/ablation (n = 7) while lung recurrences were treated with chemotherapy.
CONCLUSION: The overall survival, rate of severe complications and perioperative mortality associated with ALPPS for patients with CRLM is comparable to TSH.

Saetra P, Fossum M, Svensson E, Cohen MZ
Evaluation of two instruments of perceived symptom intensity in palliative care patients in an outpatient clinic.
J Clin Nurs. 2016; 25(5-6):799-810 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the test-retest stability in assessments of perceived symptom intensity on the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 Palliative. The possible interchangeability between the instruments and the patients' experiences of completing the instruments were also studied.
BACKGROUND: The two instruments assess the same symptoms, but the symptom intensity is assessed on 11-point numerical scales on the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised and on four-point verbal descriptive scales on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 Palliative. Both instruments are commonly used; however, uncertainty exists about which instrument should be recommended and about the interchangeability of the instruments.
DESIGN: This study used a test-retest design with inter-scale comparisons.
METHODS: Data from 54 patients with cancer who were receiving palliative care in an oncology outpatient clinic were self-reported by the patients in the clinic, at home and when patients returned to the clinic.
RESULTS: The assessments on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 Palliative verbal rating scales showed a higher level of test-retest stability than the assessments on the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised numerical scoring scales, indicating higher reliability. The correspondence between the verbal categories and the numerical scores of symptom intensity were low because different verbal categories were used by patients who assessed the same numerical score.
CONCLUSIONS: The test-retest stability in the assessments was higher on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 Palliative and the results show that assessments on the two instruments could not be used interchangeably. Therefore, the symptom instrument chosen must be specified and unchanged within a patient to improve efficacy in clinical practice.
RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised or the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 Palliative can be used for initial assessments of patients, but should not be compared or used interchangeably. It is vitally important to have individual follow-up for all patients who score an instrument.

Lu Y, Ness-Jensen E, Martling A, Hveem K
Anthropometry-based Obesity Phenotypes and Risk of Colorectal Adenocarcinoma: A Large Prospective Cohort Study in Norway.
Epidemiology. 2016; 27(3):423-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether obesity phenotypes measured by different anthropometric indices are associated with a risk of colorectal adenocarcinoma by anatomical location.
METHODS: We compiled harmonized population-based cohort studies (Cohort of Norway, CONOR) with 143,477 participants that were conducted between 1994 and 2010. General, abdominal, and gluteofemoral obesity were assessed by body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), waist circumference (cm), and hip circumference (cm). Other measures examined were waist to hip ratio, waist to height ratio, and body adiposity index. We performed Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of obesity relative to a risk of colorectal adenocarcinoma.
RESULTS: In total, 2,044 incident cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma were identified. We observed a positive association between waist circumference (high versus low) and adenocarcinoma in the proximal colon (HR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5, 2.5) and distal colon (HR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3, 2.3) when adjusted for BMI. The association with waist circumference was especially strong in men. BMI was not associated with adenocarcinoma in the colon or rectum after adjusting for waist circumference. We found no association between hip circumference and colorectal adenocarcinoma. When adjusted for BMI plus waist circumference, body adiposity index was negatively associated with adenocarcinoma in the proximal or distal colon.
CONCLUSION: Abdominal obesity, but not general or gluteofemoral obesity, was associated with an increased risk of adenocarcinoma in the proximal and the distal colon, especially in men. Muscularity may be negatively associated with risk of colon adenocarcinoma.

Gunnes MW, Lie RT, Bjørge T, et al.
Reproduction and marriage among male survivors of cancer in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: a national cohort study.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 114(3):348-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increased survival after cancer in young age has made long-term follow-up studies of high external validity important. In this national cohort study, we explored the impact of cancer in young age on reproduction and marital status in male survivors.
METHODS: Hazard ratios (HRs) and relative risks (RRs) of reproductive and marital outcomes were studied for male survivors of cancer in young age (<25 years) and cancer-free male comparisons, born during 1965-1985, by linking compulsory national registries in Norway.
RESULTS: Male cancer survivors (n=2687) had reduced paternity (HR: 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.76). This was most apparent in survivors of testicular cancer, brain tumours, lymphoma, leukemia and bone tumours, and when diagnosed with cancer before 15 years of age. Male cancer survivors were more likely to avail of assisted reproduction (RR: 3.32, 95% CI: 2.68-4.11). There was no increased risk of perinatal death, congenital malformations, being small for gestational age, of low birth weight or preterm birth in their first offspring. Male cancer survivors were less likely to marry (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86-1.00), in particular brain tumour survivors.
CONCLUSIONS: In this national cohort study, we demonstrated reduced paternity and increased use of assisted reproduction among male cancer survivors, but no adverse outcome for their first offspring at birth.

Haugland T, Wahl AK, Hofoss D, DeVon HA
Association between general self-efficacy, social support, cancer-related stress and physical health-related quality of life: a path model study in patients with neuroendocrine tumors.
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2016; 14:11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) provides challenges to patients and clinicians due to physical side effects of and mental response to treatment resulting in increased perceived stress. General self-efficacy, social support and cancer-related stress are key factors in coping. Thus, knowledge of these factors may be of value in improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between general self-efficacy, social support, cancer-related stress and HRQoL in patients with NET using a path model.
METHODS: 196 Norwegian patients living with NET were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria were: patients with tumors restricted to the GI tract; ability to speak and write Norwegian; over 18 years of age; undergoing medical treatment for NET. Measures used in the study were background characteristics, Health-related Quality of Life (SF-36), the Impact of Event Scale (IES), General Self-efficacy and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL). Relationships between sociodemographic variables, general self-efficacy, social support, cancer-related stress and mental and physical components scores were tested by path analysis with AMOS 22 using maximum standard likelihood estimation.
RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50.5 % women and the average age was 65 years and the median disease duration was 4 years. Sociodemographic variables of gender, education and whether the patient lived alone or with someone were unrelated (directly or indirectly) to HRQoL. Age was directly and negatively correlated with physical HRQoL, general self-efficacy and social support in a well-fitting path model. General self-efficacy modified the negative effects of age on physical HRQoL. Physical and mental HRQoL were not associated with cancer-related stress. Higher social support was related to less stress.
CONCLUSION: Intervening to improve general self-efficacy and social support for patients with NET may improve their HRQoL.

Bekelman JE, Halpern SD, Blankart CR, et al.
Comparison of Site of Death, Health Care Utilization, and Hospital Expenditures for Patients Dying With Cancer in 7 Developed Countries.
JAMA. 2016; 315(3):272-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
IMPORTANCE: Differences in utilization and costs of end-of-life care among developed countries are of considerable policy interest.
OBJECTIVE: To compare site of death, health care utilization, and hospital expenditures in 7 countries: Belgium, Canada, England, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United States.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study using administrative and registry data from 2010. Participants were decedents older than 65 years who died with cancer. Secondary analyses included decedents of any age, decedents older than 65 years with lung cancer, and decedents older than 65 years in the United States and Germany from 2012.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Deaths in acute care hospitals, 3 inpatient measures (hospitalizations in acute care hospitals, admissions to intensive care units, and emergency department visits), 1 outpatient measure (chemotherapy episodes), and hospital expenditures paid by insurers (commercial or governmental) during the 180-day and 30-day periods before death. Expenditures were derived from country-specific methods for costing inpatient services.
RESULTS: The United States (cohort of decedents aged >65 years, N = 211,816) and the Netherlands (N = 7216) had the lowest proportion of decedents die in acute care hospitals (22.2.% and 29.4%, respectively). A higher proportion of decedents died in acute care hospitals in Belgium (N = 21,054; 51.2%), Canada (N = 20,818; 52.1%), England (N = 97,099; 41.7%), Germany (N = 24,434; 38.3%), and Norway (N = 6636; 44.7%). In the last 180 days of life, 40.3% of US decedents had an intensive care unit admission compared with less than 18% in other reporting nations. In the last 180 days of life, mean per capita hospital expenditures were higher in Canada (US $21,840), Norway (US $19,783), and the United States (US $18,500), intermediate in Germany (US $16,221) and Belgium (US $15,699), and lower in the Netherlands (US $10,936) and England (US $9342). Secondary analyses showed similar results.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among patients older than 65 years who died with cancer in 7 developed countries in 2010, end-of-life care was more hospital-centric in Belgium, Canada, England, Germany, and Norway than in the Netherlands or the United States. Hospital expenditures near the end of life were higher in the United States, Norway, and Canada, intermediate in Germany and Belgium, and lower in the Netherlands and England. However, intensive care unit admissions were more than twice as common in the United States as in other countries.

Klevebro F, Alexandersson von Döbeln G, Wang N, et al.
A randomized clinical trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy versus neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for cancer of the oesophagus or gastro-oesophageal junction.
Ann Oncol. 2016; 27(4):660-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant therapy improves long-term survival after oesophagectomy, treating oesophageal cancer, but the evidence to date is insufficient to determine which of the two main neoadjuvant therapy types, chemotherapy (nCT) or chemoradiotherapy (nCRT), is more beneficial. We aimed to compare the effects of nCT with those of nCRT.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multicentre trial, which was conducted in Sweden and Norway, recruited 181 patients with carcinoma of the oesophagus or the gastro-oesophageal junction who were candidates for curative-intended treatment. The primary end point was histological complete response after neoadjuvant treatment, which has been shown to be correlated with increased long-term survival. Study participants were randomized to nCT or nCRT, followed by surgery with two-field lymphadenectomy. Three cycles of platin/5-fluorouracil were administered in both arms, whereas 40 Gy of concomitant radiotherapy was added in the nCRT arm.
RESULTS: The trial met the primary end point, histological complete response being achieved in 28% after nCRT versus 9% after nCT (P = 0.002). Lymph-node metastases were observed in 62% in the nCT group versus 35% in the nCRT group (P = 0.001). The R0 resection rate was 87% after nCRT and 74% after nCT (P = 0.04). There was no difference in overall survival between the treatment arms.
CONCLUSION: The addition of radiotherapy to neoadjuvant chemotherapy results in higher histological complete response rate, higher R0 resection rate, and a lower frequency of lymph-node metastases, without significantly affecting survival.
CLINICALTRIALSGOV: NCT01362127 (https://clinicaltrials.gov; The full study protocol was registered in the Clinical Trials Database).

Bakken T, Braaten T, Olsen A, et al.
Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study).
Nutrients. 2016; 8(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whole grains contain dietary fiber, as well as a range of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, but the association between the consumption of whole grains and the risk of CRC remains less studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC incidence among Norwegian women, using data from a prospective cohort study (the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study). Dietary intake was estimated from the food-frequency questionnaires of 78,254 women in the cohort (median age: 55 years), and these women were then followed up for CRC incidence. During the 9 years of median follow-up, 795 women were diagnosed with CRC (316 proximal, 193 distal, 218 rectal). Associations between whole-grain bread consumption and the risk of CRC (including colorectal subsites) were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. When compared to the low consumption group, the hazard ratio for CRC was 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-1.09) for the high consumption group and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72-1.02) for the medium consumption group in a multivariable model. Overall, no association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC was found.

Licaj I, Lukic M, Jareid M, et al.
Epithelial ovarian cancer subtypes attributable to smoking in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study, 2012.
Cancer Med. 2016; 5(4):720-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Among European women, ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer. Smoking is an established risk factor for mucinous tumors. We estimated the impact of smoking in Norwegian women using population attributable fractions (PAFs) of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), by invasiveness and by histological subtypes in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study with an average of 13.2 years of follow-up. During >2 million person-years, a total of 915 incident EOC cases, of which 667 (73%) invasive and 248 (27%) borderline, were identified among 154,234 women aged 34-70 years at enrolment. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a nonstatistically significant increased risk of mucinous tumors (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.67 [95% confidence interval, (CI), 0.96-2.96]) and more than twice statistically significant risk of borderline mucinous tumors (HR = 2.17 [95% CI, 1.06-4.45]). The corresponding PAF estimates were 16.5% for mucinous and 25% for borderline mucinous. We found that among middle-aged women, one in six mucinous tumors and one in four borderline mucinous tumors could have been prevented if women did not smoke.

Olsen F, Uleberg B, Jacobsen BK, Balteskard L
Norwegian patients with colon cancer start their adjuvant therapy too late.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2016; 136(1):27-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: For patients with colon cancer who are to receive adjuvant chemotherapy according to national guidelines, such therapy must be initiated no more than 4-6 weeks after the surgical intervention. We wished to investigate whether these guidelines are being complied with. We also wished to see whether the type of surgery (open or laparoscopic) had any effect on the time elapsing before initiation of adjuvant therapy.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: The material includes 1,132 patients who had undergone surgery for colon cancer in the period 2008-2013 and who received adjuvant chemotherapy. Surgical treatment and adjuvant chemotherapy are defined through diagnosis and procedural codes in the Norwegian Patient Register for the period 2008-2013.
RESULTS: On average, 44.7 days passed after the surgical intervention before the patients commenced their adjuvant chemotherapy. For 49% of the patients, the adjuvant therapy was not initiated within the six-week deadline. Patients who had undergone laparoscopic surgery were hospitalised for shorter periods (6.5 days versus 10.7 days) and had fewer complications (7.6% versus 16.4%) when compared to patients who had undergone open surgery, yet still failed to start their adjuvant therapy correspondingly earlier.
INTERPRETATION: Measures should be taken to improve quality, thus ensuring that the guidelines are complied with and that patients start their required adjuvant therapy earlier. For those who have undergone laparoscopic surgery, it ought to be simple to reap the gains from shorter hospitalisation periods and fewer complications in the form of a more rapid initiation of adjuvant therapy.

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