Home > Locations > Europe > Luxembourg

Found this page useful?


Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 0.5m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 2,500
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 280.3
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:27.9%
People dying from cancer /yr: 1,000
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Luxembourg Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications Related to Luxembourg

Luxembourg Cancer Organisations and Resources (8 links)

Latest Research Publications Related to Luxembourg

Rossi ED, Bizzarro T, Martini M, et al.
Cytopathology of Follicular Cell Nodules.
Adv Anat Pathol. 2017; 24(1):45-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
The detection of thyroid nodules, consisting of different diseases, represents a common finding in population. Their evaluation and diagnosis are mostly achieved with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Even though the majority of thyroid nodules are correctly diagnosed, a total of 25% to 30% of them are classified "indeterminate" comprising lesions with varying risk of malignancy and different types of management. Although the number of thyroid FNACs, including small lesions, is increasing due to the reliance upon sonographic and cytologic interpretations, there are issues concerning cytomorphologic interpretation and interobserver reproducibility. Different classification systems have tried to better define the criteria for inclusion in specific categories and to therefore reduce the rate of indeterminate diagnoses such as atypia of undetermined significance, follicular neoplasms, and suspicious for malignancy. However, the support of ancillary techniques (eg, immunocytochemistry and molecular analysis) are reshaping morphologic diagnoses made on materials obtained from FNAC.

Mirza MR, Monk BJ, Herrstedt J, et al.
Niraparib Maintenance Therapy in Platinum-Sensitive, Recurrent Ovarian Cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(22):2154-2164 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background Niraparib is an oral poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1/2 inhibitor that has shown clinical activity in patients with ovarian cancer. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of niraparib versus placebo as maintenance treatment for patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian cancer. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial, patients were categorized according to the presence or absence of a germline BRCA mutation (gBRCA cohort and non-gBRCA cohort) and the type of non-gBRCA mutation and were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive niraparib (300 mg) or placebo once daily. The primary end point was progression-free survival. Results Of 553 enrolled patients, 203 were in the gBRCA cohort (with 138 assigned to niraparib and 65 to placebo), and 350 patients were in the non-gBRCA cohort (with 234 assigned to niraparib and 116 to placebo). Patients in the niraparib group had a significantly longer median duration of progression-free survival than did those in the placebo group, including 21.0 vs. 5.5 months in the gBRCA cohort (hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17 to 0.41), as compared with 12.9 months vs. 3.8 months in the non-gBRCA cohort for patients who had tumors with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.59) and 9.3 months vs. 3.9 months in the overall non-gBRCA cohort (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.61; P<0.001 for all three comparisons). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events that were reported in the niraparib group were thrombocytopenia (in 33.8%), anemia (in 25.3%), and neutropenia (in 19.6%), which were managed with dose modifications. Conclusions Among patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian cancer, the median duration of progression-free survival was significantly longer among those receiving niraparib than among those receiving placebo, regardless of the presence or absence of gBRCA mutations or HRD status, with moderate bone marrow toxicity. (Funded by Tesaro; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01847274 .).

Deans ZC, Costa JL, Cree I, et al.
Integration of next-generation sequencing in clinical diagnostic molecular pathology laboratories for analysis of solid tumours; an expert opinion on behalf of IQN Path ASBL.
Virchows Arch. 2017; 470(1):5-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The clinical demand for mutation detection within multiple genes from a single tumour sample requires molecular diagnostic laboratories to develop rapid, high-throughput, highly sensitive, accurate and parallel testing within tight budget constraints. To meet this demand, many laboratories employ next-generation sequencing (NGS) based on small amplicons. Building on existing publications and general guidance for the clinical use of NGS and learnings from germline testing, the following guidelines establish consensus standards for somatic diagnostic testing, specifically for identifying and reporting mutations in solid tumours. These guidelines cover the testing strategy, implementation of testing within clinical service, sample requirements, data analysis and reporting of results. In conjunction with appropriate staff training and international standards for laboratory testing, these consensus standards for the use of NGS in molecular pathology of solid tumours will assist laboratories in implementing NGS in clinical services.

Layfield LJ, Roy-Chowdhuri S, Baloch Z, et al.
Utilization of ancillary studies in the cytologic diagnosis of respiratory lesions: The papanicolaou society of cytopathology consensus recommendations for respiratory cytology.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2016; 44(12):1000-1009 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for respiratory cytology including indications for sputum examination, bronchial washings and brushings, CT-guided FNA and endobronchial ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EBUS-FNA), as well as recommendations for classification and criteria, ancillary testing and post-cytologic diagnosis management and follow-up. All recommendation documents are based on the expertise of committee members, an extensive literature review, and feedback from presentations at national and international conferences. The guideline documents selectively present the results of these discussions. The present document summarizes recommendations for ancillary testing of cytologic samples. Ancillary testing including microbiologic, immunocytochemical, flow cytometric, and molecular testing, including next-generation sequencing are discussed. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:1000-1009. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Cesi G, Walbrecq G, Margue C, Kreis S
Transferring intercellular signals and traits between cancer cells: extracellular vesicles as "homing pigeons".
Cell Commun Signal. 2016; 14(1):13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extracellular vesicles are cell-derived vesicles, which can transport various cargos out of cells. From their cell of origin, the content molecules (proteins, non-coding RNAs including miRNAs, DNA and others) can be delivered to neighboring or distant cells and as such extracellular vesicles can be regarded as vehicles of intercellular communication or "homing pigeons". Extracellular vesicle shuttling is able to actively modulate the tumor microenvironment and can partake in tumor dissemination. In various diseases, including cancer, levels of extracellular vesicle secretion are altered resulting in different amounts and/or profiles of detectable vesicular cargo molecules and these distinct content profiles are currently being evaluated as biomarkers. Apart from their potential as blood-derived containers of specific biomarkers, the transfer of extracellular vesicles to surrounding cells also appears to be involved in the propagation of phenotypic traits. These interesting properties have put extracellular vesicles into the focus of many recent studies.Here we review findings on the involvement of extracellular vesicles in transferring traits of cancer cells to their surroundings and briefly discuss new data on oncosomes, a larger type of vesicle. A pressing issue in cancer treatment is rapidly evolving resistance to many initially efficient drug therapies. Studies investigating the role of extracellular vesicles in this phenomenon together with a summary of the technical challenges that this field is still facing, are also presented. Finally, emerging areas of research such as the analysis of the lipid composition on extracellular vesicles and cutting-edge techniques to visualise the trafficking of extracellular vesicles are discussed.

Rossi ED, Bizzarro T, Martini M, et al.
Morphological features that can predict BRAF(V600E) -mutated carcinoma in paediatric thyroid cytology.
Cytopathology. 2017; 28(1):55-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: BRAF(V)(600E) represents the most common diagnostic marker in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A few papers have demonstrated the correlation between BRAF(V)(600E) and specific morphological findings on PTCs in the adult population. This is the first reported series investigating cytological morphological parameters in paediatric thyroid carcinoma.
METHODS: One hundred and nineteen paediatric samples (56 male and 63 female patients), diagnosed in the period between April 2013 and July 2015, were enrolled in the study. Fifteen patients with inadequate results were excluded. Cytological cases were processed with liquid-based cytology (LBC). BRAF(V)(600E) and immunocytochemistry for the VE1 antibody were performed on LBC.
RESULTS: The diagnostic series included 10 mutated and 94 wild-type (WT) cases. Twenty two percent surgical samples showed 96% cytohistological concordance. The morphological analysis revealed plump cells (abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and PTC nuclei) in all 10 mutated cases with only four cases showing a focal (less than 20% of the cells) plump component. None of the WT showed plump cells. A sickle nuclear shape was seen only in the mutated cases. VE1 yielded 100% positivity on mutated cases with three cytohistological discrepancies.
CONCLUSIONS: The BRAF(V)(600E) mutation is also seen in paediatric cytology and the morphological features showed a high accuracy as both predictive mutational parameters and a helpful aid in management mainly of the aggressive BRAF(V)(600E) mutated carcinomas.

Mathieson W, Betsou F, Myshunina T, et al.
The effect of long-term -80°C storage of thyroid biospecimens on RNA quality and ensuring fitness for purpose.
J Clin Pathol. 2016; 69(12):1105-1108 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To establish whether RNA degrades in long-term storage at -80°C and whether RNA integrity numbers (RINs) determine 'fitness for purpose' in severely degraded RNA.
METHODS: RNA was extracted from 549 thyroid biospecimens stored at -80°C for 0.1-10.9 years then their RINs correlated with storage time. RT-PCR for 65, 265, 534 and 942 base pair amplicons of hydroxymethylbilane synthase was used to measure amplicon length in RNA from cryopreserved and FFPE biospecimens that were equally degraded according to RIN.
RESULTS: Storage time did not correlate with RIN. Longer amplicons were obtained from cryopreserved samples than FFPE samples with equal RINs.
CONCLUSIONS: RNA does not degrade in thyroid biospecimens stored for long periods of time at -80°C. Although RINs are known to predict amenability to analytical platforms in good quality samples, this prediction is unreliable in severely degraded samples.

De Grève J, Van Meerbeeck J, Vansteenkiste JF, et al.
Prospective Evaluation of First-Line Erlotinib in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Carrying an Activating EGFR Mutation: A Multicenter Academic Phase II Study in Caucasian Patients (FIELT).
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0147599 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibition is the preferred first-line treatment of advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung that harbors EGFR activating tyrosine kinase domain mutations. Most data available pertain to Asian populations in which such mutations are more prevalent. We report on the long-term results of first-line treatment with erlotinib in Caucasian patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung that have a somatic EGFR mutation in their tumor.
METHODS: Multicenter academic prospective phase II study with erlotinib in patients with an activating EGFR tyrosine kinase (TK) domain somatic mutation (any exon encoding the kinase domain) in the tumor and no prior treatment for their advanced disease.
RESULTS: Phenotypic preselecting of 229 patients led to a high EGFR mutation detection rate of 24% of which 46 patients were included in the phase II study. With a progression free survival (PFS) of 81% at three months the study met its primary endpoint for presumed superiority over chemotherapy. With an overall median PFS of 11 months and a median overall survival (OS) of 23 months, the results compare favorably with results obtained in randomized studies using TKI in first line in EGFR mutation positive adenocarcinoma of the lung.
CONCLUSION: The present study reinforces the use of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibition (TKI) as a first line treatment of choice for advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung carrying an activating EGFR mutation. The mutation rate in preselected Caucasian patients is higher than previously reported. Issues relevant for clinical practice are discussed.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00339586.

Palorini R, Votta G, Pirola Y, et al.
Protein Kinase A Activation Promotes Cancer Cell Resistance to Glucose Starvation and Anoikis.
PLoS Genet. 2016; 12(3):e1005931 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cells often rely on glycolysis to obtain energy and support anabolic growth. Several studies showed that glycolytic cells are susceptible to cell death when subjected to low glucose availability or to lack of glucose. However, some cancer cells, including glycolytic ones, can efficiently acquire higher tolerance to glucose depletion, leading to their survival and aggressiveness. Although increased resistance to glucose starvation has been shown to be a consequence of signaling pathways and compensatory metabolic routes activation, the full repertoire of the underlying molecular alterations remain elusive. Using omics and computational analyses, we found that cyclic adenosine monophosphate-Protein Kinase A (cAMP-PKA) axis activation is fundamental for cancer cell resistance to glucose starvation and anoikis. Notably, here we show that such a PKA-dependent survival is mediated by parallel activation of autophagy and glutamine utilization that in concert concur to attenuate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and to sustain cell anabolism. Indeed, the inhibition of PKA-mediated autophagy or glutamine metabolism increased the level of cell death, suggesting that the induction of autophagy and metabolic rewiring by PKA is important for cancer cellular survival under glucose starvation. Importantly, both processes actively participate to cancer cell survival mediated by suspension-activated PKA as well. In addition we identify also a PKA/Src mechanism capable to protect cancer cells from anoikis. Our results reveal for the first time the role of the versatile PKA in cancer cells survival under chronic glucose starvation and anoikis and may be a novel potential target for cancer treatment.

Boutzen H, Saland E, Larrue C, et al.
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations prime the all-trans retinoic acid myeloid differentiation pathway in acute myeloid leukemia.
J Exp Med. 2016; 213(4):483-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of malignant blasts with impaired differentiation programs caused by recurrent mutations, such as the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations found in 15% of AML patients. These mutations result in the production of the oncometabolite (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), leading to a hypermethylation phenotype that dysregulates hematopoietic differentiation. In this study, we identified mutant R132H IDH1-specific gene signatures regulated by key transcription factors, particularly CEBPα, involved in myeloid differentiation and retinoid responsiveness. We show that treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) at clinically achievable doses markedly enhanced terminal granulocytic differentiation in AML cell lines, primary patient samples, and a xenograft mouse model carrying mutant IDH1. Moreover, treatment with a cell-permeable form of 2-HG sensitized wild-type IDH1 AML cells to ATRA-induced myeloid differentiation, whereas inhibition of 2-HG production significantly reduced ATRA effects in mutant IDH1 cells. ATRA treatment specifically decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis of mutant IDH1 blasts in vitro. ATRA also reduced tumor burden of mutant IDH1 AML cells xenografted in NOD-Scid-IL2rγ(null)mice and markedly increased overall survival, revealing a potent antileukemic effect of ATRA in the presence of IDH1 mutation. This therapeutic strategy holds promise for this AML patient subgroup in future clinical studies.

Hulou MM, Cho CF, Chiocca EA, Bjerkvig R
Experimental therapies: gene therapies and oncolytic viruses.
Handb Clin Neurol. 2016; 134:183-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Over the past three decades, the overall survival time has only improved by a few months, therefore novel alternative treatment modalities are needed to improve clinical management strategies. Such strategies should ultimately extend patient survival. At present, the extensive insight into the molecular biology of gliomas, as well as into genetic engineering techniques, has led to better decision processes when it comes to modifying the genome to accommodate suicide genes, cytokine genes, and tumor suppressor genes that may kill cancer cells, and boost the host defensive immune system against neoantigenic cytoplasmic and nuclear targets. Both nonreplicative viral vectors and replicating oncolytic viruses have been developed for brain cancer treatment. Stem cells, microRNAs, nanoparticles, and viruses have also been designed. These have been armed with transgenes or peptides, and have been used both in laboratory-based experiments as well as in clinical trials, with the aim of improving selective killing of malignant glioma cells while sparing normal brain tissue. This chapter reviews the current status of gene therapies for malignant gliomas and highlights the most promising viral and cell-based strategies under development.

Janji B, Viry E, Moussay E, et al.
The multifaceted role of autophagy in tumor evasion from immune surveillance.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(14):17591-607 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
While autophagy is constitutively executed at basal level in all cells, it is activated in cancer cells in response to various microenvironmental stresses including hypoxia. It is now well established that autophagy can act both as tumor suppressor or tumor promoter. In this regard, several reports indicate that the tumor suppressor function of autophagy is associated with its ability to scavenge damaged oxidative organelles, thereby preventing the accumulation of toxic oxygen radicals and limiting the genome instability. Paradoxically, in developed tumors, autophagy can promote the survival of cancer cells and therefore operates as a cell resistance mechanism. The consensus appears to be that autophagy has a dual role in suppressing tumor initiation and in promoting the survival of established tumors. This has inspired significant interest in applying anti-autophagy therapies as an entirely new approach to cancer treatment. While much remains to be learned about the regulation and context-dependent biological role of autophagy, it is now well established that modulation of this process could be an attractive approach for the development of novel anticancer therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will summarize recent reports describing how tumor cells, by activating autophagy, manage to resist the immune cell attack. Data described in this review strongly argue that targeting autophagy may represent a conceptual realm for new immunotherapeutic strategies aiming to block the immune escape and therefore providing rational approach to future tumor immunotherapy design.

Paggetti J, Moussay E
BCR engagement in CLL: when translation goes wrong.
Blood. 2016; 127(4):378-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this issue of Blood, Yeomans et al identify MYC as an important target for translational regulation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells after B-cell receptor (BCR) stimulation and show that current therapies suppress this induction.

Bautista OM, Luxembourg A
Deconstructing the measure of vaccine efficacy against disease irrespective of HPV in HPV vaccine clinical trials.
Contemp Clin Trials. 2016; 47:254-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were licensed by demonstrating prevention of anogenital disease caused by specific HPV types in clinical studies. Measuring the impact of HPV vaccination on the overall burden of anogenital disease (irrespective of HPV) is an important public health question which is ideally addressed in post-licensure epidemiological studies. Attempts were made to use clinical trial data for that purpose. However, the interpretation of vaccine efficacy on the endpoint of disease irrespective of HPV is not widely understood.
METHODS: We used the 9-valent HPV vaccine clinical program as a case study to determine the value of measuring vaccine efficacy in such endpoint. This assessment was rigorously performed by heuristic reasoning and through probability calculations.
RESULTS: The measure of vaccine efficacy in the irrespective of HPV endpoint is driven simultaneously in opposite directions by the high estimate of prophylactic efficacy and a numerically negative estimate of risk reduction that is also a reflection of high prophylactic efficacy and no cross-protection.
CONCLUSIONS: The vaccine efficacy estimate in the irrespective of HPV endpoint is ambiguous and difficult to interpret. Comparing this estimate across different HPV vaccine studies requires an understanding of the contributions of vaccine HPV type efficacy and the incidence of disease not related to vaccine HPV types for each study. Without such understanding, comparing studies and drawing conclusions from such comparison are highly misleading. Approaches are proposed to divide this endpoint in components that are easier to interpret.

Poovathingal SK, Kravchenko-Balasha N, Shin YS, et al.
Critical Points in Tumorigenesis: A Carcinogen-Initiated Phase Transition Analyzed via Single-Cell Proteomics.
Small. 2016; 12(11):1425-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A kinetic, single-cell proteomic study of chemically induced carcinogenesis is interpreted by treating the single-cell data as fluctuations of an open system transitioning between different steady states. In analogy to a first-order transition, phase coexistence and the loss of degrees of freedom are observed. The transition is detected well before the appearance of the traditional biomarker of the carcinogenic transformation.

Tan BY, Acs G, Apple SK, et al.
Phyllodes tumours of the breast: a consensus review.
Histopathology. 2016; 68(1):5-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Phyllodes tumours constitute an uncommon but complex group of mammary fibroepithelial lesions. Accurate and reproducible grading of these tumours has long been challenging, owing to the need to assess multiple stratified histological parameters, which may be weighted differently by individual pathologists. Distinction of benign phyllodes tumours from cellular fibroadenomas is fraught with difficulty, due to overlapping microscopic features. Similarly, separation of the malignant phyllodes tumour from spindle cell metaplastic carcinoma and primary breast sarcoma can be problematic. Phyllodes tumours are treated by surgical excision. However, there is no consensus on the definition of an appropriate surgical margin to ensure completeness of excision and reduction of recurrence risk. Interpretive subjectivity, overlapping histological diagnostic criteria, suboptimal correlation between histological classification and clinical behaviour and the lack of robust molecular predictors of outcome make further investigation of the pathogenesis of these fascinating tumours a matter of active research. This review consolidates the current understanding of their pathobiology and clinical behaviour, and includes proposals for a rational approach to the classification and management of phyllodes tumours.

Polónia A, Leitão D, Schmitt F
Application of the 2013 ASCO/CAP guideline and the SISH technique for HER2 testing of breast cancer selects more patients for anti-HER2 treatment.
Virchows Arch. 2016; 468(4):417-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study is to assess the impact of changes of the 2013 ASCO/CAP guideline on the results of HER2 testing in breast cancer. A series of 916 primary invasive breast cancer cases, assessed as HER2 2+ by IHC in part using the 2007 and in part the 2013 ASCO/CAP criteria, was evaluated for HER2 amplification status by SISH and classified according to both 2007 and 2013 ASCO/CAP ISH guideline criteria. We observed a significant increase of HER2-positive cases (12.4 to 16.8%) and a decrease of HER2-equivocal cases (3.6 to 0.7%). Of the cases studied, 52.1% fulfilled both criteria of HER2/CEP17 ratio and average HER2 copy number per cell to be classified as HER2-positive. Reclassification of the cases from before the introduction of the new ASCO/CAP guideline with the 2013 ISH criteria resulted in an increase of cases with a HER2-positive status (12.4 to 14.2%) and in a decrease of HER2-equivocal cases (3.6 to 1.6%). The 2013 ASCO/CAP guideline selects more patients for anti-HER2 targeted therapy, mostly based on the modifications of criteria to evaluate ISH-HER2.

Qureshi-Baig K, Ullmann P, Rodriguez F, et al.
What Do We Learn from Spheroid Culture Systems? Insights from Tumorspheres Derived from Primary Colon Cancer Tissue.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0146052 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Due to their self-renewal and tumorigenic properties, tumor-initiating cells (TICs) have been hypothesized to be important targets for colorectal cancer (CRC). However the study of TICs is hampered by the fact that the identification and culturing of TICs is still a subject of extensive debate. Floating three-dimensional spheroid cultures (SC) that grow in serum-free medium supplemented with growth factors are supposed to be enriched in TICs. We generated SC from fresh clinical tumor specimens and compared them to SC isolated from CRC cell-lines as well as to adherent differentiated counterparts. Patient-derived SC display self-renewal capacity and can induce serial transplantable tumors in immuno-deficient mice, which phenotypically resemble the tumor of origin. In addition, the original tumor tissue and established SC retain several similar CRC-relevant mutations. Primary SC express key stemness proteins such as SOX2, OCT4, NANOG and LGR5 and importantly show increased chemoresistance ability compared to their adherent differentiated counterparts and to cell line-derived SC. Strikingly, cells derived from spheroid or adherent differentiating culture conditions displayed similar self-renewal capacity and equally formed tumors in immune-deficient mice, suggesting that self-renewal and tumor-initiation capacity of TICs is not restricted to phenotypically immature spheroid cells, which we describe to be highly plastic and able to reacquire stem-cell traits even after long differentiation processes. Finally, we identified two genes among a sphere gene expression signature that predict disease relapse in CRC patients. Here we propose that SC derived from fresh patient tumor tissue present interesting phenotypic features that may have clinical relevance for chemoresistance and disease relapse and therefore represent a valuable tool to test for new CRC-therapies that overcome drug resistance.

Lommel MJ, Trairatphisan P, Gäbler K, et al.
L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation in breast cancer cells and in vitro is mediated by RSK downstream of the ERK/MAPK pathway.
FASEB J. 2016; 30(3):1218-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deregulated cell migration and invasion are hallmarks of metastatic cancer cells. Phosphorylation on residue Ser5 of the actin-bundling protein L-plastin activates L-plastin and has been reported to be crucial for invasion and metastasis. Here, we investigate signal transduction leading to L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation using 4 human breast cancer cell lines. Whole-genome microarray analysis comparing cell lines with different invasive capacities and corresponding variations in L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation level revealed that genes of the ERK/MAPK pathway are differentially expressed. It is noteworthy that in vitro kinase assays showed that ERK/MAPK pathway downstream ribosomal protein S6 kinases α-1 (RSK1) and α-3 (RSK2) are able to directly phosphorylate L-plastin on Ser5. Small interfering RNA- or short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown and activation/inhibition studies followed by immunoblot analysis and computational modeling confirmed that ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) is an essential activator of L-plastin. Migration and invasion assays showed that RSK knockdown led to a decrease of up to 30% of migration and invasion of MDA-MB-435S cells. Although the presence of L-plastin was not necessary for migration/invasion of these cells, immunofluorescence assays illustrated RSK-dependent recruitment of Ser5-phosphorylated L-plastin to migratory structures. Altogether, we provide evidence that the ERK/MAPK pathway is involved in L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation in breast cancer cells with RSK1 and RSK2 kinases able to directly phosphorylate L-plastin residue Ser5.

Tardito S, Oudin A, Ahmed SU, et al.
Glutamine synthetase activity fuels nucleotide biosynthesis and supports growth of glutamine-restricted glioblastoma.
Nat Cell Biol. 2015; 17(12):1556-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
L-Glutamine (Gln) functions physiologically to balance the carbon and nitrogen requirements of tissues. It has been proposed that in cancer cells undergoing aerobic glycolysis, accelerated anabolism is sustained by Gln-derived carbons, which replenish the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (anaplerosis). However, it is shown here that in glioblastoma (GBM) cells, almost half of the Gln-derived glutamate (Glu) is secreted and does not enter the TCA cycle, and that inhibiting glutaminolysis does not affect cell proliferation. Moreover, Gln-starved cells are not rescued by TCA cycle replenishment. Instead, the conversion of Glu to Gln by glutamine synthetase (GS; cataplerosis) confers Gln prototrophy, and fuels de novo purine biosynthesis. In both orthotopic GBM models and in patients, (13)C-glucose tracing showed that GS produces Gln from TCA-cycle-derived carbons. Finally, the Gln required for the growth of GBM tumours is contributed only marginally by the circulation, and is mainly either autonomously synthesized by GS-positive glioma cells, or supplied by astrocytes.

Podergajs N, Motaln H, Rajčević U, et al.
Transmembrane protein CD9 is glioblastoma biomarker, relevant for maintenance of glioblastoma stem cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(1):593-609 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The cancer stem cell model suggests that glioblastomas contain a subpopulation of stem-like tumor cells that reproduce themselves to sustain tumor growth. Targeting these cells thus represents a novel treatment strategy and therefore more specific markers that characterize glioblastoma stem cells need to be identified. In the present study, we performed transcriptomic analysis of glioblastoma tissues compared to normal brain tissues revealing sensible up-regulation of CD9 gene. CD9 encodes the transmembrane protein tetraspanin which is involved in tumor cell invasion, apoptosis and resistance to chemotherapy. Using the public REMBRANDT database for brain tumors, we confirmed the prognostic value of CD9, whereby a more than two fold up-regulation correlates with shorter patient survival. We validated CD9 gene and protein expression showing selective up-regulation in glioblastoma stem cells isolated from primary biopsies and in primary organotypic glioblastoma spheroids as well as in U87-MG and U373 glioblastoma cell lines. In contrast, no or low CD9 gene expression was observed in normal human astrocytes, normal brain tissue and neural stem cells. CD9 silencing in three CD133+ glioblastoma cell lines (NCH644, NCH421k and NCH660h) led to decreased cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and self-renewal ability, and altered expression of the stem-cell markers CD133, nestin and SOX2. Moreover, CD9-silenced glioblastoma stem cells showed altered activation patterns of the Akt, MapK and Stat3 signaling transducers. Orthotopic xenotransplantation of CD9-silenced glioblastoma stem cells into nude rats promoted prolonged survival. Therefore, CD9 should be further evaluated as a target for glioblastoma treatment.

Seidel C, Schnekenburger M, Mazumder A, et al.
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives as HDAC6-specific inhibitors modulating microtubular structure and HSP90α chaperone activity against prostate cancer.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2016; 99:31-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histone deacetylase (HDAC)6 is a unique isoenzyme targeting specific substrates including α-tubulin and heat shock protein (HSP)90. HDAC6 is involved in protein trafficking and degradation, cell shape and migration. Deregulation of HDAC6 activity is associated with a variety of diseases including cancer leading to a growing interest for developing HDAC6 inhibitors. Here, we identified two new structurally related 4-hydroxybenzoic acids as selective HDAC6 inhibitors reducing proliferation, colony and spheroid formation as well as viability of prostate cancer cells. Both compounds strongly enhanced α-tubulin acetylation leading to remodeling of microtubular organization. Furthermore, 4-hydroxybenzoic acids decreased HSP90α regulation of the human androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells by increasing HSP90α acetylation levels. Collectively, our data support the potential of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives as HDAC6-specific inhibitors with anti-cancer properties.

Trezzi JP, Vlassis N, Hiller K
The Role of Metabolomics in the Study of Cancer Biomarkers and in the Development of Diagnostic Tools.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015; 867:41-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
This chapter introduces the emerging field of metabolomics and its application in the context of cancer biomarker research. Taking advantage of modern high-throughput technologies, and enhanced computational power, metabolomics has a high potential for cancer biomarker identification and the development of diagnostic tools. This chapter describes current metabolomics technologies used in cancer research, starting with metabolomics sample preparation, elaborating on current analytical methodologies for metabolomics measurement and introducing existing software for data analysis. The last part of this chapter deals with the statistical analysis of very large metabolomics datasets and their relevance for cancer biomarker identification.

Leal J, Luengo-Fernandez R, Sullivan R, Witjes JA
Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union.
Eur Urol. 2016; 69(3):438-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: More than 120,000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40,000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact of bladder cancer in the EU.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the annual economic costs of bladder cancer in the EU for 2012.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Country-specific cancer cost data were estimated using aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health care resource use, obtained from numerous international and national sources.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Health care costs were estimated from expenditures on primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient care, as well as medications. Costs of unpaid care and lost earnings due to morbidity and early death were estimated.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Bladder cancer cost the EU €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion (59%) and representing 5% of total health care cancer costs. Bladder cancer accounted for 3% of all cancer costs in the EU (€143 billion) in 2012 and represented an annual health care cost of €57 per 10 EU citizens, with costs varying >10 times between the country with the lowest cost, Bulgaria (€8 for every 10 citizens), and highest cost, Luxembourg (€93). Productivity losses and informal care represented 23% and 18% of bladder cancer costs, respectively. The quality and availability of comparable cancer-related data across the EU need further improvement.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results add to essential public health and policy intelligence for delivering affordable bladder cancer care systems and prioritising the allocation of public research funds.
PATIENT SUMMARY: We looked at the economic costs of bladder cancer across the European Union (EU). We found bladder cancer to cost €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion. Our study provides data that can be used to inform affordable cancer care in the EU.

Desiderio J, Jiang ZW, Nguyen NT, et al.
Robotic, laparoscopic and open surgery for gastric cancer compared on surgical, clinical and oncological outcomes: a multi-institutional chart review. A study protocol of the International study group on Minimally Invasive surgery for GASTRIc Cancer-IMIGASTRIC.
BMJ Open. 2015; 5(10):e008198 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Gastric cancer represents a great challenge for healthcare providers and requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach in which surgery plays a major role. Minimally invasive surgery has been progressively developed, first with the advent of laparoscopy and recently with the spread of robotic surgery, but a number of issues are currently being debated, including the limitations in performing an effective extended lymph node dissection, the real advantages of robotic systems, the role of laparoscopy for Advanced Gastric Cancer, the reproducibility of a total intracorporeal technique and the oncological results achievable during long-term follow-up.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multi-institutional international database will be established to evaluate the role of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches in gastric cancer, comprising of information regarding surgical, clinical and oncological features. A chart review will be conducted to enter data of participants with gastric cancer, previously treated at the participating institutions. The database is the first of its kind, through an international electronic submission system and a HIPPA protected real time data repository from high volume gastric cancer centres.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study is conducted in compliance with ethical principles originating from the Helsinki Declaration, within the guidelines of Good Clinical Practice and relevant laws/regulations. A multicentre study with a large number of patients will permit further investigation of the safety and efficacy as well as the long-term outcomes of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches for the management of gastric cancer.

Ait Ouakrim D, Pizot C, Boniol M, et al.
Trends in colorectal cancer mortality in Europe: retrospective analysis of the WHO mortality database.
BMJ. 2015; 351:h4970 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in colorectal cancer mortality in 34 European countries between 1970 and 2011.
DESIGN: Retrospective trend analysis.
DATA SOURCE: World Health Organization mortality database.
POPULATION: Deaths from colorectal cancer between 1970 and 2011. Profound changes in screening and treatment efficiency took place after 1988; therefore, particular attention was paid to the evolution of colorectal cancer mortality in the subsequent period.
MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Time trends in rates of colorectal cancer mortality, using joinpoint regression analysis. Rates were age adjusted using the standard European population.
RESULTS: From 1989 to 2011, colorectal cancer mortality increased by a median of 6.0% for men and decreased by a median of 14.7% for women in the 34 European countries. Reductions in colorectal cancer mortality of more than 25% in men and 30% in women occurred in Austria, Switzerland, Germany, the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Luxembourg, and Ireland. By contrast, mortality rates fell by less than 17% in the Netherlands and Sweden for both sexes. Over the same period, smaller or no declines occurred in most central European countries. Substantial mortality increases occurred in Croatia, the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia, and Romania for both sexes and in most eastern European countries for men. In countries with decreasing mortality, reductions were more important for women of all ages and men younger than 65 years. In the 27 European Union member states, colorectal cancer mortality fell by 13.0% in men and 27.0% in women, compared with corresponding reductions of 39.8% and 38.8% in the United States.
CONCLUSION: Over the past 40 years, there has been considerable disparity in the level of colorectal cancer mortality between European countries, as well as between men and women and age categories. Countries with the largest reductions in colorectal cancer mortality are characterised by better accessibility to screening services, especially endoscopic screening, and specialised care.

Pitisuttithum P, Velicer C, Luxembourg A
9-Valent HPV vaccine for cancers, pre-cancers and genital warts related to HPV.
Expert Rev Vaccines. 2015; 14(11):1405-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of nearly all cervical cancer cases as well as a substantial proportion of anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers, making it responsible for approximately 5% of the global cancer burden. The first-generation HPV vaccines that is, quadrivalent HPV type 6/11/16/18 vaccine and bivalent HPV type 16/18 vaccine were licensed in 2006 and 2007, respectively. A second-generation 9-valent HPV type 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine with broader cancer coverage was initiated even before the first vaccines were approved. By preventing HPV infection and disease due to HPV31/33/45/52/58, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to increase prevention of cervical cancer from 70 to 90%. In addition, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to prevent 85-95% of HPV-related vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers. Overall, the 9vHPV vaccine addresses a significant unmet medical need, although further health economics and implementation research is needed.

Rakha EA, Badve S, Eusebi V, et al.
Breast lesions of uncertain malignant nature and limited metastatic potential: proposals to improve their recognition and clinical management.
Histopathology. 2016; 68(1):45-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast lesions comprise a family of heterogeneous entities with variable patterns of presentation, morphology and clinical behaviour. The majority of breast lesions are classified traditionally into benign and malignant conditions and their behaviour can, in the vast majority of cases, be predicted with a reasonable degree of accuracy. However, there remain lesions which show borderline features and lie in a grey zone between benign and malignant, as their behaviour cannot be predicted reliably. Defined pathological categorization of such lesions is challenging, and for some entities is recognized to be subjective and include a range of diagnoses, and forms of terminology, which may trigger over- or undertreatment. The rarity of these lesions makes the acquisition of clinical evidence problematic and limits the development of a sufficient evidence base to support informed decision-making by clinicians and patients. Emerging molecular evidence is providing a greater understanding of the biology of these lesions, but this may or may not be reflected in their clinical behaviour. Herein we discuss some breast lesions that are associated with uncertainty regarding classification and behaviour, and hence management. These include biologically invasive malignant lesions associated with uncertain metastatic potential, such as low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, low-grade fibromatosis-like spindle cell carcinoma and encapsulated papillary carcinoma. Other lesions of uncertain malignant nature remain, such as mammary cylindroma, atypical microglandular adenosis, mammary pleomorphic adenoma and infiltrating epitheliosis. The concept of categories of (1) breast lesions of uncertain malignant nature and (2) breast lesions of limited metastatic potential are proposed with details of which histological entities could be included in each category, and their management implications are discussed.

Maus F, Sakry D, Binamé F, et al.
The NG2 Proteoglycan Protects Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells against Oxidative Stress via Interaction with OMI/HtrA2.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(9):e0137311 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The NG2 proteoglycan is characteristically expressed by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) and also by aggressive brain tumours highly resistant to chemo- and radiation therapy. Oligodendrocyte-lineage cells are particularly sensitive to stress resulting in cell death in white matter after hypoxic or ischemic insults of premature infants and destruction of OPC in some types of Multiple Sclerosis lesions. Here we show that the NG2 proteoglycan binds OMI/HtrA2, a mitochondrial serine protease which is released from damaged mitochondria into the cytosol in response to stress. In the cytosol, OMI/HtrA2 initiates apoptosis by proteolytic degradation of anti-apoptotic factors. OPC in which NG2 has been downregulated by siRNA, or OPC from the NG2-knockout mouse show an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress evidenced by increased cell death. The proapoptotic protease activity of OMI/HtrA2 in the cytosol can be reduced by the interaction with NG2. Human glioma expressing high levels of NG2 are less sensitive to oxidative stress than those with lower NG2 expression and reducing NG2 expression by siRNA increases cell death in response to oxidative stress. Binding of NG2 to OMI/HtrA2 may thus help protect cells against oxidative stress-induced cell death. This interaction is likely to contribute to the high chemo- and radioresistance of glioma.

Grinev VV, Migas AA, Kirsanava AD, et al.
Decoding of exon splicing patterns in the human RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion gene.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2015; 68:48-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
The t(8;21) translocation is the most widespread genetic defect found in human acute myeloid leukemia. This translocation results in the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion gene that produces a wide variety of alternative transcripts and influences the course of the disease. The rules of combinatorics and splicing of exons in the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcripts are not known. To address this issue, we developed an exon graph model of the fusion gene organization and evaluated its local exon combinatorics by the exon combinatorial index (ECI). Here we show that the local exon combinatorics of the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 gene follows a power-law behavior and (i) the vast majority of exons has a low ECI, (ii) only a small part is represented by "exons-hubs" of splicing with very high ECI values, and (iii) it is scale-free and very sensitive to targeted skipping of "exons-hubs". Stochasticity of the splicing machinery and preferred usage of exons in alternative splicing can explain such behavior of the system. Stochasticity may explain up to 12% of the ECI variance and results in a number of non-coding and unproductive transcripts that can be considered as a noise. Half-life of these transcripts is increased due to the deregulation of some key genes of the nonsense-mediated decay system in leukemia cells. On the other hand, preferred usage of exons may explain up to 75% of the ECI variability. Our analysis revealed a set of splicing-related cis-regulatory motifs that can explain "attractiveness" of exons in alternative splicing but only when they are considered together. Cis-regulatory motifs are guides for splicing trans-factors and we observed a leukemia-specific profile of expression of the splicing genes in t(8;21)-positive blasts. Altogether, our results show that alternative splicing of the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcripts follows strict rules and that the power-law component of the fusion gene organization confers a high flexibility to this process.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

[Home]    Page last updated: 07 March, 2017     © CancerIndex, Established 1996