Gene Summary

Gene:TGM4; transglutaminase 4
Aliases: TGP, hTGP
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (5)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • PTEN
  • DNA
  • Prostate Cancer
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Models, Genetic
  • TGM4
  • Gene Enhancer Elements
  • Sbp protein, mouse
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • Androgen Receptors
  • retinoic acid receptor gamma
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Retinoic Acid
  • Androgens
  • Transglutaminases
  • Biomarkers
  • Carcinoma
  • Down-Regulation
  • Computational Biology
  • FISH
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Hybrid Cells
  • Discriminant Analysis
  • Prostatic Secretory Proteins
  • MSMB
  • FHIT
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Chromosome 3
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Prostate
  • Proteins
  • Neoplasms, Experimental
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Expression
  • Promoter Regions
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TGM4 (cancer-related)

Hampel KJ, de Abreu FB, Sidiropoulos N, et al.
Variant call concordance between two laboratory-developed, solid tumor targeted genomic profiling assays using distinct workflows and sequencing instruments.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2017; 102(2):215-218 [PubMed] Related Publications
Targeted genomic profiling (TGP) using massively parallel DNA sequencing is becoming the standard methodology in clinical laboratories for detecting somatic variants in solid tumors. The variety of methodologies and sequencing platforms in the marketplace for TGP has resulted in a variety of clinical TGP laboratory developed tests (LDT). The variability of LDTs is a challenge for test-to-test and laboratory-to-laboratory reliability. At the University of Vermont Medical Center (UVMMC), we validated a TGP assay for solid tumors which utilizes DNA hybridization capture and complete exon and selected intron sequencing of 29 clinically actionable genes. The validation samples were run on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Clinical specificity and sensitivity were evaluated by testing samples harboring genomic variants previously identified in CLIA-approved, CAP accredited laboratories with clinically validated molecular assays. The Molecular Laboratory at Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center (DHMC) provided 11 FFPE specimens that had been analyzed on AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel version 2 (CHPv2) and run on the Ion Torrent PGM. A Venn diagram of the gene lists from the two institutions is shown. This provided an excellent opportunity to compare the inter-laboratory reliability using two different target sequencing methods and sequencing platforms. Our data demonstrated an exceptionally high level of concordance with respect to the sensitivity and specificity of the analyses. All clinically-actionable SNV and InDel variant calls in genes covered by both panels (n=17) were identified by both laboratories. This data supports the proposal that distinct gene panel designs and sequencing workflows are capable of making consistent variant calls in solid tumor FFPE-derived samples.

Kuhlen M, Hönscheid A, Schemme J, et al.
Hodgkin lymphoma as a novel presentation of familial DICER1 syndrome.
Eur J Pediatr. 2016; 175(4):593-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: DICER1 germline mutations are associated with an inherited cancer syndrome, most commonly presenting with pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB), ovarian sex cord tumors, thyroid cysts/goitre, and cystic nephroma. We describe the occurrence of a Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) of the T cell phenotype in a family with DICER1 syndrome. The patient presented with PPB Type I and HL. Immunohistochemical staining of the Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells revealed CD30, TGP, CD2, CD3, CD15, and IRF4 positivity and weekly positivity of PAX5. T cell receptor repertoire analysis suggested HL of T cell origin, which is in contrast to common B cell-derived HL. The mother had been diagnosed with thyroid cysts, one sister had died from a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and a brother had died from PPB Type III. Two mutational events were revealed in all affected family members; a single bp deletion, c.5299delC, leading to a frameshift and premature stop in exon 24 and a heterozygous variant (c.4616C>T; p.Thr1539Met) located in exon 23 of the DICER1 gene. This variant is predicted to be benign by in silico analysis.
CONCLUSION: Future studies looking for DICER1 mutations in HL cases of the T cell phenotype will be important to confirm its association with constitutional DICER1 syndrome.
WHAT IS KNOWN: • DICER1 germline mutations are associated with an inherited cancer syndrome, most commonly pleuropulmonary blastoma, ovarian sex cord tumors, thyroid cysts/goitre, and cystic nephroma. • Hodgkin lymphoma is one of the most frequent types of malignant lymphomas and typically arises sporadically. T cell-derived Hodgkin lymphomas are exceptionally rare. What is New: • DICER1 syndrome may have an even broader phenotypic spectrum and seems to be associated with rare forms of T cell Hodgkin lymphoma.

Kuniyoshi RK, Gehrke Fde S, Alves BC, et al.
Gene profiling and circulating tumor cells as biomarker to prognostic of patients with locoregional breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(10):8075-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
The gene profile of primary tumors, as well as the identification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), can provide important prognostic and predictive information. In this study, our objective was to perform tumor gene profiling (TGP) in combination with CTC characterization in women with nonmetastatic breast cancer. Biological samples (from peripheral blood and tumors) from 167 patients diagnosed with stage I, II, and III mammary carcinoma, who were also referred for adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy, were assessed for the following parameters: (a) the presence of CTCs identified by the expression of CK-19 and c-erbB-2 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) fraction by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and (b) the TGP, which was determined by analyzing the expression of 21 genes in paraffin-embedded tissue samples by quantitative multiplex RT-PCR with the Plexor® system. We observed a statistically significant correlation between the progression-free interval (PFI) and the clinical stage (p = 0.000701), the TGP score (p = 0.006538), and the presence of hormone receptors in the tumor (p = 0.0432). We observed no correlation between the PFI and the presence or absence of CK-19 or HER2 expression in the PBMC fraction prior to the start of treatment or in the two following readouts. Multivariate analysis revealed that only the TGP score significantly correlated with the PFI (p = 0.029247). The TGP is an important prognostic variable for patients with locoregional breast cancer. The presence of CTCs adds no prognostic value to the information already provided by the TGP.

Kim Y, Ignatchenko V, Yao CQ, et al.
Identification of differentially expressed proteins in direct expressed prostatic secretions of men with organ-confined versus extracapsular prostate cancer.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012; 11(12):1870-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Current protocols for the screening of prostate cancer cannot accurately discriminate clinically indolent tumors from more aggressive ones. One reliable indicator of outcome has been the determination of organ-confined versus nonorgan-confined disease but even this determination is often only made following prostatectomy. This underscores the need to explore alternate avenues to enhance outcome prediction of prostate cancer patients. Fluids that are proximal to the prostate, such as expressed prostatic secretions (EPS), are attractive sources of potential prostate cancer biomarkers as these fluids likely bathe the tumor. Direct-EPS samples from 16 individuals with extracapsular (n = 8) or organ-confined (n = 8) prostate cancer were used as a discovery cohort, and were analyzed in duplicate by a nine-step MudPIT on a LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. A total of 624 unique proteins were identified by at least two unique peptides with a 0.2% false discovery rate. A semiquantitative spectral counting algorithm identified 133 significantly differentially expressed proteins in the discovery cohort. Integrative data mining prioritized 14 candidates, including two known prostate cancer biomarkers: prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase, which were significantly elevated in the direct-EPS from the organ-confined cancer group. These and five other candidates (SFN, MME, PARK7, TIMP1, and TGM4) were verified by Western blotting in an independent set of direct-EPS from patients with biochemically recurrent disease (n = 5) versus patients with no evidence of recurrence upon follow-up (n = 10). Lastly, we performed proof-of-concept SRM-MS-based relative quantification of the five candidates using unpurified heavy isotope-labeled synthetic peptides spiked into pools of EPS-urines from men with extracapsular and organ-confined prostate tumors. This study represents the first efforts to define the direct-EPS proteome from two major subclasses of prostate cancer using shotgun proteomics and verification in EPS-urine by SRM-MS.

Rivera-Gonzalez GC, Droop AP, Rippon HJ, et al.
Retinoic acid and androgen receptors combine to achieve tissue specific control of human prostatic transglutaminase expression: a novel regulatory network with broader significance.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2012; 40(11):4825-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In the human prostate, expression of prostate-specific genes is known to be directly regulated by the androgen-induced stimulation of the androgen receptor (AR). However, less is known about the expression control of the prostate-restricted TGM4 (hTGP) gene. In the present study we demonstrate that the regulation of the hTGP gene depends mainly on retinoic acid (RA). We provide evidence that the retinoic acid receptor gamma (RAR-G) plays a major role in the regulation of the hTGP gene and that presence of the AR, but not its transcriptional transactivation activity, is critical for hTGP transcription. RA and androgen responsive elements (RARE and ARE) were mapped to the hTGP promoter by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), which also indicated that the active ARE and RARE sites were adjacent, suggesting that the antagonistic effect of androgen and RA is related to the relative position of binding sites. Publicly available AR and RAR ChIP-seq data was used to find gene potentially regulated by AR and RAR. Four of these genes (CDCA7L, CDK6, BTG1 and SAMD3) were tested for RAR and AR binding and two of them (CDCA7L and CDK6) proved to be antagonistically regulated by androgens and RA confirming that this regulation is not particular of hTGP.

Huang WJ, Lin CW, Lee CY, et al.
NBM-HD-3, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor with anticancer activity through modulation of PTEN and AKT in brain cancer cells.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2011; 136(1):156-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Taiwanese green propolis (TGP) extract contains a variety of chemical components and has proven to have broad-spectrum biological activities, including anticancer, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. Propolin G, an active anticancer component of TGP, was isolated and characterized in this study. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have been shown to be effective anticancer agents. The aim of this study was to develop a novel HDACi and investigate its anticancer mechanism.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: NBM-HD-3, a novel HDACi, was derived from propolin G. Two brain cancer cell lines (c6 and DBTRG-05MG) were used in the anti-proliferation assay. NBM-HD-3 treated cells were analyzed by flow cytometry in the cell cycle assay. The gene expression of NBM-HD-3 treated cells was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. HDAC enzyme assay, confocal microscopy and Western blot assay were used to validate NMB-HD-3 as HDACi. Western blot assay was used for analyzing cell cycle modulation by PTEN and AKT.
RESULTS: NBM-HD-3 was found to have potent anti-proliferative activity in brain cancer cells (rat C6 glioma and human DBTRG-05MG glioblastoma). Western blot analysis and HDAC enzyme assay indicated that NBM-HD-3 was an HDAC inhibitor. The Western blot data exhibited increased levels of p21, Ac-histone 3, Ac-histone 4, and Ac-tubulin after brain cancer cells being treated with NBM-HD-3. NBM-HD-3 also affected the cell cycle regulators such as p21 and cyclin B1. In the study for its anticancer mechanism, NBM-HD-3 was found to increase PTEN and AKT protein levels significantly, while decreasing p-PTEN and p-AKT levels markedly.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the novel compound, NBM-HD-3, is a potent HDAC inhibitor. It produces anticancer activity through modulation of PTEN and AKT in brain cancer cells.

Fujita A, Gomes LR, Sato JR, et al.
Multivariate gene expression analysis reveals functional connectivity changes between normal/tumoral prostates.
BMC Syst Biol. 2008; 2:106 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death in the male population, therefore, a comprehensive study about the genes and the molecular networks involved in the tumoral prostate process becomes necessary. In order to understand the biological process behind potential biomarkers, we have analyzed a set of 57 cDNA microarrays containing approximately 25,000 genes.
RESULTS: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) combined with the Maximum-entropy Linear Discriminant Analysis (MLDA) were applied in order to identify genes with the most discriminative information between normal and tumoral prostatic tissues. Data analysis was carried out using three different approaches, namely: (i) differences in gene expression levels between normal and tumoral conditions from an univariate point of view; (ii) in a multivariate fashion using MLDA; and (iii) with a dependence network approach. Our results show that malignant transformation in the prostatic tissue is more related to functional connectivity changes in their dependence networks than to differential gene expression. The MYLK, KLK2, KLK3, HAN11, LTF, CSRP1 and TGM4 genes presented significant changes in their functional connectivity between normal and tumoral conditions and were also classified as the top seven most informative genes for the prostate cancer genesis process by our discriminant analysis. Moreover, among the identified genes we found classically known biomarkers and genes which are closely related to tumoral prostate, such as KLK3 and KLK2 and several other potential ones.
CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that changes in functional connectivity may be implicit in the biological process which renders some genes more informative to discriminate between normal and tumoral conditions. Using the proposed method, namely, MLDA, in order to analyze the multivariate characteristic of genes, it was possible to capture the changes in dependence networks which are related to cell transformation.

El Bassuoni MA, Talaat RM, Ibrahim AA, Shaker OT
TGF-beta1 and C-erb-B2 neu oncoprotein in Egyptian HCV related chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
Egypt J Immunol. 2008; 15(1):39-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), a pro-fibrogenic cytokine, has several polymorphism in humans with difference in activity levels. Hepato-carcinogenesis involves alterations in the action of protooncogenes such as the; neu (C-erb-B2) oncogene. Overexpression of the neu-oncogene has been implicated in experimental cellular transformation and tumorigenesis in a wide range of human cancer. We examined TGF-beta1 and C-erb-B2 mRNA expression and their protein levels in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients and those developing Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sixty patients (30 HCV and 30 HCC) and 30 controls were enrolled. HCV patients were classified into mild, moderate, marked and no fibrosis. HCC patients were categorized into grade I, II, Ill. TGP-beta1 and C-erb-B2 expression were studied. Messenger RNA was extracted using the guanidinum thiocyanate phenol chloroform method, and used of RT-PCR. Protein serum levels were estimated by (EIA). Significant difference were obtained when comparing TGF-bet1 and C-erb-B2 mRNA in HCV and HCC P = 0.0076, and controls. The HCV group revealed significant difference with C-erb-B2 but not TGF-B1 mRNA as compared to controls P < 0.005 and P > 0.05 respectively. Serum protein levels demonstrated difference increase significance shown when comparing their levels in both studied groups P < 0.001, P < 0.05 respectively and when compared to controls (P < 0.001). TGF-beta1 serum levels in HCV patients showed increase with degree of fibrosis (P = 0.003) while, C-erbB-2 serum levels showed no significance (P = 0.089). In different grades of HCC patients, TGF-beta1 levels showed no significant difference (P = 0.769). However, C-erb-B2 levels revealed significant difference (P = 0.002) between grade I & III and grade II &. Ill (P < 0.001). Positive correlations to protein serum level were obtained with TGF beta1mRNA in HCV group, while, C-erb-B2 mRNA in HCC patients. In conclusion, TGF-beta1 upregulation in HCC suggests its role in hepatic carcinogenesis. Elevated expression of C-erb-B2 may reflect pre-neoplastic liver cell proliferation, cellular necrosis associated with chronic liver disease and alternatively from HCV carcinogens which enhance malignant transformation. Correlation of both parameters with their protein levels might rise using their antibodies in immunotherapy for HCC.

Thielen JL, Volzing KG, Collier LS, et al.
Markers of prostate region-specific epithelial identity define anatomical locations in the mouse prostate that are molecularly similar to human prostate cancers.
Differentiation. 2007; 75(1):49-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the basic functions of the prostate gland are conserved among mammals, its morphology varies greatly among species. Comparative studies between mouse and human are important because mice are widely used to study prostate cancer, a disease that occurs in a region-restricted manner within the human prostate. An informatics-based approach was used to identify prostate-specific human genes as candidate markers of region-specific identity that might distinguish prostatic ducts prone to prostate cancer from ducts that rarely give rise to cancer. Subsequent analysis of normal and cancerous human prostates demonstrated that the genes microseminoprotein-beta (MSMB) and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4) were expressed in distinct groups of ducts in the normal human prostate, and only MSMB was detected in areas of prostate cancer. The mouse orthologs of MSMB and TGM4 were then used for expression studies in mice along with the mouse ventrally expressed gene spermine binding protein (SBP). All three genes were informative markers of region-specific epithelial identity with distinct expression patterns that collectively accounted for all ducts in the mouse prostate. Together with the human data, this suggested that MSMB expression defines an anatomical domain in the mouse prostate that is molecularly most similar to human prostate cancers. Computer-assisted serial section reconstruction was used to visualize the complete expression domains for MSMB, SBP, and TGM4 in the mouse prostate. This showed that MSMB is expressed in prostatic ducts that comprise 21% of the mouse dorso-lateral prostate. Finally, the expression of MSMB, SBP, and TGM4 was evaluated in a mouse prostate cancer model created by the prostate epithelium-specific deletion of the tumor suppressor PTEN. MSMB and TGM4 were rapidly and dramatically down-regulated in response to PTEN deletion suggesting that this model of prostate cancer includes a more rapid de-differentiation of the prostatic epithelium than is observed in organ-confined human prostate cancers.

Kholodnyuk ID, Szeles A, Yang Y, et al.
Inactivation of the human fragile histidine triad gene at 3p14.2 in monochromosomal human/mouse microcell hybrid-derived severe combined immunodeficient mouse tumors.
Cancer Res. 2000; 60(24):7119-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have previously shown that inoculation of human chromosome 3 (chr3)/A9 mouse fibrosarcoma microcell hybrids (MCHs) into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice was followed by the regular elimination of some 3p regions whereas a 3q region was retained even after prolonged mouse passage. Using this approach, referred to as the elimination test (Et), we have defined a common eliminated region (CER) of approximately 7 cM at 3p21.3 that was absent in all of the 27 tumors generated from five MCHs. Later, CER was reduced to a 1-Mb region, designated as CER1. Another eliminated region (ER2) at 3p21.1-p14.2 was absent in 21 of the 27 tumors. ER2 borders at but does not include the fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene, considered as a putative tumor suppressor gene. In the present work, two new and two previously studied MCHs, and 13 derived SCID mouse tumors were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting and by PCR, using 72 chr3p-specific and 11 chr3q-specific markers. Nine tumors generated from three MCHs that carried cytogenetically normal chr3, remained PCR-positive for all of the chr3 markers tested. Designated as "PCR+" tumors, they were examined by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, together with four of six previously studied tumors derived from MCH910.7, which carried a del(3)(pter-p21.1), for the expression of 14 human genes: 5 genes within CER1 (LIMD1, CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR5), 5 genes located within regions that were homozygously deleted in a variety of carcinomas (ITGA4L, LUCA1, PTPRG, FHIT, DUTT1), and 4 other genes in chr3p (VHL, MLH1, TGM4, UBE1L). We found that VHL, MLH1, ITGA4L, LIMD1, UBE1L, LUCA1, PTPRG, and DUTT1 were expressed in the MCH lines in vitro and also in the derived SCID tumors. No transcripts that originated from the four CCR genes or from TGM4 could be detected in any of the MCH lines. Alone among the 14 genes examined, FHIT showed a tumor growth-associated change. It was expressed in vitro in five of seven MCH lines. Nine of 13 derived tumors had no FHIT transcript. The remaining 4 expressed a truncated mRNA and a reduced amount of the full-length mRNA. We have previously found that FHIT was deleted at the DNA level in 17 of 21 tumors derived from four MCHs. The remaining 4 of 21 had no FHIT transcript. Our compiled data show that FHIT was either physically or functionally impaired in all 34 of the 34 analyzed tumors. Variants with deleted or down-regulated FHIT have a selective growth advantage.

Dubbink HJ, Verkaik NS, Faber PW, et al.
Tissue specific and androgen-regulated expression of human prostate-specific transglutaminase.
Biochem J. 1996; 315 ( Pt 3):901-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transglutaminases (TGases) are calcium-dependent enzymes catalysing the post-translational cross-linking of proteins. In the prostate at least two TGases are present, the ubiquitously expressed tissue-type TGase (TGC), and a prostate-restricted TGase (TGP). This paper deals with the molecular cloning and characterization of the cDNA encoding the human prostate TGase (hTGP). For this purpose we have screened a human prostate cDNA library with a probe from the active-site region of TGC. The largest isolated cDNA contained an open reading frame encoding a protein of 684 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 77 kDa as confirmed by in vitro transcription-translation and subsequent SDS/PAGE. The hTGP gene was tissue-specifically expressed in the prostate, yielding an mRNA of approx. 3.5 kb. Furthermore, a 3-fold androgen-induced upregulation of hTGP mRNA expression has been demonstrated in the recently developed human prostate cancer cell line, PC346C. Other well established human prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and PC-3, showed no detectable hTGP mRNA expression on a Northern bolt. The gene coding for prostate TGase was assigned to chromosome 3.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. TGM4, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

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