Gene Summary

Gene:MSMB; microseminoprotein beta
Aliases: MSP, PSP, IGBF, MSPB, PN44, PRPS, HPC13, PSP57, PSP94, PSP-94
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the immunoglobulin binding factor family. It is synthesized by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland and secreted into the seminal plasma. This protein has inhibin-like activity. It may have a role as an autocrine paracrine factor in uterine, breast and other female reproductive tissues. The expression of the encoded protein is found to be decreased in prostate cancer. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms are described for this gene. The use of alternate polyadenylation sites has been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 14 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 14 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Prostate Cancer
  • Gene Expression
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • Staging
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • FGFR2
  • Cohort Studies
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Tamoxifen
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Prostate
  • Prostatectomy
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Genotype
  • MSMB
  • Transcription Factors
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Chromosome 10
  • Risk Assessment
  • Genome, Human
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Genetic Variation
  • RT-PCR
  • Young Adult
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Linkage Disequilibrium
  • Risk Factors
  • Polymorphism
  • Alleles
  • Messenger RNA
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Kallikreins
  • Promoter Regions
  • Genetic Predisposition
Tag cloud generated 14 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MSMB (cancer-related)

Tiwary M, Agarwal N, Dinda A, Yadav SC
Overexpression and purification of folded domain of prostate cancer related proteins MSMB and PSA.
Mol Biol Rep. 2016; 43(5):349-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of domains of a human protein using recombinant DNA technology has been challenging because individual domains intend to accumulate as non-soluble aggregate when expressed separately. Studies on identifying right sequences for a domain to be able to fold independently may help understand the folding pattern and underlying protein-engineering events to isolate the functional domains of a protein. In this report, individual domains of prostate cancer related biomarkers; MSMB and PSA were overexpressed in bacterial system and purified in their folded forms using affinity chromatography. The western blotting experiment using domain specific antibodies further confirmed these proteins. The designed nucleotide sequences domains were truncated using fold index software and folding were predicted by phyre2 and I-TASSER software. Other parameters were optimized for their overexpression and purification using Co-NTA affinity chromatography. Purified domains of each protein showed secondary structures such as α + β type for PSA, α/β and β type for the each domains of PSA and MSMB respectively. This is the first report on producing PSA and MSMB individual domains in functional folded forms. This study may help produce the folded domain of many such proteins to be used for better diagnostic purpose.

Sjöblom L, Saramäki O, Annala M, et al.
Microseminoprotein-Beta Expression in Different Stages of Prostate Cancer.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0150241 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Microseminoprotein-beta (MSMB, MSMB) is an abundant secretory protein contributed by the prostate, and is implicated as a prostate cancer (PC) biomarker based on observations of its lower expression in cancerous cells compared with benign prostate epithelium. However, as the current literature on MSMB is inconsistent, we assessed the expression of MSMB at the protein and mRNA levels in a comprehensive set of different clinical stages of PC. Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against MSMB was used to study protein expression in tissue specimens representing prostatectomies (n = 261) and in diagnostic needle biopsies from patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) (n = 100), and in locally recurrent castration-resistant PC (CRPC) (n = 105) and CRPC metastases (n = 113). The transcript levels of MSMB, nuclear receptor co-activator 4 (NCOA4) and MSMB-NCOA4 fusion were examined by qRT-PCR in prostatectomy samples and by RNA-sequencing in benign prostatic hyperplasia, PC, and CRPC samples. We also measured serum MSMB levels and genotyped the single nucleotide polymorphism rs10993994 using DNA from the blood of 369 PC patients and 903 controls. MSMB expression in PC (29% of prostatectomies and 21% of needle biopsies) was more frequent than in CRPC (9% of locally recurrent CRPCs and 9% of CRPC metastases) (p<0.0001). Detection of MSMB protein was inversely correlated with the Gleason score in prostatectomy specimens (p = 0.024). The read-through MSMB-NCOA4 transcript was detected at very low levels in PC. MSMB levels in serum were similar in cases of PC and controls but were significantly associated with PC risk when adjusted for age at diagnosis and levels of free or total PSA (p<0.001). Serum levels of MSMB in both PC patients and controls were significantly associated with the rs10993994 genotype (p<0.0001). In conclusion, decreased expression of MSMB parallels the clinical progression of PC and adjusted serum MSMB levels are associated with PC risk.

Grönberg H, Adolfsson J, Aly M, et al.
Prostate cancer screening in men aged 50-69 years (STHLM3): a prospective population-based diagnostic study.
Lancet Oncol. 2015; 16(16):1667-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is used to screen for prostate cancer but has a high false-positive rate that translates into unnecessary prostate biopsies and overdiagnosis of low-risk prostate cancers. We aimed to develop and validate a model to identify high-risk prostate cancer (with a Gleason score of at least 7) with better test characteristics than that provided by PSA screening alone.
METHODS: The Stockholm 3 (STHLM3) study is a prospective, population-based, paired, screen-positive, diagnostic study of men without prostate cancer aged 50-69 years randomly invited by date of birth from the Swedish Population Register kept by the Swedish Tax Agency. Men with prostate cancer at enrolment were excluded from the study. The predefined STHLM3 model (a combination of plasma protein biomarkers [PSA, free PSA, intact PSA, hK2, MSMB, MIC1], genetic polymorphisms [232 SNPs], and clinical variables [age, family, history, previous prostate biopsy, prostate exam]), and PSA concentration were both tested in all participants enrolled. The primary aim was to increase the specificity compared with PSA without decreasing the sensitivity to diagnose high-risk prostate cancer. The primary outcomes were number of detected high-risk cancers (sensitivity) and the number of performed prostate biopsies (specificity). The STHLM3 training cohort was used to train the STHLM3 model, which was prospectively tested in the STHLM3 validation cohort. Logistic regression was used to test for associations between biomarkers and clinical variables and prostate cancer with a Gleason score of at least 7. This study is registered with, number ISRCTN84445406.
FINDINGS: The STHLM3 model performed significantly better than PSA alone for detection of cancers with a Gleason score of at least 7 (p<0·0001), the area under the curve was 0·56 (95% CI 0·55-0·60) with PSA alone and 0·74 (95% CI 0·72-0·75) with the STHLM3 model. All variables used in the STHLM3 model were significantly associated with prostate cancers with a Gleason score of at least 7 (p<0·05) in a multiple logistic regression model. At the same level of sensitivity as the PSA test using a cutoff of ≥3 ng/mL to diagnose high risk prostate cancer, use of the STHLM3 model could reduce the number of biopsies by 32% (95% CI 24-39) and could avoid 44% (35-54) of benign biopsies.
INTERPRETATION: The STHLM3 model could reduce unnecessary biopsies without compromising the ability to diagnose prostate cancer with a Gleason score of at least 7, and could be a step towards personalised risk-based prostate cancer diagnostic programmes.
FUNDING: Stockholm County Council (Stockholms Läns Landsting).

Ross-Adams H, Lamb AD, Dunning MJ, et al.
Integration of copy number and transcriptomics provides risk stratification in prostate cancer: A discovery and validation cohort study.
EBioMedicine. 2015; 2(9):1133-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Understanding the heterogeneous genotypes and phenotypes of prostate cancer is fundamental to improving the way we treat this disease. As yet, there are no validated descriptions of prostate cancer subgroups derived from integrated genomics linked with clinical outcome.
METHODS: In a study of 482 tumour, benign and germline samples from 259 men with primary prostate cancer, we used integrative analysis of copy number alterations (CNA) and array transcriptomics to identify genomic loci that affect expression levels of mRNA in an expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) approach, to stratify patients into subgroups that we then associated with future clinical behaviour, and compared with either CNA or transcriptomics alone.
FINDINGS: We identified five separate patient subgroups with distinct genomic alterations and expression profiles based on 100 discriminating genes in our separate discovery and validation sets of 125 and 103 men. These subgroups were able to consistently predict biochemical relapse (p = 0.0017 and p = 0.016 respectively) and were further validated in a third cohort with long-term follow-up (p = 0.027). We show the relative contributions of gene expression and copy number data on phenotype, and demonstrate the improved power gained from integrative analyses. We confirm alterations in six genes previously associated with prostate cancer (MAP3K7, MELK, RCBTB2, ELAC2, TPD52, ZBTB4), and also identify 94 genes not previously linked to prostate cancer progression that would not have been detected using either transcript or copy number data alone. We confirm a number of previously published molecular changes associated with high risk disease, including MYC amplification, and NKX3-1, RB1 and PTEN deletions, as well as over-expression of PCA3 and AMACR, and loss of MSMB in tumour tissue. A subset of the 100 genes outperforms established clinical predictors of poor prognosis (PSA, Gleason score), as well as previously published gene signatures (p = 0.0001). We further show how our molecular profiles can be used for the early detection of aggressive cases in a clinical setting, and inform treatment decisions.
INTERPRETATION: For the first time in prostate cancer this study demonstrates the importance of integrated genomic analyses incorporating both benign and tumour tissue data in identifying molecular alterations leading to the generation of robust gene sets that are predictive of clinical outcome in independent patient cohorts.

Braun K, Sjoberg DD, Vickers AJ, et al.
A Four-kallikrein Panel Predicts High-grade Cancer on Biopsy: Independent Validation in a Community Cohort.
Eur Urol. 2016; 69(3):505-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A statistical model based on four kallikrein markers (total prostate-specific antigen [tPSA], free PSA [fPSA], intact PSA, and human kallikrein-related peptidase 2) in blood can predict risk of Gleason score ≥7 (high-grade) cancer at prostate biopsy.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of this model in predicting high-grade cancer at biopsy in a community-based setting in which referral criteria included percentage of fPSA to tPSA (%fPSA).
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We evaluated the model, with or without adding blood levels of microseminoprotein-β (MSMB) in a cohort of 749 men referred for prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA (≥3 ng/ml), low %fPSA (<20%), or suspicious digital rectal examination at Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The kallikrein markers, with or without MSMB levels, measured in cryopreserved anticoagulated blood were combined with age in a published statistical model (Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment [ProtecT]) to predict high-grade cancer at biopsy. Predictive accuracy was compared with a base model.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The %fPSA was low (median: 17; interquartile range: 13-22) in this cohort because this marker was used as a referral criterion. The ProtecT model improved discrimination over age and PSA for high-grade cancer (0.777 vs 0.720; p=0.002). At one illustrative cut point, use of the panel would reduce the number of biopsies by 236 per 1000 and detect 195 of 208 (94%) but delay diagnosis of 13 of 208 high-grade cancers. MSMB levels in blood did not improve the accuracy of the panel (p=0.2).
CONCLUSIONS: The kallikrein model is predictive of high-grade cancer if criteria for biopsy referral also include %fPSA, and it can reduce unnecessary biopsies without missing an undue number of tumors.
PATIENT SUMMARY: We evaluated a published model to predict biopsy outcome in men biopsied due to low percentage of free to total prostate-specific antigen. The model helps reduce unnecessary biopsies without missing an undue number of high-grade cancers.

Penney KL, Sinnott JA, Tyekucheva S, et al.
Association of prostate cancer risk variants with gene expression in normal and tumor tissue.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015; 24(1):255-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Numerous germline genetic variants are associated with prostate cancer risk, but their biologic role is not well understood. One possibility is that these variants influence gene expression in prostate tissue. We therefore examined the association of prostate cancer risk variants with the expression of genes nearby and genome-wide.
METHODS: We generated mRNA expression data for 20,254 genes with the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST microarray from normal prostate (N = 160) and prostate tumor (N = 264) tissue from participants of the Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. With linear models, we tested the association of 39 risk variants with nearby genes and all genes, and the association of each variant with canonical pathways using a global test.
RESULTS: In addition to confirming previously reported associations, we detected several new significant (P < 0.05) associations of variants with the expression of nearby genes including C2orf43, ITGA6, MLPH, CHMP2B, BMPR1B, and MTL5. Genome-wide, five genes (MSMB, NUDT11, RBPMS2, NEFM, and KLHL33) were significantly associated after accounting for multiple comparisons for each SNP (P < 2.5 × 10(-6)). Many more genes had an FDR <10%, including SRD5A1 and PSCA, and we observed significant associations with pathways in tumor tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: The risk variants were associated with several genes, including promising prostate cancer candidates and lipid metabolism pathways, suggesting mechanisms for their impact on disease. These genes should be further explored in biologic and epidemiologic studies.
IMPACT: Determining the biologic role of these variants can lead to improved understanding of prostate cancer etiology and identify new targets for chemoprevention.

Kim H, Yokoyama W, Davis PA
TRAMP prostate tumor growth is slowed by walnut diets through altered IGF-1 levels, energy pathways, and cholesterol metabolism.
J Med Food. 2014; 17(12):1281-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dietary changes could potentially reduce prostate cancer morbidity and mortality. Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) prostate tumor responses to a 100 g of fat/kg diet (whole walnuts, walnut oil, and other oils; balanced for macronutrients, tocopherols [α-and γ]) for 18 weeks ad libitum were assessed. TRAMP mice (n=17 per group) were fed diets with 100 g fat from either whole walnuts (diet group WW), walnut-like fat (diet group WLF, oils blended to match walnut's fatty acid profile), or as walnut oil (diet group WO, pressed from the same walnuts as WW). Fasted plasma glucose was from tail vein blood, blood was obtained by cardiac puncture, and plasma stored frozen until analysis. Prostate (genitourinary intact [GUI]) was weighed and stored frozen at -80°C. Plasma triglyceride, lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma multianalyte levels (Myriad RBM Rat Metabolic MAP), prostate (GUI), tissue metabolites (Metabolon, Inc., Durham, NC, USA), and mRNA (by Illumina NGS) were determined. The prostate tumor size, plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), high density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol all decreased significantly (P<.05) in both WW and WO compared to WLF. Both WW and WO versus WLF showed increased insulin sensitivity (Homeostasis Model Assessment [HOMA]), and tissue metabolomics found reduced glucose-6-phosphate, succinylcarnitine, and 4-hydroxybutyrate in these groups suggesting effects on cellular energy status. Tissue mRNA levels also showed changes suggestive of altered glucose metabolism with WW and WO diet groups having increased PCK1 and CIDEC mRNA expression, known for their roles in gluconeogenesis and increased insulin sensitivity, respectively. WW and WO group tissues also had increased MSMB mRNa a tumor suppressor and decreased COX-2 mRNA, both reported to inhibit prostate tumor growth. Walnuts reduced prostate tumor growth by affecting energy metabolism along with decreased plasma IGF-1 and cholesterol. These effects are not due to the walnut's N-3 fatty acids, but due to component(s) found in the walnut's fat component.

Kachroo N, Warren AY, Gnanapragasam VJ
Multi-transcript profiling in archival diagnostic prostate cancer needle biopsies to evaluate biomarkers in non-surgically treated men.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:673 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Most biomarkers in prostate cancer have only been evaluated in surgical cohorts. The value of these biomarkers in a different therapy context remains unclear. Our objective was to test a panel of surgical biomarkers for prognostic value in men treated by external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT).
METHODS: The Fluidigm® PCR array was used for multi-transcript profiling of laser microdissected tumours from archival formalin-fixed diagnostic biopsies of patients treated by EBRT or PADT. Cases were matched for disease characteristics and had known 5 year biochemical relapse outcomes (n = 60). Results were validated by immunohistochemistry in a custom needle biopsy tissue microarray. Six biomarkers previously tested only in surgical cohorts were analysed (PTEN, E-Cadherin, EGFR, EZH2, PSMA, MSMB). Transcript and protein expression was correlated with clinical outcome analysed using Kruskal Wallis, Fisher's test and Cox proportional hazard model.
RESULTS: Altered expression of E-Cadherin (p = 0.008) was associated with early relapse after EBRT. In PADT treated men however only altered MSMB transcript was prognostic for early relapse (p = 0.001). The remaining biomarkers however did not demonstrate prognostic ability in either cohort. In a separate tissue array we validated altered E-Cadherin protein as a predictor of early relapse after EBRT (n = 47) (HR 0.34, CI p = 0.02) but not in PADT treated men (n = 63).
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate proof of principle of multiple transcript profiling in archival diagnostic biopsies of non-surgically treated men for biomarker discovery. We identify a role for E-Cadherin as a novel biomarker of early relapse following EBRT.

Lim U, Kocarnik JM, Bush WS, et al.
Pleiotropy of cancer susceptibility variants on the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the PAGE consortium.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e89791 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is higher among individuals with a family history or a prior diagnosis of other cancers. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have suggested that some genetic susceptibility variants are associated with multiple complex traits (pleiotropy).
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether common risk variants identified in cancer GWAS may also increase the risk of developing NHL as the first primary cancer.
METHODS: As part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium, 113 cancer risk variants were analyzed in 1,441 NHL cases and 24,183 controls from three studies (BioVU, Multiethnic Cohort Study, Women's Health Initiative) for their association with the risk of overall NHL and common subtypes [diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL)] using an additive genetic model adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity. Study-specific results for each variant were meta-analyzed across studies.
RESULTS: The analysis of NHL subtype-specific GWAS SNPs and overall NHL suggested a shared genetic susceptibility between FL and DLBCL, particularly involving variants in the major histocompatibility complex region (rs6457327 in 6p21.33: FL OR=1.29, p=0.013; DLBCL OR=1.23, p=0.013; NHL OR=1.22, p=5.9 × E-05). In the pleiotropy analysis, six risk variants for other cancers were associated with NHL risk, including variants for lung (rs401681 in TERT: OR per C allele=0.89, p=3.7 × E-03; rs4975616 in TERT: OR per A allele=0.90, p=0.01; rs3131379 in MSH5: OR per T allele=1.16, p=0.03), prostate (rs7679673 in TET2: OR per C allele=0.89, p=5.7 × E-03; rs10993994 in MSMB: OR per T allele=1.09, p=0.04), and breast (rs3817198 in LSP1: OR per C allele=1.12, p=0.01) cancers, but none of these associations remained significant after multiple test correction.
CONCLUSION: This study does not support strong pleiotropic effects of non-NHL cancer risk variants in NHL etiology; however, larger studies are warranted.

Sutcliffe S, De Marzo AM, Sfanos KS, Laurence M
MSMB variation and prostate cancer risk: clues towards a possible fungal etiology.
Prostate. 2014; 74(6):569-78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND. With recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies, many prostate cancer risk loci have been identified, including rs10993994, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located near the MSMB gene. Variant allele (T) carriers of this SNP produce less prostate secretory protein 94 (PSP94), the protein product of MSMB, and have an increased risk of prostate cancer (approximately 25% per T allele), suggesting that PSP94 plays a protective role in prostate carcinogenesis, although the mechanisms for such protection are unclear. METHODS. We reviewed the literature on possible mechanisms for PSP94 protection for prostate cancer. RESULTS. One possible mechanism is tumor suppression, as PSP94 has been observed to inhibit cell or tumor growth in in vitro and in vivo models. Another novel mechanism, which we propose in this review article, is that PSP94 may protect against prostate cancer by preventing or limiting an intracellular fungal infection in the prostate. This mechanism is based on the recent discovery of PSP94's fungicidal activity in low-calcium environments (such as the cytosol of epithelial cells), and accumulating evidence suggesting a role for inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis. We provide further details of our proposed mechanism in this review article. CONCLUSIONS. To explore this mechanism, future studies should consider screening prostate specimens for fungi using the rapidly expanding number of molecular techniques capable of identifying infectious agents from the entire tree of life.

Shui IM, Lindström S, Kibel AS, et al.
Prostate cancer (PCa) risk variants and risk of fatal PCa in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.
Eur Urol. 2014; 65(6):1069-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is hampered by an inability to predict who has the potential to develop fatal disease and who has indolent cancer. Studies have identified multiple genetic risk loci for PCa incidence, but it is unknown whether they could be used as biomarkers for PCa-specific mortality (PCSM).
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of 47 established PCa risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with PCSM.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We included 10 487 men who had PCa and 11 024 controls, with a median follow-up of 8.3 yr, during which 1053 PCa deaths occurred.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The main outcome was PCSM. The risk allele was defined as the allele associated with an increased risk for PCa in the literature. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate the hazard ratios of each SNP with time to progression to PCSM after diagnosis. We also used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios for each risk SNP, comparing fatal PCa cases to controls.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Among the cases, we found that 8 of the 47 SNPs were significantly associated (p<0.05) with time to PCSM. The risk allele of rs11672691 (intergenic) was associated with an increased risk for PCSM, while 7 SNPs had risk alleles inversely associated (rs13385191 [C2orf43], rs17021918 [PDLIM5], rs10486567 [JAZF1], rs6465657 [LMTK2], rs7127900 (intergenic), rs2735839 [KLK3], rs10993994 [MSMB], rs13385191 [C2orf43]). In the case-control analysis, 22 SNPs were associated (p<0.05) with the risk of fatal PCa, but most did not differentiate between fatal and nonfatal PCa. Rs11672691 and rs10993994 were associated with both fatal and nonfatal PCa, while rs6465657, rs7127900, rs2735839, and rs13385191 were associated with nonfatal PCa only.
CONCLUSIONS: Eight established risk loci were associated with progression to PCSM after diagnosis. Twenty-two SNPs were associated with fatal PCa incidence, but most did not differentiate between fatal and nonfatal PCa. The relatively small magnitudes of the associations do not translate well into risk prediction, but these findings merit further follow-up, because they may yield important clues about the complex biology of fatal PCa.
PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we assessed whether established PCa risk variants could predict PCSM. We found eight risk variants associated with PCSM: One predicted an increased risk of PCSM, while seven were associated with decreased risk. Larger studies that focus on fatal PCa are needed to identify more markers that could aid prediction.

Debiais-Delpech C, Godet J, Pedretti N, et al.
Expression patterns of candidate susceptibility genes HNF1β and CtBP2 in prostate cancer: association with tumor progression.
Urol Oncol. 2014; 32(4):426-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide association studies have identified variants at multiple loci associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Some of these loci include candidate susceptibility genes, such as MSMB, HNF1β, and C-terminal-binding protein (CtBP2). Except for MSMB, the clinicopathological significance of these genes has not been investigated. We therefore aimed to analyze their expression in PCa tissues, in relation with tumor progression and aggressiveness.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing samples from normal prostate (NL, n = 91), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, n = 61), clinically localized PCa (CLC, n = 434), PCa metastases (M, n = 28), and castration-resistant PCa (CRC, n = 49). Moreover, mRNA expression for each marker was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, on 53 frozen samples of NL, CLC, and CRC.
RESULTS: These genes were differentially expressed at the different stages of PCa natural history. MSMB expression decreased with disease development and progression. In contrast, nuclear HNF1β and CtBP2 staining significantly increased in the CRC and M groups when compared with CLC, together with the transcripts levels. In patients with CLC, HNF1β and CtBP2 nuclear expressions were strongly associated with cancer cell proliferation. After adjusting for the Gleason score and the pathological stage, none of the candidate genes was significantly predictive of recurrence after radical prostatectomy. In patients with CRC, CtBP2 nuclear staining was associated with shorter overall survival.
CONCLUSIONS: The decrease of MSMB expression during tumor progression strongly supports its role as a tumor-suppressor gene. Although its functions remain to be clarified in PCa cells, HNF1β and CtBP2 are associated with cancer cell proliferation, tumor progression, and castration-resistant disease.

Flatley B, Wilmott KG, Malone P, Cramer R
MALDI MS profiling of post-DRE urine samples highlights the potential of β-microseminoprotein as a marker for prostatic diseases.
Prostate. 2014; 74(1):103-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To use spectra acquired by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) from pre- and post-digital rectal examination (DRE) urine samples to search for discriminating peaks that can adequately distinguish between benign and malignant prostate conditions, and identify the peaks' underlying biomolecules.
METHODS: Twenty-five participants with prostate cancer (PCa) and 27 participants with a variety of benign prostatic conditions as confirmed by a 10-core tissue biopsy were included. Pre- and post-DRE urine samples were prepared for MALDI MS profiling using an automated clean-up procedure. Following mass spectra collection and processing, peak mass and intensity were extracted and subjected to statistical analysis to identify peaks capable of distinguishing between benign and cancer. Logistic regression was used to combine markers to create a sensitive and specific test.
RESULTS: A peak at m/z 10,760 was identified as β-microseminoprotein (β-MSMB) and found to be statistically lower in urine from PCa participants using the peak's average areas. By combining serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels with MALDI MS-measured β-MSMB levels, optimum threshold values obtained from Receiver Operator characteristics curves gave an increased sensitivity of 96% at a specificity of 26%.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that with a simple sample clean-up followed by MALDI MS profiling, significant differences of MSMB abundance were found in post-DRE urine samples. In combination with PSA serum levels, obtained from a classic clinical assay led to high classification accuracy for PCa in the studied sample set. Our results need to be validated in a larger multicenter prospective randomized clinical trial.

Stott-Miller M, Wright JL, Stanford JL
MSMB gene variant alters the association between prostate cancer and number of sexual partners.
Prostate. 2013; 73(16):1803-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recently, a genetic variant (rs10993994) in the MSMB gene associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk was shown to correlate with reduced prostate secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94) levels. Although the biological activity of PSP94 is unclear, one of its hypothesized functions is to protect prostatic cells from pathogens. Number of sexual partners and a history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been positively associated with PCa risk, and these associations may be related to pathogen-induced chronic prostatic inflammation. Based on these observations, we investigated whether MSMB genotype modifies the PCa-sexual history association.
METHODS: We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between number of sexual partners and PCa by fitting logistic regression models, stratified by MSMB genotype, and adjusted for age, family history of PCa, and PCa screening history among 1,239 incident cases and 1,232 controls.
RESULTS: Compared with 1-4 female sexual partners, men with ≥ 15 such partners who carried the variant T allele of rs10993994 were at increased risk for PCa (OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.71); no association was observed in men with the CC genotype (OR = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.73-1.46; P = 0.05 for interaction). Similar estimates were observed for total sexual partners (any T allele OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.07-1.77; CC genotype OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.79-1.55; P = 0.06 for interaction).
CONCLUSIONS: The rs10993994 genotype in the MSMB gene modifies the association between number of sexual partners and PCa risk. These findings support a hypothesized biological mechanism whereby prostatic infection/inflammation may enhance risk of PCa.

Mygatt JG, Singhal A, Sukumar G, et al.
Oncogenic herpesvirus HHV-8 promotes androgen-independent prostate cancer growth.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(18):5695-708 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mechanisms underlying progression to androgen-independent prostate cancer following radical ablation therapy remain poorly defined. Although intraprostatic infections have been highlighted as potential cofactors, pathogen influences on pathways that support tumor regrowth are not known. To explore this provocative concept, we derived androgen-sensitive and -insensitive prostate epithelial cells persistently infected with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), an oncogenic herpesvirus that has been detected in normal prostate epithelium, prostate adenocarcinoma, and biologic fluids of patients with prostate cancer, to explore its effects on transition to hormone-refractory disease. Strikingly, we found that HHV-8 infection of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells conferred the capacity for androgen-independent growth. This effect was associated with altered expression and transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR). However, HHV-8 infection bypassed AR signaling by promoting enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2)-mediated epigenetic silencing of tumor-suppressor genes, including MSMB and DAB2IP that are often inactivated in advanced disease. Furthermore, we found that HHV-8 triggered epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Although HHV-8 has not been linked etiologically to prostate cancer, virologic outcomes revealed by our study provide mechanistic insight into how intraprostatic infections could constitute risk for progression to androgen-independent metastatic disease where EZH2 has been implicated. Taken together, our findings prompt further evaluations of the relationship between HHV-8 infections and risk of advanced prostate cancer.

Pommier AJ, Dufour J, Alves G, et al.
Liver x receptors protect from development of prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia in mice.
PLoS Genet. 2013; 9(5):e1003483 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
LXR (Liver X Receptors) act as "sensor" proteins that regulate cholesterol uptake, storage, and efflux. LXR signaling is known to influence proliferation of different cell types including human prostatic carcinoma (PCa) cell lines. This study shows that deletion of LXR in mouse fed a high-cholesterol diet recapitulates initial steps of PCa development. Elevation of circulating cholesterol in Lxrαβ-/- double knockout mice results in aberrant cholesterol ester accumulation and prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia. This phenotype is linked to increased expression of the histone methyl transferase EZH2 (Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2), which results in the down-regulation of the tumor suppressors Msmb and Nkx3.1 through increased methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27) on their promoter regions. Altogether, our data provide a novel link between LXR, cholesterol homeostasis, and epigenetic control of tumor suppressor gene expression.

Wu W, Lu J, Yuan B, et al.
Association of prostate cancer susceptibility variant (MSMB) rs10993994 with risk of spermatogenic failure.
Gene. 2013; 524(2):197-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
β-Microseminoprotein (MSMB) is one of the most abundant proteins in human seminal plasma. It has been identified that MSMB increased significantly in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic patients compared with fertile controls. We hypothesized that the functional polymorphism (rs10993994) of MSMB gene could be a risk factor for spermatogenic failure. For this study, 338 patients with idiopathic oligozoospermia or azoospermia and 382 fertile controls were recruited from an infertility clinic. Semen analysis was performed by computer-assisted semen analysis system. The functional polymorphism of MSMB gene was genotyped using TaqMan method. Sixty three seminal plasma samples were used to test the expression of MSMB by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The TT genotype and T allele were associated with an increased risk of idiopathic infertility with azoospermia (TT genotype: OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.03-2.95; T allele: OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.03-1.75). However, no differences were found in risk for the TT genotype or T allele among men with oligozoospermia. In addition, idiopathic infertile males have significantly higher MSMB expression levels than fertile controls. We present the first epidemiologic evidence supporting the involvement of common genetic polymorphism in MSMB gene in spermatogenic failure. These results suggest that men carrying the variant have an increased risk of spermatogenic failure associated with male infertility. Further studies are needed to confirm the roles of the polymorphism in idiopathic azoospermia and investigate the biological mechanism of elevated MSMB expression in infertile males.

Väänänen RM, Lilja H, Cronin A, et al.
Association of transcript levels of 10 established or candidate-biomarker gene targets with cancerous versus non-cancerous prostate tissue from radical prostatectomy specimens.
Clin Biochem. 2013; 46(7-8):670-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The benefits of PSA (prostate specific antigen)-testing in prostate cancer remain controversial with a consequential need for validation of additional biomarkers. We used highly standardized reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR assays to compare transcript levels of 10 candidate cancer marker genes - BMP6, FGF-8b, KLK2, KLK3, KLK4, KLK15, MSMB, PCA3, PSCA and Trpm8 - in carefully ascertained non-cancerous versus cancerous prostate tissue from patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Total RNA was isolated from fresh frozen prostate tissue procured immediately after resection from two separate areas in each of 87 radical prostatectomy specimens. Subsequent histopathological assessment classified 86 samples as cancerous and 88 as histologically benign prostate tissue. Variation in total RNA recovery was accounted for by using external and internal standards and enabled us to measure transcript levels by RT-PCR in a highly quantitative manner.
RESULTS: Of the ten genes, there were significantly higher levels only of one of the less abundant transcripts, PCA3, in cancerous versus non-cancerous prostate tissue whereas PSCA mRNA levels were significantly lower in cancerous versus histologically benign tissue. Advanced pathologic stage was associated with significantly higher expression of KLK15 and PCA3 mRNAs. Median transcript levels of the most abundantly expressed genes (i.e. MSMB, KLK3, KLK4 and KLK2) in prostate tissue were up to 10(5)-fold higher than those of other gene targets.
CONCLUSIONS: PCA3 expression was associated with advanced pathological stage but the magnitude of overexpression of PCA3 in cancerous versus non-cancerous prostate tissue was modest compared to previously reported data.

Sun J, Tao S, Gao Y, et al.
Genome-wide association study identified novel genetic variant on SLC45A3 gene associated with serum levels prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a Chinese population.
Hum Genet. 2013; 132(4):423-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a commonly used cancer biomarker for prostate cancer, and is often included as part of routine physical examinations in China. Serum levels of PSA may be influenced by genetic factors as well as other factors. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted in a European population successfully identified six genetic loci that were significantly associated with PSA level. In this study, we aimed to identify common genetic variants that are associated with serum level of PSA in a Chinese population. We also evaluated the effects of those variants by creating personalized PSA cutoff values. A two-stage GWAS of PSA level was performed among men age 20-69 years and self-reported cancer-free participants that underwent routine physical examinations at several hospitals in Guangxi Province, China. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with PSA levels in the first stage of sample (N = 1,999) were confirmed in the second stage of sample (N = 1,496). Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the independent contribution of confirmed SNPs and known covariates, such as age, to the level of PSA. SNPs in three regions were significantly associated with levels of PSA in this two-stage GWAS, and had combined P values between 4.62 × 10(-17) and 6.45 × 10(-37). The three regions are located on 1q32.1 at SLC45A3, 10q11.23 at MSMB, and 19q13.33 at KLK3. The region 1q32.1 at SLC45A3 was identified as a novel locus. Genetic variants contributed significantly more to the variance of PSA level than known covariates such as age. Personalized cutoff values of serum PSA, calculated based on the inheritance of these associated SNPs, differ considerably among individuals. Identification of these genetic markers provides new insight into the molecular mechanisms of PSA. Taking individual variation into account, these genetic variants may improve the performance of PSA to predict prostate cancer.

Henriksen R, Lundwall Å, Udby L, Fernlund P
The expression of β-microseminoprotein but not CRISP3 is reduced in ovarian cancer and correlates to survival.
Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(9):3993-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: β-Microseminoprotein (MSMB) is an abundant protein in seminal plasma. Most of it is present as a free protein but a small part is bound to cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP3) as a non-covalent complex. Even though their physiological function is unknown, both MSMB and CRISP3 have been ascribed roles in prostate carcinogenesis. Thus, several recent experimental studies indicate a tumor-suppressor role for MSMB. The present study was undertaken in order to evaluate, for the first time, the expression of MSMB and CRISP3 in ovaries and in ovarian tumors and to determine if their expression might indicate a role in ovarian tumor development.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biopsies from prospectively collected samples from ovaries and benign, borderline and invasive ovarian tumors were analyzed for expression of MSMB and CRISP3 by immunohistochemistry. In patients with ovarian cancer the expression was compared to survival.
RESULTS: Both MSMB and CRISP3 were strongly stained in ovarian epithelial cells and weakly stained in the stroma. In ovarian blood vessels, CRISP3 exhibited strong to medium staining, while MSMB was only weakly expressed. In benign and borderline tumors the staining pattern was similar to the one observed in the ovaries. In invasive neoplasms, the expression of MSMB in the tumor cells was significantly reduced. In univariate analysis, decreased expression of MSMB correlated to reduced survival. No correlation was found with stage, the strongest prognostic indicator for ovarian cancer, which supports an independent role of MSMB in ovarian carcinogenesis. For CRISP3, a staining pattern comparable to that for MSMB was observed in all groups, except the fact that decreased expression was not observed in invasive tumor cells.
CONCLUSION: MSMB and CRISP3 were widely distributed in ovaries and in ovarian tumors; the expression of MSMB fits well with a tumor-suppressor function in ovarian carcinogenesis.

Hayashi T, Sentani K, Oue N, et al.
The search for secreted proteins in prostate cancer by the Escherichia coli ampicillin secretion trap: expression of NBL1 is highly restricted to the prostate and is related to cancer progression.
Pathobiology. 2013; 80(2):60-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Genes expressed only in cancer tissue or specific organs will be useful molecular markers. To identify genes that encode secreted proteins present in prostate cancer (PCa), we generated Escherichia coli ampicillin secretion trap (CAST) libraries from PCa and normal prostate (NP).
METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 15 candidate genes that encode secreted proteins present in PCa and NP. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that MSMB, NBL1 and AZGP1 were expressed with much higher specificity in PCa and NP than in 14 other kinds of normal tissue. We focused on NBL1, which was originally identified as a putative tumor suppressor gene. Western blot analysis revealed that NBL1 protein was highly expressed in both cell lysate and culture media of the DU145 PCa cell line. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that NBL1 expression was highly detected in and restricted to NP and PCa and was significantly down-regulated in PCa. NBL1 expression was significantly reduced according to the tumor stage, Gleason grade and preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value.
CONCLUSION: NBL1 is a secreted protein that is highly restricted to the prostate. Underexpression of NBL1 correlated with PCa progression. NBL1 might be a candidate tumor marker for PCa in addition to PSA.

FitzGerald LM, Zhang X, Kolb S, et al.
Investigation of the relationship between prostate cancer and MSMB and NCOA4 genetic variants and protein expression.
Hum Mutat. 2013; 34(1):149-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the β-microseminoprotein (MSMB) promoter SNP, rs10993994:C>T, as significantly associated with prostate cancer (PC) risk. Follow-up studies demonstrate that the variant allele directly affects expression of the MSMB-encoded protein, PSP94, and also suggest that it affects mRNA expression levels of an adjacent gene, NCOA4, which is involved in androgen receptor transactivation. In a population-based study of 1,323 cases and 1,268 age-matched controls, we found the NCOA4 SNP, rs7350420:T>C, was associated with a 15% reduction in PC risk, but the association was not significant after adjustment for the rs10993994:C>T genotype. Tumor tissue microarrays of 519 radical prostatectomy patients were used to measure PSP94 and NCOA4 protein expression. Taken together, these data confirm that the rs10993994:C>T variant allele is associated with decreased PSP94 expression, and the association is stronger in tumor compared to normal prostate tissue. No association was observed between rs10993994:C>T and NCOA4 expression, and only moderate associations were seen between two NCOA4 SNPs, rs10761618:T>C and rs7085433:G>A, and NCOA4 protein expression. These data indicate that the increase in PC risk associated with rs10993994:C>T is likely mediated by the variant's effect on PSP94 expression; however, this effect does not extend to NCOA4 in the data presented here.

Grisanzio C, Werner L, Takeda D, et al.
Genetic and functional analyses implicate the NUDT11, HNF1B, and SLC22A3 genes in prostate cancer pathogenesis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(28):11252-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
One of the central goals of human genetics is to discover the genes and pathways driving human traits. To date, most of the common risk alleles discovered through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) map to nonprotein-coding regions. Because of our relatively poorer understanding of this part of the genome, the functional consequences of trait-associated variants pose a considerable challenge. To identify the genes through which risk loci act, we hypothesized that the risk variants are regulatory elements. For each of 12 known risk polymorphisms, we evaluated the correlation between risk allele status and transcript abundance for all annotated protein-coding transcripts within a 1-Mb interval. A total of 103 transcripts were evaluated in 662 prostate tissue samples [normal (n = 407) and tumor (n = 255)] from 483 individuals [European Americans (n = 233), Japanese (n = 127), and African Americans (n = 123)]. In a pooled analysis, 4 of the 12 risk variants were strongly associated with five transcripts (NUDT11, MSMB, NCOA4, SLC22A3, and HNF1B) in histologically normal tissue (P ≤ 0.001). Although associations were also observed in tumor tissue, they tended to be more attenuated. Previously, we showed that MSMB and NCOA4 participate in prostate cancer pathogenesis. Suppressing the expression of NUDT11, SLC22A3, and HNF1B influences cellular phenotypes associated with tumor-related properties in prostate cancer cells. Taken together, the data suggest that these transcripts contribute to prostate cancer pathogenesis.

Rinckleb AE, Surowy HM, Luedeke M, et al.
The prostate cancer risk locus at 10q11 is associated with DNA repair capacity.
DNA Repair (Amst). 2012; 11(8):693-701 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that mildly predict prostate cancer risk. These SNPs are local tagging markers for causal gene alterations. Consideration of candidate genes in the tagged regions would be facilitated by additional information on the particular pathomechanisms which contribute to the observed risk increase. In this study we test for an association of prostate cancer tagging SNPs with alterations in DNA repair capacity, a phenotype that is frequently involved in cancer predisposition. DNA repair capacity was assessed on blood lymphocytes from 128 healthy probands after ionizing irradiation. We used the micronucleus (MN) assay to determine the cellular DNA double-strand break repair capacity and flow cytometry to measure damage induced mitotic delay (MD). Probands were genotyped for a panel of 14 SNPs, each representing an independent prostate cancer risk locus previously identified by GWAS. Associations between germline variants and DNA repair capacity were found for the SNPs rs1512268 (8p21), rs6983267 (8q24) and rs10993994 (10q11). The most significant finding was an association of homozygous rs10993994 T-allele carriers with a lower MN frequency (p=0.0003) and also a decreased MD index (p=0.0353). Cells with prostate cancer risk alleles at rs10993994 seem to cope more efficiently with DNA double strand breaks (less MN) in a shorter time (decreased MD index). This intriguing finding imposes concern about the accuracy of repair, with respect to the cancer risk that is mediated by T genotypes. To date, MSMB (microseminoprotein β) is favored as the causal gene at the 10q11 risk locus, since it was the first candidate gene known to be expressionally altered by rs10993994. Based on the present observation, candidate genes from the contexts of DNA repair and apoptosis may be more promising targets for expression studies with respect to the rs10993994 genotype.

Lou H, Li H, Yeager M, et al.
Promoter variants in the MSMB gene associated with prostate cancer regulate MSMB/NCOA4 fusion transcripts.
Hum Genet. 2012; 131(9):1453-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Beta-microseminoprotein (MSP)/MSMB is an immunoglobulin superfamily protein synthesized by prostate epithelial cells and secreted into seminal plasma. Variants in the promoter of the MSMB gene have been associated with the risk of prostate cancer (PCa) in several independent genome-wide association studies. Both MSMB and an adjacent gene, NCOA4, are subjected to transcriptional control via androgen response elements. The gene product of NCOA4 interacts directly with the androgen receptor as a co-activator to enhance AR transcriptional activity. Here, we provide evidence for the expression of full-length MSMB-NCOA4 fusion transcripts regulated by the MSMB promoter. The predominant MSMB-NCOA4 transcript arises by fusion of the 5'UTR and exons 1-2 of the MSMB pre-mRNA, with exons 2-10 of the NCOA4 pre-mRNA, producing a stable fusion protein, comprising the essential domains of NCOA4. Analysis of the splice sites of this transcript shows an unusually strong splice acceptor at NCOA4 exon 2 and the presence of Alu repeats flanking the exons potentially involved in the splicing event. Transfection experiments using deletion clones of the promoter coupled with luciferase reporter assays define a core MSMB promoter element located between -27 and -236 of the gene, and a negative regulatory element immediately upstream of the start codon. Computational network analysis reveals that the MSMB gene is functionally connected to NCOA4 and the androgen receptor signaling pathway. The data provide an example of how GWAS-associated variants may have multiple genetic and epigenetic effects.

Tsilidis KK, Travis RC, Appleby PN, et al.
Interactions between genome-wide significant genetic variants and circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1, sex hormones, and binding proteins in relation to prostate cancer risk in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.
Am J Epidemiol. 2012; 175(9):926-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with prostate cancer risk. There is limited information on the mechanistic basis of these associations, particularly about whether they interact with circulating concentrations of growth factors and sex hormones, which may be important in prostate cancer etiology. Using conditional logistic regression, the authors compared per-allele odds ratios for prostate cancer for 39 GWAS-identified SNPs across thirds (tertile groups) of circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) for 3,043 cases and 3,478 controls in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. After allowing for multiple testing, none of the SNPs examined were significantly associated with growth factor or hormone concentrations, and the SNP-prostate cancer associations did not differ by these concentrations, although 4 interactions were marginally significant (MSMB-rs10993994 with androstenedione (uncorrected P = 0.008); CTBP2-rs4962416 with IGFBP-3 (uncorrected P = 0.003); 11q13.2-rs12418451 with IGF-1 (uncorrected P = 0.006); and 11q13.2-rs10896449 with SHBG (uncorrected P = 0.005)). The authors found no strong evidence that associations between GWAS-identified SNPs and prostate cancer are modified by circulating concentrations of IGF-1, sex hormones, or their major binding proteins.

Jamaspishvili T, Kral M, Khomeriki I, et al.
Quadriplex model enhances urine-based detection of prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2011; 14(4):354-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The major advantages of urine-based assays are their non-invasive character and ability to monitor prostate cancer (CaP) with heterogeneous foci. While the test for the prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) is commercially available, the aim of our research was to test other putative urine markers in multiplex settings (AMACR (α-methylacyl-CoA racemase), EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2), GOLM1 (golgi membrane protein 1), MSMB (microseminoprotein, β), SPINK1 (serine peptidase inhibitor) and TRPM8 (transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 8)).
METHODS: Expression of the candidate biomarkers was studied in sedimented urine using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in two sets of patients with and without restriction on serum PSA levels.
RESULTS: We confirmed that PCA3 is an independent predictor of cancer in the patients without restriction of serum PSA values (set 1, n=176, PSA=0.1-587 ng ml(-1)). However, AMACR was the only parameter that differentiated CaP from non-CaP patients with serum PSA between 3 and 15 ng ml(-1) (set 2, n=104). The area under curve (AUC) for this gene was 0.645 with both sensitivity and specificity at 65%. Further improvement was achieved by multivariate logistic regression analysis, which identified novel duplex (TRPM8 and MSMB), triplex (plus AMACR) and quadriplex (plus PCA3) models for the detection of early CaPs (AUC=0.665, 0.726 and 0.741, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Novel quadriplex test could be implemented as an adjunct to serum PSA or urine PCA3 and this could improve decision making for diagnostics in the case of 'PSA dilemma' patients.

Ahn J, Kibel AS, Park JY, et al.
Prostate cancer predisposition loci and risk of metastatic disease and prostate cancer recurrence.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(5):1075-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple novel prostate cancer predisposition loci. Whether these common genetic variants are associated with incident metastatic prostate cancer or with recurrence after surgical treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer is uncertain.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected for study in relation to prostate metastatic cancer and recurrence, based on their genome-wide association with prostate cancer in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS). To assess risk for metastatic disease, we compared genotypes for the 12 SNPs by logistic regression of 470 incident metastatic prostate cancer cases and 1,945 controls in 3 case-control studies. To assess the relationship of these SNPs to risk for prostate cancer recurrence, we used Cox regression in a cohort of 1,412 men treated for localized prostate cancer, including 328 recurrences, and used logistic regression in a case-case study, comparing 450 recurrent versus 450 nonrecurrent prostate cancer cases. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) for risk of metastatic disease and recurrence were summarized using meta-analysis, with inverse variance weights.
RESULTS: MSMB rs10993994 (per variant allele summary RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.05-1.48), 8q24 rs4242382 (RR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.13-1.75), and 8q24 rs6983267 (RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50-0.89) were associated with risk for metastatic prostate cancer. None of the 12 SNPs was associated with prostate cancer recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS: SNPs in MSMB and 8q24 which predispose to prostate cancer overall are associated with risk for metastatic prostate cancer, the most lethal form of this disease. SNPs predictive of prostate cancer recurrence were not identified, among the predisposition SNPs. GWAS specific to these 2 phenotypes may identify additional phenotype-specific genetic determinants.

Nacu S, Yuan W, Kan Z, et al.
Deep RNA sequencing analysis of readthrough gene fusions in human prostate adenocarcinoma and reference samples.
BMC Med Genomics. 2011; 4:11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Readthrough fusions across adjacent genes in the genome, or transcription-induced chimeras (TICs), have been estimated using expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries to involve 4-6% of all genes. Deep transcriptional sequencing (RNA-Seq) now makes it possible to study the occurrence and expression levels of TICs in individual samples across the genome.
METHODS: We performed single-end RNA-Seq on three human prostate adenocarcinoma samples and their corresponding normal tissues, as well as brain and universal reference samples. We developed two bioinformatics methods to specifically identify TIC events: a targeted alignment method using artificial exon-exon junctions within 200,000 bp from adjacent genes, and genomic alignment allowing splicing within individual reads. We performed further experimental verification and characterization of selected TIC and fusion events using quantitative RT-PCR and comparative genomic hybridization microarrays.
RESULTS: Targeted alignment against artificial exon-exon junctions yielded 339 distinct TIC events, including 32 gene pairs with multiple isoforms. The false discovery rate was estimated to be 1.5%. Spliced alignment to the genome was less sensitive, finding only 18% of those found by targeted alignment in 33-nt reads and 59% of those in 50-nt reads. However, spliced alignment revealed 30 cases of TICs with intervening exons, in addition to distant inversions, scrambled genes, and translocations. Our findings increase the catalog of observed TIC gene pairs by 66%.We verified 6 of 6 predicted TICs in all prostate samples, and 2 of 5 predicted novel distant gene fusions, both private events among 54 prostate tumor samples tested. Expression of TICs correlates with that of the upstream gene, which can explain the prostate-specific pattern of some TIC events and the restriction of the SLC45A3-ELK4 e4-e2 TIC to ERG-negative prostate samples, as confirmed in 20 matched prostate tumor and normal samples and 9 lung cancer cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS: Deep transcriptional sequencing and analysis with targeted and spliced alignment methods can effectively identify TIC events across the genome in individual tissues. Prostate and reference samples exhibit a wide range of TIC events, involving more genes than estimated previously using ESTs. Tissue specificity of TIC events is correlated with expression patterns of the upstream gene. Some TIC events, such as MSMB-NCOA4, may play functional roles in cancer.

Dahlman A, Rexhepaj E, Brennan DJ, et al.
Evaluation of the prognostic significance of MSMB and CRISP3 in prostate cancer using automated image analysis.
Mod Pathol. 2011; 24(5):708-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite prostate cancer being the most frequent cancer in men in the Western world, tissue biomarkers for predicting disease recurrence after surgery have not been incorporated into clinical practice. Our group has previously identified β-microseminoprotein (MSMB) and cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP3) as independent predictors of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. The purpose of the present study was to use automated image analysis, enabling quantitative determination of MSMB and CRISP3 expressions in a large cohort and to validate the previous findings. MSMB and CRISP3 protein expressions were assessed on tissue microarrays constructed from 3268 radical prostatectomy specimens. Whole-slide digital images were captured, and a novel cytoplasmic algorithm was used to develop a quantitative scoring model for cytoplasmic staining. Classification regression tree analysis was used to group patients, with different risk for biochemical recurrence, depending on level of protein expression. Patients with tumors expressing high levels of MSMB had a significantly reduced risk for biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy (HR=0.468; 95% CI 0.394-0.556; P<0.001). Multivariate analysis adjusted for clinicopathological parameters revealed that MSMB expression was an independent predictor of decreased risk of recurrence (HR=0.710; 95% CI 0.578-0.872; P<0.001). We found no correlation between CRISP3 expression and biochemical recurrence. In this current study, we applied a novel image analysis on a large independent cohort and successfully verified that MSMB is a strong independent factor, predicting favorable outcome after radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer.

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