Gene Summary

Gene:PSCA; prostate stem cell antigen
Aliases: PRO232
Summary:This gene encodes a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell membrane glycoprotein. In addition to being highly expressed in the prostate it is also expressed in the bladder, placenta, colon, kidney, and stomach. This gene is up-regulated in a large proportion of prostate cancers and is also detected in cancers of the bladder and pancreas. This gene includes a polymorphism that results in an upstream start codon in some individuals; this polymorphism is thought to be associated with a risk for certain gastric and bladder cancers. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:prostate stem cell antigen
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
PSCA is implicated in:
- anchored to membrane
- plasma membrane
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • PSCA
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • S Phase
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Haplotypes
  • Transurethral Resection of Prostate
  • Risk Factors
  • Vaccines, DNA
  • Tumor Antigens
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Alleles
  • Urothelium
  • Chromosome 8
  • MUC1
  • China
  • Gene Expression
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Promoter Regions
  • Polymorphism
  • Transcription
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Odds Ratio
  • Genotype
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Genetic Variation
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Transcription Factors
  • Transfection
  • Tissue Kallikreins
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • RT-PCR
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Helicobacter Infections
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Prostate CancerPSCA and Prostate Cancer View Publications46
Stomach CancerPSCA and Stomach Cancer View Publications45
Pancreatic CancerPSCA and Pancreatic Cancer View Publications13
Stomach CancerMUC1 polymorphisms and cancer suseptability?
Mitsuta et al (2005) found that a large MUC1 allele was associated with susceptibility to lung adenocarcinoma and poor prognosis based on a study of 52 NSCLC patients in Japan compared to 52 controls. Xu et al (2009) reported that risk of gastric cancer is associated with the MUC1 568 A/G polymorphism. Li et al (2012) reported a protective effect of the rs2070803 polymorphism in MUC1 in a case-control study of 300 Chinese gastric cancer patients and 300 controls. In a a genome-wide association study Saeki et al (2013) reported polymorphisms in MUC1 and PSCA (8q24) were linked to diffuse-type gastric cancer in a Japanese population.
View Publications8

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PSCA (cancer-related)

Qiu LX, Cheng L, He J, et al.
PSCA polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility in an eastern Chinese population.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(8):9420-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene, which encodes a prostate-specific antigen (PSA), was identified as a gene involved in cell adhesion and proliferation. The associations between the PSCA rs2294008 and rs2976392 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gastric cancer (GCa) susceptibility were still controversial. To derive a more precise estimation of the associations, we conducted a case-control study of 1,124 cases and 1,192 controls in an eastern Chinese population. We found that the rs2294008T variant genotypes were associated with an increased GCa risk in this study population (CT vs CC, OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.33-1.89 and CT+TT vs CC, OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.17-1.62). For SNP rs2976392, the variant A genotypes were also associated with an increased GCa risk (AG vs GG, OR=1.61, 95% CI=1.35-1.91 and AG+AA vs GG, OR=1.47, 95% CI=1.25-1.74). The results were further validated by a meta-analysis. In conclusion, the results indicated that the PSCA rs2294008 T and rs2976392 A alleles were low-penetrate risk factors for GCa in this study population. However, large and well-designed studies are warranted to validate our findings.

Zhang LY, Wu JL, Qiu HB, et al.
PSCA acts as a tumor suppressor by facilitating the nuclear translocation of RB1CC1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Carcinogenesis. 2016; 37(3):320-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive malignancy; its mechanisms of development and progression are poorly understood. By high-throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) profiling of three pairs of primary ESCCs and their corresponding non-tumorous tissues, we identified that prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), a gene that encodes a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, is significantly downregulated in ESCC. Here, we reported decreased expression of PSCA in 188/218 (86.2%) of primary ESCC cases and was negatively regulated by its transcription factor sex-determining region Y-box5 that was significantly associated with the poor differentiation (P = 0.003), increased lymph node metastasis (P < 0.0001), advanced stage (P = 0.007), and disease-specific survival (P < 0.0001), but not associated with the recently reported transcrible rs2294008 (C > T) polymorphism in ESCC. Functional studies showed that PSCA could arrest cell cycle progression and promote cell differentiation independent of the start codon polymorphism. Further mechanistic studies revealed that retinoblastoma 1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (RB1CC1), a key signaling node to regulate cellular proliferation and differentiation, interacted specifically with PSCA in ESCC cells. Binding of PSCA and RB1CC1 in cytoplasm resulted in stabilization and translocation of RB1CC1 into nucleus, thereby activating key factors involved in cell cycle arrest and differentiation. Collectively, our data provide a novel molecular mechanism for the tumor suppressor role of PSCA and may help design effective therapy targeting PSCA-RB1CC1 pathway to control esophageal cancer growth and differentiation.

Uotani T, Sugimoto M, Ichikawa H, et al.
Prostate stem cell antigen gene TT genotype and development of intestinal metaplasia in Helicobacter pylori infection.
J Dig Dis. 2016; 17(1):20-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Gastric cancer is etiologically related to interactions between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, environmental and host factors. Gastric carcinoma is associated with a cascade of increasing atrophic gastric mucosal damage. Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) polymorphisms have been associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. We aimed to examine the interaction between PSCA polymorphisms and H. pylori in the progression of H. pylori-related gastritis.
METHODS: The genotypes (TT, TC and CC) of PSCA single nucleotide polymorphism rs2294008 among H. pylori infected and uninfected Bhutanese were compared with the severity of H. pylori-related gastritis [neutrophils, monocytes, atrophy scores, H. pylori density, and the presence and extent of intestinal metaplasia (IM)] using the updated Sydney system.
RESULTS: Biopsies from 339 participants were included. The proportion of biopsies with IM was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in those with the TT genotype than in either those with the CT or CC genotype. Although no significant differences were found in inflammation or H. pylori density scores, the scores for IM at both gastric corpus and antrum among participants infected by H. pylori with the TT genotype was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than in the C allele carriers.
CONCLUSION: PSCA TT genotype is associated with a more than a threefold increase in the prevalence and the extent of gastric mucosal IM compared to C allele carriers among H. pylori-infected Bhutanese.

Rai R, Kim JJ, Misra S, et al.
A Multiple Interaction Analysis Reveals ADRB3 as a Potential Candidate for Gallbladder Cancer Predisposition via a Complex Interaction with Other Candidate Gene Variations.
Int J Mol Sci. 2015; 16(12):28038-49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gallbladder cancer is the most common and a highly aggressive biliary tract malignancy with a dismal outcome. The pathogenesis of the disease is multifactorial, comprising the combined effect of multiple genetic variations of mild consequence along with numerous dietary and environmental risk factors. Previously, we demonstrated the association of several candidate gene variations with GBC risk. In this study, we aimed to identify the combination of gene variants and their possible interactions contributing towards genetic susceptibility of GBC. Here, we performed Multifactor-Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) and Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CRT) to investigate the gene-gene interactions and the combined effect of 14 SNPs in nine genes (DR4 (rs20576, rs6557634); FAS (rs2234767); FASL (rs763110); DCC (rs2229080, rs4078288, rs7504990, rs714); PSCA (rs2294008, rs2978974); ADRA2A (rs1801253); ADRB1 (rs1800544); ADRB3 (rs4994); CYP17 (rs2486758)) involved in various signaling pathways. Genotyping was accomplished by PCR-RFLP or Taqman allelic discrimination assays. SPSS software version 16.0 and MDR software version 2.0 were used for all the statistical analysis. Single locus investigation demonstrated significant association of DR4 (rs20576, rs6557634), DCC (rs714, rs2229080, rs4078288) and ADRB3 (rs4994) polymorphisms with GBC risk. MDR analysis revealed ADRB3 (rs4994) to be crucial candidate in GBC susceptibility that may act either alone (p < 0.0001, CVC = 10/10) or in combination with DCC (rs714 and rs2229080, p < 0.0001, CVC = 9/10). Our CRT results are in agreement with the above findings. Further, in-silico results of studied SNPs advocated their role in splicing, transcriptional and/or protein coding regulation. Overall, our result suggested complex interactions amongst the studied SNPs and ADRB3 rs4994 as candidate influencing GBC susceptibility.

Mou X, Li T, Wang J, et al.
Genetic Variation of BCL2 (rs2279115), NEIL2 (rs804270), LTA (rs909253), PSCA (rs2294008) and PLCE1 (rs3765524, rs10509670) Genes and Their Correlation to Gastric Cancer Risk Based on Universal Tagged Arrays and Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles.
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2015; 11(11):2057-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
With the help of Fe3O4 nagnetic nanoparticles as a solid carrier and an excellent tool for separation, six SNP loci (rs2279115 of BCL2 gene, rs804270 of NEIL2 gene, rs909253 of LTA gene, rs2294008 of PSCA gene, rs3765524 and rs10509670 of PLCE1 gene) were selected to evaluate their relation to gastric cancer risk. Using two kinds of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and universal tagged arrays, the whole operation procedure including genome DNA extraction and SNP genotyping was performed. All genotypes and allele frequencies were calculated in the cases and controls respectively to analyze their association with gastric cancer risk. Totally 200 pathological samples and 134 normal control subjects were collected. The results demonstrated that four SNP loci (rs2279115, rs804270, rs909253 and rs3765524) showed a potential association with gastric cancer risk, and the other two (rs2294008, rs10509670) possessed no difference/association among cases and controls.

Chang K, Kong YY, Dai B, et al.
Combination of circulating tumor cell enumeration and tumor marker detection in predicting prognosis and treatment effect in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(39):41825-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration in peripheral blood has already been validated as a reliable biomarker in predicting prognosis in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), patients with favorable CTC counts (CTC < 5/7.5 ml) still experience various survival times. Assays that can reduce patients' risks are urgently needed. In this study, we set up a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method to detect epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem cell gene expression status in peripheral blood to validate whether they could complement CTC enumeration. From January 2013 to June 2014 we collected peripheral blood from 70 mCRPC patients and enumerated CTC in these blood samples using CellSearch system. At the same time, stem cell-related genes (ABCG2, PROM1 and PSCA) and EMT-related genes (TWIST1 and vimentin) were detected in these peripheral blood samples using an RT-qPCR assay. Patient overall survival (OS) and treatment methods were recorded in the follow-up. For patients who received first-line chemotherapy, docetaxel plus prednisone, PSA progression-free survival (PSA-PFS) and PSA response rate were recorded. At the time of analysis, 35 patients had died of prostate cancer with a median follow-up of 16.0 months. Unfavorable CTC enumerations (CTC ≥5/7.5 ml) were predictive of shorter OS (p = 0.01). Also, positive stem cell gene expression indicated poor prognosis in mCRPC patients (p = 0.01). However, EMT gene expression status failed to show any prognostic value in OS (p = 0.78). A multivariate analysis indicated that serum albumin (p = 0.04), ECOG performance status (p < 0.01), CTC enumeration (p = 0.02) and stem cell gene expression status (p = 0.01) were independent prognostic factors for OS. For the 40 patients categorized into the favorable CTC enumeration group, positive stem cell gene expression also suggested poor prognosis (p < 0.01). A combined prognostic model consisting of stem cell gene expression and CTC enumeration increased the concordance probability estimated value from 0.716 to 0.889 in comparison with CTC enumeration alone. For patients who received docetaxel plus prednisone as first-line chemotherapy, positive stem cell gene expression suggested a poor PSA-PFS (p = 0.01) and a low PSA response rate (p = 0.008). However, CTC enumeration and EMT gene expression status did not affect PSA-PFS or PSA response rates. As a result, detection of peripheral blood stem cell gene expression could complement CTC enumeration in predicting OS and docetaxel-based treatment effects in mCRPC patients.

Zhao Z, He J, Kang R, et al.
RNA interference targeting PSCA suppresses primary tumor growth and metastasis formation of human prostate cancer xenografts in SCID mice.
Prostate. 2016; 76(2):184-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a cell surface, glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein. Its overexpression has been detected in both local and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), making it a potential therapeutic target. We previously reported that silencing PSCA by small interfering RNA targeting human PSCA (siRNA-PSCA) inhibited biological activity of PSCA-positive PCa cells leading to reduced proliferation, motility and invasion in vitro. In this study, we extended this in vitro findings to in vivo settings in order to investigate the effects of this specific siRNA on the tumor growth and metastasis development of PCa in vivo.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The siRNA-PSCA and ectopically overexpressed-PSCA vector were constructed and transfected into human PCa PC-3M and LNCaP cells, respectively, and were subcutaneously inoculated into the male SCID mice. Tumor growth was measured with a caliper, and formation of metastasis in mice bearing xenograft tumors was studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and autopsy analysis. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the expression levels of PSCA protein in tumor tissues from xenograft and distant metastases.
RESULTS: Consistent with our previous in vitro findings, the subcutaneous xenografts of PC-3M-siPSCA exhibited the almost completely inhibited expression of PSCA protein in their tumors tissues (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively), and consequently had a significant reduction in tumor growth volumes (P < 0.05 for all), and metastasis onset and sites (P < 0.001 for all) compared to those of PC-3M and PC-3M-siScrm. Conversely, LNCaP-PSCA showed significantly enhanced primary tumor growth and metastasis formation of xenografts compared to LNCaP-vehicle and LNCaP cells (P < 0.001 for all). Moreover, the up-regulated expression of PSCA protein was detected in the distant metastases of xenograft tumors from all groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these observations suggest that PSCA has a promoting role in the growth and metastasis of PCa and siRNA-PSCA may be a potential therapeutic strategy for PSCA-positive PCa.

Kupcinskas J, Gyvyte U, Bruzaite I, et al.
Common Genetic Variants of PSCA, MUC1 and PLCE1 Genes are not Associated with Colorectal Cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(14):6027-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms of genes encoding PSCA, PLCE1 and MUC1 have been associated with the risk of different cancers in genome wide association studies (GWAS). Up to date there are limited data on the role of these genetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes encoding PSCA, PLCE1 and MUC1 and the presence of CRC in European populations.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gene polymorphisms were analyzed in 574 European subjects (controls: n=382; CRC: n=192). PSCA C>T (rs2294008), PSCA G>A (rs2976392), MUC1 A>G (rs4072037) and PLCE1 A>G (rs2274223) SNPs were genotyped by RT-PCR.
RESULTS: The distribution of genotypes for all four SNPs was in line with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (rs2294008, P=0.153; rs2976392, P=0.269; rs4072037, P=0.609; rs2274223, P=0.858). The distribution of genotypes and alleles of PSCA C>T, PSCA G>A, MUC1 A>G and PLCE1 A>G SNPs was similar among controls and CRC patient groups (P>0.05). GG genotype of MUC1 SNP was more frequent in CRC patients (24.0%) than in controls (20.2%); however, this association failed to reach significance (OR-1.45, P=0.15). Overall, in the present study SNPs of PSCA (rs2294008, rs2976392), MUC1 (rs4072037) and PLCE1 (rs2274223) genes were not associated with the presence of CRC.
CONCLUSIONS: Gene polymorphisms of PSCA, PLCE1 and MUC1 genes are not associated with the presence of CRC in European subjects.

Geng P, Li J, Wang N, et al.
PSCA rs2294008 Polymorphism with Increased Risk of Cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0136269 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Published data on the association between PSCA rs2294008 polymorphism and cancer risk have implicated inconclusive results. To determine the relationship and to precisely assess the effect size estimate of the association, we performed a meta-analysis.
METHODS: We searched published literature in Embase and PubMed databases using the search terms "PSCA", "prostate stem cell antigen", "variants", "polymorphism", "polymorphisms", and "cancer". A total of 21 eligible articles were retrieved, with 27, 197 cancer cases and 48, 237 controls.
RESULTS: On the whole, we found the association between PSCA rs2294008 polymorphism and cancer risk was statistically significant: TT vs CC: OR = 1.18, 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.27; TT + CT vs CC: OR = 1.08, 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.10; TT vs CT + CC: OR = 1.14, 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.21; T vs C: OR = 1.10, 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.14; CT vs CC: OR = 1.10, 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.13. Stratified analyses in cancer type and ethnicity showed similar results.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the statistical evidence, we can draw a conclusion that the rs2294008 polymorphism of PSCA gene is likely to play a role in cancer carcinogenesis, especially in gastric cancer and bladder cancer.

Wang L, Sang Y, Tang J, et al.
Down-regulation of prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) by Slug promotes metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
J Pathol. 2015; 237(4):411-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Distant metastasis and local recurrence are still the major causes for failure of treatment in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), making it urgent to further elicit the molecular mechanisms of NPC metastasis. Using a gene microarray including transcription factors and known markers for cancer stem cells, prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) was found to be significantly down-regulated in metastatic NPC in lymph node, compared to its primary tumour, and in NPC cell lines with high metastatic ability compared to those with low metastatic ability. NPC patients with low PSCA expression had a consistently poor metastasis-free survival (p = 0.003). Knockdown and overexpression of PSCA respectively enhanced and impaired the migration and invasion in vitro and the lung metastasis in vivo of NPC cells. Mechanistically, the enhancement of NPC metastasis by knocking down PSCA probably involved epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), by up-regulating N-cadherin and ZEB1/2 and by activating RhoA. The down-regulation of PSCA in NPC cells resulted directly from the binding of Slug to the PSCA promoter. PSCA may be a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for patients with NPC.

Helgason H, Rafnar T, Olafsdottir HS, et al.
Loss-of-function variants in ATM confer risk of gastric cancer.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(8):906-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is a serious health problem worldwide, with particularly high prevalence in eastern Asia. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Asian populations have identified several loci that associate with gastric cancer risk. Here we report a GWAS of gastric cancer in a European population, using information on 2,500 population-based gastric cancer cases and 205,652 controls. We found a new gastric cancer association with loss-of-function mutations in ATM (gene test, P = 8.0 × 10(-12); odds ratio (OR) = 4.74). The combination of the loss-of-function variants p.Gln852*, p.Ser644* and p.Tyr103* (combined minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.3%) also associates with pancreatic and prostate cancers (OR = 3.81 and 2.18, respectively) and gives an indication of risk of breast and colorectal cancers (OR = 1.82 and 1.97, respectively). Cancers in those carrying loss-of-function ATM mutations are diagnosed at a significantly earlier age than in non-carriers. Our results confirm an association between gastric cancer in Europeans and three loci previously reported in Asians, MUC1, PRKAA1 and PSCA, refine the association signal at PRKAA1 and support a pathogenic role for the tandem repeat identified in MUC1.

Fu XW, Song PF, Spindel ER
Role of Lynx1 and related Ly6 proteins as modulators of cholinergic signaling in normal and neoplastic bronchial epithelium.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2015; 29(1):93-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The ly-6 proteins are a large family of proteins that resemble the snake three finger alpha toxins such as α-bungarotoxin and are defined by their multiple cysteine residues. Multiple members of the ly-6 protein family can modulate nicotinic signaling including lynx1, lynx2, slurp-1, slurp-2 and prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA). Consistent with the expression of multiple nicotinic receptors in bronchial epithelium, multiple members of the nicotinic-modulatory ly-6 proteins are expressed in lung including lynx1 and lynx2. We studied the role of lynx1 as an exemplar of the role of ly-6 proteins in lung. Our data demonstrates that lynx1 acts as a negative modulator of nicotinic signaling in normal and neoplastic lung. In normal lung lynx1 serves to limit the ability of chronic nicotine exposure to increase levels of nicotinic receptors and also serves to limit the ability of nicotine to upregulate levels of GABAA receptors in lung. In turn this allows lynx1 to limit the ability of nicotine to upregulate levels of mucin which is mediated by GABAergic signaling. This suggests that lynx1-mimetics may have potential for treatment of asthma and COPD. In that most lung cancer cells also express nicotinic receptor and lynx1 we examined the role of lynx-1 in lung cancer. Lynx1 levels are decreased in lung cancers compared to adjacent normal lung. Knockdown of lynx1 by siRNAs increased growth of lung cancer cells while expression of lynx1 in lung cancer cell decreased cell proliferation. This suggests that lynx1 is an endogenous regulator of lung cancer growth. Given that multiple small molecule negative and positive allosteric modulators of nicotinic receptors have already been developed, this suggests that lynx1 is a highly druggable target both for development of drugs that may limit lung cancer growth as well as for drugs that may be effective for asthma or COPD treatment.

Zhang W, Liang P, Wang W, et al.
The Influence of PSCA Gene Variation on Its Expression and Gastric Adenocarcinoma Susceptibility in the Northwest Chinese Population.
Int J Mol Sci. 2015; 16(5):11648-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) imposes a considerable health burden around the world. Gene variation in prostate stem cell antigen gene (PSCA) has been identified to be associated with GAC risk, while the results showed regional variation. To explore the influence of PSCA gene variation on its expression and GAC risk in the Northwest Chinese population, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PSCA were genotyped in 476 GAC cases and 481 controls using MassARRAY system. Two SNPs of rs2294008 (C>T) and rs2976392 (G>A) were identified to be associated with GAC risk. rs2294008, rs2976392 and rs10216533 made up two statistically significant haplotypes (Hap-CGG and Hap-TAG). Additionally, PSCA expression was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR, immunohistochemistry and tissue microarray. The results showed that PSCA expression was decreased in GAC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. For normal tissues, PSCA expression was higher with Hap-TA than that with Hap-CG. For GAC tissues, the differentiation degree of Hap-TA was higher than that of Hap-CG. The expression distribution of PSCA in multiple human organs showed disparity. These results suggest that PSCA gene variation has a potential effect on its expression and GAC risk in the Northwest Chinese population.

Saeki N, Ono H, Sakamoto H, Yoshida T
Down-regulation of Immune-related Genes by PSCA in Gallbladder Cancer Cells Implanted into Mice.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(5):2619-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: In previous work, we found that prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene, encoding a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, is a presumable tumor suppressor in gastric cancer and gallbladder cancer (GBC). The introduction of PSCA cDNA into GBC cell lines significantly suppressed tumorigenecity of cells in mice. The PSCA protein is thought to be involved in some form of intracellular signaling that remains to be elucidated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using microarrays, we conducted gene-expression profiling on tumors generated by a GBC cell line TGBC-1TKB, with and without expression of PSCA, which was implanted into mice. Genes whose expression was down-regulated by PSCA were selected, and their down-regulation was confirmed by real-time PCR.
RESULTS: We identified several immune-related genes down-regulated by PSCA, including interleukin 8 (IL8), IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) and S100 calcium-binding proteins A8 (S100A8) and A9 (S100A9).
CONCLUSION: PSCA signaling may suppress tumor growth in vivo by modulating immunological characteristics of GBC cells.

Mocellin S, Verdi D, Pooley KA, Nitti D
Genetic variation and gastric cancer risk: a field synopsis and meta-analysis.
Gut. 2015; 64(8):1209-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Data on genetic susceptibility to sporadic gastric carcinoma have been published at a growing pace, but to date no comprehensive overview and quantitative summary has been available.
METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence on the association between DNA variation and risk of developing stomach cancer. To assess result credibility, summary evidence was graded according to the Venice criteria and false positive report probability (FPRP) was calculated to further validate result noteworthiness. Meta-analysis was also conducted for subgroups, which were defined by ethnicity (Asian vs Caucasian), tumour histology (intestinal vs diffuse), tumour site (cardia vs non-cardia) and Helicobacter pylori infection status (positive vs negative).
RESULTS: Literature search identified 824 eligible studies comprising 2 530 706 subjects (cases: 261 386 (10.3%)) and investigating 2841 polymorphisms involving 952 distinct genes. Overall, we performed 456 primary and subgroup meta-analyses on 156 variants involving 101 genes. We identified 11 variants significantly associated with disease risk and assessed to have a high level of summary evidence: MUC1 rs2070803 at 1q22 (diffuse carcinoma subgroup), MTX1 rs2075570 at 1q22 (diffuse), PSCA rs2294008 at 8q24.2 (non-cardia), PRKAA1 rs13361707 5p13 (non-cardia), PLCE1 rs2274223 10q23 (cardia), TGFBR2 rs3087465 3p22 (Asian), PKLR rs3762272 1q22 (diffuse), PSCA rs2976392 (intestinal), GSTP1 rs1695 11q13 (Asian), CASP8 rs3834129 2q33 (mixed) and TNF rs1799724 6p21.3 (mixed), with the first nine variants characterised by a low FPRP. We also identified polymorphisms with lower quality significant associations (n=110).
CONCLUSIONS: We have identified several high-quality biomarkers of gastric cancer susceptibility. These data will form the backbone of an annually updated online resource that will be integral to the study of gastric carcinoma genetics and may inform future screening programmes.

Saeki N, Ono H, Yanagihara K, et al.
rs2294008T, a risk allele for gastric and gallbladder cancers, suppresses the PSCA promoter by recruiting the transcription factor YY1.
Genes Cells. 2015; 20(5):382-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous genomewide association studies identified prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) as a gastric cancer (GC) susceptibility gene and showed an association between GC and the T allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs2294008 (C/T) in this gene. The protein product of this gene inhibits cell growth, and the T allele significantly suppresses the transcriptional activity of the -3.2 kb PSCA upstream region. However, the mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we conducted reporter assays using the PSCA upstream region containing the C allele and identified the region from -200 to +38 bp of the transcription initiation site of the gene as a critical region of the -3.2 kb PSCA upstream region. We found that introducing the T allele at rs2294008 generated a consensus binding sequence for the Polycomb group transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) and that disruption of the consensus sequence restored the transcriptional activity to the -3.2 kb PSCA upstream region. These findings imply that the T allele significantly suppresses PSCA expression in vivo by recruiting YY1 to its promoter, which eventually predisposes gastric epithelial cells to GC development.

García-González MA, Bujanda L, Quintero E, et al.
Association of PSCA rs2294008 gene variants with poor prognosis and increased susceptibility to gastric cancer and decreased risk of duodenal ulcer disease.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 137(6):1362-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Two recent genome-wide association studies in Asians have reported the association between the PSCA (prostate stem cell antigen) rs2294008C>T gene polymorphism and two Helicobacter pylori infection-related diseases such as gastric cancer (GC) and duodenal ulcer (DU). Since rs2294008 allele frequencies differ notably among ethnicities, we aimed to assess the role of rs2294008 on the susceptibility to GC and DU in a Caucasian population in Spain. Moreover, the relevance of rs2294008 on GC prognosis was evaluated. Genomic DNA from 603 Spanish patients with primary GC, 139 with DU and 675 healthy controls was typed for the PSCA rs2294008C>T polymorphism by PCR-TaqMan assays. H. pylori infection [odds ratio (OR): 8.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.45-15.33] and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OR: 6.54; 95% CI: 3.19-12.43) were identified as independent risk factors for DU whereas the rs2294008T allele was associated with reduced risk of developing the disease (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.82). Infection with CagA strains (OR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.63-2.34), smoking (OR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.54-2.61), family history of GC (OR: 2.83; 95% CI: 2.01-3.83), and the rs2294008T allele (OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.07-1.99) were associated with increased risk of GC. Interestingly, the association with the rs2294008T allele was restricted to noncardia GC (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.12-1.82), particularly of the diffuse histotype (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.16-1.92). Finally, Cox regression analysis identified the rs2294008T variant as a prognosis factor associated with worse overall survival in patients with diffuse-type GC (hazard ratio: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.12-3.06). From these results we conclude that the PSCA rs2294008 polymorphism is involved in the susceptibility to GC and DU, as well as in the prognosis of the diffuse-type of GC in Caucasians.

Fawzy MS, Mohamed RH, Elfayoumi AR
Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) mRNA expression in peripheral blood in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and/or prostate cancer.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(3):74 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to determine whether detection of prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) expression in BPH might be associated with the subsequent presence of Prostate cancer (PCa) and also to determine whether detection of PSCA expression has potential for prognosis in PCa. This study was comprised of 112 PCa patients, 111 BPH patients and 120 control subjects. We employed reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect PSCA mRNA-bearing cells in peripheral blood. PSCA mRNA was detected in the peripheral blood of 71.4% PCa patients and in 13.5% of patients with BPH by RT-PCR. PSCA was positive in 80% of high-grade diseases compared with 20% of low-grade diseases (P = 0.01). Whereas only 38.8% of prostate-confined diseases were PSCA positive, 61.2% of extraprostatic diseases were PSCA positive (P < 0.001). Patients with a lymphovascular invasion of tumor emboli tended to be PSCA positive (P = 0.02). BPH patients with RT-PCR PSCA positive were significantly more likely to develop prostate cancer (OR = 16, 95% CI = 8.1-31.6, P < 0.001). In conclusion, RT-PCR PSCA positivity is significantly associated with the Gleason score, LV tumor emboli and whether or not the tumor was organ confined. In this study, RT-PCR PSCA detection may be a promising tumor marker of diagnostic and metastasis detection for patients with prostate cancer. Also, it may be an important test for predicting BPH patients who are at high risk of subsequent cancer development.

Sun H, Wu X, Wu F, et al.
Associations of genetic variants in the PSCA, MUC1 and PLCE1 genes with stomach cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(2):e0117576 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Several genetic variants including PSCA rs2294008 C>T and rs2976392 G>A, MUC1 rs4072037 T>C, and PLCE1 rs2274223 A>G have shown significant association with stomach cancer risk in the previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs).
METHODS: To evaluate associations of these SNPs in the Han Chinese, an independent hospital based case-control study was performed by genotyping these four polymorphisms in a total of 692 stomach cancer cases and 774 healthy controls acquired by using frequency matching for age and gender. False-positive report probability (FPRP) analysis was also performed to validate all statistically significant findings.
RESULTS: In the current study, significant association with stomach cancer susceptibility was observed for all the four polymorphisms of interest. Specifically, a significant increased stomach cancer risk was associated with PSCA rs2294008 (CT vs. CC: adjusted OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.07-1.74, and CT/TT vs.CC: adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.03-1.63), PSCA rs2976392 (AG vs. GG: adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02-1.65, and AG/AA vs. GG: adjusted OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.00-1.59), or PLCE1 rs2274223 (AG vs. AA: adjusted OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.15-1.90, and AG/GG vs. AA: adjusted OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.14-1.84), respectively. In contrast, MUC1 rs4072037 was shown to decrease the cancer risk (CT vs. TT: adjusted OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.60-0.98). Patients with more than one risk genotypes had significant increased risk to develop stomach cancer (adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.03-1.64), when compared with those having 0-1 risk genotypes. Stratified analysis indicated that the increased risk was more pronounced in younger subjects, men, ever smokers, smokers with pack years ≤ 27, patients with high BMI, or non-cardia stomach cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: This study substantiated the associations between four previous reported genetic variants and stomach cancer susceptibility in an independent Han Chinese population. Further studies with larger sample size and different ethnicities are warranted to validate our findings.

Ichikawa H, Sugimoto M, Uotani T, et al.
Influence of prostate stem cell antigen gene polymorphisms on susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases: a case-control study.
Helicobacter. 2015; 20(2):106-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients with duodenal ulcer have a reduced risk of developing gastric cancer compared to those without. Recently, the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) rs2294008 C>T polymorphism was found to be associated with different pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer developments. However, whether PSCA rs2294008 C>T polymorphism is associated with severity of gastric mucosal atrophy is unclear. We examined the influence of the PSCA rs2294008 C>T polymorphism on susceptibility to H. pylori-related diseases and the relationships between PSCA polymorphism and gastric mucosal atrophy.
METHODS: PSCA rs2294008 C>T polymorphism was assessed in H. pylori-positive Japanese patients (n = 488) with noncardia gastric cancer (n = 193), gastric ulcer (n = 84), duodenal ulcer (n = 61), and atrophic gastritis (n = 150), as well as in H. pylori-negatives (n = 266).
RESULTS: Frequency of PSCA rs2294008 C/C genotype in duodenal ulcer was 36.1%, which was significantly higher than those with gastric cancer (12.4%), gastric ulcer (19.0%), gastritis (10.7%), and H. pylori-negatives (19.5%) (p < .001). Compared with duodenal ulcer, having the T allele significantly increased the risk of gastric cancer (OR: 3.97, 95% CI: 2.02-7.80; p < .001), gastric ulcer (2.40, 1.13-5.10; p = .023), and gastritis (4.72, 2.26-9.86; p < .001). Mean pepsinogen (PG) I/PG II ratio in T allele carriers (2.17 ± 0.75) was significantly lower than that in C/C genotype (3.39 ± 1.27, p < .001).
CONCLUSIONS: The PSCA rs2294008 C>T polymorphism is associated with differing susceptibilities to H. pylori-associated diseases. The PSCA rs2294008 C>T polymorphism may be acting through induction of gastric mucosal atrophy, finally leading to development of gastric ulcer and gastric cancer in PSCA rs2294008 T allele carriers, but not duodenal ulcer.

Kupcinskas J, Wex T, Link A, et al.
PSCA and MUC1 gene polymorphisms are associated with gastric cancer and pre-malignant gastric conditions [corrected].
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(12):7167-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Genome-wide association studies revealed a link between gastric cancer (GC) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), phospholipase C epsilon-1 (PLCE1) and mucin-1 (MUC1) genes. Herein, we aimed to evaluate associations between PSCA (C>T, rs2294008; G>A, rs2976392), MUC1 (C>T, rs4072037) and PLCE1 (A>G, rs2274223) SNPs and GC or high-risk gastritis (HRAG).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using TaqMan system, SNPs were genotyped in 252 patients with GC, 136 patients with HRAG and 246 controls.
RESULTS: PSCA rs2294008 allele T was associated with risk of GC (odds ratio (OR)=1.88, p<0.001) and HRAG (OR=1.49, p=0.009). Allele A of PSCA rs2976392 was associated with development of GC (OR=1.88, p<0.001) and HRAG (OR=1.56, p<0.01). MUC1 rs4072037 allele G was protective against development of GC (OR=0.64, p=0.0005), while no differences were found for PLCE1 rs2274223.
CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms of PSCA (rs2976392, rs2294008) and MUC1 (rs4072037) genes are associated with GC and HRAG.

Liang JW, Shi ZZ, Shen TY, et al.
Identification of genomic alterations in pancreatic cancer using array-based comparative genomic hybridization.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(12):e114616 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genomic aberration is a common feature of human cancers and also is one of the basic mechanisms that lead to overexpression of oncogenes and underexpression of tumor suppressor genes. Our study aims to identify frequent genomic changes in pancreatic cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) to identify recurrent genomic alterations and validated the protein expression of selected genes by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Sixteen gains and thirty-two losses occurred in more than 30% and 60% of the tumors, respectively. High-level amplifications at 7q21.3-q22.1 and 19q13.2 and homozygous deletions at 1p33-p32.3, 1p22.1, 1q22, 3q27.2, 6p22.3, 6p21.31, 12q13.2, 17p13.2, 17q21.31 and 22q13.1 were identified. Especially, amplification of AKT2 was detected in two carcinomas and homozygous deletion of CDKN2C in other two cases. In 15 independent validation samples, we found that AKT2 (19q13.2) and MCM7 (7q22.1) were amplified in 6 and 9 cases, and CAMTA2 (17p13.2) and PFN1 (17p13.2) were homozygously deleted in 3 and 1 cases. AKT2 and MCM7 were overexpressed, and CAMTA2 and PFN1 were underexpressed in pancreatic cancer tissues than in morphologically normal operative margin tissues. Both GISTIC and Genomic Workbench software identified 22q13.1 containing APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B as the only homozygous deletion region. And the expression levels of APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B were significantly lower in tumor tissues than in morphologically normal operative margin tissues. Further validation showed that overexpression of PSCA was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, and overexpression of HMGA2 was significantly associated with invasive depth of pancreatic cancer.
CONCLUSION: These recurrent genomic changes may be useful for revealing the mechanism of pancreatic carcinogenesis and providing candidate biomarkers.

Lee JH, Song HR, Kim HN, et al.
Genetic variation in PSCA is associated with bladder cancer susceptibility in a Korean population.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(20):8901-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of human cancer. A recent genome wide association study (GWAS) identified an association between the rs2294008 polymorphism of the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene and bladder cancer risk in Caucasians. The aim of this study was to determine whether the rs2294008 polymorphism is similarly associated with bladder cancer susceptibility in a Korean population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 411 bladder cancer patients and 1,700 controls.
RESULTS: The frequencies of the CC, CT, and TT genotypes of the rs2294008 polymorphism were 16.9, 54.0, and 28.8% in bladder cancer patients and 24.4, 48.1, and 27.5% in controls, respectively. We found that the combined CT/TT genotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk of bladder cancer (OR CT/TT=1.58, 95% CI=1.15-2.17), compared with the CC genotype. Smoking habits, tumor grade and tumor stage did not modify the association between rs2294008 and the risk of bladder cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the rs2294008 polymorphism in the PSCA gene is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Korean population, providing evidence that it may contribute to bladder carcinogenesis regardless of ethnicity.

Penney KL, Sinnott JA, Tyekucheva S, et al.
Association of prostate cancer risk variants with gene expression in normal and tumor tissue.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015; 24(1):255-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Numerous germline genetic variants are associated with prostate cancer risk, but their biologic role is not well understood. One possibility is that these variants influence gene expression in prostate tissue. We therefore examined the association of prostate cancer risk variants with the expression of genes nearby and genome-wide.
METHODS: We generated mRNA expression data for 20,254 genes with the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST microarray from normal prostate (N = 160) and prostate tumor (N = 264) tissue from participants of the Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. With linear models, we tested the association of 39 risk variants with nearby genes and all genes, and the association of each variant with canonical pathways using a global test.
RESULTS: In addition to confirming previously reported associations, we detected several new significant (P < 0.05) associations of variants with the expression of nearby genes including C2orf43, ITGA6, MLPH, CHMP2B, BMPR1B, and MTL5. Genome-wide, five genes (MSMB, NUDT11, RBPMS2, NEFM, and KLHL33) were significantly associated after accounting for multiple comparisons for each SNP (P < 2.5 × 10(-6)). Many more genes had an FDR <10%, including SRD5A1 and PSCA, and we observed significant associations with pathways in tumor tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: The risk variants were associated with several genes, including promising prostate cancer candidates and lipid metabolism pathways, suggesting mechanisms for their impact on disease. These genes should be further explored in biologic and epidemiologic studies.
IMPACT: Determining the biologic role of these variants can lead to improved understanding of prostate cancer etiology and identify new targets for chemoprevention.

Matsuda K, Takahashi A, Middlebrooks CD, et al.
Genome-wide association study identified SNP on 15q24 associated with bladder cancer risk in Japanese population.
Hum Mol Genet. 2015; 24(4):1177-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Through genome-wide association analysis and an independent replication study using a total of 1131 bladder cancer cases and 12 558 non-cancer controls of Japanese populations, we identified a susceptibility locus on chromosome 15q24. SNP rs11543198 was associated with bladder cancer risk with odds ratio (OR) of 1.41 and P-value of 4.03 × 10(-9). Subgroup analysis revealed rs11543198 to have a stronger effect in male smokers with OR of 1.66. SNP rs8041357, which is in complete linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 1) with rs11543198, was also associated with bladder cancer risk in Europeans (P = 0.045 for an additive and P = 0.025 for a recessive model), despite much lower minor allele frequency in Europeans (3.7%) compared with the Japanese (22.2%). Imputational analysis in this region suggested CYP1A2, which metabolizes tobacco-derived carcinogen, as a causative candidate gene. We also confirmed the association of previously reported loci, namely SLC14A1, APOBEC3A, PSCA and MYC, with bladder cancer. Our finding implies the crucial roles of genetic variations on the chemically associated development of bladder cancer.

Zhao Y, Gui ZL, Liao S, et al.
Prostate stem cell antigen rs2294008 (C>T) polymorphism and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis based on cases and controls.
Genet Mol Res. 2014; 13(3):5534-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several published articles have evaluated the association between the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) rs2294008 (C>T) polymorphism and bladder cancer risk, but the results remain inconclusive. In order to derive a more precise estimation of the association, we performed a meta-analysis of four case-control studies that included 9617 cases and 16,323 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association. Our meta-analysis showed that, overall, the rs2294008 (C>T) polymorphism was associated with bladder cancer susceptibility (OR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.20-1.40 for TT vs CC; OR = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.16-1.31 for CT vs CC; OR = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.18-1.33 for TT/CT vs CC; OR = 1.13, 95%CI = 1.06-1.20 for TT vs CT/CC). In the stratified analyses, the risk remained significant for studies of European populations, Asian populations, population-based studies, and hospital-based studies. In conclusion, the results suggest that the PSCA rs2294008 (C>T) polymorphism is a risk factor for bladder cancer development.

Wang L, Zhang Y, Zhao J, et al.
Combination of bladder cancer-specific oncolytic adenovirus gene therapy with cisplatin on bladder cancer in vitro.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(11):10879-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bladder cancer-specific oncolytic adenovirus Ad/PSCAE/UPII/E1A, carrying E1A gene regulated by human Uroplakin II (UPII) promoter and prostate stem cell antigen enhancer (PSCAE), could kill bladder tumor cells preferentially. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Ad/PSCAE/UPII/E1A combined with cisplatin on human bladder cancer cells and to identify the underlying mechanisms. The combined effects of Ad/PSCAE/UPII/E1A and cisplatin on EJ, 5637, and BIU-87 bladder cancer cells were evaluated by MTT cell proliferation assay. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated annexin V (annexin V-FITC) and propidium iodide staining. The activation of the caspase pathway and the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins were determined by western blot assay. Ad/PSCAE/UPII/E1A adenovirus vector could infect bladder cancer cell lines selectively and induce growth inhibition effectively. Of note, the combination treatment of cisplatin and Ad/PSCAE/UPII/E1A could inhibit the proliferation of bladder cancer cells significantly compared with the "alone" treatment. Furthermore, Ad/PSCAE/UPII/E1A plus cisplatin combined treatment resulted in enhanced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells. The enhanced antitumor effects in vitro elicited by Ad/PSCAE/UPII/E1A plus cisplatin were closely related to the increased Fas expression and cleavage of caspase-8 and Bid and decrease in the ratio of anti- to pro-apoptotic proteins followed by activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, which may contribute to the activation of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Our results indicate that the combination of Ad/PSCAE/UPII/E1A with cisplatin exerts a synergistic antitumor effect on human bladder cancer cells and is a potential combined treatment strategy for bladder cancer.

Sun Y, Gu J, Ajani JA, et al.
Genetic and intermediate phenotypic susceptibility markers of gastric cancer in Hispanic Americans: a case-control study.
Cancer. 2014; 120(19):3040-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hispanics are the largest nonwhite ethnic group in the US population, and they have higher incidence and mortality rates for gastric cancer (GC) than whites and Asians. Studies have identified several genetic susceptibility loci and intermediate phenotypic biomarkers for GC in whites and Asians. No studies have evaluated genetic susceptibility and intermediate phenotypic biomarkers in Hispanics.
METHODS: In a case-control study of 132 Hispanic patients with GC (cases) and a control group of 125 Hispanics (controls), the authors evaluated the association of 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that predispose whites and/or Asians to GC and of 2 intermediate phenotypic markers in peripheral blood leukocytes, ie, telomere length and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, with the GC risk.
RESULTS: The variant C allele of the reference SNP rs2294008 in the PSCA gene was associated with a significantly reduced risk of GC (per allele-adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-0.77; P = .002). Leukocyte mtDNA copy numbers were significantly lower in GC cases (mean ± standard deviation, 0.91 ± 0.28) than in controls (1.29 ± 0.42; P < .001). When individuals were dichotomized into high and low mtDNA copy number groups based on the median mtDNA copy number value in the controls, those who had a low mtDNA copy number had a significantly increased risk of GC (aOR, 11.00; 95% CI, 4.79-25.23; P < .001) compared with those who had a high mtDNA copy number. Telomere length was not associated significantly with the risk of GC (aOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.65-2.27; P = .551).
CONCLUSIONS: Hispanics share certain genetic susceptibility loci and intermediate phenotypic GC biomarkers with whites and Asians and may also have distinct genetic susceptibility factors.

Chiurillo MA
Role of gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer and its precursor lesions: current knowledge and perspectives in Latin American countries.
World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20(16):4503-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Latin America shows one of the highest incidence rates of gastric cancer in the world, with variations in mortality rates among nations or even within countries belonging to this region. Gastric cancer is the result of a multifactorial complex process, for which a multistep model of carcinogenesis is currently accepted. Additionally to the infection with Helicobacter pylori, that plays a major role, environmental factors as well as genetic susceptibility factors are significant players at different stages in the gastric cancer process. The differences in population origin, demographic structure, socio-economic development, and the impact of globalization lifestyles experienced in Latin America in the last decades, all together offer opportunities for studying in this context the influence of genetic polymorphisms in the susceptibility to gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to discuss current trends on gastric cancer in Latin American countries and to review the available published information about studies of association of gene polymorphisms involved in gastric cancer susceptibility from this region of the world. A total of 40 genes or genomic regions and 69 genetic variants, 58% representing markers involved in inflammatory response, have been used in a number of studies in which predominates a low number of individuals (cases and controls) included. Polymorphisms of IL-1B (-511 C/T, 14 studies; -31 T/C, 10 studies) and IL-1RN (variable number of tandem repeats, 17 studies) are the most represented ones in the reviewed studies. Other genetic variants recently evaluated in large meta-analyses and associated with gastric cancer risk were also analyzed in a few studies [e.g., prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), CDH1, Survivin]. Further and better analysis centered in gene polymorphisms linked to other covariates, epidemiological studies and the information provided by meta-analyses and genome-wide association studies should help to improve our understanding of gastric cancer etiology in order to develop appropriate health programs in Latin America.

Descamps G, Wattiez R, Saussez S
Proteomic study of HPV-positive head and neck cancers: preliminary results.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:430906 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) was recently recognized as a new risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. For oropharyngeal cancers, an HPV+ status is associated with better prognosis in a subgroup of nonsmokers and nondrinkers. However, HPV infection is also involved in the biology of head and neck carcinoma (HNC) in patients with a history of tobacco use and/or alcohol consumption. Thus, the involvement of HPV infection in HN carcinogenesis remains unclear, and further studies are needed to identify and analyze HPV-specific pathways that are involved in this process. Using a quantitative proteomics-based approach, we compared the protein expression profiles of two HPV+ HNC cell lines and one HPV- HNC cell line. We identified 155 proteins that are differentially expressed (P < 0.01) in these three lines. Among the identified proteins, prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) was upregulated and eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (EEF1α) was downregulated in the HPV+ cell lines. Immunofluorescence and western blotting analyses confirmed these results. Moreover, PSCA and EEF1 α were differentially expressed in two clinical series of 50 HPV+ and 50 HPV- oral cavity carcinomas. Thus, our study reveals for the first time that PSCA and EEF1 α are associated with the HPV-status, suggesting that these proteins could be involved in HPV-associated carcinogenesis.

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