Gene Summary

Gene:S100A8; S100 calcium binding protein A8
Aliases: P8, MIF, NIF, CAGA, CFAG, CGLA, L1Ag, MRP8, CP-10, MA387, 60B8AG
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in the inhibition of casein kinase and as a cytokine. Altered expression of this protein is associated with the disease cystic fibrosis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein S100-A8
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: S100A8 (cancer-related)

Rudnicka K, Backert S, Chmiela M
Genetic Polymorphisms in Inflammatory and Other Regulators in Gastric Cancer: Risks and Clinical Consequences.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2019; 421:53-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of a chronic inflammatory response, which may induce peptic ulcers, gastric cancer (GC), and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Chronic H. pylori infection promotes the genetic instability of gastric epithelial cells and interferes with the DNA repair systems in host cells. Colonization of the stomach with H. pylori is an important cause of non-cardia GC and gastric MALT lymphoma. The reduction of GC development in patients who underwent anti-H. pylori eradication schemes has also been well described. Individual susceptibility to GC development depends on the host's genetic predisposition, H. pylori virulence factors, environmental conditions, and geographical determinants. Biological determinants are urgently sought to predict the clinical course of infection in individuals with confirmed H. pylori infection. Possible candidates for such biomarkers include genetic aberrations such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in various cytokines/growth factors (e.g., IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A/B, IFN-γ, TNF, TGF-β) and their receptors (IL-RN, TGFR), innate immunity receptors (TLR2, TLR4, CD14, NOD1, NOD2), enzymes involved in signal transduction cascades (PLCE1, PKLR, PRKAA1) as well as glycoproteins (MUC1, PSCA), and DNA repair enzymes (ERCC2, XRCC1, XRCC3). Bacterial determinants related to GC development include infection with CagA-positive (particularly with a high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation motifs) and VacA-positive isolates (in particular s1/m1 allele strains). The combined genotyping of bacterial and host determinants suggests that the accumulation of polymorphisms favoring host and bacterial features increases the risk for precancerous and cancerous lesions in patients.

Imaoka M, Tanese K, Masugi Y, et al.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor-CD74 interaction regulates the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 in melanoma cells.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(7):2273-2283 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on tumor cells contributes to cancer immune evasion by interacting with programmed cell death 1 on immune cells. γ-Interferon (IFN-γ) has been reported as a key extrinsic stimulator of PD-L1 expression, yet its mechanism of expression is poorly understood. This study analyzed the role of CD74 and its ligand macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) on PD-L1 expression, by immunohistochemical analysis of melanoma tissue samples and in vitro analyses of melanoma cell lines treated with IFN-γ and inhibitors of the MIF-CD74 interaction. Immunohistochemical analyses of 97 melanoma tissue samples showed significant correlations between CD74 and the expression status of PD-L1 (P < .01). In vitro analysis of 2 melanoma cell lines, which are known to secrete MIF constitutively and express cell surface CD74 following IFN-γ stimulation, showed upregulation of PD-L1 levels by IFN-γ stimulation. This was suppressed by further treatment with the MIF-CD74 interaction inhibitor, 4-iodo-6-phenylpyrimidine. In the analysis of melanoma cell line WM1361A, which constitutively expresses PD-L1, CD74, and MIF in its non-treated state, treatment with 4-iodo-6-phenylpyrimidine and transfection of siRNAs targeting MIF and CD74 significantly suppressed the expression of PD-L1. Together, the results indicated that MIF-CD74 interaction directly regulated the expression of PD-L1 and helps tumor cells escape from antitumorigenic immune responses. In conclusion, the MIF-CD74 interaction could be a therapeutic target in the treatment of melanoma patients.

Mamoori A, Wahab R, Vider J, et al.
The tumour suppressor effects and regulation of cancer stem cells by macrophage migration inhibitory factor targeted miR-451 in colon cancer.
Gene. 2019; 697:165-174 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the impact of miR-451 on the biological behaviours of colon cancer cells along with its targets interactions.
METHOD: The levels of miR-451 were tested in colon cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW48). Multiple functional and immunological assays were performed to analyse miR-451 induced growth changes in-vitro and downstream effects on target proteins.
RESULTS: Overexpression of miR-451 in colon cancer cells led to reduced cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and decrease accumulation of the cells at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. In addition, a significant increase in the number of the cells was noted in the G2-M phase of cell cycle. Moreover, miR-451 reduced the expression of Oct-4, Sox-2 and Snail indicating its role in stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulation. An inverse correlation between miR-451 and macrophage migration inhibitory protein (MIF) protein expression occurred in colon cancer cells. Furthermore, restoration the level of miR-451 in colon cancer cells inhibits tumour spheres formation.
CONCLUSION: miR-451 has tumour suppressor effects in vitro, which can inhibit the cancer-related signalling pathways in colon cancer.

Mentis AA, Boziki M, Grigoriadis N, Papavassiliou AG
Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer biology: tempering a double-edged sword.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019; 76(13):2477-2486 [PubMed] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection affects an estimated 4.4 billion people globally. Moreover, H. pylori presents the most significant risk factor for gastric cancer and low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and it is the first example of bacterial infection linked to carcinogenesis. Here, we contend that H. pylori research, which focuses on a cancer-causing pathogen resident in a relatively accessible organ, the stomach, could constitute an exemplar for microbial-related carcinogenesis in less tractable organs, such as the pancreas and lung. In this context, molecular biological approaches that could reap rewards are reviewed, including: (1) gastric cancer dynamics, particularly the role of stem cells and the heterogeneity of neoplastic cells, which are currently being investigated at the single-cell sequencing level; (2) mechanobiology, and the role of three-dimensional organoids and matrix metalloproteases; and (3) the connection between H. pylori and host pathophysiology and the gut microbiome. In the context of H. pylori's contribution to gastric cancer, several important conundrums remain to be fully elucidated. From among them, this article discusses (1) why H. pylori infection, which causes both gastric and duodenal inflammation, is only linked to gastric cancer; (2) whether a "precision oncomicrobiology" approach could enable a fine-tuning of the expression of only cancer-implicated H. pylori genes while maintaining beneficial H. pylori-mediated factors in extra-gastric tissues; and (3) the feasibility of using antibiotics targeting the microbial DNA damage system, which shares commonalities with mechanisms for human cell replication, as chemopreventives. Additional therapeutic perspectives are also discussed.

Sakamoto D, Takagi T, Fujita M, et al.
Basic Gene Expression Characteristics of Glioma Stem Cells and Human Glioblastoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(2):597-607 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioma stem cells (GSCs) play important roles in the tumorigenesis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Using a novel cellular bioinformatics pipeline, we aimed to characterize the differences in gene-expression profiles among GSCs, U251 (glioma cell line), and a human GBM tissue sample.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from GSCs, U251 and GBM and microarray analysis was performed; the data were then applied to the bioinformatics pipeline consisting of a principal component analysis (PCA) with factor loadings, an intracellular pathway analysis, and an immunopathway analysis.
RESULTS: The PCA clearly distinguished the three groups. The factor loadings of the PCA suggested that v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma derived homolog (MYCN), dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4), and macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MIF) contribute to the stemness of GSCs. The intracellular pathway and immunopathway analyses provided relevant information about the functions of representative genes in GSCs.
CONCLUSION: The newly-developed cellular bioinformatics pipeline was a useful method to clarify the similarities and differences among samples.

Probstmeier R, Kraus D, Wenghoefer M, Winter J
S100 Proteins as Biomarkers in Risk Estimations for Malignant Transformation in Oral Lesions.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1929:763-771 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncologic relevant members of S100 proteins are described as promising biomarkers in molecular pathology for risk estimation in oral neoplasia exhibiting different stages of malignancy: gingiva as healthy tissue, irritation fibroma as benign, leukoplakia as precancerous, and oral squamous cell carcinoma as malignant entity. Gene expression levels of S100A4 (metastasin), S100A7 (psoriasin), S100A8 (calgranulin A), and S100A9 (calgranulin B) were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, immunohistochemistry-based microscopy was used to examine cellular localization and distribution of these biomarkers in tissue sections. The results indicate that S100 proteins represent promising biomarkers for early-stage diagnosis in oral lesions. The inclusion of expression profiles and ratios for each entity even improves their diagnostic validity.

Braga LLBC, Batista MHR, de Azevedo OGR, et al.
oipA "on" status of Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer in North-Eastern Brazil.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although, outer membrane protein OipA of Helicobacter pylori has been associated with gastric mucosal damage and gastroduodenal diseases, studies evaluating gastric cancer patients are scarce. We investigated whether the functional oipA "on" status was associated with gastric cancer in the North-eastern Brazil, region with high prevalence of gastric cancer.
METHODS: We included samples from 95 H. pylori positive subjects (23 patients with gastritis, 24 with gastric cancer, 32 first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients and 16 children). oipA was assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. cagA and vacA status were evaluated by PCR.
RESULTS: Overall 81.1% of the H. pylori strains had functional oipA. In adults, the oipA "on" status (OR = 9.20; 95%CI = 1.45-58.48, P = 0.02) and increasing age (OR = 1.08; 95%CI = 1.03-1.14; P = 0.003) were independently associated with gastric cancer in a logistic model. The oipA "on" status (OR = 14.75; 95%CI: 2.53-86.13, P = 0.003) was also associated with first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients when compared with gastritis. The frequency of oipA "on" status did not differ between children and adults (P = 0.87). The oipA "on" status was significantly correlated with the presence of cagA and vacA s1 m1.
CONCLUSION: oipA "on" status was independently associated with gastric cancer and first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients in North-eastern Brazil.

Huang L, Wang ZY, Pan DD
Penicillin‑binding protein 1A mutation‑positive Helicobacter pylori promotes epithelial‑mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer via the suppression of microRNA‑134.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(3):916-928 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Evidence suggests that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is not only the main cause of gastric cancer (GC), but is also closely associated with its metastasis. One of the major virulence factors in H. pylori is the cytotoxin‑associated gene A (CagA). With the growing proportion of amoxicillin‑resistant H. pylori strains, the present study aimed to explore the effects of CagA‑ and penicillin‑binding protein 1A (PBP1A) mutation‑positive H. pylori (H. pyloriCagA+/P+) on GC cells, and its clinical significance. The clinical significance of H. pyloriCagA+/P+ infection was analyzed in patients with GC. In vitro, GC cells were infected with H. pyloriCagA+/P+ to investigate whether it was involved in the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) of SGC‑7901 cells using immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. The results of clinical analysis demonstrated that, although CagA‑negative H. pylori infection had no significant association with the characteristics of patients with GC, H. pyloriCagA+/P+ infection was significantly associated with various clinicopathological parameters, including invasion depth, lymphatic metastasis and distant metastasis. In vitro, the results indicated that H. pyloriCagA+/P+ promoted proliferation, invasion and EMT of SGC‑7901 cells. MicroRNA (miR)‑134 was downregulated in H. pyloriCagA+/P+ infected tissues compared with in those with H. pyloriCagA+/P‑ infection. miR‑134 overexpression significantly reversed H. pyloriCagA+/P+ infection‑associated cell proliferation, invasion and EMT. Furthermore, the results revealed that Forkhead box protein M1 (FoxM1) was a direct target of miR‑134, and FoxM1 knockdown impeded H. pyloriCagA+/P+‑induced EMT. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that miR‑134 may suppress the proliferation, invasion and EMT of SGC‑7901 cells by targeting FoxM1, and may serve a protective role in the process of H. pyloriCagA+/P+‑induced GC. These findings may lead to an improved understanding of H. pyloriCagA+/P+‑associated poor clinical characteristics in patients with GC.

Bahnassy AA, Helal TE, El-Ghazawy IM, et al.
The role of E-cadherin and Runx3 in Helicobacter Pylori - Associated gastric carcinoma is achieved through regulating P21waf and P27 expression.
Cancer Genet. 2018; 228-229:64-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We assessed the role of E-cadherin (CDH1), runt-related transcription factor 3, p21waf and p27 promoter methylation (PM) and protein expression in Helicobacter pylori (HP)-associated gastric carcinomas (GCs) and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues (ANNTs).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: 192 cases were assessed for PM and protein expression of CDH1, RUNX3, p21waf and p27 by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and immunohistochemistry. The CagA gene was also assessed.
RESULTS: In GCs, 66 (34.4%) and 84 (43.8%) cases showed CDH1-PM and reduced expression. It is significantly affected in GCs rather than in non-neoplastic groups (p < 0.001). In ANNTs, 108 (56.3%) cases showed CDH1-PM and all cases revealed preserved protein expression. RUNX3-PM was detected in 78 GCs (40.6%) and 69 ANNTs (35.9%), whereas reduced protein expression was detected in 99 (51.65%) GC compared to ANNTs 90 (46.9%). p21WAF and p27 showed PM in (48.4% and 45.3%) GCs and ANNTs; respectively. p21waf protein was reduced in 90 (46.9%) cases and 91 ANNTs (47.4%). p27 was reduced in 86 (44.8%) cases and 87 ANNTs (45.3%). CDH1 aberrations correlated with HP in tumors and ANNTs and with diffuse/intestinal tumors (p = 0.014, p = 0.014 and p = 0.02). RUNX3 aberrations associated with HP (p = 0.04), high grade (p = 0.04), and advanced stage (p = 032). Tumor grade associated with RUNX3-PM, CDH, p21 and p27 protein (p < 0.05 for all). Tumor stage associated significantly with PM and reduced protein expression of all markers. Positive lymph nodes associated significantly with p27PM (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: HP plays an important role in the development and progression of GC through silencing of CDH1, RUNX3, p21WAF and p27 expression.

de Souza CRT, Almeida MCA, Khayat AS, et al.
Association between
World J Gastroenterol. 2018; 24(43):4928-4938 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To correlate
METHODS: Tissue samples were obtained from 302 gastric adenocarcinomas. A rapid urease test was used to detect the presence of
RESULTS: The majority of the 302 samples analyzed were obtained from men (65%) aged 55 years or older (67%) and were classified as the intestinal subtype (55%). All three pathogens were found in the samples analyzed in the present study (
CONCLUSION: HPV was not involved in gastric tumorigenesis. Prophylactic and therapeutic measures against

Marques V, Cunha B, Couto A, et al.
Characterization of gastric cells infection by diverse Helicobacter pylori strains through Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2019; 210:193-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
The infection of Helicobacter pylori, covering 50% of the world-population, leads to diverse gastric diseases as ulcers and cancer along the life-time of the human host. To promote the discovery of biomarkers of bacterial infection, in the present work, Fourier-transform infrared spectra were acquired from adenocarcinoma gastric cells, incubated with H. pylori strains presenting different genotypes concerning the virulent factors cytotoxin associated gene A and vacuolating cytotoxin A. Defined absorbance ratios were evaluated by diverse methods of statistical inference, according to the fulfillment of the tests assumptions. It was possible to define from the gastric cells, diverse absorbance ratios enabling to discriminate: i) The infection; ii) the bacteria genotype; and iii) the gastric disease of the patients from which the bacteria were isolated. These biomarkers could fasten the knowledge of the complex infection process while promoting a platform for a new diagnostic method, rapid but also specific and sensitive towards the diagnosis of both infection and bacterial virulence.

Park CH, Lee AR, Lee YR, et al.
Evaluation of gastric microbiome and metagenomic function in patients with intestinal metaplasia using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
Helicobacter. 2019; 24(1):e12547 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in studies on the gastric microbiome, the role of the non-Helicobacter pylori gastric microbiome in gastric carcinogenesis remains unclear. We evaluated the characteristics of the gastric microbiome and metagenomic functions in patients with IM.
METHODS: Participants were classified into six groups according to disease status (chronic superficial gastritis [CSG], intestinal metaplasia [IM], and cancer) and H. pylori- infection status (H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative). The gastric microbiome was analyzed in mucosal tissues at the gastric antrum by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Moreover, we assessed the metagenome including the type IV secretion system (T4SS) gene, as T4SS proteins are essential for transferring CagA from H. pylori- into the human gastric epithelium.
RESULTS: Among the 138 included patients, 48, 9, 23, 14, 12, and 32 were classified into the H. pylori-negative CSG, H. pylori-negative IM, H. pylori-negative cancer, H. pylori-positive CSG, H. pylori-positive IM, and H. pylori-positive cancer groups, respectively. Cyanobacteria were predominant in the H. pylori-negative CSG group compared to in the H. pylori-negative IM and H. pylori-negative cancer groups (H. pylori-negative CSG vs H. pylori-negative IM vs H. pylori-negative cancer: 14.0% vs 4.2% vs 0.04%, P < 0.001). In contrast, Rhizobiales were commonly observed in the H. pylori-negative IM group (H. pylori-negative CSG vs H. pylori-negative IM vs H. pylori-negative cancer: 1.9% vs 15.4% vs 2.8%, P < 0.001). The relative abundance of Rhizobiales increased as H. pylori-infected stomachs progressed from gastritis to IM. In the H. pylori-negative IM group, genes encoding T4SS were prevalent among the metagenome. Additionally, after H. pylori- eradication therapy, the gastric microbiome was similar to the microbiome observed after spontaneous clearance of H. pylori-.
CONCLUSIONS: The relative abundance of Rhizobiales was higher in patients with H. pylori-negative IM than in those with H. pylori-negative CSG or cancer. Additionally, T4SS genes were highly observed in the metagenome of patients with IM. Highly abundant T4SS proteins in these patients may promote gastric carcinogenesis.

Zhang B, Zhang X, Jin M, et al.
CagA increases DNA methylation and decreases PTEN expression in human gastric cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(1):309-319 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Cytotoxin‑associated gene A (CagA) has been reported to be associated with gastric diseases. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (Tet1) are important tumor‑suppressor genes. The present study aimed to investigate the underlying functions of CagA in human gastric cancer, and to explore the associations between CagA, PTEN and Tet1 in gastric cancer. For that purpose, CagA overexpression and Tet1 interference recombinant lentiviral plasmids were constructed. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was utilized to screen gene expression in HGC‑27 human gastric cancer cells overexpressing CagA. qPCR and western blotting were used to detect gene and protein expression, respectively. In addition, the methylation status of PTEN was detected by methylation‑specific PCR. The expression levels of PTEN, Tet1, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit (APOBEC)3A, APOBEC3C and APOBEC3F were significantly decreased in the CagA overexpression group compared with in the negative control group in HGC‑27 cells. Compared with in the negative control group, the mRNA and protein expression levels of PTEN were markedly decreased in cells with Tet1 interference. The decreased expression of PTEN was associated with increased methylation levels in the cells. In addition, the protein expression levels of PTEN were significantly decreased in HGC‑27 cells when CagA was overexpressed. The expression levels of PTEN and Tet1 were also markedly decreased in CagA+ gastric cancer tissues compared with in non‑cancerous tissues. The decreased expression of PTEN in CagA+ gastric cancer tissues was associated with increased methylation levels. In conclusion, overexpression of CagA significantly decreased the expression of PTEN, Tet1, APOBEC3A, APOBEC3C and APOBEC3F in human gastric cancer. In addition, CagA increased DNA methylation and decreased PTEN expression, which was reversed by Tet1 overexpression. The present study may facilitate future therapeutic approaches targeting human gastric cancer.

Wang C, Luo J, Rong J, et al.
Distinct prognostic roles of S100 mRNA expression in gastric cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(1):127-136 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The S100 protein family is implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis, but its prognostic roles in gastric cancer (GC) has not been elucidated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the current study, Kaplan-Meier plotter (KM plotter) database integrated the expression data and survival information of 1065 GC patients were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) (GSE22377, GSE14210 and GSE51105) that published by the three major cancer centers (Berlin, Bethesda and Melbourne). Then this database was used to explore the prognostic values of mRNA expression of each individual S100 in GC patients. We further assessed the prognostic value of S100 in different Lauren classifications, clinicopathological features and clinical treatment of gastric cancer.
RESULTS: Expression of 12 members of the S100 family correlated with overall survival (OS) for all GC patients. Increased expression of S100A3, S100A5, S100A7, S100A7A, S100A11, S100A13, S100Z and S100 G were found to be strongly associated with worse survival, while S100A8, S100A9, S100B and S100 P were correlated with better prognosis in all GC patients. Further assessment of prognostic values of S100 in gastric cancer with different clinical features indicated that different S100 members may interact with different signaling pathways and exerted different functions in gastric cancer development.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the results should be further testified in clinical studies, our findings offer new insights into the contribution of S100 members to GC progression and might promote development of S100 targeted reagents for treating GC.

Georgieva ER
Non-Structural Proteins from Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 in Cellular Membranes-Mechanisms for Viral Survivability and Proliferation.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of illnesses, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (a neurodegenerative disorder), and other diseases. Therefore, HTLV-1 infection is a serious public health concern. Currently, diseases caused by HTLV-1 cannot be prevented or cured. Hence, there is a pressing need to comprehensively understand the mechanisms of HTLV-1 infection and intervention in host cell physiology. HTLV-1-encoded non-structural proteins that reside and function in the cellular membranes are of particular interest, because they alter cellular components, signaling pathways, and transcriptional mechanisms. Summarized herein is the current knowledge about the functions of the membrane-associated p8

Fish L, Zhang S, Yu JX, et al.
Cancer cells exploit an orphan RNA to drive metastatic progression.
Nat Med. 2018; 24(11):1743-1751 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Here we performed a systematic search to identify breast-cancer-specific small noncoding RNAs, which we have collectively termed orphan noncoding RNAs (oncRNAs). We subsequently discovered that one of these oncRNAs, which originates from the 3' end of TERC, acts as a regulator of gene expression and is a robust promoter of breast cancer metastasis. This oncRNA, which we have named T3p, exerts its prometastatic effects by acting as an inhibitor of RISC complex activity and increasing the expression of the prometastatic genes NUPR1 and PANX2. Furthermore, we have shown that oncRNAs are present in cancer-cell-derived extracellular vesicles, raising the possibility that these circulating oncRNAs may also have a role in non-cell autonomous disease pathogenesis. Additionally, these circulating oncRNAs present a novel avenue for cancer fingerprinting using liquid biopsies.

Hamedi Asl D, Naserpour Farivar T, Rahmani B, et al.
The role of transferrin receptor in the Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis; L-ferritin as a novel marker for intestinal metaplasia.
Microb Pathog. 2019; 126:157-164 [PubMed] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori growth requirements is a prerequisite to invade gastric epithelium and the process of injury to gastric cells will eventually lead to gastric cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of iron challenge on the expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis. The presence of Phosphoglucosamine mutase (glmM), cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin A (vacA) genes and mRNA expression of Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (IRP2), Transferrin Receptor (TFRC) and Ferritin Light Chain (FTL) genes in samples of 28 normal gastric mucosa, 33 chronic gastritis, 29 gastritis with intestinal metaplasia, 29 intestinal type adenocarcinoma patients were examined by real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze cellular localization and protein levels. In the all H. pylori positive tissues, particularly in the basal regions of foveolar cells, TFRC was overexpressed (P < 0.05), and regardless of the H. pylori infection, FTL was overexpressed in all patient, exclusively in metaplastic glandular cells (P < 0.05). Furthermore, overexpression of IRP2 was associated with H. pylori positive chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia (P < 0.05). Our findings confirm the role of transferrin receptor in H. pylori attachment into the gastric mucosa to capture iron. Overexpression of FTL gene in metaplastic cells could be considered as a research background to investigate the role of this gene in the differentiation of gastric cells into intestinal metaplasia. In addition, this gene could be suggested as a diagnostic marker to be included among the other markers routinely performed by clinical diagnostic laboratories.

Wu P, Yang S, Singh S, et al.
The Landscape and Implications of Chimeric RNAs in Cervical Cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 37:158-167 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gene fusions and fusion products have been proven to be ideal biomarkers and drug targets for cancer. Even though a comprehensive study of cervical cancer has been conducted as part of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, few recurrent gene fusions have been found, and none above 3% of frequency.
METHODS: We believe that chimeric fusion RNAs generated by intergenic splicing represent a new repertoire of biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets. However, they would be missed when only genome sequences and fusions at DNA level are considered. We performed extensive data mining for chimeric RNAs using both our and TCGA cervical cancer RNA-Seq datasets. Multiple criteria were applied. We analyzed the landscape of chimeric RNAs at various levels, and from different angles.
FINDINGS: The chimeric RNA landscape changed as different filters were applied. 15 highly frequent (>10%) chimeric RNAs were identified. LHX6-NDUFA8 was detected exclusively in cervical cancer tissues and Pap smears, but not in normal controls. Mechanistically, it is not due to interstitial deletion, but a product of cis-splicing between adjacent genes. Silencing of another recurrent chimera, SLC2A11-MIF, resulted in cell cycle arrest and reduced cellular proliferation. This effect is unique to the chimera, and not shared by the two parental genes.
INTERPRETATION: Highly frequent chimeric RNAs are present in cervical cancers. They can be formed by intergenic splicing. Some have clear implications as potential biomarkers, or for shedding new light on the biology of the disease. FUND: Stand Up To Cancer and the National Science Foundation of China.

Joseph D, Gonsky JP, Blain SW
Macrophage Inhibitory Factor-1 (MIF-1) controls the plasticity of multiple myeloma tumor cells.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0206368 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple Myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy with a median survival of 5-10 years. While current treatments initially cause remission, relapse almost always occurs, leading to the hypothesis that a chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem cell (CSC) remains dormant, and undergoes self-renewal and differentiation to reestablish disease. Our finding is that the mature cancer cell (CD138+, rapidly proliferating and chemosensitive) has developmental plasticity; namely, the ability to dedifferentiate back into its own chemoresistant CSC progenitor, the CD138-, quiescent pre-plasma cell. We observe multiple cycles of differentiation and dedifferentiation in the absence of niche or supportive accessory cells, suggesting that soluble cytokines secreted by the MM cells themselves are responsible for this bidirectional interconversion and that stemness and chemoresistance are dynamic characteristics that can be acquired or lost and thus may be targetable. By examining cytokine secretion of CD138- and CD138+ RPMI-8226 cells, we identified that concomitant with interconversion, Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF-1) is secreted. The addition of a small molecule MIF-1 inhibitor (4-IPP) or MIF-1 neutralizing antibodies to CD138+ cells accelerated dedifferentiation back into the CD138- progenitor, while addition of recombinant MIF-1 drove cells towards CD138+ differentiation. A similar increase in the CD138- population is seen when MM tumor cells isolated from primary bone marrow aspirates are cultured in the presence of 4-IPP. As the CD138+ MM cell is chemosensitive, targeting MIF-1 and/or the pathways that it regulates could be a viable way to modulate stemness and chemosensitivity, which could in turn transform the treatment of MM.

Zhao Q, Busch B, Jiménez-Soto LF, et al.
Integrin but not CEACAM receptors are dispensable for Helicobacter pylori CagA translocation.
PLoS Pathog. 2018; 14(10):e1007359 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Translocation of the Helicobacter pylori (Hp) cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) effector protein via the cag-Type IV Secretion System (cag-T4SS) into host cells is a hallmark of infection with Hp and a major risk factor for severe gastric diseases, including gastric cancer. To mediate the injection of CagA, Hp uses a membrane-embedded syringe-like molecular apparatus extended by an external pilus-like rod structure that binds host cell surface integrin heterodimers. It is still largely unclear how the interaction of the cag-T4SS finally mediates translocation of the CagA protein into the cell cytoplasm. Recently certain carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs), acting as receptor for the Hp outer membrane adhesin HopQ, have been identified to be involved in the process of CagA host cell injection. Here, we applied the CRISPR/Cas9-knockout technology to generate defined human gastric AGS and KatoIII integrin knockout cell lines. Although confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a co-localization of Hp and β1 integrin heterodimers on gastric epithelial cells, Hp infection studies using the quantitative and highly sensitive Hp β-lactamase reporter system clearly show that neither β1 integrin heterodimers (α1β1, α2β1 or α5β1), nor any other αβ integrin heterodimers on the cell surface are essential for CagA translocation. In contrast, deletion of the HopQ adhesin in Hp, or the simultaneous knockout of the receptors CEACAM1, CEACAM5 and CEACAM6 in KatoIII cells abolished CagA injection nearly completely, although bacterial binding was only reduced to 50%. These data provide genetic evidence that the cag-T4SS-mediated interaction of Hp with cell surface integrins on human gastric epithelial cells is not essential for CagA translocation, but interaction of Hp with CEACAM receptors is facilitating CagA translocation by the cag-T4SS of this important microbe.

Violeta Filip P, Cuciureanu D, Sorina Diaconu L, et al.
MALT lymphoma: epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and treatment.
J Med Life. 2018 Jul-Sep; 11(3):187-193 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) represents a rare pathology, which can be easily misdiagnosed because of unspecific symptoms of the digestive tract. Histologically, PGL can vary from indolent marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) to aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). During the years, clinical trials revealed the important role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the pathogenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma. Infection with Helicobacter pylori is an influential promoter of gastric lymphomagenesis initiation. Long-term studies revealed that eradication therapy could regress gastric lymphomas.

Gaillard C, Surianarayanan S, Bentley T, et al.
Identification of IRF8 as a potent tumor suppressor in murine acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Blood Adv. 2018; 2(19):2462-2466 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although the role of promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor α (PML/RARA) fusion protein is well recognized in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), its contribution to initiation and maintenance of leukemogenesis is not completely understood. Transcriptome analysis in the murine

Li L, Li Y, Huang Y, et al.
Long non-coding RNA MIF-AS1 promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation and reduces apoptosis to upregulate NDUFA4.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(12):3714-3725 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Long non-coding RNA MIF-AS1 (lncMIF-AS1) has been found to be upregulated in the tumor tissues of gastric cancer; however, its importance for the progression of gastric cancer remains unknown. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the role of the lncMIF-AS1-based signal transduction pathway in mediating the proliferation and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs were screened out using microarray analysis, based on the published data (GSE63288), and validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Target relationships between lncRNA-micro RNA (miRNA) and miRNA-mRNA were predicted by bioinformatics analysis and verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Protein expression of NDUFA4, COX6C and COX5B was detected by western blot. Cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis were determined using colony formation assay and flow cytometry analysis. Oxidative phosphorylation in gastric cancer cells was assessed by levels of oxygen consumption and ATP synthase activity. Expression of lncMIF-AS1 and NDUFA4 were upregulated in gastric cancer tissues and cells as compared with non-cancerous gastric tissues and cells (P < .05). MiR-212-5p was identified as the most important miRNA linker between lncMIF-AS1 and NDUFA4, which was negatively regulated by lncMIF-AS1 and its depletion is the main cause of NDUFA4 overexpression (P < .01). The upregulated expression of NDUFA4 then greatly promoted the proliferation and decreased the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through activation of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. Taken together, the present study implies that inhibition of lncMIF-AS1/miR-212-5p/NDUFA4 signal transduction may provide a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of gastric cancer.

Wang D, Wang R, Huang A, et al.
Upregulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes tumor metastasis and correlates with poor prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(5):2628-2636 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro‑inflammatory cytokine that serves important roles in cancer. MIF overexpression is frequently observed in numerous human cancer types, including pancreatic carcinoma. However, the prognostic value and function of MIF in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, upregulation of MIF expression in PDAC tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue was observed. Furthermore, MIF overexpression was identified to be significantly associated with poor survival rates in patients with PDAC. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that MIF was an independent risk factor for poor survival. Functional analyses demonstrated that MIF knockdown significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro compared with control cells. IN addition, mechanistic investigations revealed that silencing MIF leads to inhibition of AKT serine/threonine kinase and extracellular‑signal‑regulated kinase activation, and suppression of cyclin D1 and matrix metalloproteinase‑2 expression, which may suppress tumor proliferation and invasion. These results highlight the importance of MIF overexpression in PDAC aggressiveness, and indicate that MIF may be a potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.

Xiong TF, Pan FQ, Li D
Expression and clinical significance of S100 family genes in patients with melanoma.
Melanoma Res. 2019; 29(1):23-29 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genes in the S100 family are abnormally expressed in a variety of tumor cells and are associated with clinical pathology, but their prognostic value in melanoma patients has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we extracted and profiled S100 family mRNA expression data and corresponding clinical data from the Gene Expression Omnibus database to analyze how expression of these genes correlates with clinical pathology. Compared with normal skin, S100A1, S100A13, and S100B were expressed at significantly higher levels in melanoma samples. S100A2, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, and S100P were all highly expressed in primary melanoma samples but were expressed at low levels in metastatic melanoma, and all of these genes were strongly correlated with each other (P<0.001). We found the expression of these S100 family genes to be significantly correlated with both lymphatic and distant melanoma metastasis, as well as with American Joint Committee on Cancer grade but not with Clark's grade, age, or sex. This suggests that expression of these genes may be related to the degree of tumor invasion. Although further validation through basic and clinical trials is needed, our results suggest that the S100 family genes have the potential to play an important role in the diagnosis of melanoma. S100 expression may be related to tumor invasion and may facilitate the early diagnosis of melanoma, allowing for a more accurate prognosis. Targeted S100 therapies are also potentially viable strategies in the context of melanoma.

Talarico S, Leverich CK, Wei B, et al.
Increased H. pylori stool shedding and EPIYA-D cagA alleles are associated with gastric cancer in an East Asian hospital.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(9):e0202925 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection increases risk for gastric cancer. Geographic variation in gastric cancer risk has been attributed to variation in carriage and type of the H. pylori oncogene cagA. Colonization density may also influence disease and cagA has been associated with higher shedding in stool. However, the relationship between H. pylori load in the stool and in the stomach is not clear.
METHODS: To investigate possible differences in H. pylori load in the stomach and shedding in stool, H. pylori load and cagA genotype were assessed using droplet digital PCR assays on gastric mucosa and stool samples from 49 urea breath test-positive individuals, including 25 gastric cancer and 24 non-cancer subjects at Henan Cancer Hospital, Henan, China.
RESULTS: Quantitation of H. pylori DNA indicated similar gastric loads among cancer and non-cancer cases, but the gastric cancer group had a median H. pylori load in the stool that was six times higher than that of the non-cancer subjects. While the cagA gene was uniformly present among study subjects, only 70% had the East Asian cagA allele, which was significantly associated with gastric cancer (Fisher's Exact Test, p = 0.03).
CONCLUSION: H. pylori persists in a subset of gastric cancer cases and thus may contribute to cancer progression. In this East Asian population with a high prevalence of the cagA gene, the East Asian allele could still provide a marker for gastric cancer risk.
IMPACT: This study contributes to our understanding of H. pylori dynamics in the context of pathological changes.

Razzaghi MR, Mazloomfard MM, Malekian S, Razzaghi Z
Association of macrophage inhibitory factor -173 gene polymorphism with biological behavior of prostate cancer.
Urol J. 2019; 16(1):32-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Chronic inflammation is an important factor in the etiology of prostate cancer. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important regulatory role in inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between MIF-173 G/C polymorphism, and both biological behavior and incidence of prostate cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of polymorphic variants for MIF was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method in 128 subjects with prostate cancer and 135 controls.
RESULTS: The frequency of MIF-173 *C allele was significantly (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.32-3.61) higher in patients with prostate cancer (19.5%) than in healthy individuals (10%). Prostate cancer patients with Gleason scores ? 7 had higher frequency of MIF-173 *C allele than Gleason scores < 7 (86.1% vs. 27.1%, P = 0.003, OR = 3.18, 95%CI = 1.46-6.95). The frequency of MIF-173 *C allele was significantly different in patients with T1, T2 and ?T3 clinical stages of prostate cancer (15.2% vs. 42.6% and 47.8%, P = 0.003).
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that MIF-173 polymorphisms may be associated with a higher incidence of prostate cancer compared to controls. We believe that MIF-173 GC+CC genotype can be used as a predictive factor for aggressive behavior of prostate cancer including pathological stage and Gleason scores as well as metastatic potential.

Vinagre RMDF, Vinagre IDF, Vilar-E-Silva A, et al.
Arq Gastroenterol. 2018 Apr-Jun; 55(2):122-127 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The association between infection with Helicobacter pylori and different gastroduodenal diseases is related to bacterial, host and environmental factors. Studies have demonstrated an association between the genetic diversity of H. pylori, especially in the vacA and cagA genes, and the development of digestive diseases such as peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. In addition, the nature of the host inflammatory response may explain these different manifestations of infection caused by this microorganism. In this respect, host factors that regulate the immune and inflammatory responses involving the functional interaction of H. pylori infection with different components of the immune system, particularly T cells, in gastroduodenal diseases still need further investigation.
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the immune response, including immunity induced by infection with H. pylori, especially virulent strains (vacA alleles and cagA gene), by analyzing the cytokine profile and T-cell population present in gastroduodenal diseases in a Brazilian population.
METHODS: In a prospective study, gastric biopsies were collected from 554 patients with different gastroduodenal diseases for histological analysis and for the determination of bacterial genotype and cytokine production (IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ and IL-12) by ELISA.
RESULTS: The predominant genotype of the H. pylori strains isolated from the patients studied was s1m1cagA+, which was more common among patients with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer. A significant association was observed between the s1m1cagA+ genotype and a higher degree of inflammation, higher neutrophil activity and the development of intestinal metaplasia. The gastric concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-12 were significantly higher in patients infected with H. pylori than in uninfected individuals. Higher levels of these cytokines were detected in patients with gastric ulcer and cancer, while the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in the gastric mucosa were lower in these patients. In addition, IFN-γ and IL-12 concentrations in gastric biopsies were higher in patients infected with the virulent s1m1cagA+ genotype. In contrast, IL-4 and IL-10 levels were higher in tissue infected with s2m2cagA in gastric biopsies.
CONCLUSION: Our study shows that the interaction between the type of infectious strain and the Th1 immune response can influence and perpetuate gastric inflammation, and thus contributes to the development of the different clinical manifestations of H. pylori infection.

Ruan B, Wang C, Chen A, et al.
Expression profiling identified IL-8 as a regulator of homotypic cell-in-cell formation.
BMB Rep. 2018; 51(8):412-417 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Homotypic cell-in-cell (CIC) structures forming between cancer cells were proposed to promote tumor evolution via entosis, a nonapoptotic cell death process. However, the mechanisms underlying their formation remained poorly understood. We performed a microarray analysis to identify genes associated with homotypic CIC formation. Cancer cells differing in their ability to form homotypic CIC structures were selected for the study. Association analysis identified 73 probe sets for 62 candidate genes potentially involved in CIC formation. Among them, twenty-one genes were downregulated while 41 genes were upregulated. Pathway analysis identified a gene interaction network centered on IL-8, which was upregulated in high CIC cells. Remarkably, CIC formation was significantly inhibited by IL-8 knockdown and enhanced upon recombinant IL-8 treatment, which correlated with altered cell-cell adhesion and expression of adhesive molecules such as P-cadherin and γ-catenin. Together, our work identified IL-8 as a positive regulator of homotypic CIC formation via enhancing intercellular adhesion. [BMB Reports 2018; 51(8): 412-417].

Zeng C, Li X, Li A, et al.
Knockdown of NUPR1 inhibits the growth of U266 and RPMI8226 multiple myeloma cell lines via activating PTEN and caspase activation‑dependent apoptosis.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(3):1487-1494 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear protein‑1 (NUPR1) is a stress response factor that is important in the development of several human malignant tumor cells. However, the role of NUPR1 in multiple myeloma (MM) remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, it was found that the mRNA levels of NUPR1 were significantly higher in specimens from patients with MM and MM cell lines (U266 and RPMI8226) than in cells of normal human bone marrow. The present study was undertaken to investigate the function of NUPR1 in the growth and apoptosis of MM cell lines. A lentivirus‑mediated short hairpin RNA was used to specifically inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of NUPR1 in the U266 and RPMI8226 MM cell lines. Flow cytometry and Cell Counting Kit‑8 assays were applied to examine the apoptosis and proliferation of U266 and RPMI8226 cell lines. The results revealed the inhibitory effect of NUPR1 silencing on the proliferation of U266 and RPMI8226 cells through inducing apoptosis, and arrest of cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, NUPR1 silencing caused activation of caspase‑3, ‑8 and ‑9 and influenced specific gene expression, including an increase of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and decrease of B‑cell lymphoma 2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. These findings showed that NUPR1 may be involved in the proliferation and apoptosis of MM cells by adjusting caspase proteins and PTEN, suggesting that NUPR1 may be a novel therapeutic target for MM.

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