Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: S100A7 (cancer-related)
Banerjee S, Karunagaran DAn integrated approach for mining precise RNA-based cervical cancer staging biomarkers.
Gene. 2019; 712:143961 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Since international federation of gynecology and obstetrics (FIGO) staging is mainly based on clinical assessment, an integrated approach for mining RNA based biomarkers for understanding the molecular deregulation of signaling pathways and RNAs in cervical cancer was proposed in this study. Publicly available data were mined for identifying significant RNAs after patient staging. Significant miRNA families were identified from mRNA-miRNA and lncRNA-miRNA interaction network analyses followed by stage specific mRNA-miRNA-lncRNA association network generation. Integrated bioinformatic analyses of selected mRNAs and lncRNAs were performed. Results suggest that HBA1, HBA2, HBB, SLC2A1, CXCL10 (stage I), PKIA (stage III) and S100A7 (stage IV) were important. miRNA family enrichment of interacting miRNA partners of selected RNAs indicated the enrichment of let-7 family. Assembly of collagen fibrils and other multimeric structures_Homosapiens_R-HSA-2022090 in pathway analysis and progesterone_CTD_00006624 in DSigDB analysis were the most significant and SLC2A1, hsa-miR-188-3p, hsa-miR-378a-3p and hsa-miR-150-5p were selected as survival markers.
Probstmeier R, Kraus D, Wenghoefer M, Winter JS100 Proteins as Biomarkers in Risk Estimations for Malignant Transformation in Oral Lesions.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1929:763-771 [PubMed
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Oncologic relevant members of S100 proteins are described as promising biomarkers in molecular pathology for risk estimation in oral neoplasia exhibiting different stages of malignancy: gingiva as healthy tissue, irritation fibroma as benign, leukoplakia as precancerous, and oral squamous cell carcinoma as malignant entity. Gene expression levels of S100A4 (metastasin), S100A7 (psoriasin), S100A8 (calgranulin A), and S100A9 (calgranulin B) were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, immunohistochemistry-based microscopy was used to examine cellular localization and distribution of these biomarkers in tissue sections. The results indicate that S100 proteins represent promising biomarkers for early-stage diagnosis in oral lesions. The inclusion of expression profiles and ratios for each entity even improves their diagnostic validity.
Wang C, Luo J, Rong J, et al.Distinct prognostic roles of S100 mRNA expression in gastric cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(1):127-136 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The S100 protein family is implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis, but its prognostic roles in gastric cancer (GC) has not been elucidated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the current study, Kaplan-Meier plotter (KM plotter) database integrated the expression data and survival information of 1065 GC patients were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) (GSE22377, GSE14210 and GSE51105) that published by the three major cancer centers (Berlin, Bethesda and Melbourne). Then this database was used to explore the prognostic values of mRNA expression of each individual S100 in GC patients. We further assessed the prognostic value of S100 in different Lauren classifications, clinicopathological features and clinical treatment of gastric cancer.
RESULTS: Expression of 12 members of the S100 family correlated with overall survival (OS) for all GC patients. Increased expression of S100A3, S100A5, S100A7, S100A7A, S100A11, S100A13, S100Z and S100 G were found to be strongly associated with worse survival, while S100A8, S100A9, S100B and S100 P were correlated with better prognosis in all GC patients. Further assessment of prognostic values of S100 in gastric cancer with different clinical features indicated that different S100 members may interact with different signaling pathways and exerted different functions in gastric cancer development.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the results should be further testified in clinical studies, our findings offer new insights into the contribution of S100 members to GC progression and might promote development of S100 targeted reagents for treating GC.
Alvendal C, Kamolvit W, Wagner S, et al.Expression of Psoriasin in Human Papillomavirus-Induced Cervical High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions.
J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2019; 23(1):33-38 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Persistent infection with human papillomavirus causes cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). The role of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in premalignant and malignant transformation is not fully understood. In this study, we examined the expression of human β-defensin 1 (HBD-1), HBD-2, HBD-3, LL37, psoriasin, and interleukin 8 (IL-8) in women with HSIL before and 6 months after surgery.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biopsies and secretion samples from the cervical canal were collected from 19 patients with HSIL and 14 healthy controls. The mRNA expression of HBD-1, HBD-2, HBD-3, LL37, psoriasin, and IL-8 was analyzed before and 6 months after surgery excision using reverse transcriptase real time polymerase chain reaction. For protein analyses, ELISA and immunohistochemistry were used for psoriasin and ELISA for IL-8.
RESULTS: The mRNA expression of psoriasin was lower in patients before treatment compared with healthy controls (p = .05). After surgery, when the infection was cleared, psoriasin increased on mRNA (p = .04) and protein (p = .03) levels compared with before treatment. Immunostaining for psoriasin after treatment was prominent and localized in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. After treatment, IL-8 mRNA was reduced compared with before treatment (p = .05), but not on the protein level. No changes in mRNA expression of the other AMPs analyzed were observed in pretreatment and posttreatment samples.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study of AMP expression in human papillomavirus-induced HSIL, we observed lower psoriasin levels before surgery compared with after treatment, when both mRNA and protein levels were similar to healthy controls. Interleukin 8, on the other hand, was increased before treatment, indicating an inflammatory response.
Genes in the S100 family are abnormally expressed in a variety of tumor cells and are associated with clinical pathology, but their prognostic value in melanoma patients has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we extracted and profiled S100 family mRNA expression data and corresponding clinical data from the Gene Expression Omnibus database to analyze how expression of these genes correlates with clinical pathology. Compared with normal skin, S100A1, S100A13, and S100B were expressed at significantly higher levels in melanoma samples. S100A2, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, and S100P were all highly expressed in primary melanoma samples but were expressed at low levels in metastatic melanoma, and all of these genes were strongly correlated with each other (P<0.001). We found the expression of these S100 family genes to be significantly correlated with both lymphatic and distant melanoma metastasis, as well as with American Joint Committee on Cancer grade but not with Clark's grade, age, or sex. This suggests that expression of these genes may be related to the degree of tumor invasion. Although further validation through basic and clinical trials is needed, our results suggest that the S100 family genes have the potential to play an important role in the diagnosis of melanoma. S100 expression may be related to tumor invasion and may facilitate the early diagnosis of melanoma, allowing for a more accurate prognosis. Targeted S100 therapies are also potentially viable strategies in the context of melanoma.
Metastatic breast cancer is a highly lethal disease, and it is very important to evaluate the biomarkers associated with distant metastasis. However, molecular features of distant metastasis remain largely unknown in breast cancer. Estrogens play an important role in the progression of breast cancer and the majority of stage IV breast carcinomas express estrogen receptor (ER). Therefore, in this study, we examined molecular markers associated with distant metastasis in ER-positive breast carcinoma by microarray and immunohistochemistry. When we examined the gene expression profile of ER-positive stage IV breast carcinoma tissues (n = 7) comparing ER-positive stage I-III cases (n = 11) by microarray analysis, we newly identified OLFM4, LY6D and S100A7, which were closely associated with the distant metastasis. Subsequently, we performed immunohistochemistry for OLFM4, LY6D and S100A7 in 168 ER-positive breast carcinomas. OLFM4, LY6D and S100A7 immunoreactivities were significantly associated with stage, pathological T factor, distant metastasis and Ki67 status in the ER-positive breast carcinomas. Moreover, these immunoreactivities were significantly associated with a worse prognostic factor for distant metastasis-free and breast cancer-specific survival in ER-positive stage I-III breast cancer patients. However, when we performed immunohistochemistry for OLFM4, LY6D and S100A7 in 40 ER-negative breast carcinomas, these immunoreactivities were not generally associated with the clinicopathological factors examined, including distant metastasis and prognosis of patients, in this study. These results suggest that OLFM4, LY6D and S100A7 immunoreactivity are associated with an aggressive phenotype of ER-positive breast carcinoma, and these are potent markers for distant metastasis of ER-positive breast cancer patients.
Li L, Cui Y, Ye L, et al.Psoriasin overexpression confers drug resistance to cisplatin by activating ERK in gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(3):1171-1182 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Psoriasin, a member of the S100 multigenic family, which is aberrantly expressed in a variety of human tumors, is considered as an attractive molecular target for cancer treatment. The present study aimed to characterize the role of psoriasin in gastric cancer (GC), the associated pathways through which it contributes to cancer development and progression, and the effect of psoriasin on cellular response to pre-operative chemotherapy in patients with GC. Expression of psoriasin mRNA and protein were analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry of gastric cancer cohorts, respectively. Gastric cancer cell models with differential expression of psoriasin were generated using stable cell lines that overexpressed psoriasin. The in vitro biological functions of the cells in response to psoriasin overexpression and to chemotherapeutic agents were assessed using various cell-based assays. Psoriasin was overexpressed in patients with advanced GC, and high psoriasin levels led to poor clinical outcomes. Increasing psoriasin expression in GC cell lines promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. Furthermore, psoriasin overexpression caused alterations in the levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated proteins, and activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. Additionally, higher levels of psoriasin expression were significantly associated a lack of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with GC. Psoriasin overexpression tended to decrease the sensitivity of GC cells to cisplatin, potentially by inhibiting apoptosis or increasing the S-phase population. Taken together, these results indicate that psoriasin may be a promising therapeutic target for GC treatment, and a potential molecular marker to predict patient response to pre-operative chemotherapy.
Lin M, Xia B, Qin L, et al.S100A7 Regulates Ovarian Cancer Cell Metastasis and Chemoresistance Through MAPK Signaling and Is Targeted by miR-330-5p.
DNA Cell Biol. 2018; 37(5):491-500 [PubMed
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Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common cause of gynecological cancer-associated death. The high mortality rate is largely due to early stage metastasis and posttreatment recurrence. Identifying crucial regulators of EOC cells as well as ways to target them promises to improve the disease's prognosis. The S100 calcium-binding protein A7 (S100A7) has been shown to promote cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumor metastasis. In this study, we have investigated the role that S100A7 plays in regulating EOC cells. We have also identified the microRNA protein miR-330-5p, a known suppressor of oncogenesis and chemoresistance, as an inhibitor of S100A7 activity. We employed both fresh EOC tissue specimens as well as EOC cell lines Caov3 and SKOV3. S100A7 levels were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. siRNA was used to knockdown S100A7. Cell proliferation, colony formation, and Transwell migration and invasion assays were performed on EOC cell lines with and without cisplatin treatment. TargetScan was used to identify miR-330-5p as a regulator of S100A7. Luciferase reporter plasmids were constructed with either the wild-type or mutant S100A7 3'UTR to determine the effect of miR-330-5p on S100A7. S100A7 was significantly overexpressed in human EOC tissue specimens and EOC cell lines Caov3 and SKOV3. Knocking down S100A7 reduced EOC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Furthermore, S100A7 knockdown cells demonstrated increased sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic cisplatin. Finally, miR-330-5p was shown to target the S100A7 3'UTR and to reduce EOC cell growth by inhibiting S100A7 expression. As a regulator of EOC cell proliferation, metastasis, and chemoresistance, S100A7 represents a potential prognostic biomarker for EOC as well as a treatment target. Because miR-330-5p functions as an inhibitor of EOC cell growth and S100A7 expression, it promises to improve EOC outcomes. Further research into the clinical significance of both S100A7 and miR-300-5p is warranted.
Li Y, Kong F, Shao Q, et al.YAP Expression and Activity Are Suppressed by S100A7 via p65/NFκB-mediated Repression of ΔNp63.
Mol Cancer Res. 2017; 15(12):1752-1763 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In several squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells, it has been previously observed that induction of the S100 calcium-binding protein A7 (S100A7) is repressed by YAP via the Hippo pathway. This report now demonstrates that S100A7 also represses YAP expression and activity by ΔNp63 in cancer cells. Stable overexpression of S100A7 activates the NFκB pathway and inhibits the expression of ΔNp63. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), as a specific inhibitor of NFκB, counteracts the inhibitory effect of S100A7 on the expression of ΔNp63 and its target genes. Depletion of S100A7 significantly promotes ΔNp63 expression. These data indicate that S100A7 acts as a suppressor of ΔNp63. Mechanistic examination finds that ΔNp63 not only directly binds to the region of YAP promoter and induces its expression, but also inhibits the Hippo pathway and enhances YAP activity. Importantly, either the positive correlation between S100A7 and YAP phosphorylation at S127 or the negative correlation between S100A7 and ΔNp63 is also observed in skin SCC tissues. Chemosensitivity analysis reveals that S100A7 enhances cancer cells' resistance by inhibition of YAP expression and activity. These results demonstrate that S100A7 is an upstream modulator of the Hippo pathway and extend our understanding of S100A7 functions in cancer.
Doebar SC, Sieuwerts AM, de Weerd V, et al.Gene Expression Differences between Ductal Carcinoma in Situ with and without Progression to Invasive Breast Cancer.
Am J Pathol. 2017; 187(7):1648-1655 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To understand the molecular alterations driving the progression of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), we compared patients with pure DCIS and patients with DCIS and synchronous invasive breast cancer (IBC). Twelve patients with extensive pure DCIS were included as a representation of indolent lesions with limited invasive capacity. These cases were matched with 12 patients with a limited DCIS component and IBC, representing lesions with a high invasive potential. Matching included age and surrogate DCIS subtypes. Gene expression profiling was performed on DCIS cells to identify transcriptional differences between these two groups. The identified genes were validated by immunohistochemistry. Nine genes showed significantly different expression. Most of these genes were highly expressed in DCIS samples with IBC, including PLAU (P = 0.002), COL1A1 (P = 0.006), KRT81 (P = 0.009), S100A7 (P = 0.015), SCGB1D2 (P = 0.023), KRT18 (P = 0.029), and NOTCH3 (P = 0.044), whereas EGFR and CXCL14 showed a higher expression in cases with pure DCIS (P = 0.015 and P = 0.028, respectively). This difference was only significant for SCGB1D2 (P = 0.009). Hierarchical clustering revealed distinct clustering of patients with and without invasion. Patients with pure DCIS have a different gene expression pattern as compared to patients with DCIS and synchronous IBC. These genes may pinpoint to driver pathway(s) that play an important role in DCIS progression.
BACKGROUND: Breast adipocytes play important roles in both the development and function of mammary epithelial cells. Therefore, carcinoma-adipose stromal cell (ASC) interactions have been considered pivotal in supporting tumor growth in breast cancer. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the biological features of cancer-associated adipocytes differ from those of normal ASCs. Therefore, we investigated an interaction between ASCs and carcinoma cell lines to identify genes associated with ASC invasion of carcinoma cells.
METHODS: 3T3-L1 ASC-derived conditioned medium (CM) was treated to measure the proliferation rate of breast cancer cells. To further examine the effect of ASCs, breast cancer cells were cocultivated with either primary human or 3T3-L1 ASCs for migration assays, DNA microarrays, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions, and Western blotting experiments. Furthermore, immunoreactivity of S100A7, the most upregulated gene in MCF7, after coculture with ASCs was evaluated for 150 breast cancer tissues to statistically analyze its association with clinicopathological parameters.
RESULTS: We first confirmed that ASC-derived CM treatment enhanced the cell proliferation rate of MCF7, T47D, SK-BR-3, and ZR-75-1 cell lines, whereas the migration rate of breast cancer cells was promoted by coculture with ASCs. We identified that a small calcium-binding protein, S100A7, was markedly upregulated (by 5.8-fold) in MCF7 cells after coculture with primary human ASCs. Knockdown of S100A7 significantly suppressed ASC-stimulated cell proliferation and migration rate, indicating a possible involvement of S100A7 in the carcinoma-ASC interaction in breast tumors. Furthermore, strong S100A7 immunoreactivity was detected at the invasive front of adipose stromal tissues compared with that at the intratumoral area. The status of S100A7 was also significantly correlated with adverse pathological parameters, and multivariate analysis revealed that S100A7 could be an independent prognostic marker for a poor relapse-free survival rate. Moreover, induction of oncostatin M was detected in cancer-stimulated ASCs, whereas the downstream S100A7 binding proteins/receptor for advanced glycation endproducts were significantly upregulated in correspondence with S100A7 expression in breast cancer cells after coculture with ASCs.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that paracrine production of cytokines from ASCs stimulates breast carcinoma cell growth via upregulation of S100A7 expression in breast cancer cell lines.
Psoriasin (S100A7) is an 11-kDa small calcium binding protein initially isolated from psoriatic skin lesions. It belongs to the S100 family of proteins which play an important role in a range of cell functions including proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Aberrant Psoriasin expression has been implicated in a range of cancers and is often associated with poor prognosis. This study examined the role of Psoriasin on pancreatic cancer cell functions and the implication in progression of the disease. Expression of Psoriasin was determined in a cohort of pancreatic tissues comprised of 126 pancreatic tumours and 114 adjacent non-tumour pancreatic tissues. Knockdown and overexpression of Psoriasin in pancreatic cancer cells was performed using specifically constructed plasmids, which either had anti-Psoriasin ribozyme transgene or the full length human Psoriasin coding sequence. Psoriasin knockdown and overexpression was verified using conventional RT-PCR and qPCR. The effect of manipulating Psoriasin expression on pancreatic cancer cell functions was assessed using several in vitro cell function assays. Local invasive pancreatic cancers extended beyond the pancreas expressed higher levels of Psoriasin transcripts compared with the cancers confined to the pancreas. Primary tumours with distant metastases exhibited a reduced expression of Psoriasin. Psoriasin overexpression cell lines exhibited significantly increased growth and migration compared to control cells. In addition, Psoriasin overexpression resulted in increased pancreatic cancer cell invasion which was associated with upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. Overexpression of Psoriasin also promoted aggregation and survival of pancreatic cancer cells when they lost anchorage. Taken together, higher expression of Psoriasin was associated with local invasion in pancreatic cancers. Psoriasin expression is associated with pancreatic cancer cell growth, migration, cell-matrix adhesion, and invasion via regulation of MMPs. As such, the proposed implications of Psoriasin in invasion, disease progression and as a potential therapeutic target warrant further investigation.
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas frequently associated with poor prognosis and for which genetic mechanisms of transformation remain incompletely understood. Using RNA sequencing and targeted sequencing, here we identify a recurrent in-frame deletion (VAV1 Δ778-786) generated by a focal deletion-driven alternative splicing mechanism as well as novel VAV1 gene fusions (VAV1-THAP4, VAV1-MYO1F, and VAV1-S100A7) in PTCL. Mechanistically these genetic lesions result in increased activation of VAV1 catalytic-dependent (MAPK, JNK) and non-catalytic-dependent (nuclear factor of activated T cells, NFAT) VAV1 effector pathways. These results support a driver oncogenic role for VAV1 signaling in the pathogenesis of PTCL.
S100A7 is expressed in many squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Our previous study revealed that S100A7 was dramatically induced in several SCC cells and activation of the Hippo pathway significantly promoted S100A7 in epidermoid carcinoma cells. However, whether the Hippo pathway regulates S100A7 expression in SCCs remains largely unknown. Here, we uncover that S100A7 induction by the Hippo-YAP pathway displays different characteristic in cervical and glossopharyngeal SCC. In well differentiated HCC94 cervical cells and FaDu pharyngeal cells, S100A7 is easily induced by both suspension and dense culture, which is accompanied by an increase in YAP phosphorylation and a decrease in nuclear YAP. Strikingly, these correlations of S100A7 and YAP reverse after recovery of cell attachment or relief from dense culture. Further examination finds that S100A7 induction is significantly repressed by nuclear YAP, which is validated by activation or inhibition of the Hippo pathway via loss- and/or gain-of- LATS1 and MST1 function. Subsequently, we prove that TEAD1 is required for YAP transcriptional repression of S100A7. However, S100A7 is hardly induced in poorly differentiated SiHa cervical cells and NCI-H226 pulmonary cells even in suspension or activation of the Hippo pathway. More importantly, cervical and lingual SCC tissues array analyses show that S100A7 expression displays the positive correlation with pYAP-S127 and the negative correlation with nuclear YAP in the majority of well differentiated but not in poorly differentiated tissues. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the different induction of S100A7 toward activation of the Hippo pathway mainly depends on the degree of cell differentiation in cervical and glossopharyngeal SCC.
Dey KK, Bharti R, Dey G, et al.S100A7 has an oncogenic role in oral squamous cell carcinoma by activating p38/MAPK and RAB2A signaling pathway.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2016; 23(11):382-391 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Oral cancer consists of squamous cell carcinoma within the oral cavity or on the lip. The clinical prognosis of this cancer is mostly poor owing to delayed diagnosis and a lack of appropriate early detection biomarkers to identify the disease. In the current study, we investigated the role of the S100A7 calcium-binding protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma as an activator of the p38/MAPK and RAB2A signaling pathway. The aim of the present study was to determine whether S100A7 and RAB2A have a role in tumor progression and to assess their potential as early detection biomarkers for oral cancer. This study elucidated the functional and molecular mechanisms of S100A7 and RAB2A activity in oral cancer, leading us to conclude that S100A7 is the major contributing factor in the occurrence of oral cancer and promotes local tumor progression by activating the MAPK signaling pathway via the RAB2A pathway. We hypothesize that S100A7 affects cell motility and invasion by regulating the RAB2A-associated MAPK signaling cascades. Also, the downregulation of S100A7 expression by RNA interference-mediated silencing inhibits oral cancer cell growth, migration and invasion.
Mitsui H, Kiecker F, Shemer A, et al.Discrimination of Dysplastic Nevi from Common Melanocytic Nevi by Cellular and Molecular Criteria.
J Invest Dermatol. 2016; 136(10):2030-2040 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Dysplastic nevi (DNs), also known as Clark's nevi or atypical moles, are distinguished from common melanocytic nevi by variegation in pigmentation and clinical appearance, as well as differences in tissue patterning. However, cellular and molecular differences between DNs and common melanocytic nevi are not completely understood. Using cDNA microarray, quantitative RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry, we molecularly characterized DNs and analyzed the difference between DNs and common melanocytic nevi. A total of 111 probesets (91 annotated genes, fold change > 2.0 and false discovery rate < 0.25) were differentially expressed between the two lesions. An unexpected finding in DNs was altered differentiation and activation of epidermal keratinocytes with increased expression of hair follicle-related molecules (keratin 25, trichohyalin, ribonuclease, RNase A family, 7) and inflammation-related molecules (S100A7, S100A8) at both genomic and protein levels. The immune microenvironment of DNs was characterized by an increase of T helper type 1 (IFNγ) and T helper type 2 (IL13) cytokines as well as an upregulation of oncostatin M and CXCL1. DUSP3, which regulates cellular senescence, was identified as one of the disease discriminative genes between DNs and common melanocytic nevi by three independent statistical approaches and its altered expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The molecular and cellular changes in which the epidermal-melanin unit undergoes follicular differentiation as well as upregulation of defined cytokines could drive complex immune, epidermal, and pigmentary alterations.
BACKGROUND: Brain-expressed X-linked (BEX) 4 is a member of BEX family. The functional role of BEX4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unknown.
METHODS: Expression level of BEX family members (BEX1-5) in OSCC tissues and the paired normal epithelial were examined. Functions of epigenetic changes (DNA methylation and histone modifications) on BEX4 suppression in OSCC were examined by zebularine and trichostatin A (TSA) treatment on OSCC cell lines. Lentivector containing full-length BEX4 was used to generate OSCC cell lines with stable BEX4 expression. Effects of BEX4 expression on OSCC proliferation were monitored with xCELLigence RTCA real-time cell analyzer. BEX4-overexpressing CAL27 was implanted into nude mice to evaluate the effects on tumor growth in vivo. The signaling pathways regulated by BEX4 in OSCC was explored using human whole-transcript expression microarray.
RESULTS: Among the 5 BEX family members, BEX1 and BEX4 showed significant down-regulation in OSCC (P < 0.001). BEX3, in comparison, was overexpressed in the primary tumor. BEX4 expression in OSCC cell lines was re-activated after zebularine and TSA treatment. High BEX4 expression could suppress proliferation of OSCC in vitro. Subcutaneous tumor volume of BEX4-overexpressing CAL27 was remarkably reduced in nude mice. Microarray experiment showed that S100A family members (S100A7, S100A7A, S100A8, S100A9 & S100A12) might be the downstream targets of BEX4 in OSCC.
CONCLUSIONS: BEX4 functions as tumor suppressor by inhibiting proliferation and growth of oral cancer. Decreased BEX4 contributes to the increased proliferative propensity of OSCC.
Koerdt S, Steinstraesser L, Stoeckelhuber M, et al.Radiotherapy for oral cancer decreases the cutaneous expression of host defence peptides.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2016; 44(7):882-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial resistance against antibiotics has become an increasing challenge in the treatment of cutaneous infections. Consequences can be severe, especially in infected wounds following previous local radiotherapy. Certain endogenous peptide antibiotics, the host defence peptides (HDPs), exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and promote wound healing. Their use as supplements to conventional antibiotics is a current topic of discussion; however, knowledge of their quantities in healthy and compromised tissue is a prerequisite for such discussion. To date, no data concerning HDP quantities in irradiated skin are available.
METHODS: Expression profiles of the genes encoding HDPs, namely human beta-defensin-1 (DEFB1, hBD-1), beta-defensin-2 (DEFB4A, hBD-2), beta-defensin-3 (DEFB103, hBD-3) and S100A7, were assessed in samples of non-irradiated and irradiated neck.
RESULTS: A reduction in the expression of all of the examined genes was observed in irradiated skin when compared with non-irradiated skin (statistically significant in the case of S100A7, P = 0.013). Immunohistochemistry revealed differences in HDP distribution with respect to the epithelial layers.
CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates a significant reduction in HDP gene expression in neck skin as a result of radiotherapy. These findings might represent a starting point for novel treatments of cutaneous infections in irradiated patients, such as topical supplementation of synthetic HDP.
We previously reported that patients with lung adenocarcinomas with KRAS gene mutations and strong proliferating activity had poorer outcomes, even in the early stage of the disease. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the potential molecular basis of these highly malignant lung tumors by focusing on S100 proteins (S100A2, S100A7, and S100A11), which are downstream targets of oncogenic KRAS and promoters of tumor progression. The immunohistochemical expression of S100 proteins was examined in 179 primary lung adenocarcinomas, and the potential relationships between their levels and clinicopathologic factors were analyzed. Among the three subtypes, S100A11 levels were significantly higher in adenocarcinomas with KRAS mutations and strong proliferating activity. They were also higher in adenocarcinomas with poorly differentiated tumors. Furthermore, higher levels of S100A11 were associated with shorter disease-free survival. These results suggest that the up-regulation of S100A11 plays a role in tumor progression, particularly in KRAS-mutated lung adenocarcinomas.
Ismail MF, El Boghdady NA, Shabayek MI, et al.Evaluation and screening of mRNA S100A genes as serological biomarkers in different stages of bladder cancer in Egypt.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(4):4621-31 [PubMed
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Calcium-binding proteins S100A are multifunctional proteins that show altered expression in various diseases and cancers. This study aimed at validating an easier and less time-consuming technique to evaluate the value of combined use of messenger RNA (mRNA) S100A genes in comparison and combination with voided urine cytology in detection of bladder cancer patients. Blood and urine specimens were collected from patients (n = 120) with histologically confirmed bladder carcinoma who are classified according to bladder cancer stage into four groups and from healthy volunteers (n = 30). Histopathology examination, bilharzias antibody detection, urine cytology, and mRNA expression of S100A genes were estimated for all subjects by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results indicate that each of the investigated S100A genes can be used as diagnostic marker for bladder cancer. Both S100A4 and S100A6 can be used to differentiate between different stages of bladder cancer. S100A7 can be used for the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. Both S100A8 and S100A9 can be used for detection of invasive bladder carcinoma while S100A11 can be used for early detection of superficial bladder carcinoma. The overall sensitivity and specificity for the studied S100A genes ranged from 73 to 90 and 84 to 92, respectively. The combined use of urine cytology with the investigated S100A genes increased sensitivity from 56 % up to a range of 87-96 %. In conclusion, serum S100A genes can be useful as potential serological biomarkers for bladder cancer, and combined use of urine cytology with S100A genes can improve the sensitivity for detection of bladder cancer.
Dey KK, Pal I, Bharti R, et al.Identification of RAB2A and PRDX1 as the potential biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma using mass spectrometry-based comparative proteomic approach.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(12):9829-37 [PubMed
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Despite the recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains a major health burden. Protein biomarker discovery for early detection will help to improve patient survival rate in OSCC. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has emerged as an excellent approach for detection of protein biomarkers in various types of cancers. In the current study, we have used 4-Plex isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based shotgun quantitative proteomic approach to identify proteins that are differentially expressed in cancerous tissues compared to normal tissues. The high-resolution mass spectrometric analysis resulted in identifying 2,074 proteins, among which 288 proteins were differentially expressed. Further, it was noticed that 162 proteins were upregulated, while 125 proteins were downregulated in OSCC-derived cancer tissue samples as compared to the adjacent normal tissues. We identified some of the known molecules which were reported earlier in OSCC such as MMP-9 (8.4-fold), ZNF142 (5.6-fold), and S100A7 (3.5-fold). Apart from this, we have also identified some novel signature proteins which have not been reported earlier in OSCC including ras-related protein Rab-2A isoform, RAB2A (4.6-fold), and peroxiredoxin-1, PRDX1 (2.2-fold). The immunohistochemistry-based validation using tissue microarray slides in OSCC revealed overexpression of the RAB2A and PRDX1 gene in 80 and 68 % of the tested clinical cases, respectively. This study will not only serve as a resource of candidate biomarkers but will contribute towards the existing knowledge on the role of the candidate molecules towards disease progression and therapeutic potential.
Li T, Qi Z, Kong F, et al.S100A7 acts as a dual regulator in promoting proliferation and suppressing squamous differentiation through GATA-3/caspase-14 pathway in A431 cells.
Exp Dermatol. 2015; 24(5):342-8 [PubMed
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S100A7 is expressed in many squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), such as SCC of the skin, and well-differentiated SCC always displays stronger staining of this protein. A431 cells, an epidermal cancer cell line, were selected as a cell model to investigate the roles and mechanism of S100A7 in SCC of the skin. In this study, we demonstrated that the overexpression of S100A7 in A431 cells significantly promoted cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, whereas it suppressed the expression of GATA-3, caspase-14 and three squamous differentiation markers, keratin-1, TG-1 and involucrin. Conversely, the overexpression of caspase-14 not only significantly decreased cell proliferation and delayed tumor growth but also markedly induced the expression of three squamous differentiation markers, whereas S100A7 and GATA-3 were not influenced. Further evidence showed that silencing GATA-3 greatly inhibited the expression of caspase-14 and three differentiation markers, while the expression of S100A7 was not changed; contrary results were obtained when overexpressing GATA-3. Importantly, restoring the expression of GATA-3 and caspase-14 in A431-S100A7 cells could bypass the ability of S100A7 to increase cell viability and repress squamous differentiation. These data suggested that S100A7 expression in SCC may play an important role in the maintenance of SCC cell dedifferentiation, at least in SCC of the skin.
INTRODUCTION: S100A7 (Psoriasin) is an inflammatory protein known to be upregulated in breast cancer. However, the role of S100A7 in breast cancer has been elusive, since both pro- and anti-proliferative roles have been reported in different types of breast cancer cells and animal models. To date, the mechanism by which S100A7 differentially regulates breast cancer cell proliferation is still not clear.
METHODS: We used Gene Functional Enrichment Analysis to search for the determining factor of S100A7 differential regulation. We confirmed the factor and elaborated its regulating mechanism using in vitro cell culture. We further verified the findings using xenografts of human breast cancer cells in nude mice.
RESULTS: In the present study, we show that S100A7 significantly upregulates the expression of miR-29b in Estrogen Receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells (represented by MCF7), and significantly downregulates miR-29b in ER-negative cells (represented by MDA-MB-231) [Corrected]. The differential regulation of miR-29b by S100A7 in ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancer is supported by the gene expression analysis of TCGA invasive breast cancer dataset. miR-29b transcription is inhibited by NF-κB, and NF-κB activation is differentially regulated by S100A7 in ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancer cells. This further leads to differential regulation of PI3K p85α and CDC42 expression, p53 activation and p53-associated anti-proliferative pathways. Reversing the S100A7-caused changes of miR-29b expression by transfecting exogenous miR-29b or miR-29b-Decoy can inhibit the effects of S100A7 on in vitro cell proliferation and tumor growth in nude mice.
CONCLUSIONS: The distinct modulations of the NF-κB - miR-29b - p53 pathway make S100A7 an oncogene in ER-negative and a cancer-suppressing gene in ER-positive breast cancer cells, with miR-29b being the determining regulatory factor.
OBJECTIVE: S100A7 plays a role in the malignant potential of several epithelial cancers, and could candidate diagnostic marker or therapeutic target. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) regulates cancer cell growth and is modulated by phospholipase activity in many cancer cells. In the present study, we first evaluate the involvement of S100A7 in lung squamous cell carcinoma and its clinical usefulness for diagnosis. We then study whether knockdown of S100A7 in lung squamous cell carcinoma cells would reduce cell proliferation and NF-κB activity in vitro and attenuate tumor growth in vivo.
METHODS: We examined S100A7 expression in lung squamous cell carcinoma tissues by immunohistology .The human lung squamous cell carcinoma cell line NCI-H520 were transduced with short hairpin RNA targeting S100A7. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting confirmed knockdown of S100A7 messenger RNA and protein, respectively. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the MTT assay. NF-κB phosphorylation was assayed by western blot. 1×10(6) of NCI-H520/S100A7 knockdown cells were injected into the left flanks of nude mice (aged 6 to 8 weeks). Tumors were followed for 35 days, then removed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, stained with Ki-67, and analyzed for S100A7 protein expression.
RESULTS: S100A7 protein levels were significantly higher in carcinoma specimens than in nonneoplastic tissues. S100A7 might be a useful marker for diagnosis of lung squamous cell carcinoma. In vitro data showed that inhibition of S100A7 decreased proliferation of NCI-H520 cells. S100A7 knockdown reduced NF-κB phosphorylation and tumor growth in vivo and vivo. Explanted knockdown tumors maintained lower S100A7 levels compared with wild-type, confirmed by immunohistology. Ki-67 staining was more prominent throughout the wild-type tumors compared with knockdown tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Our present results suggest that S100A7 level is a promising tool for diagnosis of lung squamous cell carcinoma. Knockdown of S100A7 suppresses lung cancer growth in part by attenuating NF-κB activity. S100A7 may be a promising therapeutic target for lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Jia J, Duan Q, Guo J, Zheng YPsoriasin, a multifunctional player in different diseases.
Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2014; 15(8):836-42 [PubMed
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Psoriasin (S100A7) is one of the members in the S100 protein family. It was first discovered as a protein abundantly expressed in psoriatic keratinocytes. Psoriasin has been implicated in a wide range of intracellular and extracellular functions, including regulation of calcium homeostasis, cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell invasion and motility, cytoskeleton dynamics, protein phosphorylation, regulation of transcriptional factors, immune responses, chemotaxis, inflammation and pluripotency. Altered expression of psoriasin was shown to associate with a broad range of diseases, including inflammatory and immune disorders and tumors. Many lines of evidence suggested that psoriasin exerts its distinct functions through alterations in both intracellular and extracellular pathways and results alteration in gene expression. In this review, we summarize the multiple function of psoriasin and the underlying mechanisms and discuss the potential role of psoriasin as one of the biomarkers and therapeutic targets for multiple diseases.
Lapeire L, Hendrix A, Lambein K, et al.Cancer-associated adipose tissue promotes breast cancer progression by paracrine oncostatin M and Jak/STAT3 signaling.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(23):6806-19 [PubMed
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Increasing evidence supports the critical roles played by adipose tissue in breast cancer progression. Yet, the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that breast cancer-associated adipose tissue from freshly isolated tumors promotes F-actin remodeling, cellular scattering, invasiveness, and spheroid reorganization of cultured breast cancer cells. A combination of techniques, including transcriptomics, proteomics, and kinomics enabled us to identify paracrine secretion of oncostatin M (OSM) by cancer-associated adipose tissue. Specifically, OSM, expressed by CD45(+) leucocytes in the stromal vascular fraction, induced phosphorylation of STAT3 (pSTAT3-) Y705 and S727 in breast cancer cells and transcription of several STAT3-dependent genes, including S100 family members S100A7, S100A8, and S100A9. Autocrine activation of STAT3 in MCF-7 cells ectopically expressing OSM-induced cellular scattering and peritumoral neovascularization of orthotopic xenografts. Conversely, selective inhibition of OSM by neutralizing antibody and Jak family kinases by tofacitinib inhibited STAT3 signaling, peritumoral angiogenesis, and cellular scattering. Importantly, nuclear staining of pSTAT3-Y705 identified at the tumor invasion front in ductal breast carcinomas correlates with increased lymphovascular invasion. Our work reveals the potential of novel therapeutic strategies targeting the OSM and STAT3 axis in patients with breast cancer harboring nuclear pSTAT3-Y705.
Tyszkiewicz T, Jarzab M, Szymczyk C, et al.Epidermal differentiation complex (locus 1q21) gene expression in head and neck cancer and normal mucosa.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2014; 52(2):79-89 [PubMed
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Epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) comprises a number of genes associated with human skin diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. These genes have also been linked to numerous cancers, among them skin, gastric, colorectal, lung, ovarian and renal carcinomas. The involvement of EDC components encoding S100 proteins, small proline-rich proteins (SPRRs) and other genes in the tumorigenesis of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) has been previously suggested. The aim of the study was to systematically analyze the expression of EDC components on the transcript level in HNSCC. Tissue specimens from 93 patients with HNC of oral cavity and 87 samples from adjacent or distant grossly normal oral mucosawere analyzed. 48 samples (24 tumor and 24 corresponding surrounding tissue) were hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Human 1.0 ST Arrays. For validation by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) the total RNA from all180 samples collected in the study was analyzed with Real-Time PCR system and fluorescent amplicon specific-probes. Additional set of samples from 14 patients with laryngeal carcinoma previously obtained by HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarray was also included in the analyses. The expression of analyzed EDC genes was heterogeneous. Two transcripts (S100A1 and S100A4) were significantly down-regulated in oral cancer when compared to normal mucosa (0.69 and 0.36-fold change, respectively), showing an opposite pattern of expression to the remaining S100 genes. Significant up-regulation in tumors was found for S100A11, S100A7, LCE3D, S100A3 and S100A2 genes. The increased expression of S100A7 was subsequently validated by QPCR, confirming significant differences. The remaining EDC genes, including all encoding SPRR molecules, did not show any differences between oral cancer and normal mucosa. The observed differences were also assessed in the independent set of laryngeal cancer samples, confirming the role of S100A3 and LCE3D transcripts in HNC. In HNC of oral cavity only one family of EDC genes (S100 proteins) showed significant cancer-related differences. A number of other transcripts which showed altered expression in HNC require further validation.
Jou YJ, Hua CH, Lin CD, et al.S100A8 as potential salivary biomarker of oral squamous cell carcinoma using nanoLC-MS/MS.
Clin Chim Acta. 2014; 436:121-9 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) shows low 5-year survival; early treatment greatly reduces mortality and morbidity. Saliva is a non-invasive sample, with good potential to discover biomarkers for early detection.
METHODS: NanoLC-MS/MS served to analyze saliva proteome from control subjects (n=35) and OSCC patients T1 (n=29), T2 (n=36), T3 (n=14) and T4 (n=21) stages. Identified biomarkers were verified by Western blot and ELISA assays.
RESULTS: NanoLC-MS/MS analysis of salivary proteins between 10 and 15kDa identified S100A8, hemoglobin delta and gamma-G globin in T3 and T4 stage OSCC as well as S100A7 in T1 and T2 stage OSCC. Western blot and ELISA indicated positive correlation between salivary S100A8 increment and tumor size stage. High level of S100A8 appeared in 3.4, 13.9, 92.9, and 100% of saliva OSCC patients with T1, T2, T3, and T4 stages, respectively. Significant increase of salivary S100A7 was observed in 20.7% and 11.1% of those with T1 and T2, respectively. AUROC curve indicated high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of S100A8-based ELISA as a detector.
CONCLUSIONS: NanoLC-MS/MS, Western blot and ELISA manifested salivary S100A8 as a specific and sensitive marker for detection of OSCC patients. Salivary S100A8 protein could be applicable in developing OSCC diagnostics.
Understanding transcriptional changes during cancer progression is of crucial importance to develop new and more efficacious diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. It is well known that ErbB2 is overexpressed in about 25% of human invasive breast cancers. We have previously demonstrated that p130Cas overexpression synergizes with ErbB2 in mammary cell transformation and promotes ErbB2-dependent invasion in three-dimensional (3D) cultures of human mammary epithelial cells. Here, by comparing coding and non-coding gene expression profiles, we define the invasive signatures associated with concomitant p130Cas overexpression and ErbB2 activation in 3D cultures of mammary epithelial cells. Specifically, we have found that genes involved in amino acids synthesis (CBS, PHGDH), cell motility, migration (ITPKA, PRDM1), and angiogenesis (HEY1) are upregulated, while genes involved in inflammatory response (SAA1, S100A7) are downregulated. In parallel, we have shown that the expression of specific miRNAs is altered. Among these, miR-200b, miR-222, miR-221, miR-R210, and miR-424 are upregulated, while miR-27a, miR-27b, and miR-23b are downregulated. Overall, this study presents, for the first time, the gene expression changes underlying the invasive behavior following p130Cas overexpression in an ErbB2 transformed mammary cell model.
BACKGROUND: S100A7 signaling plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of human breast cancers but the precise role and mechanism of S100A7 for tumor invasion remains unclear. in the present study, we investigated whether S100A7 overexpression could be mechanistically associated with the up-regulation of NF-κB, VEGF and MMP-9, resulting in the promotion of breast cancer cell invasion and growth, and vice versa.
METHODS: pcDNA3.1-S100A7 cDNA plasmid was constructed and transfected into the MDA-MB-468 cells. 4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to detect cell proliferation, Matrigel was used to detect cell mobility and invasion in vitro.The MMP-9 and VEGF expression and levels was detected by western blot and ELISA assay. NF-κB DNA binding activity was detected by Electrophoretic mobility shift assay.
RESULTS: Up-regulation of S100A7 by stable S100A7 cDNA transfection increased cell invasion and proliferation, whereas downregulation of S100A7 by small interfering RNA in S100A7 cDNA-transfected MDA-MB-468 cells decreased cell invasion and proliferation. Consistent with these results, we found that the up-regulation of S100A7 increased NF-κB DNA-binding activity and MMP-9 and VEGF expression. Down-regulation of S100A7 in S100A7 cDNA -transfected decreased NF-κB DNA-binding activity and MMP-9 and VEGF expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that the S100A7 gene controls the proliferation and invasive potential of human MDA-MB-468 cells through regulation of NF-κB activity and its target genes, such as MMP-9 and VEGF expression. Down-regulation of S100A7 could be an effective approach for the down-regulation and inactivation of NF-κB and its target genes, such as MMP-9 and VEGF expression, resulting in the inhibition of invasion and growth.