Gene Summary

Gene:BCAR1; BCAR1 scaffold protein, Cas family member
Aliases: CAS, CAS1, CASS1, CRKAS, P130Cas
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Crk-associated substrate (CAS) family of scaffold proteins, characterized by the presence of multiple protein-protein interaction domains and many serine and tyrosine phosphorylation sites. The encoded protein contains a Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain, a proline-rich domain, a substrate domain which contains 15 repeat of the YxxP consensus phosphorylation motif for Src family kinases, a serine-rich domain, and a bipartite Src-binding domain, which can bind both SH2 and SH3 domains. This adaptor protein functions in multiple cellular pathways, including in cell motility, apoptosis and cell cycle control. Dysregulation of this gene can have a wide range of effects, affecting different pathways, including cardiac development, vascular smooth muscle cells, liver and kidney function, endothelial migration, and cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2017]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (36)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (8)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • BCAR1
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Apoptosis
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Focal Adhesion Kinase 1
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tyrosine
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Breast Cancer
  • Up-Regulation
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130
  • Lung Cancer
  • Disease Progression
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • RB1
  • Cell Movement
  • Chromosome 16
  • RNA Interference
  • Drug Resistance
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • rac1 GTP-Binding Protein
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Down-Regulation
  • Tamoxifen
  • Transfection
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Paxillin
  • Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-crk
  • Proteins
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BCAR1 (cancer-related)

Xu W, Lu J, Zhao Q, et al.
Genome-Wide Plasma Cell-Free DNA Methylation Profiling Identifies Potential Biomarkers for Lung Cancer.
Dis Markers. 2019; 2019:4108474 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As a noninvasive blood testing, the detection of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) methylation in plasma has raised an increasing interest due to diagnostic applications. Although extensively used in cfDNA methylation analysis, bisulfite sequencing is less cost-effective. In this study, we investigated the cfDNA methylation patterns in lung cancer patients by MeDIP-seq. Compared with the healthy individuals, 330 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) at gene promoters were identified in lung cancer patients with 33 hypermethylated and 297 hypomethylated regions, respectively. Moreover, these hypermethylated genes were validated with the publicly available DNA methylation data, yielding a set of ten significant differentially methylated genes in lung cancer, including

Jiang H, Dong L, Gong F, et al.
Inflammatory genes are novel prognostic biomarkers for colorectal cancer.
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 42(1):368-380 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inflammatory genes serve a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammation‑associated tumors. However, as recent studies have mainly focused on the effects of single inflammatory genes on colorectal cancer (CRC), but not on the global interactions between genes, the underlying mechanisms between inflammatory genes and CRC remain unclear. In the current study, two inflammation‑associated networks were constructed based on inflammatory genes, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in CRC vs. normal samples, and protein‑protein interactions (PPIs). These networks included an inflammation‑related neighbor network (IRNN) and an inflammation‑related DEG network (IRDN). Notably, the results indicated that the inflammatory genes served as important CRC‑associated genes in the IRNN. Certain inflammatory genes were more likely to be network hubs and exhibited higher betweenness centralities, indicating that these inflammatory hub genes had central roles in the communication between genes in the IRNN. By contrast, in the IRDN, functional enrichment analysis revealed that genes were enriched in numerous cancer‑associated functions and pathways. Subsequently, 14 genes in a module were identified in the IRDN as the potential biomarkers associated with disease‑free survival (DFS) in CRC patients in the GSE24550 dataset, the prognosis of which was further validated using three independent datasets (GSE24549, GSE34551 and GSE103479). All 14 genes (including BCAR1, CRK, FYN, GRB2, LCP2, PIK3R1, PLCG1, PTK2, PTPN11, PTPN6, SHC1, SOS1, SRC and SYK) in this module were inflammatory genes, emphasizing the critical role of inflammation in CRC. In conclusion, these findings based on integrated inflammation‑associated networks provided a novel insight that may help elucidate the inflammation‑mediated mechanisms involved in CRC.

Heumann A, Heinemann N, Hube-Magg C, et al.
High BCAR1 expression is associated with early PSA recurrence in ERG negative prostate cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 (BCAR1/p130cas) is a hub for diverse oncogenic signaling cascades and promotes tumor development and progression.
METHODS: To understand the effect of BCAR1 in prostate cancer, we analyzed its expression on more than 11,000 prostate cancer samples. BCAR1 expression levels were compared with clinical characteristics, PSA recurrence, molecular subtype defined by ERG status and 3p, 5q, 6q and PTEN deletion.
RESULTS: BCAR1 staining was barely detectable in normal prostate glands but seen in 77.6% of 9472 interpretable cancers, including strong expression in 38.5%, moderate in 23.2% and weak in 15.9% of cases. BCAR1 up regulation was associated with positive ERG status (p < 0.0001), high Gleason score (p < 0.0001), advanced pathological tumor stage (p = 0.0082), lower preoperative PSA level (p < 0.0001), increased cell proliferation (p < 0.0001), early PSA recurrence (p = 0.0008), and predicted prognosis independently from clinico-pathological parameters available at the time of the initial biopsy. However, subset analyses revealed that the prognostic impact of BCAR1 expression was limited to ERG-negative cancer. That BCAR1 up regulation was linked to almost all analyzed deletions (p < 0.0001 each for PTEN, 5q, 6q deletion) may suggest a functional link to genomic instability.
CONCLUSION: The results of our study identify BCAR1 as a prognostic biomarker with potential clinical value for risk stratification of ERG-negative prostate cancer.

Böttcher R, Kweldam CF, Livingstone J, et al.
Cribriform and intraductal prostate cancer are associated with increased genomic instability and distinct genomic alterations.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Invasive cribriform and intraductal carcinoma (CR/IDC) is associated with adverse outcome of prostate cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular aberrations associated with CR/IDC in primary prostate cancer, focusing on genomic instability and somatic copy number alterations (CNA).
METHODS: Whole-slide images of The Cancer Genome Atlas Project (TCGA, N = 260) and the Canadian Prostate Cancer Genome Network (CPC-GENE, N = 199) radical prostatectomy datasets were reviewed for Gleason score (GS) and presence of CR/IDC. Genomic instability was assessed by calculating the percentage of genome altered (PGA). Somatic copy number alterations (CNA) were determined using Fisher-Boschloo tests and logistic regression. Primary analysis were performed on TCGA (N = 260) as discovery and CPC-GENE (N = 199) as validation set.
RESULTS: CR/IDC growth was present in 80/260 (31%) TCGA and 76/199 (38%) CPC-GENE cases. Patients with CR/IDC and ≥ GS 7 had significantly higher PGA than men without this pattern in both TCGA (2.2 fold; p = 0.0003) and CPC-GENE (1.7 fold; p = 0.004) cohorts. CR/IDC growth was associated with deletions of 8p, 16q, 10q23, 13q22, 17p13, 21q22, and amplification of 8q24. CNAs comprised a total of 1299 gene deletions and 369 amplifications in the TCGA dataset, of which 474 and 328 events were independently validated, respectively. Several of the affected genes were known to be associated with aggressive prostate cancer such as loss of PTEN, CDH1, BCAR1 and gain of MYC. Point mutations in TP53, SPOP and FOXA1were also associated with CR/IDC, but occurred less frequently than CNAs.
CONCLUSIONS: CR/IDC growth is associated with increased genomic instability clustering to genetic regions involved in aggressive prostate cancer. Therefore, CR/IDC is a pathologic substrate for progressive molecular tumour derangement.

Duan B, Hu J, Liu H, et al.
Genetic variants in the platelet-derived growth factor subunit B gene associated with pancreatic cancer risk.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 142(7):1322-1331 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling pathway plays important roles in development and progression of human cancers. In our study, we aimed to identify genetic variants of the PDGF pathway genes associated with pancreatic cancer (PC) risk in European populations using three published genome-wide association study datasets, which consisted of 9,381 cases and 7,719 controls. The expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis was also performed using data from the 1000 Genomes, TCGA and GTEx projects. As a result, we identified two potential susceptibility loci (rs5757573 and rs6001516) of PDGFB associated with PC risk [odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.16, and p = 4.70 × 10

Yuan J, Jiang YY, Mayakonda A, et al.
Super-Enhancers Promote Transcriptional Dysregulation in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(23):6614-6626 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an invasive cancer with particularly high incidence in Southeast Asia and Southern China. The pathogenic mechanisms of NPC, particularly those involving epigenetic dysregulation, remain largely elusive, hampering clinical management of this malignancy. To identify novel druggable targets, we carried out an unbiased high-throughput chemical screening and observed that NPC cells were highly sensitive to inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), especially THZ1, a covalent inhibitor of CDK7. THZ1 demonstrated pronounced antineoplastic activities both

Li EQ, Zhang JL
Essential role of SH3GL1 in interleukin-6(IL-6)- and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-triggered p130
Hum Cell. 2017; 30(4):300-310 [PubMed] Related Publications
We recently demonstrated that interleukin-6 (IL-6)- and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced osteosarcoma (OS) cell proliferation and migration are parallel to significant increased expression of SH3GL1 and the phosphorylation level of P130

Sciortino M, Camacho-Leal MDP, Orso F, et al.
Dysregulation of Blimp1 transcriptional repressor unleashes p130Cas/ErbB2 breast cancer invasion.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):1145 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ErbB2 overexpression is detected in approximately 20% of breast cancers and is correlated with poor survival. It was previously shown that the adaptor protein p130Cas/BCAR1 is a crucial mediator of ErbB2 transformation and that its overexpression confers invasive properties to ErbB2-positive human mammary epithelial cells. We herein prove, for the first time, that the transcriptional repressor Blimp1 is a novel mediator of p130Cas/ErbB2-mediated invasiveness. Indeed, high Blimp1 expression levels are detected in invasive p130Cas/ErbB2 cells and correlate with metastatic status in human breast cancer patients. The present study, by using 2D and 3D breast cancer models, shows that the increased Blimp1 expression depends on both MAPK activation and miR-23b downmodulation. Moreover, we demonstrate that Blimp1 triggers cell invasion and metastasis formation via its effects on focal adhesion and survival signaling. These findings unravel the previously unidentified role that transcriptional repressor Blimp1 plays in the control of breast cancer invasiveness.

Kang H, Rho JG, Kim C, et al.
The miR-24-3p/p130Cas: a novel axis regulating the migration and invasion of cancer cells.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:44847 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by suppressing translation or facilitating mRNA decay. Differential expression of miRNAs is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases including cancer. Here, we investigated the role of-miR-24-3p as a downregulated miRNA in metastatic cancer. miR-24-3p was decreased in metastatic cancer and lower expression of miR-24-3p was related to poor survival of cancer patients. Consistently, ectopic expression of miR-24-3p suppressed the cell migration, invasion, and proliferation of MCF7, Hep3B, B16F10, SK-Hep1, and PC-3 cells by directly targeting p130Cas. Stable expression of p130Cas restored miR-24-3p-mediated inhibition of cell migration and invasion. These results suggest that miR-24-3p functions as a tumor suppressor and the miR-24-3p/p130Cas axis is a novel factor of cancer progression by regulating cell migration and invasion.

Horwitz V, Davidson B, Stern D, et al.
Ezrin Is Associated with Disease Progression in Ovarian Carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(9):e0162502 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Ezrin and p130Cas are structural proteins with an important role in signaling pathways and have been shown to promote cancer dissemination. We previously reported on overexpression of both ezrin and p130Cas in breast carcinoma effusions compared to primary carcinomas. Since ovarian and breast carcinomas share the ability to disseminate by forming malignant effusions, we sought to study the role of these molecules in ovarian carcinoma (OC).
METHODS: OC cell lines were cultured in two different 3-dimensional conditions, on alginate scaffolds and as spheroids, which served as models for solid tumor and malignant effusions, respectively. shRNA was used to reduce protein expression in the cells. The malignant potential was evaluated by chemo-invasion assay, branching capacity on Matrigel and rate of proliferation. Subsequently, clinical specimens of high-grade serous carcinoma effusions, ovarian tumors and solid metastases were analyzed for ezrin and p130Cas expression.
RESULTS: Higher ezrin expression was found in cells composing the spheroids compared to their counterparts cultured on alginate scaffold and in clinical samples of malignant effusions compared to solid tumors. In addition, reduced Ezrin expression impaired the invasion ability and the branching capacity of OC cells to a greater extent than reduced p130Cas expression. However, ezrin and p130Cas expression in effusions was unrelated to clinical outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: The 3-dimensional cell cultures were found to mimic the different tumor sites and be applicable as a model. The in vitro results concur with the clinical specimen analysis, suggesting that in OC, the role of ezrin in disease progression is more pronounced than that of p130Cas.

Fu SW, Kirolikar SP, Ginsburg E, et al.
Beta protein 1 homeoprotein induces cell growth and estrogen-independent tumorigenesis by binding to the estrogen receptor in breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(33):53204-53216 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Expression of Beta Protein 1 (BP1), a homeotic transcription factor, increases during breast cancer progression and may be associated with tumor aggressiveness. In our present work, we investigate the influence of BP1 on breast tumor formation and size in vitro and in vivo. Cells overexpressing BP1 showed higher viability when grown in the absence of serum (p < 0.05), greater invasive potential (p < 0.05) and formed larger colonies (p < 0.004) compared with the controls. To determine the influence of BP1 overexpression on tumor characteristics, MCF-7 cells transfected with either empty vector (V1) or overexpressor plasmids (O2 and O4) were injected into the fat pads of athymic nude mice. Tumors grew larger in mice receiving O2 or O4 cells than in mice receiving V1 cells. Moreover, BP1 mRNA expression levels were positively correlated with tumor size in patients (p = 0.01). Interestingly, 20% of mice injected with O2 or O4 cells developed tumors in the absence of estrogen, while no mice receiving V1 cells developed tumors. Several mechanisms of estrogen independent tumor formation related to BP1 were established. These data are consistent with the fact that expression of breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 (BCAR1) was increased in O2 compared to V1 cells (p < 0.01). Importantly, O2 cells exhibited increased proliferation when treated with tamoxifen, while V1 cells showed growth inhibition. Overall, BP1 overexpresssion in MCF-7 breast cancer cells leads to increased cell growth, estrogen-independent tumor formation, and increased proliferation. These findings suggest that BP1 may be an important biomarker and therapeutic target in ER positive breast cancer.

Zhao Y, Scott A, Zhang P, et al.
Regulation of paxillin-p130-PI3K-AKT signaling axis by Src and PTPRT impacts colon tumorigenesis.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(30):48782-48793 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor T (PTPRT) is frequently mutated in a variety of human cancers including colorectal cancer. Here we report that PTPRT knockout increases the size of mouse colon tumors in the Apcmin+/- genetic background, suggesting that inactivation of PTPRT promotes tumor progression. We previously demonstrated that PTPRT dephosphorylates paxillin at tyrosine-Y88 residue. Consistently, phosphorylation of Y88 paxillin (pY88) is up-regulated in colon tumors derived from Apcmin+/- Ptprt-/- mice. An important downstream effector of pY88 paxillin is the oncogene Akt. Here, we show that pY88 paxillin impacts the Akt pathway by regulating the interaction between p130cas and the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3-Kinase. Additionally, while pY88 paxillin is a substrate of the tumor suppressor phosphatase PTPRT, the corresponding kinase has not been previously identified. In this study, we demonstrate that the oncogenic kinase Src directly phosphorylates paxillin at Y88. Moreover, colorectal cancer cells that express high levels of pY88 paxillin are sensitive to dasatinib treatment, suggesting that pY88 paxillin may serve as a predictive biomarker for Src family kinase inhibitors.

Cross AM, Wilson AL, Guerrero MS, et al.
Breast cancer antiestrogen resistance 3-p130
Oncogene. 2016; 35(45):5850-5859 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adhesion turnover is critical for cell motility and invasion. We previously demonstrated that the adaptor molecule breast cancer antiestrogen resistance 3 (BCAR3) promotes adhesion disassembly and breast tumor cell invasion. One of two established binding partners of BCAR3 is the adaptor molecule, p130

Makino Y, Hamamura K, Takei Y, et al.
A therapeutic trial of human melanomas with combined small interfering RNAs targeting adaptor molecules p130Cas and paxillin activated under expression of ganglioside GD3.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1860(8):1753-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously demonstrated that focal adhesion kinase (FAK), p130Cas and paxillin are crucially involved in the enhanced malignant properties under expression of ganglioside GD3 in melanoma cells. Therefore, molecules existing in the GD3-mediated signaling pathway could be considered as suitable targets for therapeutic intervention in malignant melanoma. The aim of this study was to determine whether blockade of p130Cas and/or paxillin by RNAi suppresses melanoma growth. We found a suitable dose (40 μM siRNA, 25 μl/tumor) of the siRNA to suppress p130Cas in the xenografts generated in nu/nu mice. Based on these results, we performed intratumoral (i.t.) treatment with anti-p130Cas and/or anti-paxillin siRNAs mixed with atelocollagen as a drug delivery system in a xenograft tumor of a human melanoma cell line, SK-MEL-28. Mixture of atelocollagen (1.75%) and an siRNA (500 or 1000 pmol/tumor) was injected into the tumors every 3 days after the first injection. An siRNA against human p130Cas markedly suppressed tumor growth of the xenograft in a dose-dependent manner, whereas siRNA against human paxillin slightly inhibited the tumor growth. A control siRNA against firefly luciferase showed no effect. To our surprise, siRNA against human p130Cas (500 or 1000 pmol/tumor) combined with siRNA against human paxillin dramatically suppressed tumor growth. In agreement with the tumor suppression effects of the anti-p130Cas siRNA, reduction in Ki-67 positive cell number as well as in p130Cas expression was demonstrated by immunohistostaining. These results suggested that blockade of GD3-mediated growth signaling pathways by siRNAs might be a novel and promising therapeutic strategy against malignant melanomas, provided signaling molecules such as p130Cas and paxillin are significantly expressed in individual cases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Glycans in personalised medicine" Guest Editor: Professor Gordan Lauc.

Kumbrink J, de la Cueva A, Soni S, et al.
A truncated phosphorylated p130Cas substrate domain is sufficient to drive breast cancer growth and metastasis formation in vivo.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):10665-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Elevated p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate) levels are found in aggressive breast tumors and are associated with poor prognosis and resistance to standard therapeutics in patients. p130Cas signals majorly through its phosphorylated substrate domain (SD) that contains 15 tyrosine motifs (YxxP) which recruit effector molecules. Tyrosine phosphorylation of p130Cas is important for mediating migration, invasion, tumor promotion, and metastasis. We previously developed a Src*/SD fusion molecule approach, where the SD is constitutively phosphorylated. In a polyoma middle T-antigen (PyMT)/Src*/SD double-transgenic mouse model, Src*/SD accelerates PyMT-induced tumor growth and promotes a more aggressive phenotype. To test whether Src*/SD also drives metastasis and which of the YxxP motifs are involved in this process, full-length and truncated SD molecules fused to Src* were expressed in breast cancer cells. The functionality of the Src*/SD fragments was analyzed in vitro, and the active proteins were tested in vivo in an orthotopic mouse model. Breast cancer cells expressing the full-length SD and the functional smaller SD fragment (spanning SD motifs 6-10) were injected into the mammary fat pads of mice. The tumor progression was monitored by bioluminescence imaging and caliper measurements. Compared with control animals, the complete SD promoted primary tumor growth and an earlier onset of metastases. Importantly, both the complete and truncated SD significantly increased the occurrence of metastases to multiple organs. These studies provide strong evidence that the phosphorylated p130Cas SD motifs 6-10 (Y236, Y249, Y267, Y287, and Y306) are important for driving mammary carcinoma progression.

Pathak HB, Zhou Y, Sethi G, et al.
A Synthetic Lethality Screen Using a Focused siRNA Library to Identify Sensitizers to Dasatinib Therapy for the Treatment of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0144126 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Molecular targeted therapies have been the focus of recent clinical trials for the treatment of patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The majority have not fared well as monotherapies for improving survival of these patients. Poor bioavailability, lack of predictive biomarkers, and the presence of multiple survival pathways can all diminish the success of a targeted agent. Dasatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the Src-family kinases (SFK) and in preclinical studies shown to have substantial activity in EOC. However, when evaluated in a phase 2 clinical trial for patients with recurrent or persistent EOC, it was found to have minimal activity. We hypothesized that synthetic lethality screens performed using a cogently designed siRNA library would identify second-site molecular targets that could synergize with SFK inhibition and improve dasatinib efficacy. Using a systematic approach, we performed primary siRNA screening using a library focused on 638 genes corresponding to a network centered on EGFR, HER2, and the SFK-scaffolding proteins BCAR1, NEDD9, and EFS to screen EOC cells in combination with dasatinib. We followed up with validation studies including deconvolution screening, quantitative PCR to confirm effective gene silencing, correlation of gene expression with dasatinib sensitivity, and assessment of the clinical relevance of hits using TCGA ovarian cancer data. A refined list of five candidates (CSNK2A1, DAG1, GRB2, PRKCE, and VAV1) was identified as showing the greatest potential for improving sensitivity to dasatinib in EOC. Of these, CSNK2A1, which codes for the catalytic alpha subunit of protein kinase CK2, was selected for additional evaluation. Synergistic activity of the clinically relevant inhibitor of CK2, CX-4945, with dasatinib in reducing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis was observed across multiple EOC cell lines. This overall approach to improving drug efficacy can be applied to other targeted agents that have similarly shown poor clinical activity.

Rea K, Pinciroli P, Sensi M, et al.
Novel Axl-driven signaling pathway and molecular signature characterize high-grade ovarian cancer patients with poor clinical outcome.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(31):30859-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High-grade epithelial ovarian cancer (HGEOC) is a clinically diverse and molecularly heterogeneous disease comprising subtypes with distinct biological features and outcomes. The receptor tyrosine kinases, expressed by EOC cells, and their ligands, present in the microenvironment, activate signaling pathways, which promote EOC cells dissemination. Herein, we established a molecular link between the presence of Gas6 ligand in the ascites of HGEOCs, the expression and activation of its receptor Axl in ovarian cancer cell lines and biopsies, and the progression of these tumors. We demonstrated that Gas6/Axl signalling converges on the integrin β3 pathway in the presence of the adaptor protein p130Cas, thus inducing tumor cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix and invasion. Accordingly, Axl and p130Cas were significantly co-expressed in HGEOC samples. Clinically, we identified an Axl-associated signature of 62 genes able to portray the HGEOCs with the shortest overall survival. These data biologically characterize a group of HGEOCs and could help guide a more effective therapeutic approach to be taken for these patients.

Nguyen HP, Pickrell BB, Tschen JA, et al.
Distinct gene expression profiles in two cases of Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinoma: shedding light on an esoteric entity.
Int J Dermatol. 2015; 54(12):e549-51 [PubMed] Related Publications

Kang H, Kim C, Lee H, et al.
Downregulation of microRNA-362-3p and microRNA-329 promotes tumor progression in human breast cancer.
Cell Death Differ. 2016; 23(3):484-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
p130Cas regulates cancer progression by driving tyrosine receptor kinase signaling. Tight regulation of p130Cas expression is necessary for survival, apoptosis, and maintenance of cell motility in various cell types. Several studies revealed that transcriptional and post-translational control of p130Cas are important for maintenance of its expression and activity. To explore novel regulatory mechanisms of p130Cas expression, we studied the effect of microRNAs (miRs) on p130Cas expression in human breast cancer MCF7 cells. Here, we provide experimental evidence that miR-362-3p and miR-329 perform a tumor-suppressive function and their expression is downregulated in human breast cancer. miR-362-3p and miR-329 inhibited cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion, thereby suppressing tumor growth, by downregulating p130Cas. Ectopic expression of p130Cas attenuated the inhibitory effects of the two miRs on tumor progression. Relative expression levels of miR-362-3p/329 and p130Cas between normal and breast cancer correlated inversely; miR-362-3p/329 expression was decreased, whereas that of p130Cas increased in breast cancers. Furthermore, we showed that downregulation of miR-362-3p and miR-329 was caused by differential DNA methylation of miR genes. Enhanced DNA methylation (according to methylation-specific PCR) was responsible for downregulation of miR-362-3p and miR-329 in breast cancer. Taken together, these findings point to a novel role for miR-362-3p and miR-329 as tumor suppressors; the miR-362-3p/miR-329-p130Cas axis seemingly has a crucial role in breast cancer progression. Thus, modulation of miR-362-3p/miR-329 may be a novel therapeutic strategy against breast cancer.

Peng M, Ball-Kell SM, Tyner AL
Protein tyrosine kinase 6 promotes ERBB2-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in the mouse.
Cell Death Dis. 2015; 6:e1848 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6) expression, activation, and amplification of the PTK6 gene have been reported in ERBB2/HER2-positive mammary gland cancers. To explore contributions of PTK6 to mammary gland tumorigenesis promoted by activated ERBB2, we crossed Ptk6-/- mice with the mouse mammary tumor virus-ERBB2 transgenic mouse line expressing activated ERBB2 and characterized tumor development and progression. ERBB2-induced tumorigenesis was significantly delayed and diminished in mice lacking PTK6. PTK6 expression was induced in the mammary glands of ERBB2 transgenic mice before tumor development and correlated with activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and increased proliferation. Disruption of PTK6 impaired STAT3 activation and proliferation. Phosphorylation of the PTK6 substrates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 (BCAR1; p130CAS) was decreased in Ptk6-/- mammary gland tumors. Reduced numbers of metastases were detected in the lungs of Ptk6-/- mice expressing activated ERBB2, compared with wild-type ERBB2 transgenic mice. PTK6 activation was detected at the edges of ERBB2-positive tumors. These data support roles for PTK6 in both ERBB2-induced mammary gland tumor initiation and metastasis, and identify STAT3, FAK, and BCAR1 as physiologically relevant PTK6 substrates in breast cancer. Including PTK6 inhibitors as part of a treatment regimen could have distinct benefits in ERBB2/HER2-positive breast cancers.

Childs EJ, Mocci E, Campa D, et al.
Common variation at 2p13.3, 3q29, 7p13 and 17q25.1 associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(8):911-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the developed world. Both inherited high-penetrance mutations in BRCA2 (ref. 2), ATM, PALB2 (ref. 4), BRCA1 (ref. 5), STK11 (ref. 6), CDKN2A and mismatch-repair genes and low-penetrance loci are associated with increased risk. To identify new risk loci, we performed a genome-wide association study on 9,925 pancreatic cancer cases and 11,569 controls, including 4,164 newly genotyped cases and 3,792 controls in 9 studies from North America, Central Europe and Australia. We identified three newly associated regions: 17q25.1 (LINC00673, rs11655237, odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-1.34, P = 1.42 × 10(-14)), 7p13 (SUGCT, rs17688601, OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.84-0.92, P = 1.41 × 10(-8)) and 3q29 (TP63, rs9854771, OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85-0.93, P = 2.35 × 10(-8)). We detected significant association at 2p13.3 (ETAA1, rs1486134, OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.09-1.19, P = 3.36 × 10(-9)), a region with previous suggestive evidence in Han Chinese. We replicated previously reported associations at 9q34.2 (ABO), 13q22.1 (KLF5), 5p15.33 (TERT and CLPTM1), 13q12.2 (PDX1), 1q32.1 (NR5A2), 7q32.3 (LINC-PINT), 16q23.1 (BCAR1) and 22q12.1 (ZNRF3). Our study identifies new loci associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

Chastkofsky MI, Bie W, Ball-Kell SM, et al.
Protein Tyrosine Kinase 6 Regulates UVB-Induced Signaling and Tumorigenesis in Mouse Skin.
J Invest Dermatol. 2015; 135(10):2492-2501 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6, also called BRK) is an intracellular tyrosine kinase expressed in the epithelial linings of the gastrointestinal tract and the skin, where it is expressed in nondividing differentiated cells. We found that PTK6 expression increases in the epidermis following UVB treatment. To evaluate the roles of PTK6 in the skin following UVB-induced damage, we exposed back skin of Ptk6 +/+ and Ptk6 -/- SENCAR mice to incremental doses of UVB for 30 weeks. Wild-type mice were more sensitive to UVB and exhibited increased inflammation and greater activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) than Ptk6-/- mice. Disruption of Ptk6 did not have an impact on proliferation, although PTK6 was expressed and activated in basal epithelial cells in wild-type mice following UVB treatment. However, wild-type mice exhibited shortened tumor latency and increased tumor load compared with Ptk6-/- mice, and STAT3 activation was increased in these tumors. PTK6 activation was detected in UVB-induced tumors, and this correlated with increased activating phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 (BCAR1). Activation of PTK6 was also detected in human squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. Although PTK6 has roles in normal differentiation, it also contributes to UVB-induced injury and tumorigenesis in vivo.

Liu W, Yue F, Zheng M, et al.
The proto-oncogene c-Src and its downstream signaling pathways are inhibited by the metastasis suppressor, NDRG1.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(11):8851-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) is a potent metastasis suppressor that plays a key role in regulating signaling pathways involved in mediating cancer cell invasion and migration, including those derived from prostate, colon, etc. However, the mechanisms and molecular targets through which NDRG1 reduces cancer cell invasion and migration, leading to inhibition of cancer metastasis, are not fully elucidated. In this investigation, using NDRG1 over-expression models in three tumor cell-types (namely, DU145, PC3MM and HT29) and also NDRG1 silencing in DU145 and HT29 cells, we reveal that NDRG1 decreases phosphorylation of a key proto-oncogene, cellular Src (c-Src), at a well-characterized activating site (Tyr416). NDRG1-mediated down-regulation of EGFR expression and activation were responsible for the decreased phosphorylation of c-Src (Tyr416). Indeed, NDRG1 prevented recruitment of c-Src to EGFR and c-Src activation. Moreover, NDRG1 suppressed Rac1 activity by modulating phosphorylation of a c-Src downstream effector, p130Cas, and its association with CrkII, which acts as a "molecular switch" to activate Rac1. NDRG1 also affected another signaling molecule involved in modulating Rac1 signaling, c-Abl, which then inhibited CrkII phosphorylation. Silencing NDRG1 increased cell migration relative to the control and inhibition of c-Src signaling using siRNA, or a pharmacological inhibitor (SU6656), prevented this increase. Hence, the role of NDRG1 in decreasing cell migration is, in part, due to its inhibition of c-Src activation. In addition, novel pharmacological agents, which induce NDRG1 expression and are currently under development as anti-metastatic agents, markedly increase NDRG1 and decrease c-Src activation. This study leads to important insights into the mechanism involved in inhibiting metastasis by NDRG1 and how to target these pathways with novel therapeutics.

Kumbrink J, Soni S, Laumbacher B, et al.
Identification of Novel Crk-associated Substrate (p130Cas) Variants with Functionally Distinct Focal Adhesion Kinase Binding Activities.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(19):12247-55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Elevated levels of p130(Cas) (Crk-associated substrate)/BCAR1 (breast cancer antiestrogen resistance 1 gene) are associated with aggressiveness of breast tumors. Following phosphorylation of its substrate domain, p130(Cas) promotes the integration of protein complexes involved in multiple signaling pathways and mediates cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration. In addition to the known BCAR1-1A (wild-type) and 1C variants, we identified four novel BCAR1 mRNA variants, generated by alternative first exon usage (1B, 1B1, 1D, and 1E). Exons 1A and 1C encode for four amino acids (aa), whereas 1D and 1E encode for 22 aa and 1B1 encodes for 50 aa. Exon 1B is non-coding, resulting in a truncated p130(Cas) protein (Cas1B). BCAR1-1A, 1B1, and variant 1C mRNAs were ubiquitously expressed in cell lines and a survey of human tissues, whereas 1B, 1D, and 1E expression was more restricted. Reconstitution of all isoforms except for 1B in p130(Cas)-deficient murine fibroblasts induced lamellipodia formation and membrane ruffling, which was unrelated to the substrate domain phosphorylation status. The longer isoforms exhibited increased binding to focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a molecule important for migration and adhesion. The shorter 1B isoform exhibited diminished FAK binding activity and significantly reduced migration and invasion. In contrast, the longest variant 1B1 established the most efficient FAK binding and greatly enhanced migration. Our results indicate that the p130(Cas) exon 1 variants display altered functional properties. The truncated variant 1B and the longer isoform 1B1 may contribute to the diverse effects of p130(Cas) on cell biology and therefore will be the target of future studies.

Camacho Leal Mdel P, Sciortino M, Tornillo G, et al.
p130Cas/BCAR1 scaffold protein in tissue homeostasis and pathogenesis.
Gene. 2015; 562(1):1-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BCAR1 (also known as p130Cas/BCAR1) is an adaptor protein that belongs to the CAS family of scaffold proteins. In the past years, increasing evidence has demonstrated the ability of p130Cas/BCAR1 to activate signaling originating from mechanical stimuli, cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion and growth factor stimulation cascades during normal development and disease in various biological models. In this review we will specifically discuss the more recent data on the contribution of p130Cas/BCAR1 in the regulation of tissue homeostasis and its potential implications in pathological conditions.

Pénzes K, Baumann C, Szabadkai I, et al.
Combined inhibition of AXL, Lyn and p130Cas kinases block migration of triple negative breast cancer cells.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2014; 15(11):1571-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Blocking the migration of metastatic cancer cells is a major goal in the therapy of cancer. The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is one of the main triggers for cancer cell migration in neoplasia of breast, colon, skin, thyroid and prostate. In our study we analyzed the effect of AXL inhibition on cell motility and viability in triple negative breast cancer cell lines overexpressing AXL. Thereby we reveal that the compound BMS777607, exhibiting the lowest IC50 values for inhibition of AXL kinase activity in the studied cell lines, attenuates cell motility to a lower extent than the kinase inhibitors MPCD84111 and SKI606. By analyzing the target kinases of MPCD84111 and SKI606 with kinase profiling assays we identified Lyn, a Src family kinase, as a target of both compounds. Knockdown of Lyn and the migration-related CRK-associated substrate (p130Cas), had a significant inhibitory effect on cell migration. Taken together, our findings highlight the importance of combinatorial or multikinase inhibition of non-receptor tyrosine kinases and AXL receptor tyrosine kinase in the therapy of triple negative breast cancer.

Cito L, Indovina P, Forte IM, et al.
pRb2/p130 localizes to the cytoplasm in diffuse gastric cancer.
J Cell Physiol. 2015; 230(4):802-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
pRb2/p130 is a key tumor suppressor, whose oncosuppressive activity has mainly been attributed to its ability to negatively regulate cell cycle by interacting with the E2F4 and E2F5 transcription factors. Indeed, pRb2/p130 has been found altered in various cancer types in which it functions as a valuable prognostic marker. Here, we analyzed pRb2/p130 expression in gastric cancer tissue samples of diffuse histotype, in comparison with their normal counterparts. We found a cytoplasmic localization of pRb2/p130 in cancer tissue samples, whereas, in normal counterparts, we observed the expected nuclear localization. pRb2/p130 cytoplasmic delocalization can lead to cell cycle deregulation, but considering the emerging involvement of pRb2/p130 in other key cellular processes, it could contribute to gastric tumorigenesis also through other mechanisms. Our data support the necessity of further investigations to verify the possibility of using pRb2/p130 as a biomarker or potential therapeutic target for diffuse gastric cancer.

Wallez Y, Riedl SJ, Pasquale EB
Association of the breast cancer antiestrogen resistance protein 1 (BCAR1) and BCAR3 scaffolding proteins in cell signaling and antiestrogen resistance.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(15):10431-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Most breast cancers are estrogen receptor-positive and treated with antiestrogens, but aberrant signaling networks can induce drug resistance. One of these networks involves the scaffolding protein BCAR1/p130CAS, which regulates cell growth and migration/invasion. A less investigated scaffolding protein that also confers antiestrogen resistance is the SH2 domain-containing protein BCAR3. BCAR1 and BCAR3 bind tightly to each other through their C-terminal domains, thus potentially connecting their associated signaling networks. However, recent studies using BCAR1 and BCAR3 interaction mutants concluded that association between the two proteins is not critical for many of their interrelated activities regulating breast cancer malignancy. We report that these previously used BCAR mutations fail to cause adequate loss-of-function of the complex. By using structure-based BCAR1 and BCAR3 mutants that lack the ability to interact, we show that BCAR3-induced antiestrogen resistance in MCF7 breast cancer cells critically depends on its ability to bind BCAR1. Interaction with BCAR3 increases the levels of phosphorylated BCAR1, ultimately potentiating BCAR1-dependent antiestrogen resistance. Furthermore, antiestrogen resistance in cells overexpressing BCAR1/BCAR3 correlates with increased ERK1/2 activity. Inhibiting ERK1/2 through overexpression of the regulatory protein PEA15 negates the resistance, revealing a key role for ERK1/2 in BCAR1/BCAR3-induced antiestrogen resistance. Reverse-phase protein array data show that PEA15 levels in invasive breast cancers correlate with patient survival, suggesting that PEA15 can override ERK1/2 activation by BCAR1/BCAR3 and other upstream regulators. We further uncovered that the BCAR3-related NSP3 can also promote antiestrogen resistance. Thus, strategies to disrupt BCAR1-BCAR3/NSP3 complexes and associated signaling networks could ultimately lead to new breast cancer therapies.

Kuo CH, Liu CJ, Lu CY, et al.
17β-estradiol inhibits mesenchymal stem cells-induced human AGS gastric cancer cell mobility via suppression of CCL5- Src/Cas/Paxillin signaling pathway.
Int J Med Sci. 2014; 11(1):7-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gender differences in terms of mortality among many solid organ malignancies have been proved by epidemiological data. Estrogen has been suspected to cast a protective effect against cancer because of the lower mortality of gastric cancer in females and the benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in gastric cancer. Hence, it suggests that 17β-estradiol (E2) may affect the behavior of cancer cells. One of the key features of cancer-related mortality is metastasis. Accumulating evidences suggest that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMMSCs) and its secreted CCL-5 have a role in enhancing the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. However, it is not clear whether E2 would affect HBMMSCs-induced mobility in gastric cancer cells. In this report, we show that CCL-5 secreted by HBMMSCs enhanced mobility in human AGS gastric cancer cells via activation of Src/Cas/Paxillin signaling pathway. Treatment with specific neutralizing antibody of CCL-5 significantly inhibited HBMMSCs-enhanced mobility in human AGS gastric cancer cells. We further observe that 17β-estradiol suppressed HBMMSCs-enhanced mobility by down-regulating CCL5-Src/Cas/paxillin signaling pathway in AGS cells. Collectively, these results suggest that 17β-estradiol treatment significantly inhibits HBMMSCS-induced mobility in human AGS gastric cancer cells.

Teckchandani A, Laszlo GS, Simó S, et al.
Cullin 5 destabilizes Cas to inhibit Src-dependent cell transformation.
J Cell Sci. 2014; 127(Pt 3):509-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Phosphorylation-dependent protein ubiquitylation and degradation provides an irreversible mechanism to terminate protein kinase signaling. Here, we report that mammary epithelial cells require cullin-5-RING-E3-ubiquitin-ligase complexes (Cul5-CRLs) to prevent transformation by a Src-Cas signaling pathway. Removal of Cul5 stimulates growth-factor-independent growth and migration, membrane dynamics and colony dysmorphogenesis, which are all dependent on the endogenous tyrosine kinase Src. Src is activated in Cul5-deficient cells, but Src activation alone is not sufficient to cause transformation. We found that Cul5 and Src together stimulate degradation of the Src substrate p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate). Phosphorylation stimulates Cas binding to the Cul5-CRL adaptor protein SOCS6 and consequent proteasome-dependent degradation. Cas is necessary for the transformation of Cul5-deficient cells. Either knockdown of SOCS6 or use of a degradation-resistant Cas mutant stimulates membrane ruffling, but not other aspects of transformation. Our results show that endogenous Cul5 suppresses epithelial cell transformation by several pathways, including inhibition of Src-Cas-induced ruffling through SOCS6.

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