Research IndicatorsGraph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (3)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: BCAR1 (cancer-related)
Makino Y, Hamamura K, Takei Y, et al.A therapeutic trial of human melanomas with combined small interfering RNAs targeting adaptor molecules p130Cas and paxillin activated under expression of ganglioside GD3.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1860(8):1753-63 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We previously demonstrated that focal adhesion kinase (FAK), p130Cas and paxillin are crucially involved in the enhanced malignant properties under expression of ganglioside GD3 in melanoma cells. Therefore, molecules existing in the GD3-mediated signaling pathway could be considered as suitable targets for therapeutic intervention in malignant melanoma. The aim of this study was to determine whether blockade of p130Cas and/or paxillin by RNAi suppresses melanoma growth. We found a suitable dose (40 μM siRNA, 25 μl/tumor) of the siRNA to suppress p130Cas in the xenografts generated in nu/nu mice. Based on these results, we performed intratumoral (i.t.) treatment with anti-p130Cas and/or anti-paxillin siRNAs mixed with atelocollagen as a drug delivery system in a xenograft tumor of a human melanoma cell line, SK-MEL-28. Mixture of atelocollagen (1.75%) and an siRNA (500 or 1000 pmol/tumor) was injected into the tumors every 3 days after the first injection. An siRNA against human p130Cas markedly suppressed tumor growth of the xenograft in a dose-dependent manner, whereas siRNA against human paxillin slightly inhibited the tumor growth. A control siRNA against firefly luciferase showed no effect. To our surprise, siRNA against human p130Cas (500 or 1000 pmol/tumor) combined with siRNA against human paxillin dramatically suppressed tumor growth. In agreement with the tumor suppression effects of the anti-p130Cas siRNA, reduction in Ki-67 positive cell number as well as in p130Cas expression was demonstrated by immunohistostaining. These results suggested that blockade of GD3-mediated growth signaling pathways by siRNAs might be a novel and promising therapeutic strategy against malignant melanomas, provided signaling molecules such as p130Cas and paxillin are significantly expressed in individual cases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Glycans in personalised medicine" Guest Editor: Professor Gordan Lauc.
Kumbrink J, de la Cueva A, Soni S, et al.A truncated phosphorylated p130Cas substrate domain is sufficient to drive breast cancer growth and metastasis formation in vivo.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):10665-73 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Elevated p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate) levels are found in aggressive breast tumors and are associated with poor prognosis and resistance to standard therapeutics in patients. p130Cas signals majorly through its phosphorylated substrate domain (SD) that contains 15 tyrosine motifs (YxxP) which recruit effector molecules. Tyrosine phosphorylation of p130Cas is important for mediating migration, invasion, tumor promotion, and metastasis. We previously developed a Src*/SD fusion molecule approach, where the SD is constitutively phosphorylated. In a polyoma middle T-antigen (PyMT)/Src*/SD double-transgenic mouse model, Src*/SD accelerates PyMT-induced tumor growth and promotes a more aggressive phenotype. To test whether Src*/SD also drives metastasis and which of the YxxP motifs are involved in this process, full-length and truncated SD molecules fused to Src* were expressed in breast cancer cells. The functionality of the Src*/SD fragments was analyzed in vitro, and the active proteins were tested in vivo in an orthotopic mouse model. Breast cancer cells expressing the full-length SD and the functional smaller SD fragment (spanning SD motifs 6-10) were injected into the mammary fat pads of mice. The tumor progression was monitored by bioluminescence imaging and caliper measurements. Compared with control animals, the complete SD promoted primary tumor growth and an earlier onset of metastases. Importantly, both the complete and truncated SD significantly increased the occurrence of metastases to multiple organs. These studies provide strong evidence that the phosphorylated p130Cas SD motifs 6-10 (Y236, Y249, Y267, Y287, and Y306) are important for driving mammary carcinoma progression.
Pathak HB, Zhou Y, Sethi G, et al.A Synthetic Lethality Screen Using a Focused siRNA Library to Identify Sensitizers to Dasatinib Therapy for the Treatment of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0144126 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Molecular targeted therapies have been the focus of recent clinical trials for the treatment of patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The majority have not fared well as monotherapies for improving survival of these patients. Poor bioavailability, lack of predictive biomarkers, and the presence of multiple survival pathways can all diminish the success of a targeted agent. Dasatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the Src-family kinases (SFK) and in preclinical studies shown to have substantial activity in EOC. However, when evaluated in a phase 2 clinical trial for patients with recurrent or persistent EOC, it was found to have minimal activity. We hypothesized that synthetic lethality screens performed using a cogently designed siRNA library would identify second-site molecular targets that could synergize with SFK inhibition and improve dasatinib efficacy. Using a systematic approach, we performed primary siRNA screening using a library focused on 638 genes corresponding to a network centered on EGFR, HER2, and the SFK-scaffolding proteins BCAR1, NEDD9, and EFS to screen EOC cells in combination with dasatinib. We followed up with validation studies including deconvolution screening, quantitative PCR to confirm effective gene silencing, correlation of gene expression with dasatinib sensitivity, and assessment of the clinical relevance of hits using TCGA ovarian cancer data. A refined list of five candidates (CSNK2A1, DAG1, GRB2, PRKCE, and VAV1) was identified as showing the greatest potential for improving sensitivity to dasatinib in EOC. Of these, CSNK2A1, which codes for the catalytic alpha subunit of protein kinase CK2, was selected for additional evaluation. Synergistic activity of the clinically relevant inhibitor of CK2, CX-4945, with dasatinib in reducing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis was observed across multiple EOC cell lines. This overall approach to improving drug efficacy can be applied to other targeted agents that have similarly shown poor clinical activity.
High-grade epithelial ovarian cancer (HGEOC) is a clinically diverse and molecularly heterogeneous disease comprising subtypes with distinct biological features and outcomes. The receptor tyrosine kinases, expressed by EOC cells, and their ligands, present in the microenvironment, activate signaling pathways, which promote EOC cells dissemination. Herein, we established a molecular link between the presence of Gas6 ligand in the ascites of HGEOCs, the expression and activation of its receptor Axl in ovarian cancer cell lines and biopsies, and the progression of these tumors. We demonstrated that Gas6/Axl signalling converges on the integrin β3 pathway in the presence of the adaptor protein p130Cas, thus inducing tumor cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix and invasion. Accordingly, Axl and p130Cas were significantly co-expressed in HGEOC samples. Clinically, we identified an Axl-associated signature of 62 genes able to portray the HGEOCs with the shortest overall survival. These data biologically characterize a group of HGEOCs and could help guide a more effective therapeutic approach to be taken for these patients.
Nguyen HP, Pickrell BB, Tschen JA, et al.Distinct gene expression profiles in two cases of Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinoma: shedding light on an esoteric entity.
Int J Dermatol. 2015; 54(12):e549-51 [PubMed
] Related Publications
p130Cas regulates cancer progression by driving tyrosine receptor kinase signaling. Tight regulation of p130Cas expression is necessary for survival, apoptosis, and maintenance of cell motility in various cell types. Several studies revealed that transcriptional and post-translational control of p130Cas are important for maintenance of its expression and activity. To explore novel regulatory mechanisms of p130Cas expression, we studied the effect of microRNAs (miRs) on p130Cas expression in human breast cancer MCF7 cells. Here, we provide experimental evidence that miR-362-3p and miR-329 perform a tumor-suppressive function and their expression is downregulated in human breast cancer. miR-362-3p and miR-329 inhibited cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion, thereby suppressing tumor growth, by downregulating p130Cas. Ectopic expression of p130Cas attenuated the inhibitory effects of the two miRs on tumor progression. Relative expression levels of miR-362-3p/329 and p130Cas between normal and breast cancer correlated inversely; miR-362-3p/329 expression was decreased, whereas that of p130Cas increased in breast cancers. Furthermore, we showed that downregulation of miR-362-3p and miR-329 was caused by differential DNA methylation of miR genes. Enhanced DNA methylation (according to methylation-specific PCR) was responsible for downregulation of miR-362-3p and miR-329 in breast cancer. Taken together, these findings point to a novel role for miR-362-3p and miR-329 as tumor suppressors; the miR-362-3p/miR-329-p130Cas axis seemingly has a crucial role in breast cancer progression. Thus, modulation of miR-362-3p/miR-329 may be a novel therapeutic strategy against breast cancer.
Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6) expression, activation, and amplification of the PTK6 gene have been reported in ERBB2/HER2-positive mammary gland cancers. To explore contributions of PTK6 to mammary gland tumorigenesis promoted by activated ERBB2, we crossed Ptk6-/- mice with the mouse mammary tumor virus-ERBB2 transgenic mouse line expressing activated ERBB2 and characterized tumor development and progression. ERBB2-induced tumorigenesis was significantly delayed and diminished in mice lacking PTK6. PTK6 expression was induced in the mammary glands of ERBB2 transgenic mice before tumor development and correlated with activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and increased proliferation. Disruption of PTK6 impaired STAT3 activation and proliferation. Phosphorylation of the PTK6 substrates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 (BCAR1; p130CAS) was decreased in Ptk6-/- mammary gland tumors. Reduced numbers of metastases were detected in the lungs of Ptk6-/- mice expressing activated ERBB2, compared with wild-type ERBB2 transgenic mice. PTK6 activation was detected at the edges of ERBB2-positive tumors. These data support roles for PTK6 in both ERBB2-induced mammary gland tumor initiation and metastasis, and identify STAT3, FAK, and BCAR1 as physiologically relevant PTK6 substrates in breast cancer. Including PTK6 inhibitors as part of a treatment regimen could have distinct benefits in ERBB2/HER2-positive breast cancers.
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the developed world. Both inherited high-penetrance mutations in BRCA2 (ref. 2), ATM, PALB2 (ref. 4), BRCA1 (ref. 5), STK11 (ref. 6), CDKN2A and mismatch-repair genes and low-penetrance loci are associated with increased risk. To identify new risk loci, we performed a genome-wide association study on 9,925 pancreatic cancer cases and 11,569 controls, including 4,164 newly genotyped cases and 3,792 controls in 9 studies from North America, Central Europe and Australia. We identified three newly associated regions: 17q25.1 (LINC00673, rs11655237, odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-1.34, P = 1.42 × 10(-14)), 7p13 (SUGCT, rs17688601, OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.84-0.92, P = 1.41 × 10(-8)) and 3q29 (TP63, rs9854771, OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85-0.93, P = 2.35 × 10(-8)). We detected significant association at 2p13.3 (ETAA1, rs1486134, OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.09-1.19, P = 3.36 × 10(-9)), a region with previous suggestive evidence in Han Chinese. We replicated previously reported associations at 9q34.2 (ABO), 13q22.1 (KLF5), 5p15.33 (TERT and CLPTM1), 13q12.2 (PDX1), 1q32.1 (NR5A2), 7q32.3 (LINC-PINT), 16q23.1 (BCAR1) and 22q12.1 (ZNRF3). Our study identifies new loci associated with pancreatic cancer risk.
Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6, also called BRK) is an intracellular tyrosine kinase expressed in the epithelial linings of the gastrointestinal tract and the skin, where it is expressed in nondividing differentiated cells. We found that PTK6 expression increases in the epidermis following UVB treatment. To evaluate the roles of PTK6 in the skin following UVB-induced damage, we exposed back skin of Ptk6 +/+ and Ptk6 -/- SENCAR mice to incremental doses of UVB for 30 weeks. Wild-type mice were more sensitive to UVB and exhibited increased inflammation and greater activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) than Ptk6-/- mice. Disruption of Ptk6 did not have an impact on proliferation, although PTK6 was expressed and activated in basal epithelial cells in wild-type mice following UVB treatment. However, wild-type mice exhibited shortened tumor latency and increased tumor load compared with Ptk6-/- mice, and STAT3 activation was increased in these tumors. PTK6 activation was detected in UVB-induced tumors, and this correlated with increased activating phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 (BCAR1). Activation of PTK6 was also detected in human squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. Although PTK6 has roles in normal differentiation, it also contributes to UVB-induced injury and tumorigenesis in vivo.
N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) is a potent metastasis suppressor that plays a key role in regulating signaling pathways involved in mediating cancer cell invasion and migration, including those derived from prostate, colon, etc. However, the mechanisms and molecular targets through which NDRG1 reduces cancer cell invasion and migration, leading to inhibition of cancer metastasis, are not fully elucidated. In this investigation, using NDRG1 over-expression models in three tumor cell-types (namely, DU145, PC3MM and HT29) and also NDRG1 silencing in DU145 and HT29 cells, we reveal that NDRG1 decreases phosphorylation of a key proto-oncogene, cellular Src (c-Src), at a well-characterized activating site (Tyr416). NDRG1-mediated down-regulation of EGFR expression and activation were responsible for the decreased phosphorylation of c-Src (Tyr416). Indeed, NDRG1 prevented recruitment of c-Src to EGFR and c-Src activation. Moreover, NDRG1 suppressed Rac1 activity by modulating phosphorylation of a c-Src downstream effector, p130Cas, and its association with CrkII, which acts as a "molecular switch" to activate Rac1. NDRG1 also affected another signaling molecule involved in modulating Rac1 signaling, c-Abl, which then inhibited CrkII phosphorylation. Silencing NDRG1 increased cell migration relative to the control and inhibition of c-Src signaling using siRNA, or a pharmacological inhibitor (SU6656), prevented this increase. Hence, the role of NDRG1 in decreasing cell migration is, in part, due to its inhibition of c-Src activation. In addition, novel pharmacological agents, which induce NDRG1 expression and are currently under development as anti-metastatic agents, markedly increase NDRG1 and decrease c-Src activation. This study leads to important insights into the mechanism involved in inhibiting metastasis by NDRG1 and how to target these pathways with novel therapeutics.
Kumbrink J, Soni S, Laumbacher B, et al.Identification of Novel Crk-associated Substrate (p130Cas) Variants with Functionally Distinct Focal Adhesion Kinase Binding Activities.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(19):12247-55 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Elevated levels of p130(Cas) (Crk-associated substrate)/BCAR1 (breast cancer antiestrogen resistance 1 gene) are associated with aggressiveness of breast tumors. Following phosphorylation of its substrate domain, p130(Cas) promotes the integration of protein complexes involved in multiple signaling pathways and mediates cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration. In addition to the known BCAR1-1A (wild-type) and 1C variants, we identified four novel BCAR1 mRNA variants, generated by alternative first exon usage (1B, 1B1, 1D, and 1E). Exons 1A and 1C encode for four amino acids (aa), whereas 1D and 1E encode for 22 aa and 1B1 encodes for 50 aa. Exon 1B is non-coding, resulting in a truncated p130(Cas) protein (Cas1B). BCAR1-1A, 1B1, and variant 1C mRNAs were ubiquitously expressed in cell lines and a survey of human tissues, whereas 1B, 1D, and 1E expression was more restricted. Reconstitution of all isoforms except for 1B in p130(Cas)-deficient murine fibroblasts induced lamellipodia formation and membrane ruffling, which was unrelated to the substrate domain phosphorylation status. The longer isoforms exhibited increased binding to focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a molecule important for migration and adhesion. The shorter 1B isoform exhibited diminished FAK binding activity and significantly reduced migration and invasion. In contrast, the longest variant 1B1 established the most efficient FAK binding and greatly enhanced migration. Our results indicate that the p130(Cas) exon 1 variants display altered functional properties. The truncated variant 1B and the longer isoform 1B1 may contribute to the diverse effects of p130(Cas) on cell biology and therefore will be the target of future studies.
Camacho Leal Mdel P, Sciortino M, Tornillo G, et al.p130Cas/BCAR1 scaffold protein in tissue homeostasis and pathogenesis.
Gene. 2015; 562(1):1-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BCAR1 (also known as p130Cas/BCAR1) is an adaptor protein that belongs to the CAS family of scaffold proteins. In the past years, increasing evidence has demonstrated the ability of p130Cas/BCAR1 to activate signaling originating from mechanical stimuli, cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion and growth factor stimulation cascades during normal development and disease in various biological models. In this review we will specifically discuss the more recent data on the contribution of p130Cas/BCAR1 in the regulation of tissue homeostasis and its potential implications in pathological conditions.
Blocking the migration of metastatic cancer cells is a major goal in the therapy of cancer. The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is one of the main triggers for cancer cell migration in neoplasia of breast, colon, skin, thyroid and prostate. In our study we analyzed the effect of AXL inhibition on cell motility and viability in triple negative breast cancer cell lines overexpressing AXL. Thereby we reveal that the compound BMS777607, exhibiting the lowest IC50 values for inhibition of AXL kinase activity in the studied cell lines, attenuates cell motility to a lower extent than the kinase inhibitors MPCD84111 and SKI606. By analyzing the target kinases of MPCD84111 and SKI606 with kinase profiling assays we identified Lyn, a Src family kinase, as a target of both compounds. Knockdown of Lyn and the migration-related CRK-associated substrate (p130Cas), had a significant inhibitory effect on cell migration. Taken together, our findings highlight the importance of combinatorial or multikinase inhibition of non-receptor tyrosine kinases and AXL receptor tyrosine kinase in the therapy of triple negative breast cancer.
Cito L, Indovina P, Forte IM, et al.pRb2/p130 localizes to the cytoplasm in diffuse gastric cancer.
J Cell Physiol. 2015; 230(4):802-5 [PubMed
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pRb2/p130 is a key tumor suppressor, whose oncosuppressive activity has mainly been attributed to its ability to negatively regulate cell cycle by interacting with the E2F4 and E2F5 transcription factors. Indeed, pRb2/p130 has been found altered in various cancer types in which it functions as a valuable prognostic marker. Here, we analyzed pRb2/p130 expression in gastric cancer tissue samples of diffuse histotype, in comparison with their normal counterparts. We found a cytoplasmic localization of pRb2/p130 in cancer tissue samples, whereas, in normal counterparts, we observed the expected nuclear localization. pRb2/p130 cytoplasmic delocalization can lead to cell cycle deregulation, but considering the emerging involvement of pRb2/p130 in other key cellular processes, it could contribute to gastric tumorigenesis also through other mechanisms. Our data support the necessity of further investigations to verify the possibility of using pRb2/p130 as a biomarker or potential therapeutic target for diffuse gastric cancer.
Wallez Y, Riedl SJ, Pasquale EBAssociation of the breast cancer antiestrogen resistance protein 1 (BCAR1) and BCAR3 scaffolding proteins in cell signaling and antiestrogen resistance.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(15):10431-44 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Most breast cancers are estrogen receptor-positive and treated with antiestrogens, but aberrant signaling networks can induce drug resistance. One of these networks involves the scaffolding protein BCAR1/p130CAS, which regulates cell growth and migration/invasion. A less investigated scaffolding protein that also confers antiestrogen resistance is the SH2 domain-containing protein BCAR3. BCAR1 and BCAR3 bind tightly to each other through their C-terminal domains, thus potentially connecting their associated signaling networks. However, recent studies using BCAR1 and BCAR3 interaction mutants concluded that association between the two proteins is not critical for many of their interrelated activities regulating breast cancer malignancy. We report that these previously used BCAR mutations fail to cause adequate loss-of-function of the complex. By using structure-based BCAR1 and BCAR3 mutants that lack the ability to interact, we show that BCAR3-induced antiestrogen resistance in MCF7 breast cancer cells critically depends on its ability to bind BCAR1. Interaction with BCAR3 increases the levels of phosphorylated BCAR1, ultimately potentiating BCAR1-dependent antiestrogen resistance. Furthermore, antiestrogen resistance in cells overexpressing BCAR1/BCAR3 correlates with increased ERK1/2 activity. Inhibiting ERK1/2 through overexpression of the regulatory protein PEA15 negates the resistance, revealing a key role for ERK1/2 in BCAR1/BCAR3-induced antiestrogen resistance. Reverse-phase protein array data show that PEA15 levels in invasive breast cancers correlate with patient survival, suggesting that PEA15 can override ERK1/2 activation by BCAR1/BCAR3 and other upstream regulators. We further uncovered that the BCAR3-related NSP3 can also promote antiestrogen resistance. Thus, strategies to disrupt BCAR1-BCAR3/NSP3 complexes and associated signaling networks could ultimately lead to new breast cancer therapies.
Kuo CH, Liu CJ, Lu CY, et al.17β-estradiol inhibits mesenchymal stem cells-induced human AGS gastric cancer cell mobility via suppression of CCL5- Src/Cas/Paxillin signaling pathway.
Int J Med Sci. 2014; 11(1):7-16 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gender differences in terms of mortality among many solid organ malignancies have been proved by epidemiological data. Estrogen has been suspected to cast a protective effect against cancer because of the lower mortality of gastric cancer in females and the benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in gastric cancer. Hence, it suggests that 17β-estradiol (E2) may affect the behavior of cancer cells. One of the key features of cancer-related mortality is metastasis. Accumulating evidences suggest that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMMSCs) and its secreted CCL-5 have a role in enhancing the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. However, it is not clear whether E2 would affect HBMMSCs-induced mobility in gastric cancer cells. In this report, we show that CCL-5 secreted by HBMMSCs enhanced mobility in human AGS gastric cancer cells via activation of Src/Cas/Paxillin signaling pathway. Treatment with specific neutralizing antibody of CCL-5 significantly inhibited HBMMSCs-enhanced mobility in human AGS gastric cancer cells. We further observe that 17β-estradiol suppressed HBMMSCs-enhanced mobility by down-regulating CCL5-Src/Cas/paxillin signaling pathway in AGS cells. Collectively, these results suggest that 17β-estradiol treatment significantly inhibits HBMMSCS-induced mobility in human AGS gastric cancer cells.
Phosphorylation-dependent protein ubiquitylation and degradation provides an irreversible mechanism to terminate protein kinase signaling. Here, we report that mammary epithelial cells require cullin-5-RING-E3-ubiquitin-ligase complexes (Cul5-CRLs) to prevent transformation by a Src-Cas signaling pathway. Removal of Cul5 stimulates growth-factor-independent growth and migration, membrane dynamics and colony dysmorphogenesis, which are all dependent on the endogenous tyrosine kinase Src. Src is activated in Cul5-deficient cells, but Src activation alone is not sufficient to cause transformation. We found that Cul5 and Src together stimulate degradation of the Src substrate p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate). Phosphorylation stimulates Cas binding to the Cul5-CRL adaptor protein SOCS6 and consequent proteasome-dependent degradation. Cas is necessary for the transformation of Cul5-deficient cells. Either knockdown of SOCS6 or use of a degradation-resistant Cas mutant stimulates membrane ruffling, but not other aspects of transformation. Our results show that endogenous Cul5 suppresses epithelial cell transformation by several pathways, including inhibition of Src-Cas-induced ruffling through SOCS6.
Giessrigl B, Schmidt WM, Kalipciyan M, et al.Fulvestrant induces resistance by modulating GPER and CDK6 expression: implication of methyltransferases, deacetylases and the hSWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 109(10):2751-62 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women living in the western hemisphere. Despite major advances in first-line endocrine therapy of advanced oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, the frequent recurrence of resistant cancer cells represents a serious obstacle to successful treatment. Understanding the mechanisms leading to acquired resistance, therefore, could pave the way to the development of second-line therapeutics. To this end, we generated an ER-positive breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) with resistance to the therapeutic anti-oestrogen fulvestrant (FUL) and studied the molecular changes involved in resistance.
METHODS: Naive MCF-7 cells were treated with increasing FUL concentrations and the gene expression profile of the resulting FUL-resistant strain (FR.MCF-7) was compared with that of naive cells using GeneChip arrays. After validation by real-time PCR and/or western blotting, selected resistance-associated genes were functionally studied by siRNA-mediated silencing or pharmacological inhibition. Furthermore, general mechanisms causing aberrant gene expression were investigated.
RESULTS: Fulvestrant resistance was associated with repression of GPER and the overexpression of CDK6, whereas ERBB2, ABCG2, ER and ER-related genes (GREB1, RERG) or genes expressed in resistant breast cancer (BCAR1, BCAR3) did not contribute to resistance. Aberrant GPER and CDK6 expression was most likely caused by modification of DNA methylation and histone acetylation, respectively. Therefore, part of the resistance mechanism was loss of RB1 control. The hSWI/SNF (human SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable) chromatin remodelling complex, which is tightly linked to nucleosome acetylation and repositioning, was also affected, because as a stress response to FUL treatment-naive cells altered the expression of five subunits within a few hours (BRG1, BAF250A, BAF170, BAF155, BAF47). The aberrant constitutive expression of BAF250A, BAF170 and BAF155 and a deviant stress response of BRG1, BAF170 and BAF47 in FR.MCF-7 cells to FUL treatment accompanied acquired FUL resistance. The regular and aberrant expression profiles of BAF155 correlated directly with that of CDK6 in naive and in FR.MCF-7 cells corroborating the finding that CDK6 overexpression was due to nucleosome alterations.
CONCLUSION: The study revealed that FUL resistance is associated with the dysregulation of GPER and CDK6. A mechanism leading to aberrant gene expression was most likely unscheduled chromatin remodelling by hSWI/SNF. Hence, three targets should be conceptually addressed in a second-line adjuvant therapy: the catalytic centre of SWI/SNF (BRG1) to delay the development of FUL resistance, GPER to increase sensitivity to FUL and the reconstitution of the RB1 pathway to overcome resistance.
Reynolds AB, Kanner SB, Bouton AH, et al.SRChing for the substrates of Src.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(37):4537-47 [PubMed
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By the mid 1980's, it was clear that the transforming activity of oncogenic Src was linked to the activity of its tyrosine kinase domain and attention turned to identifying substrates, the putative next level of control in the pathway to transformation. Among the first to recognize the potential of phosphotyrosine-specific antibodies, Parsons and colleagues launched a risky shotgun-based approach that led ultimately to the cDNA cloning and functional characterization of many of today's best-known Src substrates (for example, p85-Cortactin, p110-AFAP1, p130Cas, p125FAK and p120-catenin). Two decades and over 6000 citations later, the original goals of the project may be seen as secondary to the enormous impact of these protein substrates in many areas of biology. At the request of the editors, this review is not restricted to the current status of the substrates, but reflects also on the anatomy of the project itself and some of the challenges and decisions encountered along the way.
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine the prognostic value of BCAR1 expression and its associations with clinical-demographical characteristics in multiple centers of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
METHODS: Gene expression microarray (mRNA) of 77 adenocarcinomas from Mayo Clinic, RNA-sequencing of 508 NSCLC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and immunohistochemistry stain of BCAR1-protein expression in 150 cases from Daping Hospital were included in the study. The association of mRNA or protein expression with patient clinical characteristics and overall survival was assessed in each dataset. We also predicted microRNAs (miRNA) that target BCAR1 using bioinformatics prediction tools and evaluated miRNA expression patterns with BCAR1 expression in miRNA-sequencing data of 74 lung cancer cases from TCGA dataset.
RESULTS: In the Mayo Clinic dataset, a higher BCAR1-mRNA level correlated significantly with more advanced tumor-stage and lymphatic metastasis. Similar changes were observed in the TCGA RNA-seq dataset. Additionally, higher BCAR1-mRNA levels predicted poorer survival in adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma from the TCGA dataset. The protein levels in the adenocarcinoma cases with lymphatic metastasis were significantly higher than of those without metastasis. Tumor tissues demonstrated remarkably higher levels of protein compared with matched normal tissues although there was no significant difference in BCAR1-mRNA expression between tumor and matched normal tissues was detected. In miRNAs that were downregulated in the tumors, Let-7f-2 and miR-22 differed the most (P < 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that increased BCAR1 expression predicts poorer prognosis in NSCLC. We postulate that mRNA-protein decoupling of BCAR1 may be a result of reduced inhibition of specific miRNAs in tumor tissues, which warrants further study.
Understanding transcriptional changes during cancer progression is of crucial importance to develop new and more efficacious diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. It is well known that ErbB2 is overexpressed in about 25% of human invasive breast cancers. We have previously demonstrated that p130Cas overexpression synergizes with ErbB2 in mammary cell transformation and promotes ErbB2-dependent invasion in three-dimensional (3D) cultures of human mammary epithelial cells. Here, by comparing coding and non-coding gene expression profiles, we define the invasive signatures associated with concomitant p130Cas overexpression and ErbB2 activation in 3D cultures of mammary epithelial cells. Specifically, we have found that genes involved in amino acids synthesis (CBS, PHGDH), cell motility, migration (ITPKA, PRDM1), and angiogenesis (HEY1) are upregulated, while genes involved in inflammatory response (SAA1, S100A7) are downregulated. In parallel, we have shown that the expression of specific miRNAs is altered. Among these, miR-200b, miR-222, miR-221, miR-R210, and miR-424 are upregulated, while miR-27a, miR-27b, and miR-23b are downregulated. Overall, this study presents, for the first time, the gene expression changes underlying the invasive behavior following p130Cas overexpression in an ErbB2 transformed mammary cell model.
Elevated expression of p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate)/BCAR1 (breast cancer antiestrogen resistance 1) in human breast tumors is a marker of poor prognosis and poor overall survival. p130Cas is a downstream target of the tyrosine kinase c-Src. Signaling mediated by p130Cas through its phosphorylated substrate domain (SD) and interaction with effector molecules directly promotes tumor progression. We previously developed a constitutively phosphorylated p130Cas SD molecule, Src*/SD (formerly referred to as Src*/CasSD), which acts as decoy molecule and attenuates the transformed phenotype in v-crk-transformed murine fibroblasts and human breast cancer cells. To test the function of this molecule in vivo, we established mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-long terminal repeat-Src*/SD transgenic mice in which mammary gland development and tumor formation were analyzed. Transgenic expression of the Src*/SD molecule under the MMTV-long terminal repeat promoter did not interfere with normal mammary gland development or induce tumors in mice observed for up to 11 months. To evaluate the effects of the Src*/SD molecule on tumor development in vivo, we utilized the MMTV-polyoma middle T-antigen (PyMT) murine breast cancer model that depends on c-Src. PyMT mice crossed with Src*/SD mice displayed accelerated tumor formation. The earlier onset of tumors can be explained by the interaction of the Src* domain with PyMT and targeting the fused phosphorylated SD to the membrane. At membrane compartments, it might integrate membrane-associated active signaling complexes leading to increased proliferation measured by phospho-Histone H3 staining. Although these results were unexpected, they emphasize the importance of preventing the membrane association of Src*/SD when employed as decoy molecule.
Jardel P, Debiais C, Godet J, et al.Ductal carcinoma of the prostate shows a different immunophenotype from high grade acinar cancer.
Histopathology. 2013; 63(1):57-63 [PubMed
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AIMS: Ductal carcinoma (DC) of the prostate is an entity distinct from the common acinar cancer (AC), both on clinical and morphological aspects. We aimed to analyze the expression of molecules involved in either hormonal signalling or androgen independent pathways, in DC compared to high grade AC.
METHODS AND RESULTS: A tissue microarray was constructed with samples from 24 cases of DC and 27 cases of high grade AC. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies directed against: Ki67; androgen receptor (AR); PSA; 5alpha-reductase 1, 2, 3; oestrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERA and ERB); aromatase; Alpha keto reductase 1C3; Squalene epoxidase (SQLE); BCAR1; Src. Cell proliferation and ERB staining were significantly increased in DC compared to AC. In contrast, the expressions of enzymes SQLE, aromatase, and 5 alpha reductase 2, were higher in AC. Staining for BCAR1 and Src, markers associated with androgen-independent pathways, was increased in DC compared to AC. These differences remained significant after adjusting for pTNM stage.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the hormone related molecular pathways that drive cancer progression might be different in AC and DC. The decrease in steroid synthesis related enzymes, together with up-regulation of the BCAR1-Src pathway, emphasizes the biological particularities of DC.
Giordano G, Pizzi S, Azzoni C, et al.Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium unrelated to human papilloma virus: a molecular study.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2013; 19(3):495-9 [PubMed
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In this paper we report a molecular study of a case of Primary Endometrial Squamous Carcinoma (PESC), in which a Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection had been previously excluded by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The studies performed in an effort to explain the carcinogenesis included immunohistochemical over-expression of p53 and p16 proteins as previously observed in our own papers, plus microsatellite analysis of D10S1765 at 10q23.3 (PTEN) and TP53 at 17p13.1 (P53) as well as the methylation status of the of BRCA1 and p16 promoters using specific PCRs. In this rare malignancy, we found allelic imbalance (AI) at 17p13.1 (P53). Instead, AI at D10S1765 (PTEN) gene was absent. The genetic alteration of p53, with hyper-expression of p53 protein and an absence of abnormalities in the PTEN gene are consistent with the similarities between Uterine Serous Carcinoma (USC) and our case of PESC. The aberrant methylation of both p16 and BCAR1 promoters was not detected in our case. This finding too could imply that ESC is more similar to Uterine Serous Carcinoma than Uterine Endometrioid Carcinoma (UEC). Moreover, the lack of aberrant methylation of p16, which is in accordance with over-expression of p16 immunoreactivity, in the absence of HPV infection may be related to other unknown genetic alterations. In our opinion, it is hard to reach any definite conclusion concerning the carcinogenesis of PESC, because of its rarity and the very few molecular studies reported in the literature. Further studies with more numerous cases and larger molecular analyses are mandatory for this malignancy, to confirm whether it is more closely related to papillary endometrial cancer than to endometrioid carcinoma.
Ramachandran A, Betts G, Bhana S, et al.An in vivo hypoxia metagene identifies the novel hypoxia inducible factor target gene SLCO1B3.
Eur J Cancer. 2013; 49(7):1741-51 [PubMed
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A hypoxia-associated gene signature (metagene) was previously derived via in vivo data-mining. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether this approach could identify novel hypoxia regulated genes. From an initial list of nine genes, three were selected for further study (BCAR1, IGF2BP2 and SLCO1B3). Ten cell lines were exposed to hypoxia and interrogated for the expression of the three genes. All three genes were hypoxia inducible in at least one of the 10 cell lines with SLCO1B3 induced in seven. SLCO1B3 was studied further using chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assays to investigate hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) dependent transcription. Two functional HIF response elements were identified within intron 1 of the gene. The functional importance of SLCO1B3 was studied by gene knockdown experiments followed by cell growth assays, flow cytometry and Western blotting. SLCO1B3 knockdown reduced cell size and 3-dimensional spheroid volume, which was associated with decreased activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Finally, Oncomine analysis revealed that head and neck and colorectal tumours had higher levels of SLCO1B3 compared to normal tissue. Thus, the knowledge based approach for deriving gene signatures can identify novel biologically relevant genes.
Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulates the differentiation of promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells by inducing adhesion followed by cell aggregation and, importantly, apoptosis. p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate) is an adapter molecule that controls cell growth, attachment and apoptotic programs. Notably, elevated p130Cas activity is associated with leukemias and lymphomas. Since p130Cas regulates cell adhesion, we tested the hypothesis that it participates in the differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Here we show that PMA mediates the late induction of p130Cas expression in HL-60 cells, which coincided with cell aggregation and the onset of apoptosis. Ectopic p130Cas expression led to increased cell adhesion and earlier cell aggregation potentially contributing to the observed increased cell viability in these transductants. p130Cas expression concurred with the induction of its own regulator the transcription factor EGR1, its coregulator NAB2, and apoptosis. NF-κB inhibition in PMA-treated HL-60 cells promoted the loss of cell aggregation and cell death. We further showed a reduction of p130Cas, EGR1, and NAB2 levels in response to NF-κB inhibition during PMA treatment. Hence, p130Cas acts as survival factor by limiting PMA-mediated cell cluster disruption and resulting cell death in HL-60 cells.
Ma Y, Zhang P, Wang F, et al.Elevated oncofoetal miR-17-5p expression regulates colorectal cancer progression by repressing its target gene P130.
Nat Commun. 2012; 3:1291 [PubMed
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential for regulating normal embryonic development and carcinogenesis. Here we report that miR-17-5p, an oncofoetal miRNA, is a key regulator of colorectal cancer progression. We show that miR-17-5p is an oncogenic miRNA that regulates tumorigenesis and progression by targeting the gene encoding P130 and subsequently activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Using specimens from two large cohorts of colorectal cancer patients, we found that patients whose tumours had high miR-17-5p expression had shorter overall survival rates but showed a better response to adjuvant chemotherapy than did patients whose tumours had low miRNA expression. We also observed a strong inverse correlation between miR-17-5p and P130 expression. The current findings suggest that miR-17-5p is a crucial determinant of colorectal cancer progression.
p130Cas adaptor protein regulates basic processes such as cell cycle control, survival and migration. p130Cas over-expression has been related to mammary gland transformation, however the in vivo consequences of p130Cas over-expression during mammary gland morphogenesis are not known. In ex vivo mammary explants from MMTV-p130Cas transgenic mice, we show that p130Cas impairs the functional interplay between Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Estrogen Receptor (ER) during mammary gland development. Indeed, we demonstrate that p130Cas over-expression upon the concomitant stimulation with EGF and estrogen (E2) severely impairs mammary morphogenesis giving rise to enlarged multicellular spherical structures with altered architecture and absence of the central lumen. These filled acinar structures are characterized by increased cell survival and proliferation and by a strong activation of Erk1/2 MAPKs and Akt. Interestingly, antagonizing the ER activity is sufficient to re-establish branching morphogenesis and normal Erk1/2 MAPK activity. Overall, these results indicate that high levels of p130Cas expression profoundly affect mammary morphogenesis by altering epithelial architecture, survival and unbalancing Erk1/2 MAPKs activation in response to growth factors and hormones. These results suggest that alteration of morphogenetic pathways due to p130Cas over-expression might prime mammary epithelium to tumorigenesis.
INTRODUCTION: Intrinsic plasticity of breast carcinoma cells allows them to undergo a transient and reversible conversion into mesenchymal cells to disseminate into distant organs, where they can re-differentiate to an epithelial-like status to form a cohesive secondary mass. The p130Cas scaffold protein is overexpressed in human ER+ and HER2+ breast cancer where it contributes to cancer progression, invasion and resistance to therapy. However, its role in regulating mesenchymal aggressive breast cancer cells remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular and functional involvement of this adaptor protein in breast cancer cell plasticity.
METHODS: We used silencing strategies and rescue experiments to evaluate phenotypic and biochemical changes from mesenchymal to epithelial traits in breast tumor cell lines. In the mouse A17 cell model previously related to mesenchymal cancer stem cells and basal-like breast cancer, we biochemically dissected the signaling pathways involved and performed functional in vivo tumor growth ability assays. The significance of the signaling platform was assessed in a human setting through the use of specific inhibitors in aggressive MDA-MB-231 subpopulation LM2-4175 cells. To evaluate the clinical relevance of the results, we analyzed publicly available microarray data from the Netherlands Cancer Institute and from the Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center.
RESULTS: We show that p130Cas silencing induces loss of mesenchymal features, by downregulating Vimentin, Snail, Slug and Twist transcriptional factors, resulting in the acquirement of epithelial-like traits. Mechanistically, p130Cas controls Cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional expression, which in turn contributes to p130Cas-dependent maintenance of mesenchymal phenotype. This cascade of events also compromises in vivo tumor growth through inhibition of cell signaling controlling cell cycle progression. c-Src and JNK kinases are sequential players in p130Cas/ Cyclooxygenase-2 axis and their pharmacological inhibition is sufficient to downregulate Cyclooxygenase-2 leading to an epithelial phenotype. Finally, in silico microarray data analysis indicates that p130Cas and Cyclooxygenase-2 concomitant overexpression predicts poor survival and high probability of breast tumor recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these data identify a new p130Cas/Cyclooxygenase-2 axis as a crucial element in the control of breast tumor plasticity, opening new therapeutic strategies leading to inhibition of these pathways in aggressive breast carcinoma.
Kondo S, Iwata S, Yamada T, et al.Impact of the integrin signaling adaptor protein NEDD9 on prognosis and metastatic behavior of human lung cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(22):6326-38 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: In a substantial population of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), expression and activation of EGF receptor (EGFR) have been reported and is regarded as a novel molecular target. A growing body of evidence has shown the signaling crosstalk between EGFR and integrins in cellular migration and invasion. NEDD9 is an integrin signaling adaptor protein composed of multiple domains serving as substrate for a variety of tyrosine kinases. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating a role of NEDD9 in the signaling crosstalk between EGFR and integrins.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using NSCLC cell lines, we conducted immunoblotting and cellular migration/invasion assay in vitro. Next, we analyzed metastasis assays in vivo by the use of xenograft transplantation model. Finally, we retrospectively evaluated clinical samples and records of patients with NSCLCs.
RESULTS: We showed that tyrosine phosphorylation of NEDD9 was reduced by the inhibition of EGFR in NSCLC cell lines. Overexpression of constitutively active EGFR caused tyrosine phosphorylation of NEDD9 in the absence of integrin stimulation. By gene transfer and gene knockdown, we showed that NEDD9 plays a pivotal role in cell migration and invasion of those cells in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of NEDD9 promoted lung metastasis of an NSCLC cell line in NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγ(null) mice (NOG) mice. Finally, univariate and multivariate Cox model analysis of NSCLC clinical specimens revealed a strong correlation between NEDD9 expression and recurrence-free survival as well as overall survival.
CONCLUSION: Our data thus suggest that NEDD9 is a promising biomarker for the prognosis of NSCLCs and its expression can promote NSCLC metastasis.