PRB2; proline-rich protein BstNI subfamily 2 (12p13.2)

Gene Summary

Gene:PRB2; proline-rich protein BstNI subfamily 2
Aliases: Ps, cP7, IB-9, PRPPRB1
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:basic salivary proline-rich protein 2
Updated:14 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
PRB2 is implicated in:
- biological_process
- cellular_component
- extracellular region
- molecular_function
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Cancer DNA
  • RBL1
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Cell Line
  • Tumor Virus Infections
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Genetic Therapy
  • Multigene Family
  • Lung Cancer
  • p53 Protein
  • DNA Methylation
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • S Phase
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Transfection
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Urinary System Cancers
  • Survival Rate
  • Apoptosis
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • E2F Transcription Factors
  • tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • Proteins
  • Genes, Retinoblastoma
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Cycle
  • Mutation
  • Urinary Tract
  • Biological Models
  • Chromosome 12
  • Western Blotting
  • PRB2
  • RB1
  • Tumor Markers
  • Transcription Factors
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Promoter Regions
Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (2)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Lung CancerPRB2 and Lung Cancer View Publications7
RetinoblastomaPRB2 and Retinoblastoma View Publications6

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: PRB2 (cancer-related)

Suzuki K, Sakaguchi M, Tanaka S, et al.
Prolyl oligopeptidase inhibition-induced growth arrest of human gastric cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 443(1):91-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is a serine endopeptidase that hydrolyzes post-proline peptide bonds in peptides that are <30 amino acids in length. We recently reported that POP inhibition suppressed the growth of human neuroblastoma cells. The growth suppression was associated with pronounced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and increased levels of the CDK inhibitor p27(kip1) and the tumor suppressor p53. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of POP inhibition-induced cell growth arrest using a human gastric cancer cell line, KATO III cells, which had a p53 gene deletion. POP specific inhibitors, 3-({4-[2-(E)-styrylphenoxy]butanoyl}-l-4-hydroxyprolyl)-thiazolidine (SUAM-14746) and benzyloxycarbonyl-thioprolyl-thioprolinal, or RNAi-mediated POP knockdown inhibited the growth of KATO III cells irrespective of their p53 status. SUAM-14746-induced growth inhibition was associated with G0/G1 cell cycle phase arrest and increased levels of p27(kip1) in the nuclei and the pRb2/p130 protein expression. Moreover, SUAM-14746-mediated cell cycle arrest of KATO III cells was associated with an increase in the quiescent G0 state, defined by low level staining for the proliferation marker, Ki-67. These results indicate that POP may be a positive regulator of cell cycle progression by regulating the exit from and/or reentry into the cell cycle by KATO III cells.

Related: CDKN1B Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Bellacchio E, Paggi MG
Understanding the targeting of the RB family proteins by viral oncoproteins to defeat their oncogenic machinery.
J Cell Physiol. 2013; 228(2):285-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
The retinoblastoma (RB) family consists of three genes, RB1, RBL1, and RBL2, that code for the pRb, p107, and pRb2/p130 proteins, respectively. All these factors have pivotal roles in controlling fundamental cellular mechanisms such as cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis. The founder and the most investigated RB family protein is pRb, which is considered to be the paradigm of tumor suppressors. However, p107 and pRb2/p130 clearly display a high degree of structural and functional homology with pRb. Interestingly, these factors were first identified as physical targets of the Adenovirus E1A oncoprotein. Indeed, RB family proteins are the most important and widely investigated targets of small DNA virus oncoproteins, such as Adenovirus E1A, human papillomavirus E7 and Simian virus 40 large T antigen. By interacting with pRb and with other RB family members, these oncoproteins neutralize their growth suppressive properties, thus stimulating proliferation of the infected cells, de-differentiation, and resistance to apoptosis. All these acquired features strongly favor the rise and selection of immortalized and mutation-prone cells, leading to a higher propensity in undergoing transformation. Our present work aims to illustrate and delve into these protein-protein interactions. Considering that these viral oncoproteins are dispensable for normal cellular functions, they can create "oncogene addiction" in the infected/transformed cells. This makes the possibility to dismantle these interactions extremely attractive, thus promoting the development of highly specific smart molecules capable of targeting only the infected/transformed cells that express these viral factors.

Related: Merkel Cell Polyomavirus RB1

Kalungi S, Wabinga H, Bostad L
The RB (pRb2/p16) and p53 (p14/p53/p21) tumor-suppressor pathways in endemic Burkitt lymphoma.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2011; 33(2):e54-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Burkitt lymphoma accounts for approximately 50% of pediatric cancers in equatorial Africa and a majority of NHL in Uganda. The aim of the study was to examine the expression profile of the RB (pRb2 or p16) and p53 (p53, p14, or p21) pathways in biopsies of endemic BL, and compare it to the pattern found in reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH). A total of 51 BL and 10 RLH biopsy specimens were included in the study. p16 expression was found in 8 (16.3%) BL and 2 (20%) RLH cases. p27 was revealed in 29 (65.9%)BL and 9(90%) RLH cases, whereas 29(59.2%) BL and only 1 RLH expressed p53. Positivity for pRb2 was found in 42 (84.0%) of the BL and 8(80%)of the RLH cases. p21 and p14 were negative in all BL and RLH cases. In conclusion, our data indicate that heterogeneous RB (pRb2 or p16) and p53 (p53, p14, or p21) pathway alterations occur frequently in BL. Except for a much higher frequency of p53 protein expression in BL, close similarities were found between BL and RLH.

Related: BCAR1 Signal Transduction TP53

Cito L, Pentimalli F, Forte I, et al.
Rb family proteins in gastric cancer (review).
Oncol Rep. 2010; 24(6):1411-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most diffuse neoplastic pathologies in the world whose environmental and molecular causes, although deeply investigated, have not been completely clarified. Besides some well-established etiological factors, such as Helicobacter pylori and E-cadherin mutations, investigations on other possible causes gave contrasting results. Rb family proteins (including pRb/p105, pRb2/p130 and p107) are involved in cell cycle regulation and their function and/or expression is often lost in various kinds of tumours such as lung, bladder, breast and brain cancer. The consequences of RB inactivation in tumours can be very different depending on the context and the type of cancer. Recent evidence indicates that Rb status correlates with a different therapeutic response according to the tumour type and the therapeutic agent. Studies performed on Rb family proteins in gastrointestinal tract tumours suggest that these proteins have an important role in these cancer types. However, owing to contrasting results, further investigation is required to assess whether the expression of Rb family proteins can potentially be used as a prognostic or predictive factor in gastric cancer.

Related: RB1 Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Caracciolo V, Macaluso M, D'Agostino L, et al.
Cross-talk between T-Ag presence and pRb family and p53/p73 signaling in mouse and human medulloblastoma.
J Cell Biochem. 2010; 110(1):182-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The formation and progression of mudulloblastoma (MB) is poorly understood. However, somatic inactivation of pRb/p105, in combination with a somatic or a germ-line TP53 inactivation, leads to MB in a mouse model. Presently, there is no specific evidence of pathway/s alterations for the other two members of the retinoblastoma family, pRb2/p130 and/or p107 in MB. JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus. Although there is no firm evidence that this virus plays a causal role in human neoplasia, it has been clearly proven that JCV is highly oncogenic when injected into the brain of experimental animals. The mechanism of JCV-induced tumorigenesis is not entirely clear. However, several studies relate the oncogenic properties of JCV mainly to its early protein large T-antigen (T-Ag), which is able to bind and inactivate both TP53 and Rb family proteins. Here, we compared the protein expression profiles of p53, p73, pRb family proteins, and PCNA, as main regulators of cell proliferation and death, in different cell lines of mouse primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), either T-Ag-positive or -negative, and in human MB cell lines. Our goal was to determine if changes in the relative expression of these regulators could trigger molecular perturbations underlying MB pathogenesis in mouse and human cells. Our results support that the presence of JCV T-Ag may interfere with the expression of pRb family proteins, specific p73 isoforms, and p53. In turn, this "perturbation" may trigger a network of signals strictly connected with survival and apoptosis.

Related: Childhood Medulloblastoma / PNET RB1 Signal Transduction TP53 TP73

Masciullo V, Berardengo E, Boglione A, et al.
The retinoblastoma family member pRb2/p130 is an independent predictor of survival in human soft tissue sarcomas.
Clin Cancer Res. 2008; 14(15):4775-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: pRb2/p130, a member of the Retinoblastoma gene family, has been shown to be a powerful prognostic factor in several malignancies. We sought to evaluate pRb2/p130 protein expression and its clinical effect in patients affected with soft tissue sarcomas (STS).
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Expression of pRb2/p130 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections in 41 STSs. Results obtained were correlated with clinicopathologic variables and disease-free and overall survival (OS) in univariate and multivariate analysis.
RESULTS: Expression of pRb2/p130 was diminished in 25 (61%) tumors, whereas the remaining ones (39%) were classified as high expressors. No correlation between pRb2/p130 expression and clinicopathologic variables was observed. However, a direct relationship between pRb2/p130 expression and clinical outcome of the patients was found in the subgroup of nonmetastatic tumors (n = 31). In univariate analysis, reduced pRb2/p130 expression was a negative prognostic factor and correlated with shorter disease-free survival (P = 0.021) and OS (P = 0.017) survival. In multivariate analysis, reduced pRb2/p130 expression was confirmed to be an independent predictor of shorter OS when considered together with tumor stage and grading (risk ratio, 7.893; confidence interval, 1.618-38.509; P = 0.011).
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time the potential prognostic value of pRb2/130 expression evaluated on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections in STSs patients. pRb2/p130 immunoreactivity can be used to predict OS in patients with nonmetastatic STSs and, therefore, may represent a new prognostic marker.

Related: Soft Tissue Sarcomas

Sun A, Bagella L, Tutton S, et al.
From G0 to S phase: a view of the roles played by the retinoblastoma (Rb) family members in the Rb-E2F pathway.
J Cell Biochem. 2007; 102(6):1400-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor suppressor pRb/p105, pRb/p107, and pRb2/p130 genes belong to the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene family. The members of the Rb gene family and the transcription factor E2F play an essential role in regulating cell cycle and, consequently, cell proliferation. This mini-review describes the mechanisms by which Rb family members and E2F regulate cell cycle progression.

Related: Retinoblastoma RBL1 retinoblastoma-like 1 (p107)

Giordano A, Rossi A, Romano G, Bagella L
Tumor suppressor pRb2/p130 gene and its derived product Spa310 spacer domain as perspective candidates for cancer therapy.
J Cell Physiol. 2007; 213(2):403-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor suppressor pRb2/p130 gene belongs to the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene family, which also includes pRb/p105 and pRb/p107. The members of the Rb gene family have attracted a great deal of interest because of their essential role in regulating cell cycle and, consequently, cell proliferation. This mini review discusses the potential therapeutic applications both of pRb2/p130 and its derived product Spa310 spacer domain in cancer treatment.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Macaluso M, Montanari M, Noto PB, et al.
Epigenetic modulation of estrogen receptor-alpha by pRb family proteins: a novel mechanism in breast cancer.
Cancer Res. 2007; 67(16):7731-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) plays a crucial role in normal breast development and has also been linked to mammary carcinogenesis and clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. However, ER-alpha gene expression can change during the course of disease and, consequently, therapy resistance can occur. The molecular mechanism governing ER-alpha transcriptional activity and/or silencing is still unclear. Here, we showed that the presence of a specific pRb2/p130 multimolecular complex on the ER-alpha promoter strongly correlates with the methylation status of this gene. Furthermore, we suggested that pRb2/p130 could cooperate with ICBP90 (inverted CCAAT box binding protein of 90 kDa) and DNA methyltransferases in maintaining a specific methylation pattern of ER-alpha gene. The sequence of epigenetic events for establishing and maintaining the silenced state of ER-alpha gene can be locus- or pathway- specific, and the local remodeling of ER-alpha chromatin structure by pRb2/p130 multimolecular complexes may influence its susceptibility to specific DNA methylation. Our novel hypothesis could provide a basis for understanding how the complex pattern of ER-alpha methylation and transcriptional silencing is generated and for understanding the relationship between this pattern and its function during the neoplastic process.

Related: Azacitidine Breast Cancer EP300 gene RB1 RBL1 retinoblastoma-like 1 (p107)

Vinodhkumar R, Song YS, Devaki T
Romidepsin (depsipeptide) induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and histone hyperacetylation in lung carcinoma cells (A549) are associated with increase in p21 and hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma proteins expression.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2008; 62(2):85-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histone deacetylase inhibitor such as romidepsin (depsipeptide, FR901228, FK228) is a promising new class of antineoplastic agent with the capacity to induce growth arrest and/or apoptosis of cancer cells. However, their precise mechanism of action is uncertain. Histone acetylation and deacetylation are involved in transcriptional activation and transcriptional repression, respectively. Romidepsin induced histone hyperacetylation can be correlated with the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of romidepsin on cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and histone hyperacetylation. Expression of Cdc2/Cdk-1, cyclin B1, cyclin A, p21/Cip1, pRb, pRb2/p130, histone H4 and H3 acetylation status were studied with western blot analysis. The induction of apoptosis has been demonstrated by annexin V-FITC binding assay. Extent of apoptosis has been assessed measuring the activity of caspase-3. Romidepsin led to substantial decrease in the expression of Cdc2/Cdk-1, cyclin B1 and phosphorylated pRb and increase in p21. The pRb protein was found to be one of the targets for the romidepsin induced cell cycle arrest. Flow cytometric analysis showed that romidepsin induced cell cycle arrest at G2-M transition, with significant induction of apoptosis at 25 and 50 nM concentration of romidepsin, with an increase in the number of both early and late apoptotic cells. From this study it is concluded that romidepsin inhibit advanced human lung carcinoma (A549) cell proliferation by altering the expression of cell cycle regulators and apoptotic protein.

Related: Apoptosis CDKN1A Lung Cancer RB1

Caracciolo V, Reiss K, Crozier-Fitzgerald C, et al.
Interplay between the retinoblastoma related pRb2/p130 and E2F-4 and -5 in relation to JCV-TAg.
J Cell Physiol. 2007; 212(1):96-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human polyomaviruses, which include JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV), as well as the simian virus 40 (SV40), have been associated with human tumors and have been shown to be highly tumorigenic in experimental animal models. Although the mechanism by which JCV induces tumorigenesis is not entirely clear, earlier studies point to the involvement of the viral early protein T-antigen which has the ability to bind and inactivate tumor suppressors and cell cycle regulatory proteins, such as the retinoblastoma family proteins and p53. We investigated if the distribution between nucleus and cytoplasm of the transcription factors E2F4 and E2F5 is mediated by pRb2/p130 and if the presence of JCV T-antigen may impair this shuttling by sequestering pRb2/p130. The results showed that E2F4 was prevalently localized in the nucleus of both T-antigen positive and -negative R503 cells independently of the cell cycle phase. E2F5 instead was prevalently localized in the cytoplasmic fraction in G(0)/G(1), S-phase synchronized, and asynchronous R503 and R503 T-Ag positive cells. The presence of T-antigen did not influence the subcellular localization of these transcription factors E2F4 and E2F5, at least in this murine cellular model. Moreover, Small interference RNA experiments directed toward silencing the Rb2/p130 gene demonstrated that pRb2/p130 does not play a predominant role in the nuclear transportation of E2F4 and E2F5.

Related: Childhood Medulloblastoma / PNET Retinoblastoma RB1

Mattioli E, Vogiatzi P, Sun A, et al.
Immunohistochemical analysis of pRb2/p130, VEGF, EZH2, p53, p16(INK4A), p27(KIP1), p21(WAF1), Ki-67 expression patterns in gastric cancer.
J Cell Physiol. 2007; 210(1):183-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the considerable progress against gastric cancer, it remains a complex lethal disease defined by peculiar histological and molecular features. The purpose of the present study was to investigate pRb2/p130, VEGF, EZH2, p53, p16(INK4A), p27(KIP1), p21(WAF1), Ki-67 expressions, and analyze their possible correlations with clinicopathological factors. The expression patterns were examined by immunohistochemistry in 47 patients, 27 evaluated of intestinal-type, and 20 of diffuse-type, with a mean follow up of 56 months and by Western blot in AGS, N87, KATO-III, and YCC-2, -3, -16 gastric cell lines. Overall, stomach cancer showed EZH2 correlated with high levels of p53, Ki-67, and cytoplasmic pRb2/p130 (P < 0.05, and P < 0.01, respectively). Increased expression of EZH2 was found in the intestinal-type and correlated with the risk of distant metastasis (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), demonstrating that this protein may have a prognostic value in this type of cancer. Interestingly, a strong inverse correlation was observed between p27(KIP1) expression levels and the risk of advanced disease and metastasis (P < 0.05), and a positive correlation between the expression levels of p21(WAF1) and low-grade (G1) gastric tumors (P < 0.05), confirming the traditionally accepted role for these tumor-suppressor genes in gastric cancer. Finally, a direct correlation was found between the expression levels of nuclear pRb2/p130 and low-grade (G1) gastric tumors that was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Altogether, these data may help shed some additional light on the pathogenetic mechanisms related to the two main gastric cancer histotypes and their invasive potentials.

Related: CDKN1A CDKN1B MKI67 Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer TP53 VEGFA

De Falco G, Giordano A
pRb2/p130: a new candidate for retinoblastoma tumor formation.
Oncogene. 2006; 25(38):5333-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor in childhood. Mutations in both the alleles of the RB1 gene represent the causative agent for the tumor to occur. It is becoming evident that, although these alterations represent key events in the genesis of retinoblastoma, they are not sufficient per se for the tumor to develop, and other additional genetic or epigenetic alterations must occur. A supportive role in the genesis of retinoblastoma has recently been proposed for the RB1-related gene RB2/p130. Additionally, several other genetic alterations involving different chromosomes have been described as relevant in the tumorigenic process. In this review we will analyse current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms involved in retinoblastoma, paying particular attention to the mechanisms of inactivation of the biological function of the retinoblastoma family of proteins.

Related: Retinoblastoma

Gabellini C, Del Bufalo D, Zupi G
Involvement of RB gene family in tumor angiogenesis.
Oncogene. 2006; 25(38):5326-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, represents a fundamental step in tumor progression and metastatization. The induction of vasculature is required for growth of the tumor mass, to ensure an adequate supply of oxygen and metabolites to the tumor beyond a critical size. Tumor angiogenesis is a highly regulated process that is controlled physiologically by the tumor microenvironment and genetically by alteration of several oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. We will focus on recent demonstrations regarding the involvement of the retinoblastoma family proteins (phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb), p107 and pRb2/p130) at different levels of the angiogenic process. pRb and its homologs can regulate the expression of pro- and antiangiogenic factors, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor, through an E2F-dependent mechanism. Moreover, pRb is able to modulate also the transcriptional activity of several angiogenesis-related factors like HIF-1, Id2 and Oct-1. pRb2/p130 is required for both differentiation and mobilization of bone marrow-derived endothelial cell precursors and endothelial sprouting from neighboring vessels. The involvement of the pRb pathway in the angiogenesis process has also been demonstrated by different cellular models expressing viral oncoproteins, like human papilloma virus. Moreover, some natural and synthetic compounds demonstrate their antiangiogenetic activity with a mechanism of action involving pRb. Finally, the possible prognostic value of immunohistochemical evaluation of pRb and/or pRb2/p130 expression can represent a useful tool for the characterization of the angiogenic phenotype of specific tumor histotypes.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction Angiogenesis and Cancer Retinoblastoma

Leoncini L, Bellan C, De Falco G
Retinoblastoma gene family expression in lymphoid tissues.
Oncogene. 2006; 25(38):5309-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
It appears more and more clear that retinoblastoma (RB) family of proteins represents key molecules in tumour suppression. This family consists of pRb/p105, p107 and pRb2/p130, which participate in a gene regulatory network that governs the cellular response to antimitogenic signals, and whose deregulation constitutes one of the hallmarks of cancer. Irrespective of their structural and biochemical similarities, RB proteins carry out different functional tasks. The expression of RB gene family in the reactive lymphoid tissues again confirms the different role of each member in cell cycle control and differentiation of normal cells. These different functional properties appear to be maintained in tumours lymphoid tissues, where alterations of the RB/p105 gene appear to be relatively rare. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge about the role of the RB proteins in reactive and neoplastic lymphoid tissue.

Related: RB1

Scambia G, Lovergine S, Masciullo V
RB family members as predictive and prognostic factors in human cancer.
Oncogene. 2006; 25(38):5302-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The retinoblastoma family members--pRb, pRb2/p130 and p107--are tumor suppressor genes involved in controlling four major cellular processes: growth arrest, apoptosis, differentiation and angiogenesis. Molecular genetic studies have identified abnormalities of these tumor suppressor genes in a large proportion of human cancers. These genetic alterations have emerged as significant factors in the pathogenesis and progression of many types of tumors and are therefore likely to provide relevant information to assess risk in cancer patients. There is a pressing clinical need to identify prognostic and predictive factors for patients with cancer, because there is an undeniable importance in being able to determine which patients will have a favorable outcome without further therapy (prognostic factor) and which will need some additional treatment (predictive factor). This review examines the predictive and/or prognostic role of each retinoblastoma family member in human cancer.

Related: Gastrointestinal System Cancers Gynacological Cancers Head and Neck Cancers Head and Neck Cancers - Molecular Biology Haematological Malignancies & Realted Disorders Lung Cancer Ovarian Cancer Retinoblastoma RB1 Soft Tissue Sarcomas Urinary System Cancers

Caracciolo V, Reiss K, Khalili K, et al.
Role of the interaction between large T antigen and Rb family members in the oncogenicity of JC virus.
Oncogene. 2006; 25(38):5294-301 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human polyomaviruses (JC virus, BK virus and simian virus 40) are causative agents of some human diseases and, interestingly, are involved in processes of cell transformation and oncogenesis. These viruses need the cell cycle machinery of the host cell to complete their replication; so they evolved mechanisms that can interfere with the growth control of infected cells and force them into DNA replication. The retinoblastoma family of proteins (pRb), which includes pRb/p105, p107 and pRb2/p130, acts as one of the most important regulators of the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. Rb proteins represent an important target for viral oncoproteins. Early viral T antigens can bind all members of the pRb family, promoting the activation of the E2F family of transcription factors, thus inducing the expression of genes required for the entry to the S phase. The interaction between early viral antigens and cell cycle regulators represents an important mechanism through which viruses deregulate cell cycle and lead to cell transformation. In this review, we will discuss the effects of the interaction between large T antigen and Rb proteins in JC virus-mediated oncogenesis.

Related: RB1

Genovese C, Trani D, Caputi M, Claudio PP
Cell cycle control and beyond: emerging roles for the retinoblastoma gene family.
Oncogene. 2006; 25(38):5201-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rb family proteins (pRb/p105, Rb2/p130 and p107) play a key role in cell cycle control and are worthily involved in transcription repression and tumor suppression. The mechanisms of transcriptional activation and repression by the Rb gene family has been extensively investigated: pRb, pRb2/p130 and p107 interact with different E2F family factors and can inhibit E2F responsive promoters, interfering with progression of cell cycle, gene transcription, initiation of apoptotic process and cell differentiation. Recent studies have indicated that Rb and Rb2/p130 may be involved in cellular response to DNA damage events, by influencing the transcription of factors involved in DNA repair pathways. In particular, evidences suggest that Rb loss and target gene deregulation impacts on the repair of UV-induced pyrimidine pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4 PP) by regulating the expression of several DNA damage factors involved in UV DNA damage repair processes, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Ongoing studies are focused on the mechanisms by which Rb family genes drive cell cycle exit following DNA damage induction, and how Rb gene family's interaction with chromatin remodeling factors can influence DNA repair dynamics.

Related: Eye Cancer Retinoblastoma

Macaluso M, Montanari M, Noto PB, et al.
Nuclear and cytoplasmic interaction of pRb2/p130 and ER-beta in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Ann Oncol. 2006; 17 Suppl 7:vii27-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogens exhibit important biological functions and influence several pathological processes of hormone-dependent diseases. The biological actions of estrogens require their interaction with two estrogen receptors (ER-alpha and ER-beta), which are ligand-dependent transcription factors. ER-alpha and ER-beta exhibit distinct tissue expression patterns as well as show different patterns of gene regulation. In addition, it has been suggested that ER-beta works as a counter partner of ER-alpha through inhibition of the transactivating functions of ER-alpha. For instance, ER-beta seems to play a different role in breast tumorigenesis than ER-alpha, as ER-beta decreased expression in breast cancer has been correlated with bad prognosis. Biological activities of ER-alpha and ER-beta could be controlled by a number of interacting proteins such as activators/inhibitors, ligand binding and kinases. We have previously reported that pRb2/p130, retinoblastoma related protein, could be involved in the silencing of ER-alpha gene during breast tumorigenesis. Here, we report that ER-beta and pRb2/p130 proteins co-immunoprecipitate in both nucleus and cytoplasm of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Our hypothesis is that the interaction of pRb2/130 with ER-beta may have a functional significance in regulating ER-beta activity.

Related: Breast Cancer

Bergqvist M, Brattström D, Brodin D, et al.
Genes associated with telomerase activity levels in esophageal carcinoma cell lines.
Dis Esophagus. 2006; 19(1):20-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Telomerase activity levels have been shown to correlate with tumor progression in several malignancies. However, the genetic regulation of telomerase activity levels is not fully understood. The aim of the present study has been to identify a gene expression profile, predicting correlation with the telomerase-activity test. Ten human esophageal carcinoma cell lines were investigated using the telomerase activity assay (TRAPeze) Telomerase Detection Kit), followed by further characterization using the GeneChip Human Genome U133A 2.0 Array (Affymetrics Inc., USA), including 14 500 human genes. Telomerase activity levels were detected in all cell lines with a broad range of activity levels. Using a high correlation coefficient, r > 0.90, the following genes were found to be positively correlated with telomerase activity levels: N-myristoyltransferase 2; ribosomal protein L3; retinoblastoma-like 2 (pRb2/p130); and cyclin G2. Only one gene was negatively correlated with telomerase activity levels, zinc finger protein 207. In conclusion, the present microarray data provide primary validation data indicating possible candidates for prognostic and prediction factors in esophageal cancer in relation to telomerase activity.

Related: Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer

Sanseverino F, Santopietro R, Torricelli M, et al.
pRb2/p130 and VEGF expression in endometrial carcinoma in relation to angiogenesis and histopathologic tumor grade.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2006; 5(1):84-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy. Established prognostic factors are histologic grade, depth of myometrial invasion, and extrauterine spread including retroperitoneal lymph node metastases. Tumorigenesis is a multistep process involving different genetic changes resulting in uncontrolled cellular proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, and enhanced vascular proliferation among other events. Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from a preexisting vascular network, is necessary for invasive tumor growth and metastasis and constitutes an important point in the control of cancer progression. The pathogenesis of the angiogenetic phenotype may involve the inactivation of different tumor suppressor genes.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We investigated the relationship between the expression levels of VEGF and the retinoblastoma family member pRb2/p130 in endometrial carcinoma in relation to histopathologic tumor grade in a cohort of 50 patients.
RESULTS: We found that VEGF and pRB2/p130 expression were inversely correlated. Additionally, high grade tumors presented a significantly lower number of cells expressing pRb2/p130 when compared to low grade tumors. A significant positive correlation was found, by means of the Spearman coefficient, between VEGF expression and binary grading (0.450, p-value < 0.005) which is an architectural grading system that uses low-magnification assessment of amount of solid growth, pattern of invasion, and presence of necrosis to divide endometrioid carcinomas into low- and high-grade tumors. Additionally, we also found a negative correlation between pRb2/p130 expression levels and binary grading (-0.595, p-value < 0.005). Interestingly, we also found that VEGF and pRb2/p130 expression levels were not related to staging (p-value > 0.005).
CONCLUSIONS: These results open up a new perspective including novel markers that, combined together, may be useful in patient screening for endometrial cancer aggressiveness.

Related: Endometrial (Uterus) Cancer Endometrial Cancer VEGFA

Vijayababu MR, Kanagaraj P, Arunkumar A, et al.
Quercetin-induced growth inhibition and cell death in prostatic carcinoma cells (PC-3) are associated with increase in p21 and hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma proteins expression.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2005; 131(11):765-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the major health problem and the leading cause of male cancer death. Quercetin is a novel antitumor and antioxidant, whose molecular mechanism involved in cell cycle arrest in androgen independent prostate cancer cells remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of quercetin on proliferation and cell cycle arrest by modulation of Cdc2/Cdk-1 protein in prostate cancer cells (PC-3). PC- 3 cells are human androgen independent cancer cells and were cultured with quercetin at concentrations of 50 and 100 microM for 24 h. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were analyzed. Expression of Cdc2/Cdk-1, cyclin B1, cyclin A, p21/Cip1, pRb, pRb2/p130, Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), Bax and caspase-3 proteins were studied with western blot analysis. Addition of quercetin led to substantial decrease in the expression of Cdc2/Cdk-1, cyclin B1 and phosphorylated pRb and increase in p21. Flowcytometric analysis showed that quercetin blocks G2-M transition, with significant induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis markers like Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) were significantly decreased and Bax and caspase-3 were increased. From this study, it was concluded that quercetin inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation by altering the expression of cell cycle regulators and apoptotic proteins.

Related: CDKN1A Prostate Cancer RB1

Cinti C, Macaluso M, Giordano A
Tumor-specific exon 1 mutations could be the 'hit event' predisposing Rb2/p130 gene to epigenetic silencing in lung cancer.
Oncogene. 2005; 24(38):5821-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic alterations in Rb2/p130 gene have been reported in several tumors, but till now there are insufficient and conflicting data linking the loss of pRb2/p130 expression with the mutational status of this gene in lung cancer. We recently reported that loss or lowering of pRb2/p130 expression is mainly due to aberrant Rb2/p130 promoter methylation, in retinoblastoma tumors, and indicated that epigenetic silencing of Rb2/p130 can impair its function to negatively regulate cell cycle progression as well as apoptotic response. In order to clarify Rb2/p130 gene inactivation in lung cancer, we investigated whether epigenetic events could impair the expression of this gene in NSLC. Here, we show that specific Rb2-exon 1 homozygous mutations, occurring in an Rb2/p130, region, rich in CpG dinucleotides, could be the 'hit event' that predispose this gene to epigenetic changes, leading to Rb2/p130 gene silencing in lung cancer. Moreover, these homozygous mutations, found in different tumor histotypes, could represent tumor-specific markers.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer

Tosi GM, Trimarchi C, Macaluso M, et al.
Genetic and epigenetic alterations of RB2/p130 tumor suppressor gene in human sporadic retinoblastoma: implications for pathogenesis and therapeutic approach.
Oncogene. 2005; 24(38):5827-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human retinoblastoma occurs in two forms (familial and sporadic) both due to biallelic mutation of the RB1/p105 gene even if its loss is insufficient for malignancy. We have recently reported that loss of expression of the retinoblastoma-related protein pRb2/p130 correlates with low apoptotic index, suggesting that RB2/p130 gene could be involved in retinoblastoma. Mutational analysis of RB2/p130 in primary tumors showed a tight correlation between Exon 1 mutations and pRb2/p130 expression level in sporadic retinoblastoma. These mutations are located within a CpG-enriched region prone to de novo methylation. Analysis of RB2/p130 methylation status revealed that epigenetic events, most probably consequent to the Exon 1 mutations, determined the observed phenotype. Treatment of Weri-Rb1 cell line by 5-Aza-dC induced an increase in expression level of pRb2/p130, E2F1, p73 and p53. Overall, our results highlight a crucial role of epigenetic events in sporadic retinoblastoma, which opens a perspective for new therapeutic approaches.

Related: Azacitidine Retinoblastoma

Macaluso M, Montanari M, Giordano A
The regulation of ER-alpha transcription by pRb2/p130 in breast cancer.
Ann Oncol. 2005; 16 Suppl 4:iv20-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast carcinoma is the most common form of neoplasia in women of the Western world, and the mortality from this disease in women is second only to that of lung cancer, with a means incidence of 10%. Although, several studies have indicated that the development of this fairly heterogeneous disease depends on a great many environmental, socio-economic, hormonal and genetic factors, the pathogenesis of breast cancer remains poorly understood. ER-alpha (estrogen-receptor alpha) and its ligand (17beta-estradiol) play a crucial role in normal breast development and have also been linked to mammary carcinogenesis and clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. The estrogen signaling regulates the growth of some breast tumors, and antiestrogen therapies can effectively block this growth signaling resulting in tumor suppression. However, most tumors eventually develop antiestrogen resistance, and antiestrogen are mostly ineffective in patience with advanced disease. Although several studies have been proposed that epigenetic events could be involved in ER-alpha silencing the mechanisms regulating ER-alpha transcription are poorly understood. Our studies suggested that pRb2/p130-complexes bind to the ER-alpha promoter and could be involved in the transcriptional regulation of the ER-alpha gene by altering chromatin structure and DNA methylation pattern.

Related: Breast Cancer BCAR1

Ullmannová V, Haskovec C
Gene expression during camptothecin-induced apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia cell line ML-2.
Neoplasma. 2004; 51(3):175-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant cell proliferation and accumulation depends on the balance between the rates of cell production and cell death. Recent evidence indicates that apoptosis is important in the development of cancer. Apoptosis is strictly controlled by various regulators, which can take part in the apoptotic process, proliferation and differentiation alike. Apoptosis was induced in myeloid cell line ML-2 by camptothecin, an inhibitor of topoisomerase I. After 18 hours of induction by camptothecin 50% of cells were apoptotic. The apoptotic effect of CAM was reversible in the cells studied. The induction of apoptosis influenced the expression of apoptosis and cell cycle regulators as detected by cDNA arrays, RT-PCR or Western blotting. According to cDNA arrays e.g. bax, bfl1, bak, pRb2, c-jun, jun-B were upregulated, and cdk4, cyclin B1, wee1, CRAF1, DP1 were downregulated. A number of other regulators like p21 and cdc25A, as well as some other genes linked with apoptosis, as p53 and the bcl-2 family, were up- or down-regulated as determined by real-time PCR. Changes in gene expression were found not only in the group of regulators of apoptosis and the cell cycle, but also among regulators of differentiation.

Related: Apoptosis

Chatterjee SJ, George B, Goebell PJ, et al.
Hyperphosphorylation of pRb: a mechanism for RB tumour suppressor pathway inactivation in bladder cancer.
J Pathol. 2004; 203(3):762-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Loss of heterozygosity, mutations or deletions of the RB1 gene usually result in loss of pRb expression, which has been regarded as an indicator of loss of pRb function in human tumours. It has previously been shown that in addition to loss of pRb expression, aberrantly high (pRb2+) pRb expression also indicates loss of pRb function in bladder tumours compared with moderate (normal, pRb1+) pRb expression. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which pRb is functionally inactivated in bladder tumours expressing aberrantly high levels of pRb. Constitutive phosphorylation was therefore investigated as a mechanism of pRb inactivation in bladder tumours. Of 28 bladder tumours examined, western blotting demonstrated pRb hyperphosphorylation in 5/7 (71%) pRb2+ bladder tumours compared with only 4/11 (36%) pRb1+ tumours (p = 0.002). All cases with undetectable pRb showed moderate to high p16 expression and none showed cyclin D1 expression by immunohistochemistry. All pRb1+ tumours with underphosphorylated pRb showed p16 but not cyclin D1 expression. All pRb2+ tumours with hyperphosphorylated pRb showed loss of p16 expression and/or cyclin D1 overexpression. Thus, elevated pRb expression was associated with pRb hyperphosphorylation, which, in turn, was associated with loss of p16 expression and/or increased cyclin D1 expression. In order to analyse this association in vitro, T24 cells, which express high levels of pRb, were transfected with p16 cDNA. Transfection with p16 cDNA resulted in a marked decrease in pRb phosphorylation, decreased cell proliferation, and a change in expression of pRb from high to moderate phenotype as assessed by immunohistochemistry. This paper gives the biological basis for constitutive alteration of pRb function in human tumours in the presence of an intact, expressed pRb protein; the mechanism of pRb inactivation is through hyperphosphorylation, which results from loss of p16 expression and/or cyclin D1 overexpression. Immunohistochemical expression of pRb appears to be a reliable indicator of pRb function.

Related: RB1 Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology

Claudio PP, Russo G, Kumar CA, et al.
pRb2/p130, vascular endothelial growth factor, p27(KIP1), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in hepatocellular carcinoma: their clinical significance.
Clin Cancer Res. 2004; 10(10):3509-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocarcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer, with more than one million fatalities occurring annually worldwide. Multiple risk factors are associated with HCC disease etiology, the highest incidence being in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, although other factors such as genetic makeup and environmental exposure are involved. Multiple genetic alterations including the activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes are required for malignancy in human cancers and are correlated with increased stages of carcinogenesis and further tumor progression. In this study of 21 HCC patients, we analyzed pRb2/p130, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), p27((KIP1)), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen as potential HCC molecular biomarkers. In our sample set, we found that p27((KIP1)) was absent. Univariate survival analysis showed that proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression (diffuse staining >50% of positive cells in tumor) was confirmed as a significant HCC prognostic biomarker for determining patient survival agreeing with previous studies (P = 0.0126, log-rank test). Lower pRb2/p130 expression was associated to a borderline P value of inverse correlation with tumor malignancy and to a positive correlation with respect to the time from HCC diagnosis (Spearman coefficient = 0.568; P < 0.05). Conversely, higher VEGF expression was associated with a poor survival (P = 0.0257, log-rank test). We demonstrate for the first time that pRb2/p130 is inversely correlated with VEGF expression and tumor aggressiveness (P < 0.05) in p27((KIP1))-negative HCC patients. pRb2/p130 and VEGF expression are independent from tumor staging, suggesting their possible role as independent prognostic molecular biomarkers in HCC. Furthermore, we have evidence that VEGF together with pRb2/p130 may act as new HCC biomarkers in a p27((KIP1))-independent manner. Additional studies with larger numbers of patient data would allow the use of multivariable techniques and would be able to further identify patients with poorer survival.

Related: CDKN1B Liver Cancer

D'Andrilli G, Masciullo V, Bagella L, et al.
Frequent loss of pRb2/p130 in human ovarian carcinoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2004; 10(9):3098-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: RB2/p130, a member of the retinoblastoma gene family, maps to human chromosome 16q12.2, a region in which deletions have been found in several human neoplasms including breast, prostatic, and ovarian carcinoma. We sought to evaluate pRb2/p130 protein expression and function in ovarian carcinoma.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: pRb2/p130 expression was detected by immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses in 45 primary ovarian carcinoma samples.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analysis revealed loss or decrease of pRb2/p130 expression in 18 cases (40%). pRb2/p130 expression was mostly nuclear and inversely correlated to the tumor grade (P < 0.05). Western blot analysis correlated with immunohistochemical expression. Reverse transcription-PCR followed by Southern blot analysis was performed on a representative set of 20 ovarian carcinomas. RB2/p130 mRNA levels were consistent with protein expression. We found a significant increase in the percentage of G(1)-phase-arrested cells in CAOV3 and A2780 ovarian carcinoma cell lines after transduction with an adenovirus carrying the RB2/p130 gene (Ad-CMV-RB2/p130).
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that loss or decrease of pRb2/p130 expression is a frequent event in ovarian carcinoma and is regulated mostly at the transcriptional level. Moreover, pRb2/p130 overexpression is able to arrest cell growth in ovarian carcinoma cells, suggesting the putative role of pRb2/p130 as a tumor suppressor in this malignancy.

Related: Ovarian Cancer

Tonini T, Bagella L, D'Andrilli G, et al.
Ezh2 reduces the ability of HDAC1-dependent pRb2/p130 transcriptional repression of cyclin A.
Oncogene. 2004; 23(28):4930-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are known to be involved in maintaining the silenced state of several developmentally regulated genes. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), a member of this large protein family, has also been shown to be deregulated in different tumor types and its role, both as a potential primary effector and as a mediator of tumorigenesis, has become a subject of increased interest. We observed that Ezh2 binds to pRb2/p130, a member of the retinoblastoma family; as such, we were led to consider the possible ability of Ezh2 to modulate cell cycle progression. Both Ezh2 and pRb2/p130 repress gene expression by recruiting histone deacetylase (HDAC1), which decreases DNA accessibility for activating transcription factors. Additionally, we observed that Ezh2 interacts with the C-terminal region of pRb2/p130, essential for interaction with HDAC1. We show that Ezh2 is able to reverse pRb2/p130-HDAC1-mediated repression of the cyclin A promoter. This indicates a functional role of this complex in regulating cyclin A expression, known to be crucial in mediating cell cycle advancement. We also detected a significant decrease in the retention of HDAC1 activity associated with pRb2/p130 when Ezh2 was overexpressed. Finally, electromobility shift assays (EMSA) demonstrated that overexpression of Ezh2 caused the abrogation of the pRb2/p130-HDAC1 complex on the cyclin A promoter. These data, taken together, suggest that Ezh2 competes with HDAC1 in binding to pRb2/p130, disrupting their occupancy on the cyclin A promoter. In this study, we propose a new mechanism for the functional inactivation of pRb2/p130 that ultimately contributes to cell cycle progression and malignant transformation.

Related: Breast Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening for Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer- Molecular Biology


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