Gene Summary

Gene:SDC1; syndecan 1
Aliases: SDC, CD138, SYND1, syndecan
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane (type I) heparan sulfate proteoglycan and is a member of the syndecan proteoglycan family. The syndecans mediate cell binding, cell signaling, and cytoskeletal organization and syndecan receptors are required for internalization of the HIV-1 tat protein. The syndecan-1 protein functions as an integral membrane protein and participates in cell proliferation, cell migration and cell-matrix interactions via its receptor for extracellular matrix proteins. Altered syndecan-1 expression has been detected in several different tumor types. While several transcript variants may exist for this gene, the full-length natures of only two have been described to date. These two represent the major variants of this gene and encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Plasma Cells
  • Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans
  • Western Blotting
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Tongue Neoplasms
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Trans-Activators
  • Up-Regulation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Angiogenesis
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Syndecan-1
  • Glucuronidase
  • Chromosome 2
  • Signal Transduction
  • Staging
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • FISH
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cell Movement
  • Apoptosis
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Bone Marrow Cells
  • SDC1
  • Syndecans
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Proteoglycans
  • Syndecan-4
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • MicroRNAs
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SDC1 (cancer-related)

Murase T, Ri M, Narita T, et al.
Immunohistochemistry for identification of CCND1, NSD2, and MAF gene rearrangements in plasma cell myeloma.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(8):2600-2606 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The t(11;14)/CCND1-IGH, t(4;14)/NSD2(MMSET)-IGH, and t(14;16)/IGH-MAF gene rearrangements detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are used for risk stratification in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Compared with conventional FISH techniques using fresh cells, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is much more cost- and time-efficient, and can be readily applied to routinely prepared formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) materials. In this study, we performed tissue FISH and IHC employing FFPE specimens, and examined the usefulness of IHC as a tool for detecting CCND1, NSD2, and MAF gene rearrangements. CD138 signals were used to identify plasma cells in tissue FISH and IHC analyses. With cohort 1 (n = 70), we performed tissue FISH and subsequently IHC, and determined IHC cut-off points. In this cohort, the sensitivity and specificity for the 3 molecules were ≥.90 and ≥.96, respectively. With cohort 2, using MM cases with an unknown gene status (n = 120), we performed IHC, and the gene status was estimated using the cut-off points determined with cohort 1. The subsequent FISH analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity for the 3 molecules were ≥.92 and ≥.98, respectively. CCND1, NSD2, and MAF gene rearrangements were estimated accurately by IHC, suggesting that conventional FISH assays can be replaced by IHC.

Deng S, Xiang JJ, Ge HP, et al.
The role of MIR-186 and ZNF545 in inhibiting the proliferation of multiple myeloma cells.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2019 May-Jun,; 33(3):721-729 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of tumor suppressor gene miR-186 and zinc finger protein 545 (ZNF545) on the proliferation of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. CD138 magnetic beads were used to isolate different types of myeloma cell lines (KM3, U266, RPMI-8226, and H929), which were then infected by lentivirus carrying the miR-186 gene. Using uninfected myeloma cells as the control, MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide, Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide] assay was performed to calculate the rate of cell proliferation at different time points. In addition, the correlation between the expression of Jagged 1 and miR-186 was analyzed by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Furthermore, the effect of 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine and acetylase inhibitor Trichomycin A (TSA) on the expression of ZNF545 and proliferation/apoptosis of MM cells was investigated using Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting (WB), MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] cell proliferation assay, and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Compared with the control group, the proliferation of miR-186-overexpressing U266 and RPMI-8226 cells was significantly decreased. In cell cloning experiments, miR-186 decreased the number of U266 and RPMI-8226 clones while reducing the protein expression of Jagged 1. The expression level of ZNF545 in myeloma patients was also reduced to some extent. ZNF545 protein also promoted the apoptosis of myeloma cells. By inhibiting the proliferation of myeloma cells, miR-186 gene and ZNF protein may be used as tumor suppressors in the treatment of myeloma.

van Andel H, Kocemba KA, Spaargaren M, Pals ST
Aberrant Wnt signaling in multiple myeloma: molecular mechanisms and targeting options.
Leukemia. 2019; 33(5):1063-1075 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a central role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of malignancies and is typically caused by mutations in core Wnt pathway components driving constitutive, ligand-independent signaling. In multiple myelomas (MMs), however, these pathway intrinsic mutations are rare despite the fact that most tumors display aberrant Wnt pathway activity. Recent studies indicate that this activation is caused by genetic and epigenetic lesions of Wnt regulatory components, sensitizing MM cells to autocrine Wnt ligands and paracrine Wnts emanating from the bone marrow niche. These include deletion of the tumor suppressor CYLD, promotor methylation of the Wnt antagonists WIF1, DKK1, DKK3, and sFRP1, sFRP2, sFRP4, sFRP5, as well as overexpression of the co-transcriptional activator BCL9 and the R-spondin receptor LGR4. Furthermore, Wnt activity in MM is strongly promoted by interaction of both Wnts and R-spondins with syndecan-1 (CD138) on the MM cell-surface. Functionally, aberrant canonical Wnt signaling plays a dual role in the pathogenesis of MM: (I) it mediates proliferation, migration, and drug resistance of MM cells; (II) MM cells secrete Wnt antagonists that contribute to the development of osteolytic lesions by impairing osteoblast differentiation. As discussed in this review, these insights into the causes and consequences of aberrant Wnt signaling in MM will help to guide the development of targeting strategies. Importantly, since Wnt signaling in MM cells is largely ligand dependent, it can be targeted by drugs/antibodies that act upstream in the pathway, interfering with Wnt secretion, sequestering Wnts, or blocking Wnt (co)receptors.

Reyes I, Reyes N, Suriano R, et al.
Gene expression profiling identifies potential molecular markers of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Cancer Biomark. 2019; 24(1):71-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy worldwide, with the predominant form papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) representing approximately 80% of cases.
OBJECTIVE: This study was addressed to identify potential genes and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of PTC and potential novel biomarkers for this disease.
METHODS: Gene expression profiling was carried out by DNA microarray technology. Validation of microarray data by qRT-PCR, western blot, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was also performed in a selected set of genes and gene products, with the potential to be used as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, such as those associated with cell adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and immune/inflammatory response.
RESULTS: In this study we found that upregulation of extracellular activities, such as proteoglycans, ECM-receptor interaction, and cell adhesion molecules, were the most prominent feature of PTC. Significantly over-expressed genes included SDC1 (syndecan 1), SDC4 (syndecan 4), KLK7 (kallikrein-related peptidase 7), KLK10 (kallikrein-related peptidase 10), SLPI (secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor), GDF15 (growth/differentiation factor-15), ALOX5 (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase), SFRP2 (secreted Frizzled-related protein 2), among others. Further, elevated KLK10 levels were detected in patients with PTC. Many of these genes belong to KEGG pathway "Proteoglycans in cancer".
CONCLUSIONS: Using DNA microarray analysis allowed the identification of genes and pathways with known important roles in malignant transformation, and also the discovery of novel genes that may be potential biomarkers for PTC.

Jang JS, Li Y, Mitra AK, et al.
Molecular signatures of multiple myeloma progression through single cell RNA-Seq.
Blood Cancer J. 2019; 9(1):2 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We used single cell RNA-Seq to examine molecular heterogeneity in multiple myeloma (MM) in 597 CD138 positive cells from bone marrow aspirates of 15 patients at different stages of disease progression. 790 genes were selected by coefficient of variation (CV) method and organized cells into four groups (L1-L4) using unsupervised clustering. Plasma cells from each patient clustered into at least two groups based on gene expression signature. The L1 group contained cells from all MGUS patients having the lowest expression of genes involved in the oxidative phosphorylation, Myc targets, and mTORC1 signaling pathways (p < 1.2 × 10

Yokoyama S, Cai Y, Murata M, et al.
A novel pathway of LPS uptake through syndecan-1 leading to pyroptotic cell death.
Elife. 2018; 7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Intracellular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers the non-canonical inflammasome pathway, resulting in pyroptosis of innate immune cells. In addition to its well-known proinflammatory role, LPS can directly cause regression of some tumors, although the underlying mechanism has remained unknown. Here we show that secretoglobin(SCGB)3A2, a small protein predominantly secreted in airways, chaperones LPS to the cytosol through the cell surface receptor syndecan-1; this leads to pyroptotic cell death driven by caspase-11. SCGB3A2 and LPS co-treatment significantly induced pyroptosis of macrophage RAW264.7 cells and decreased cancer cell proliferation in vitro, while SCGB3A2 treatment resulted in reduced progression of xenograft tumors in mice. These data suggest a conserved function for SCGB3A2 in the innate immune system and cancer cells. These findings demonstrate a critical role for SCGB3A2 as an LPS delivery vehicle; they reveal one mechanism whereby LPS enters innate immune cells leading to pyroptosis, and they clarify the direct effect of LPS on cancer cells.

Fiscon G, Conte F, Paci P
SWIM tool application to expression data of glioblastoma stem-like cell lines, corresponding primary tumors and conventional glioma cell lines.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2018; 19(Suppl 15):436 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is well-known that glioblastoma contains self-renewing, stem-like subpopulation with the ability to sustain tumor growth. These cells - called cancer stem-like cells - share certain phenotypic characteristics with untransformed stem cells and are resistant to many conventional cancer therapies, which might explain the limitations in curing human malignancies. Thus, the identification of genes controlling the differentiation of these stem-like cells is becoming a successful therapeutic strategy, owing to the promise of novel targets for treating malignancies.
METHODS: Recently, we developed SWIM, a software able to unveil a small pool of genes - called switch genes - critically associated with drastic changes in cell phenotype. Here, we applied SWIM to the expression profiling of glioblastoma stem-like cells and conventional glioma cell lines, in order to identify switch genes related to stem-like phenotype.
RESULTS: SWIM identifies 171 switch genes that are all down-regulated in glioblastoma stem-like cells. This list encompasses genes like CAV1, COL5A1, COL6A3, FLNB, HMMR, ITGA3, ITGA5, MET, SDC1, THBS1, and VEGFC, involved in "ECM-receptor interaction" and "focal adhesion" pathways. The inhibition of switch genes highly correlates with the activation of genes related to neural development and differentiation, such as the 4-core OLIG2, POU3F2, SALL2, SOX2, whose induction has been shown to be sufficient to reprogram differentiated glioblastoma into stem-like cells. Among switch genes, the transcription factor FOSL1 appears as the brightest star since: it is down-regulated in stem-like cells; it highly negatively correlates with the 4-core genes that are all up-regulated in stem-like cells; the promoter regions of the 4-core genes harbor a consensus binding motif for FOSL1.
CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the inhibition of switch genes in stem-like cells could induce the deregulation of cell communication pathways, contributing to neoplastic progression and tumor invasiveness. Conversely, their activation could restore the physiological equilibrium between cell adhesion and migration, hampering the progression of cancer. Moreover, we posit FOSL1 as promising candidate to orchestrate the differentiation of cancer stem-like cells by repressing the 4-core genes' expression, which severely halts cancer growth and might affect the therapeutic outcome. We suggest FOSL1 as novel putative therapeutic and prognostic biomarker, worthy of further investigation.

Bergaggio E, Riganti C, Garaffo G, et al.
IDH2 inhibition enhances proteasome inhibitor responsiveness in hematological malignancies.
Blood. 2019; 133(2):156-167 [PubMed] Related Publications
Proteasome inhibitors (PI) are extensively used for the therapy of multiple myeloma (MM) and mantle cell lymphoma. However, patients continuously relapse or are intrinsically resistant to this class of drugs. Here, to identify targets that synergize with PI, we carried out a functional screening in MM cell lines using a short hairpin RNA library against cancer driver genes. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (

Zhang Y, Yang W, Li D, et al.
Toward the precision breast cancer survival prediction utilizing combined whole genome-wide expression and somatic mutation analysis.
BMC Med Genomics. 2018; 11(Suppl 5):104 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common type of invasive cancer in woman. It accounts for approximately 18% of all cancer deaths worldwide. It is well known that somatic mutation plays an essential role in cancer development. Hence, we propose that a prognostic prediction model that integrates somatic mutations with gene expression can improve survival prediction for cancer patients and also be able to reveal the genetic mutations associated with survival.
METHOD: Differential expression analysis was used to identify breast cancer related genes. Genetic algorithm (GA) and univariate Cox regression analysis were applied to filter out survival related genes. DAVID was used for enrichment analysis on somatic mutated gene set. The performance of survival predictors were assessed by Cox regression model and concordance index(C-index).
RESULTS: We investigated the genome-wide gene expression profile and somatic mutations of 1091 breast invasive carcinoma cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We identified 118 genes with high hazard ratios as breast cancer survival risk gene candidates (log rank p <  0.0001 and c-index = 0.636). Multiple breast cancer survival related genes were found in this gene set, including FOXR2, FOXD1, MTNR1B and SDC1. Further genetic algorithm (GA) revealed an optimal gene set consisted of 88 genes with higher c-index (log rank p <  0.0001 and c-index = 0.656). We validated this gene set on an independent breast cancer data set and achieved a similar performance (log rank p <  0.0001 and c-index = 0.614). Moreover, we revealed 25 functional annotations, 15 gene ontology terms and 14 pathways that were significantly enriched in the genes that showed distinct mutation patterns in the different survival risk groups. These functional gene sets were used as new features for the survival prediction model. In particular, our results suggested that the Fanconi anemia pathway had an important role in breast cancer prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that the expression levels of the gene signatures remain the effective indicators for breast cancer survival prediction. Combining the gene expression information with other types of features derived from somatic mutations can further improve the performance of survival prediction. The pathways that were associated with survival risk suggested by our study can be further investigated for improving cancer patient survival.

Joseph D, Gonsky JP, Blain SW
Macrophage Inhibitory Factor-1 (MIF-1) controls the plasticity of multiple myeloma tumor cells.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0206368 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple Myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy with a median survival of 5-10 years. While current treatments initially cause remission, relapse almost always occurs, leading to the hypothesis that a chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem cell (CSC) remains dormant, and undergoes self-renewal and differentiation to reestablish disease. Our finding is that the mature cancer cell (CD138+, rapidly proliferating and chemosensitive) has developmental plasticity; namely, the ability to dedifferentiate back into its own chemoresistant CSC progenitor, the CD138-, quiescent pre-plasma cell. We observe multiple cycles of differentiation and dedifferentiation in the absence of niche or supportive accessory cells, suggesting that soluble cytokines secreted by the MM cells themselves are responsible for this bidirectional interconversion and that stemness and chemoresistance are dynamic characteristics that can be acquired or lost and thus may be targetable. By examining cytokine secretion of CD138- and CD138+ RPMI-8226 cells, we identified that concomitant with interconversion, Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF-1) is secreted. The addition of a small molecule MIF-1 inhibitor (4-IPP) or MIF-1 neutralizing antibodies to CD138+ cells accelerated dedifferentiation back into the CD138- progenitor, while addition of recombinant MIF-1 drove cells towards CD138+ differentiation. A similar increase in the CD138- population is seen when MM tumor cells isolated from primary bone marrow aspirates are cultured in the presence of 4-IPP. As the CD138+ MM cell is chemosensitive, targeting MIF-1 and/or the pathways that it regulates could be a viable way to modulate stemness and chemosensitivity, which could in turn transform the treatment of MM.

Leighton X, Bera A, Eidelman O, et al.
Tissue microarray analysis delineate potential prognostic role of Annexin A7 in prostate cancer progression.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0205837 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Annexin A7 (ANXA7) is a member of the multifunctional calcium or phospholipid-binding annexin gene family. While low levels of ANXA7 are associated with aggressive types of cancer, the clinical impact of ANXA7 in prostate cancer remains unclear. Tissue microarrays (TMA) have revealed several new molecular markers in human tumors. Herein, we have identified the prognostic impact of ANXA7 in a prostate cancer using a tissue microarray containing 637 different specimens.
METHODS: The patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer and long-term follow-up information on progression (median 5.3 years), tumor-specific and overall survival data (median 5.9 years) were available. Expression of Ki67, Bcl-2, p53, CD-10 (neutral endopeptidase), syndecan-1 (CD-138) and ANXA7 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: A bimodal distribution of ANXA7 was observed. Tumors expressing either high or no ANXA7 were found to be associated with poor prognosis. However, ANXA7 at an optimal level, in between high and no ANXA7 expression, had a better prognosis. This correlated with low Ki67, Bcl-2, p53 and high syndecan-1 which are known predictors of early recurrence. At Gleason grade 3, ANXA7 is an independent predictor of poor overall survival with a p-value of 0.003. Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy, which is known to be associated with overexpression of Bcl-2 and inhibition of Ki67 LI and CD-10, was found to be associated with under-expression of ANXA7.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this TMA study identified ANXA7 as a new prognostic factor and indicates a bimodal correlation to tumor progression.

Cohen AD
CAR T Cells and Other Cellular Therapies for Multiple Myeloma: 2018 Update.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2018; 38:e6-e15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cellular therapies are a rapidly evolving approach to myeloma treatment, which bring a unique mechanism of action with the potential to overcome drug resistance and induce long-term remissions. Two primary approaches are being studied: non-gene-modified strategies, which rely on the endogenous anti-myeloma T-cell repertoire, and gene-modified strategies, which introduce a new T-cell receptor (TCR) or a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to confer novel antigen specificity. CAR T cells show the greatest activity to date. Multiple antigen targets, including B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), CD19, CD38, CD138, and SLAMF7, are being explored for myeloma, and BCMA has emerged as the most promising. Preliminary data from four phase I studies of BCMA CAR T cells, each using a different CAR construct, that involved 90 evaluable patients with relapsed/refractory disease have been reported. These data show response rates of 60% to 100%, including minimal residual disease (MRD)-negative complete remissions, at effective doses (> 10

Xu H, Yao F
Microarray-Based Gene Expression Analysis Identifies Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers for Waldenström Macroglobulinemia.
Acta Haematol. 2018; 140(2):87-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM), also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is rare but a clinicopathologically distinct B-cell malignancy. This study assessed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) to identify potential WM biomarkers and uncover the underlying the molecular mechanisms of WM progression using gene expression profiles from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. DEGs were identified using the LIMMA package and their potential functions were then analyzed by using the gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis by using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins database. Data showed that among 1,756 DEGs, 926 were upregulated and 830 were downregulated by comparing WM BM CD19+ with normal PB CD19+ B cell samples, whereas 241 DEGs (95 upregulated and 146 downregulated) were identified by comparing WM BM CD138+ with normal BM CD138+ plasma cell samples. The DEGs were enriched in different GO terms and pathways, including the apoptotic process, cell cycle arrest, immune response, cell adhesion, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway. Hub nodes in the PPI network included CDK1, JUN, CREBBP, EP300, CAD, CDK2, and MAPK14. Bioinformatics analysis of the GSE9656 dataset identified 7 hub genes that might play an important role in WM development and progression. Some of the candidate genes and pathways may serve as promising therapeutic targets for WM.

Chen LL, Gao GX, Shen FX, et al.
SDC4 Gene Silencing Favors Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Apoptosis and Inhibits Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition
Mol Cells. 2018; 41(9):853-867 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As the most common type of endocrine malignancy, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) accounts for 85-90% of all thyroid cancers. In this study, we presented the hypothesis that SDC4 gene silencing could effectively attenuate epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), and promote cell apoptosis

Brito-Mendoza L, Bologna-Molina R, Irigoyen-Camacho ME, et al.
A Comparison of Ki67, Syndecan-1 (CD138), and Molecular RANK, RANKL, and OPG Triad Expression in Odontogenic Keratocyts, Unicystic Ameloblastoma, and Dentigerous Cysts.
Dis Markers. 2018; 2018:7048531 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background and Objective: Reduced expression of syndecan-1 (CD138), increased proliferation index, and modifications in the expression of the molecular RANK/RANKL/OPG triad are related to an intensified potential of aggressiveness and invasion of diverse tumors and cysts. The aim was to compare the expression of Ki-67, CD138, and the molecular triad RANK, RANKL, and OPG in odontogenic keratocysts (OKC), unicystic ameloblastomas (UA), and dentigerous cysts (DC).
Methods: Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67, CD138, RANK, RANKL, and OPG was performed in 58 odontogenic cystic lesions (22 OKC, 17 DC, and 19 UA).
Results: A higher expression of Ki-67 was identified in OKC as compared to UA (
Conclusion: Higher RANKL expression together with the reduction on CD138 expression in UA could be linked to a greater invasive and destructive potential, while the increased proliferation rate observed in OKC could be related to its continuous intrabony growth. The expansion of DC does not seem to be related to such factors, justifying the different therapeutic approaches proposed for each of these entities.

Yang X, Deng Y, He RQ, et al.
Upregulation of HOXA11 during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma detected via multiple approaches.
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 42(5):2650-2664 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The altered expression of homeobox (HOX)A11 has been observed in various malignant tumor types, but it has remained to be determined in human lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). In the present study, the expression of HOXA11 in LUAD and the potential associated mechanisms were assessed. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Oncomine microarrays were gathered and in‑house polymerase chain reaction data were produced to investigate the altered expression of HOXA11 in LUAD and its association with various clinicopathological characteristics. Genes co‑expressed with HOXA11 were also identified by searching the cBioPortal and Multi Experiment Matrix databases, and performing a bioinformatics analysis, through which the potential molecular mechanisms of HOXA11 in LUAD were explored. The data analyses indicated that HOXA11 was overexpressed in the LUAD samples, and together with its co‑expressed genes, it was indicated to participate in various key signaling pathways, including the focal adhesion, extracellular matrix‑receptor interaction, axon guidance and small cell lung cancer signaling pathways. Furthermore, collagen type III α 1 chain (COL3A1), ephrin B2 (EFNB2), integrin subunit α 8 (ITGA8) and syndecan 2 (SDC2) were confirmed to be differentially expressed in LUAD vs. normal controls at the mRNA and protein level. Of note, LUAD patients with low expression of HOXA11 and ITGB1 had better overall survival rates. The present study indicated that HOXA11 may function as an oncogene in LUAD, and HOXA11 protein probably combines with ITGB1, COL3A1, EFNB2, ITGA8 and SDC2 to have a role in the focal adhesion pathway.

Yeh MH, Tzeng YJ, Fu TY, et al.
Extracellular Matrix-receptor Interaction Signaling Genes Associated with Inferior Breast Cancer Survival.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(8):4593-4605 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Breast cancer is a common type of cancer in women, and metastasis frequently leads to therapy failure. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS), we aspired to identify the optimal differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for use as prognostic biomarkers for breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: NGS was used to determine transcriptome profiles in breast cancer tissues and their corresponding adjacent normal tissues from three patients with breast cancer.
RESULTS: Herein, 15 DEGs (fold change >4 and <0.25) involved in extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction signaling were identified through NGS. Among them, our data indicated that high HMMR expression levels were correlated with a poor pathological stage (p<0.001) and large tumor size (p<0.001), whereas high COL6A6 and Reelin (RELN) expression levels were significantly correlated with an early pathological stage (COL6A6: p=0.003 and RELN: p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that high HMMR and SDC1 expression levels were significantly correlated with poor overall survival (OS; HMMR: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.10-3.41, p=0.023; SDC1: [aHR] 2.47, 95%CI=1.28-4.77, p=0.007) for breast cancer. Combined, the effects of HMMR and SDC1 showed a significant correlation with poor OS for patients with breast cancer (high expression for both HMMR and SDC1: [aHR] 3.29, 95%CI=1.52-7.12, p=0.003).
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that HMMR and SDC1 involved in the ECM-receptor interaction signaling pathway could act as effective independent prognostic biomarkers for breast ductal carcinoma.

Fujino M
The histopathology of myeloma in the bone marrow.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2018; 58(2):61-67 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myeloma is characterized by the neoplastic proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells. A diagnosis of myeloma is based on the criteria proposed by the International Myeloma Working Group and the pathological findings.Myeloma cells are classified into four types: mature, immature, pleomorphic, and plasmablastic. There are three patterns in which myeloma infiltrates bone marrow - nodular, interstitial, and diffuse. Dutcher bodies are highly specific to neoplastic myeloma cells. On immunohistochemical staining, the specificity of CD138 is high for plasma cells. As a clear image is often not obtained from the immunohistochemical staining of the immunoglobulin light chain, in situ hybridization is recommended. Abnormal expression of CD56 is seen in 70-80% of cases by flow cytometry analysis. CD56 expression definitively indicates myeloma, suggesting its high diagnostic value. Evaluation of the infiltration pattern, monoclonality, and abnormal antigen expression of plasma cells is more important than the plasmocytic ratio to determine whether a case is reactive or neoplastic.Multiple gene abnormalities function in the onset and progression of myeloma. In our department, we analyze CCND1, FGFR3, MAF, and del (17p13) by FISH for all myeloma cases. None of the cases with genetic abnormalities were recognized by G-banding. Therefore, FISH is more effective than G-banding for the evaluation of genetic abnormalities in myeloma.

Urano M, Hirai H, Tada Y, et al.
The high expression of FOXA1 is correlated with a favourable prognosis in salivary duct carcinomas: a study of 142 cases.
Histopathology. 2018; 73(6):943-952 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is an uncommon, aggressive tumour that, histologically, resembles high-grade mammary ductal carcinoma, and is characterised by the expression of androgen receptor (AR). The androgen signalling pathway, a potential therapeutic target, can be regulated by FOXA1. This study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological implications of FOXA1 in SDC.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the relationship between the immunoexpression of FOXA1 and FOXA1 mutations and clinicopathological factors, including the biomarker status and clinical outcome, in 142 SDCs. FOXA1 was expressed in 128 SDCs (90.1%); the immunoexpression was heterogeneous. SDCs with a higher FOXA1 labelling index (LI) (≥20%) more frequently showed less advanced tumors on T classification (P = 0.002). FOXA1 LI was correlated positively with the AR expression value (r = 0.430, P < 0.001). PI3K and p-mTOR positivity, and intact-PTEN, were associated with a higher FOXA1 LI. Twenty-two of 121 SDCs (18.2%) harboured FOXA1 gene mutations at the flanking regions in and around the forkhead DNA binding domain; however, the given gene mutation and the expression of FOXA1 were not significantly correlated. A multivariate analysis revealed that SDCs with a higher FOXA1 LI were associated with longer overall survival and progression-free survival (P = 0.029 and 0.016, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: In SDC, FOXA1, which may biologically interact with the AR and PI3K signalling pathways, is a putative biomarker that may be associated with a favourable prognosis. Further studies are needed to apply the findings to the development of targeted personalised therapy for patients with SDC.

Chute C, Yang X, Meyer K, et al.
Syndecan-1 induction in lung microenvironment supports the establishment of breast tumor metastases.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Syndecan-1 (Sdc1), a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan normally expressed primarily by epithelia and plasma cells, is aberrantly induced in stromal fibroblasts of breast carcinomas. Stromal fibroblast-derived Sdc1 participates in paracrine growth stimulation of breast carcinoma cells and orchestrates stromal extracellular matrix fiber alignment, thereby creating a migration and invasion-permissive microenvironment. Here, we specifically tested the role of stromal Sdc1 in metastasis.
METHODS: The metastatic potential of the aggressive mouse mammary carcinoma cell lines, 4T1 and E0776, was tested in wild-type and genetically Sdc1-deficient host animals. Metastatic lesions were characterized by immunohistochemical analysis.
RESULTS: After orthotopic inoculation, the lung metastatic burden was reduced in Sdc1-/- animals by 97% and more than 99%, in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6 animals, respectively. The difference in metastatic efficiency was maintained when the tumor cells were injected into the tail vein, suggesting that host Sdc1 exerts its effect during later stages of the metastatic cascade. Co-localization studies identified Sdc1 expression in stromal fibroblasts within the metastatic microenvironment and in normal airway epithelial cells but not in other cells (endothelial cells, α-smooth muscle actin positive cells, leucocytes, macrophages). The Ki67 proliferation index and the rate of apoptosis of the metastatic tumor cells were diminished in Sdc1-/- vs. Sdc1+/+ animals, and leucocyte density was indistinguishable. Sdc1-mediated metastatic efficiency was abolished when the animals were housed at a thermoneutral ambient temperature of 31 °C, suggesting that the host Sdc1 effect on metastasis requires mild cold stress.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, Sdc1 is induced in the lung microenvironment after mammary carcinoma cell dissemination and promotes outgrowth of metastases in a temperature-dependent manner.

Tay TKY, Guan P, Loke BN, et al.
Molecular insights into paediatric breast fibroepithelial tumours.
Histopathology. 2018; 73(5):809-818 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: This study aims to examine the molecular genetics of paediatric breast fibroepithelial tumours through the targeted sequencing of 50 genes.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of fibroepithelial tumours diagnosed in a cohort of patients aged 18 years and below were subjected to next generation sequencing using the Haloplex Target Enrichment System. Twenty-five conventional and 17 juvenile fibroadenomas were studied, with MED12 mutations found in 53.8 and 35% of the tumours, respectively. There was also one benign fibroepithelial neoplasm with hybrid features of juvenile papillomatosis and infarcted benign phyllodes tumour-like areas. Most tumours did not have mutations in well-known cancer driver genes, none harboured TERT promoter mutations, while 25.6% (11 of 43) showed no mutations. Metachronous and synchronous tumours were found to have mutational heterogeneity with some containing mutations in MED12; other genes or no mutations were detected at all. Four of eight giant fibroadenomas (size 5 cm or larger) had no mutations detected, suggesting that there are other molecular mechanisms driving their growth. Tumours with MED12 mutations incidentally had a significantly higher stromal mitotic count compared with those without.
CONCLUSION: While paediatric fibroepithelial lesions can have cellular stroma potentially raising concern for phyllodes tumour, their lack of TERT promoter and cancer driver mutations is reassuring. The absence of mutations in a significant proportion of tumours, especially the giant fibroadenomas, warrants investigation of pathogenetic mechanisms beyond those involving the 50 genes.

Yamada Y, Arai T, Kojima S, et al.
Regulation of antitumor miR-144-5p targets oncogenes: Direct regulation of syndecan-3 and its clinical significance.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(9):2919-2936 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In the human genome, miR-451a, miR-144-5p (passenger strand), and miR-144-3p (guide strand) reside in clustered microRNA (miRNA) sequences located within the 17q11.2 region. Low expression of these miRNAs is significantly associated with poor prognosis of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (miR-451a: P = .00305; miR-144-5p: P = .00128; miR-144-3p: P = 9.45 × 10

Yang Y, Tao X, Li CB, Wang CM
MicroRNA-494 acts as a tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer, inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration and invasion by binding to SDC1.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(3):1204-1214 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer‑related mortality in the industrialized world. Emerging evidence indicates that a variety of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are involved in the development of PC. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms through which miR‑494 affects the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion of PC cells by binding to syndecan 1 (SDC1). PC tissues and pancreatitis tissues were collected, and the regulatory effects of miR‑494 on SDC1 were validated using bioinformatics analysis and a dual‑luciferase report gene assay. The cell line with the highest SDC1 expression was selected for use in the following experiments. The role of miR‑494 in EMT was assessed by measuring the expression of SDC1, E‑cadherin and vimentin. Cell proliferation was assessed using a cell counting kit (CCK)‑8 assay, migration was measured using a scratch test, invasion was assessed with a Transwell assay and apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Finally, a xenograft tumor model was constructed in nude mice to observe tumor growth in vivo. We found that SDC1 protein expression was significantly higher in the PC tissues. SDC1 was verified as a target gene of miR‑494. The SW1990 cell line was selected for use in further experiments as it had the lowest miR‑494 expression and the highest SDC1 expression. Our results also demonstrated that miR‑494 overexpression and SDC1 silencing significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression of SDC1 and vimentin in SW1990 cells, while it increased E‑cadherin expression and apoptosis, and inhibited cell growth, migration, invasion and tumor growth. On the whole, the findings of this study demonstrated that miR‑494 is able to downregulate SDC1 expression, thereby inhibiting the progression of PC. These findings reveal a novel mechanism through which miR‑494 affects the development of PC and may thus provide a basis for the application of miR‑494 in pancreatic oncology.

Barry KC, Hsu J, Broz ML, et al.
A natural killer-dendritic cell axis defines checkpoint therapy-responsive tumor microenvironments.
Nat Med. 2018; 24(8):1178-1191 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Intratumoral stimulatory dendritic cells (SDCs) play an important role in stimulating cytotoxic T cells and driving immune responses against cancer. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate their abundance in the tumor microenvironment (TME) could unveil new therapeutic opportunities. We find that in human melanoma, SDC abundance is associated with intratumoral expression of the gene encoding the cytokine FLT3LG. FLT3LG is predominantly produced by lymphocytes, notably natural killer (NK) cells in mouse and human tumors. NK cells stably form conjugates with SDCs in the mouse TME, and genetic and cellular ablation of NK cells in mice demonstrates their importance in positively regulating SDC abundance in tumor through production of FLT3L. Although anti-PD-1 'checkpoint' immunotherapy for cancer largely targets T cells, we find that NK cell frequency correlates with protective SDCs in human cancers, with patient responsiveness to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy, and with increased overall survival. Our studies reveal that innate immune SDCs and NK cells cluster together as an excellent prognostic tool for T cell-directed immunotherapy and that these innate cells are necessary for enhanced T cell tumor responses, suggesting this axis as a target for new therapies.

Skerget M, Skopec B, Zadnik V, et al.
CD56 Expression Is an Important Prognostic Factor in Multiple Myeloma Even with Bortezomib Induction.
Acta Haematol. 2018; 139(4):228-234 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: In this retrospective study, we evaluated the impact of CD56, CD117, and CD28 expression on clinical characteristics and survival in newly diagnosed myeloma patients treated with bortezomib-based induction therapy.
METHODS: We analyzed 110 myeloma patients. Immunophenotype was determined using panels consisting of CD19/CD38/CD45/CD56/CD138 and CD20, CD28, and CD117 were used additionally. All samples were tested for recurrent chromosomal aberrations.
RESULTS: CD56, CD117, and CD28 expression rates were 71, 6, and 68%, respectively. The lack of CD56 expression was associated with light chain myeloma. The lack of CD117 expression was associated with elevated creatinine levels (p = 0.037). We discovered the correlation between CD 28 expression and female gender. The median progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with revised International Staging System stage 2 disease with CD56 expression or the lack of CD56 expression was 20.5 vs. 13.8 months (p = 0.03). In patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT), we found no difference in PFS and overall survival regarding the CD56 expression. We found no impact of CD117 and CD28 expression on PFS in patients regarding aHSCT.
CONCLUSIONS: Induction treatment incorporating bortezomib diminishes the negative impact of the lack of CD117 expression and aberrancy of CD28 but does not overcome the negative impact of the lack of CD56 expression.

Liu J, Yang Y, Wang H, et al.
Syntenin1/MDA-9 (SDCBP) induces immune evasion in triple-negative breast cancer by upregulating PD-L1.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 171(2):345-357 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Syntenin1/SDCBP (syndecan binding protein), also known as melanoma differentiation associated gene-9 (MDA-9), is a PDZ domain-containing molecule, which was initially identified as a key oncogene in melanoma. However, the role of syntenin1 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), especially in suppression of antitumour immune response, remains unknown.
METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred TNBC tissues were obtained after radical resection and used for analysis. High syntenin1 expression was associated with increased tumour size (r = 0.421, P < 0.001), presence of lymph node metastasis (r = 0.221, P = 0.044) and poor overall survival (P = 0.01) and recurrence-free survival (P = 0.007). Syntenin1 overexpression significantly promoted 4T1 tumour growth and lung metastasis in BALB/c mice by affecting CD8
CONCLUSIONS: Syntenin1 exhibits a profound function in mediating T cells apoptosis by upregulating PD-L1 and thus could be used as a prognostic biomarker of TNBC. Tumoural syntenin1 expression corelated with anti-PD-L1 treatment efficacy. Targeting syntenin1-mediated T-cell suppression could be a potential strategy for improving the prognosis of patients with TNBC.

Nageshwari B, Merugu R
Effect of levamisole on expression of CD138 and interleukin-6 in human multiple myeloma cell lines.
Indian J Cancer. 2017 Jul-Sep; 54(3):566-571 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy accounting for 0.8% of all cancer deaths globally. This malignancy is characterized by lytic bone disease renal insufficiency, anemia, hypercalcemia, and immunodeficiency. The myeloma cells have enhanced expression of CD138. CD138 is a transmembrane heparin sulfate glycoprotein expressed on different types of adherent and nonadherent cells.CD138 is used as a standard marker for identification of tumor cells.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Despite introduction of many therapeutic agents, the management of multiple myeloma (MM) remains a challenge and search for new therapeutic agents is in progress. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effect of an alkaline phosphatase inhibitor, levamisole on expression of CD138, and level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in human MM cell lines RPMI 8226 and U266 B1.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: U266B1 and RPMI 8226 cell lines were obtained from the National Centre for Cell Sciences, Pune. Alkaline phosphatase assay, Interleukin-6 assay and CD138 expression on myeloma cells by flow cytometry were investigated when the cells were exposed to Levamisole.
RESULTS: Levamisole-mediated growth inhibition of myeloma cells in vitro is associated with a loss of CD138 and increased IL-6 secretion. The increased secretion of IL-6 by myeloma cells could be an attempt to protect themselves from apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: Levamisole inhibited CD138 expression and affected the levels of IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. The results of the present study add new dimension to levamisole's mode of action as inhibitor of CD138 and IL-6 and as an antiapoptotic agent.

Stephens OW, Meißner T, Weinhold N
Detection of Cross-Sample Contamination in Multiple Myeloma Samples and Sequencing Data.
Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1792:147-155 [PubMed] Related Publications
The increasing applicability and sensitivity of next generation sequencing methods exacerbate one of the main issues in the molecular biology laboratory, namely cross-sample contamination. This type of contamination, which could massively increase the rate of false-positive calls in sequencing experiments, can originate at each step during the processing of multiple myeloma samples, such as CD138-selection of tumor cells, RNA and DNA isolation or the processing of sequencing libraries. Here we describe a Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) method and a simple bioinformatic solution for the detection of contamination in patient's samples and derived sequencing data, which are based on the same principle: detection of alternative alleles for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are homozygous according to the control (germ line) sample.

Seckinger A, Bähr-Ivacevic T, Benes V, Hose D
RNA-Sequencing from Low-Input Material in Multiple Myeloma for Application in Clinical Routine.
Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1792:97-115 [PubMed] Related Publications
RNA sequencing is a recently developed approach for transcriptome profiling with several advantages over gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. Here we describe a RNA-sequencing protocol optimized for low-input analysis of total RNA from CD138

Talukdar S, Pradhan AK, Bhoopathi P, et al.
MDA-9/Syntenin regulates protective autophagy in anoikis-resistant glioma stem cells.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(22):5768-5773 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioma stem cells (GSCs) comprise a small subpopulation of glioblastoma multiforme cells that contribute to therapy resistance, poor prognosis, and tumor recurrence. Protective autophagy promotes resistance of GSCs to anoikis, a form of programmed cell death occurring when anchorage-dependent cells detach from the extracellular matrix. In nonadherent conditions, GSCs display protective autophagy and anoikis-resistance, which correlates with expression of melanoma differentiation associated gene-9/Syntenin (MDA-9) (syndecan binding protein; SDCBP). When MDA-9 is suppressed, GSCs undergo autophagic death supporting the hypothesis that MDA-9 regulates protective autophagy in GSCs under anoikis conditions. MDA-9 maintains protective autophagy through phosphorylation of BCL2 and by suppressing high levels of autophagy through EGFR signaling. MDA-9 promotes these changes by modifying FAK and PKC signaling. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function genetic approaches demonstrate that MDA-9 regulates pEGFR and pBCL2 expression through FAK and pPKC. EGFR signaling inhibits autophagy markers (ATG5, Lamp1, LC3B), helping to maintain protective autophagy, and along with pBCL2 maintain survival of GSCs. In the absence of MDA-9, this protective mechanism is deregulated; EGFR no longer maintains protective autophagy, leading to highly elevated and sustained levels of autophagy and consequently decreased cell survival. In addition, pBCL2 is down-regulated in the absence of MDA-9, leading to cell death in GSCs under conditions of anoikis. Our studies confirm a functional link between MDA-9 expression and protective autophagy in GSCs and show that inhibition of MDA-9 reverses protective autophagy and induces anoikis and cell death in GSCs.

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