TNFRSF11B

Gene Summary

Gene:TNFRSF11B; TNF receptor superfamily member 11b
Aliases: OPG, TR1, OCIF, PDB5
Location:8q24.12
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This protein is an osteoblast-secreted decoy receptor that functions as a negative regulator of bone resorption. This protein specifically binds to its ligand, osteoprotegerin ligand, both of which are key extracellular regulators of osteoclast development. Studies of the mouse counterpart also suggest that this protein and its ligand play a role in lymph-node organogenesis and vascular calcification. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been reported, but their full length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
  • Cell Survival
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Glycoproteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • RTPCR
  • Chromosome 8
  • Breast Cancer
  • TNFRSF11B
  • RANK Ligand
  • Bone Cancer
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Apoptosis
  • Giant Cell Tumor of Bone
  • Osteoprotegerin
  • Osteoblasts
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • Signal Transduction
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Coculture Techniques
  • Gene Expression
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Caspases
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Phenotype
  • Transfection
  • TNF
  • Osteoclasts
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • DNA Primers
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B
  • Prostate Cancer
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TNFRSF11B (cancer-related)

Lintermans A, Van Asten K, Jongen L, et al.
Genetic variant in the osteoprotegerin gene is associated with aromatase inhibitor-related musculoskeletal toxicity in breast cancer patients.
Eur J Cancer. 2016; 56:31-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy is associated with musculoskeletal (MS) toxicity, which adversely affects quality of life and therapy adherence. Our objective was to evaluate whether genetic variants may predict endocrine therapy-related MS pain and hot flashes in a prospective observational cohort study.
PATIENTS & METHODS: 254 early breast cancer patients starting AI (n = 159) or tamoxifen therapy (n = 95) were included in this genetic biomarker study. MS and vasomotor symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months of therapy. AI-induced MS pain was defined as an increase in arthralgia or myalgia relative to baseline. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in candidate genes involved in oestrogen signalling or previously associated with AI-related MS pain or oestrogen levels were selected.
RESULTS: Overall, 13 SNPs in CYP19, CYP17, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and oestrogen receptor 1 exhibited an allele frequency >0.05 and were included in the analysis. Patients carrying the G allele of rs2073618 in OPG experienced significantly more AI-induced MS toxicity compared to the wildtype allele, after correction for multiple testing (P = 0.046). Furthermore, this SNP was associated with severity of pain (P = 0.018). No association was found with regard to the other SNPs, both in AI and tamoxifen-treated patients. Neither could an association with vasomotor symptoms be demonstrated.
CONCLUSION: The SNP rs2073618 in OPG is associated with an increased risk of MS symptoms and pain with AI therapy, which has not been reported previously. Validation of this finding in larger cohorts and further functional studies are required.

Owen S, Sanders AJ, Mason MD, Jiang WG
Importance of osteoprotegrin and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB in breast cancer response to hepatocyte growth factor and the bone microenvironment in vitro.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(3):919-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteoprotegrin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) and RANK ligand (RANKL) are signal transducers which have pleiotropic actions. Each tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily member has unique structural attributes which directly couples them to signalling pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Previous studies have clinically linked OPG, RANK and RANKL to increasing tumour burden, metastatic bone involvement and estrogen status. This study aimed to establish the potential implications of targeting endogenously produced OPG and RANK in the osteotropic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB‑231 in vitro. Subsequently this study also aimed to explore the potential links between these molecules with regards to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signalling and extracted bone proteins (BME). OPG and RANK expression was successfully suppressed using hammerhead ribozyme technology. Subsequently effects were explored in MDA-MB‑231 cell proliferation, matrix adhesion, migration and invasion in vitro function assays. Reduced OPG expression resulted in increased breast cancer cell migration and invasion. These increases, particularly invasion, appeared to however be reduced under the influence of the exogenous stimuli (HGF and BME). In contrast, suppression of RANK in MDA-MB‑231 breast cancer cells resulted in decreased cancer cell proliferation, matrix-adhesion, motility and invasion with little cumulative effect being noted after the addition of exogenous stimuli. The complexity of the bone environment underpins the vast number of soluble factors and signalling pathways which can influence osteotropic cancer behaviour and progression. Further work into elucidating all the pathways affected could potentially lead to better identification of those patients most at risk.

Goswami S, Sharma-Walia N
Osteoprotegerin secreted by inflammatory and invasive breast cancer cells induces aneuploidy, cell proliferation and angiogenesis.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:935 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a glycoprotein that has multifaceted role and is associated with several cancer malignancies like that of bladder carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, prostate cancer, multiple myeloma and breast cancer. Also OPG has been associated with several organ pathologies. The widespread expression of OPG suggests that OPG may have multiple biological activities that are yet to be explored.
METHODS: The anchorage-independent sphere cultures of the adherent cells were instrumental in our study as it provided a deeper insight into the complexity of a 3D tumor. Cytokine profiling was performed for OPG's detection in the microenvironment. ELISA and western blotting were performed to quantify the OPG secretion and measure the protein levels respectively. OPG expression was detected in human breast cancer tissue samples by IHC. To decipher OPG's role in tumor aggressiveness both recombinant human OPG as well as OPG rich and depleted breast cancer cell conditioned media were tested. Western blotting and MTT assay were performed to detect changes in signaling pathways and proliferation that were induced in presence of OPG. Onset of aneuploidy, in presence of OPG, was measured by cell cycle analysis and western blotting. Finally, human Breast Cancer qBiomarker Copy Number PCR Array was used to detect how OPG remarkably induced gene copy numbers for oncogenic pathway regulators.
RESULTS: SUM149PT and SUM1315M02 cells secrete high levels of the cytokine OPG compared to primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). High expression of OPG was also detected in human breast cancer tissue samples compared to the uninvolved tissue from the same patient. OPG induced proliferation of control HMEC spheres and triggered the onset of aneuploidy in HMEC sphere cultures. OPG induced the expression of aneuploidy related kinases Aurora-A Kinase (IAK-1), Bub1 and BubR1 probably through the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and syndecan-1 receptors via the Erk, AKT and GSK3(3 signaling pathway. Gene copy numbers for oncogenic pathway regulators such AKT1, Aurora-A Kinase (AURKA or IAK-1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and MYC with a reduction in the copy numbers of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), PTEN and DNA topoisomerase 2 alpha (TOP2A) were induced in presence of OPG.
CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the role of OPG in reprogramming normal mammary epithelial cells to a tumorigenic state and suggest promising avenues for treating inflammatory breast cancer as well as highly invasive breast cancer with new therapeutic targets.

Shang WQ, Li H, Liu LB, et al.
RANKL/RANK interaction promotes the growth of cervical cancer cells by strengthening the dialogue between cervical cancer cells and regulation of IL-8 secretion.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(6):3007-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. The interaction between RANKL and its receptor RANK plays an important role in the development and function of diverse tissues. However, the expression and role of RANKL in cervical cancer are still unknown. In the present study, we found that RANKL and RANK were highly co-expressed in cervical cancer. HeLa and SiHa cells secreted soluble RANKL (sRANKL), expressed member RANKL (mRANKL) and RANK. Recombinant human RANKL protein had no effect on the viability of HeLa and SiHa cells. Yet, blocking RANKL with an anti-human RANKL neutralizing antibody (α-RANKL) or recombinant human osteoprotegrin (OPG) protein resulted in the downregulation of Ki-67 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression and an increase in Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) expression, as well as a high level of viability and a low level of apoptosis in the HeLa and SiHa cells. In addition, α-RANKL led to a decrease in IL-8 secretion. Recombinant human IL-8 protein reversed the effect of α-RANKL on the expression of proliferation- and apoptosis‑related molecules, and proliferation and apoptosis in the HeLa and SiHa cells. The present study suggests that a high level of mRANKL/RANK expression in cervical cancer lesions plays an important role in the rapid growth of cervical cancer cells possibly through strengthening the dialogue between cervical cancer cells and regulation of IL-8 secretion, which may be a possible target for cervical cancer therapy.

Chiang IT, Wang WS, Liu HC, et al.
Curcumin alters gene expression-associated DNA damage, cell cycle, cell survival and cell migration and invasion in NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells in vitro.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(4):1853-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality and new cases are on the increase worldwide. However, the treatment of lung cancer remains unsatisfactory. Curcumin has been shown to induce cell death in many human cancer cells, including human lung cancer cells. However, the effects of curcumin on genetic mechanisms associated with these actions remain unclear. Curcumin (2 µM) was added to NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells and the cells were incubated for 24 h. Total RNA was extracted from isolated cells for cDNA synthesis, labeling, microarray hybridization and flour‑labeled cDNA hybridized on chip. Localized concentrations of fluorescent molecules were detected and quantified using Expression Console software (Affymetrix) with default RMA parameters. GeneGo software was used for the key genes involved and their possible interaction pathways. The results showed that ~170 genes were significantly upregulated and 577 genes were significantly downregulated in curcumin‑treated cells. Specifically, the up‑ and downregulated genes included CCNE2, associated with DNA damage; ID3, associated with cell survival and 146 genes with a >2- to 3-fold change including the TP53INP1 gene, associated with DNA damage; CDC6, CDCA5, TAKMIP2, CDK14, CDK5, CDCA76, CDC25A, CDC5L and SKP2, associated with cell cycle; the CARD6, ID1 and ID2 genes, associated with cell survival and the BRMS1L, associated with cell migration and invasion. Additionally, 59 downregulated genes exhibited a >4-fold change, including the DDIT3 gene, associated with DNA damage; while 97 genes had a >3- to 4-fold change including the DDIT4 gene, associated with DNA damage; the CCPG1 gene, associated with cell cycle and 321 genes with a >2- to 3-fold including the GADD45A and CGREF1 genes, associated with DNA damage; the CCPG1 gene, associated with cell cycle, the TNFRSF10B, GAS5, TSSC1 and TNFRSF11B gene, associated with cell survival and the ARHAP29 and CADM2 genes, associated with cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, gene alterations provide information regarding the cytotoxic mechanism of curcumin at the genetic level and provide additional biomarkers or targets for the treatment of human lung cancer.

Pitari MR, Rossi M, Amodio N, et al.
Inhibition of miR-21 restores RANKL/OPG ratio in multiple myeloma-derived bone marrow stromal cells and impairs the resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(29):27343-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
miR-21 is an oncogenic microRNA (miRNA) with an emerging role as therapeutic target in human malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM). Here we investigated whether miR-21 is involved in MM-related bone disease (BD). We found that miR-21 expression is dramatically enhanced, while osteoprotegerin (OPG) is strongly reduced, in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) adherent to MM cells. On this basis, we validated the 3'UTR of OPG mRNA as miR-21 target. Constitutive miR-21 inhibition in lentiviral-transduced BMSCs adherent to MM cells restored OPG expression and secretion. Interestingly, miR-21 inhibition reduced RANKL production by BMSCs. Overexpression of protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), which is a direct and validated target of miR-21, antagonized STAT3-mediated RANKL gene activation. Finally, we demonstrate that constitutive expression of miR-21 inhibitors in BMSCs restores RANKL/OPG balance and dramatically impairs the resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Taken together, our data provide proof-of-concept that miR-21 overexpression within MM-microenviroment plays a crucial role in bone resorption/apposition balance, supporting the design of innovative miR-21 inhibition-based strategies for MM-related BD.

Omar HS, Shaker OG, Nassar YH, et al.
The association between RANKL and Osteoprotegerin gene polymorphisms with breast cancer.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2015; 403(1-2):219-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among women (522,000 deaths in 2012). Imbalance between RANKL and OPG is observed in many cancers, including breast cancer. Consequently, SNPs in the genes of RANKL and OPG may be involved in breast cancer development. This study included 276 subjects. Group I (n = 100) healthy females as a control group, group II (n = 96) breast cancer patients without bone metastases, and group III (n = 80) breast cancer patients with bone metastases. RANKL rs9533156, OPG rs2073618, and OPG rs2073617 SNPs and their serum protein levels were studied for a possible association with breast cancer development. The allele frequency [(OR: 4.832 CI 2.18-10.71, P = 0.001) and genotype distribution (P = 0.001)] of OPG SNP rs2073618 showed a highly significant difference between breast cancer patients and healthy controls. The allele C is more common in breast cancer patients. The allele frequency [(OR: 0.451 CI 0.232-0.879, P = 0.018) and genotype distribution (P = 0.003)] of RANKL SNP rs9533156 differed significantly between breast cancer patients and healthy controls. The allele T is more common in breast cancer patients. The allele frequency [(OR: 0.36 CI 0.184-0.705, P = 0.002) and genotype distribution (P = 0.011)] of OPG SNP rs2073617 differed significantly between breast cancer patients and healthy controls. The allele T is more common in breast cancer patients. The C allele of OPG SNP rs2073618 may be associated with breast cancer development. No association was found between any of the SNPs and the serum protein levels of RANKL and OPG.

Wang X, Liu Y, Shao D, et al.
Recurrent amplification of MYC and TNFRSF11B in 8q24 is associated with poor survival in patients with gastric cancer.
Gastric Cancer. 2016; 19(1):116-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is an aggressive malignancy whose mechanisms of development and progression are poorly understood. The identification of prognosis-related genomic loci and genes may suffer from the relatively small case numbers and a lack of systematic validation in previous studies.
METHODS: Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) coupled with patient clinical information was applied to identify prognosis-related loci and genes with high-frequency recurrent gains in 129 GC patients. The candidate loci and genes were then validated using an independent cohort of 384 patients through branched DNA signal amplification analysis (QuantiGene assays).
RESULTS: In the 129 patients, a copy number gain of three chromosome regions-namely, 8q22 (including ESRP1 and CCNE2), 8q24 (including MYC and TNFRSF11B), and 20q11-q13 (including SRC, MMP9, and CSE1L)--conferred poor survival for patients. In addition, the correlation between the branched DNA signal amplification analysis results and the aCGH results was analyzed in 73 of these 129 patients, and MYC, TNFRSF11B, ESRP1, CSE1L, and MMP9 were found to be well correlated. Further validation using an independent cohort (n = 384) verified that only MYC and TNFRSF11B within 8q24 are related to survival. Patients with gains in both MYC and TNFRSF11B had poorer survival than those with no gains, particularly those with noncardia GC. Gains in both of these genes were also a significant independent prognostic indicator.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that copy number gains in MYC and TNFRSF11B located at 8q24 are associated with survival in GC, particularly noncardia GC.

Kushlinskii NE, Timofeev YS, Solov'ev YN, et al.
Components of the RANK/RANKL/OPG system, IL-6, IL-8, IL-16, MMP-2, and calcitonin in the sera of patients with bone tumors.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2014; 157(4):520-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Serum levels of sRANKL, RANK, OPG, IL-8, IL-6, IL-16, MMP-2, and calcitonin were measured by ELISA in patients with malignant, borderline, and benign bone tumors and in healthy individuals (control). Serum levels of RANK, OPG, IL-8, IL-6, and the OPG/sRANKL ratio were significantly higher, while the level of MMP-2 was significantly lower in patients with bone tumors than in controls. Serum concentration of IL-16 in osteosarcoma patients was significantly lower than in chondrosarcoma patients. No significant differences between bone sarcomas of different differentiation were detected for any of the studied markers. Calcitonin level depended on the tumor location and type.

Mirzaei MR, Najafi A, Arababadi MK, et al.
Altered expression of apoptotic genes in response to OCT4B1 suppression in human tumor cell lines.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(10):9999-10009 [PubMed] Related Publications
OCT4B1 is a newly discovered spliced variant of OCT4 which is primarily expressed in pluripotent and tumor cells. Based on our previous studies, OCT4B1 is significantly overexpressed in tumors, where it endows an anti-apoptotic property to tumor cells. However, the mechanism by which OCT4B1 regulates the apoptotic pathway is not yet elucidated. Here, we investigated the effects of OCT4B1 suppression on the expression alteration of 84 genes involved in apoptotic pathway. The AGS (gastric adenocarcinoma), 5637 (bladder tumor), and U-87MG (brain tumor) cell lines were transfected with OCT4B1 or irrelevant siRNAs. The expression level of apoptotic genes was then quantified using a human apoptosis panel-PCR kit. Our data revealed an almost similar pattern of alteration in the expression profile of apoptotic genes in all three studied cell lines, following OCT4B1 suppression. In general, the expression of more than 54 apoptotic genes (64 % of arrayed genes) showed significant changes. Among these, some up-regulated (CIDEA, CIDEB, TNFRSF1A, TNFRSF21, TNFRSF11B, TNFRSF10B, and CASP7) and down-regulated (BCL2, BCL2L11, TP73, TP53, BAD, TRAF3, TRAF2, BRAF, BNIP3L, BFAR, and BAX) genes had on average more than tenfold gene expression alteration in all three examined cell lines. With some minor exceptions, suppression of OCT4B1 caused upregulation of pro-apoptotic and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes in transfected tumor cells. Uncovering OCT4B1 down-stream targets could further elucidate its part in tumorigenesis, and could lead to finding a new approach to combat cancer, based on targeting OCT4B1.

Silva JC, Ferreira-Strixino J, Fontana LC, et al.
Apoptosis-associated genes related to photodynamic therapy in breast carcinomas.
Lasers Med Sci. 2014; 29(4):1429-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to find the apoptosis molecular markers involved in the cell death that might be related to photodynamic therapy (PDT) mechanisms in breast cancer. The mammary tumors were induced in 25 Sprague-Dawley female rats by a single, oral gavage of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA; 70 mg/kg body weight). Animals were divided into four groups: G1 (normal, without DMBA), G2 (control, without PDT treatment), G3 (euthanized 48 h after PDT), and G4 (euthanized 24 h after PDT). For PDT experiments, the photosensitizer used was Photodithazine, and 100 J/cm of light at a fluence rate of 100 mW/cm was delivered to treat lesions. A sample of each animal was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR using Rat Apoptosis RT2 Profiler™ PCR Array platform. The results showed 20 genes with differential expression between PDT and control groups. A significant upregulation was observed for pro-apoptotic genes CASP4, CASP12, CIDEA, GADD45A, and FAS and downregulation of anti-apoptotic genes MAPK8IP1, TNFRSF11B, and NAIP2 in PDT-treated tumors. These results indicate that these genes are more directly involved in cell apoptosis induced by PDT.

Wang J, Chen TY, Qin S, et al.
Inhibitory effect of metformin on bone metastasis of cancer via OPG/RANKL/RANK system.
Med Hypotheses. 2013; 81(5):805-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diabetes and cancer are both serious health problems worldwide and can lead to a significant burden on society with high incidence. Studies show that diabetes, which may be the reason of cancer metastasis, can increase cancer incidence and mortality. Bone is one of the most preferential metastatic target sites for cancers. Studies also indicate that OPG and RANKL which regulate bone reabsorption play significant roles in the process of bone tumor metastasis. In addition, metformin as a commonly used medicine for type 2 diabetes is a negative regulator of RANKL and inhibits the differentiation of osteoclasts. We present a hypothesis that metformin serves an inhibitory effect on bone metastasis of cancer via OPG/RANKL/RANK system.

Sonmez M, Kazaz N, Yucel B, et al.
C950T and C1181G osteoprotegerin gene polymorphisms in myeloma bone disease.
Hematology. 2014; 19(4):213-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Bone disease is one of the hallmarks of multiple myeloma (MM). The role of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the RANK/RANKL/OPG signaling system is well defined in the myeloma bone disease. Polymorphisms of the TNFRSF11B gene encoding OPG have been studied in various bone diseases. However, relationship between the levels of OPG and development of bone lesions regardless of RANKL is yet unknown. In this study, the effects of OPG gene polymorphism on the development of bone lesions in MM were investigated.
METHODS: C950T and C1181G polymorphisms of the OPG gene were studied in 52 MM patients (36 with bone lesions and 16 without bone lesions) and in another 20 control subjects using DNA sequencing.
RESULTS: 1181 G and 950 T alleles were overrepresented in MM patients having bone lesions. 950 TT/1181 GG haplotype frequency and TT/GG combined haplotype were also higher in MM patients having bone lesions compared to MM patients without bone lesions or to control.
DISCUSSION: This is the first study searching for the relationship between OPG gene variants C950T (promoter), C1181G (exon 1), and myeloma bone disease. It was concluded that the presence of polymorphic 1181 G/950 T alleles and 950 TT/1181 GG genotypes may play a role in the development of bone disease.

Chen X, Lu J, Ji Y, et al.
Cytokines in osteoblast-conditioned medium promote the migration of breast cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(1):791-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bone is one of the most common metastatic sites for breast cancer. In this study, we observed a promoting effect of osteoblast-conditioned medium (OCM) on the migration of MCF-7, a noninvasive cell line of breast cancer cells. Cytokine antibody array was used to compare the cytokines of OCM with the conditioned medium of non-differentiated osteoblast cells, which consequently revealed factors related to migration, such as IL8, IL6, CSF2 (G-CSF), CSF3 (GM-CSF), and TNFRSF11B (osteoprotegerin). The expression of genes related to migration was also estimated with a PCR array, which showed that 9 genes were upregulated and 26 genes downregulated. Moreover, activated p38, ERK, and AKT pathways were found in the OCM treatment group. This finding indicated the migration ability of breast cancer cells, which move toward the bone depending on the presence of specific cytokines in its surrounding microenvironment.

Oliver JL, Alexander MP, Norrod AG, et al.
Differential expression and tumor necrosis factor-mediated regulation of TNFRSF11b/osteoprotegerin production by human melanomas.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2013; 26(4):571-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumors escape host immune responses, in part, through the release of immunomodulatory factors and decoy receptors into their microenvironment. Several cancers express surface-bound and soluble members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, including TNFRSF11b/osteoprotegerin (OPG). In its physiologic role, OPG regulates bone remodeling through competition for osteoclast-activating cytokines and protects newly forming bone from T cell-mediated apoptosis. In multiple tumor types, OPG production is associated with an aggressive phenotype and increased metastasis to bone, but no study has examined OPG production in human metastatic melanoma. We demonstrate that a significant proportion of human metastatic melanomas constitutively produces OPG through a mechanism governed by membrane-bound TNF-α signaling through TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1). These observations both define a specific mechanism that regulates melanoma production of OPG and establish a new molecular target for the therapeutic regulation of OPG.

Ney JT, Juhasz-Boess I, Gruenhage F, et al.
Genetic polymorphism of the OPG gene associated with breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), its ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been reported to play a role in the pathophysiological bone turnover and in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Based on this we investigated the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within RANK, RANKL and OPG and their possible association to breast cancer risk.
METHODS: Genomic DNA was obtained from Caucasian participants consisting of 307 female breast cancer patients and 396 gender-matched healthy controls. We studied seven SNPs in the genes of OPG (rs3102735, rs2073618), RANK (rs1805034, rs35211496) and RANKL (rs9533156, rs2277438, rs1054016) using TaqMan genotyping assays. Statistical analyses were performed using the χ2-tests for 2 x 2 and 2 x 3 tables.
RESULTS: The allelic frequencies (OR: 1.508 CI: 1.127-2.018, p=0.006) and the genotype distribution (p=0.019) of the OPG SNP rs3102735 differed significantly between breast cancer patients and healthy controls. The minor allele C and the corresponding homo- and heterozygous genotypes are more common in breast cancer patients (minor allele C: 18.4% vs. 13.0%; genotype CC: 3.3% vs. 1.3%; genotype CT: 30.3% vs. 23.5%). No significantly changed risk was detected in the other investigated SNPs. Additional analysis showed significant differences when comparing patients with invasive vs. non-invasive tumors (OPG rs2073618) as well as in terms of tumor localization (RANK rs35211496) and body mass index (RANKL rs9533156 and rs1054016).
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study reporting a significant association of the SNP rs3102735 (OPG) with the susceptibility to develop breast cancer in the Caucasian population.

Milone F, Pivonello C, Cariati F, et al.
Assessment and clinical implications of RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway as markers of bone tumor progression in patients with NET harboring bone metastases.
Biomarkers. 2013; 18(2):121-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The impact on the survival of bone metastases (BM) in patients with neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is a matter of debate. BM have a key role in causing symptoms and in decreasing patients' quality of life. Although the mechanisms of the development of BM are not completely clear, it is now well understood that the Receptor Activator of Nuclear factor Kappa-B-/Ligand (RANK/RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) pathway plays a relevant role.
AIM: To characterize the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway in patients affected with NET.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two cohorts of 15 patients each were enrolled in the study; one cohort was affected with NET without BM and the second cohort was affected with NET with BM. The serum RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway was assessed in both the groups.
RESULTS: Serum OPG levels and RANKL/OPG ratio were lower and higher, respectively, in NET patients harboring BM than in those without BM. During the ROC analysis, a cut-off value of 1071 pg/ml for OPG and 0.62 for RANKL/OPG ratio were able to significantly distinguish between the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway is imbalanced in patients with NET harboring BM. Specific alterations of this pathway could predict an early development of BM.

Gianfrancesco F, Rendina D, Merlotti D, et al.
Giant cell tumor occurring in familial Paget's disease of bone: report of clinical characteristics and linkage analysis of a large pedigree.
J Bone Miner Res. 2013; 28(2):341-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neoplastic degeneration represents a rare but serious complication of Paget's disease of bone (PDB). Although osteosarcomas have been described in up to 1% of PDB cases, giant cell tumors are less frequent and mainly occur in patients with polyostotic disease. We recently characterized a large pedigree with 14 affected members of whom four developed giant cell tumors at pagetic sites. The high number of affected subjects across multiple generations allowed us to better characterize the clinical phenotype and look for possible susceptibility loci. Of interest, all the affected members had polyostotic PDB, but subjects developing giant cell tumors showed an increased disease severity with a reduced clinical response to bisphosphonate treatment and an increased prevalence of bone pain, deformities, and fractures. Together with an increased occurrence of common pagetic complications, affected patients of this pedigree also evidenced a fivefold higher prevalence of coronary artery disease with respect to either the unaffected family members or a comparative cohort of 150 unrelated PDB cases from the same geographical area. This association was further enhanced in the four cases with PDB and giant cell tumors, all of them developing coronary artery disease before 60 years of age. Despite the early onset and the severe phenotype, PDB patients from this pedigree were negative for the presence of SQSTM1 or TNFRSF11A mutations, previously associated with enhanced disease severity. Genome-wide linkage analysis identified six possible candidate regions on chromosomes 1, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 20. Because the chromosome 8 and 10 loci were next to the TNFRSF11B and OPTN genes, we extended the genetic screening to these two genes, but we failed to identify any causative mutation at both the genomic and transcription level, suggesting that a different genetic defect is associated with PDB and potentially giant cell tumor of bone in this pedigree.

Oue E, Lee JW, Sakamoto K, et al.
CXCL2 synthesized by oral squamous cell carcinoma is involved in cancer-associated bone destruction.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012; 424(3):456-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
To explore the mechanism of bone destruction associated with oral cancer, we identified factors that stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Two clonal cell lines, HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17, were isolated from the maternal oral cancer cell line, HSC3. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells showed the highest induction of Rankl expression in the mouse stromal cell lines ST2 and UAMS-32 as compared to that in maternal HSC3 cells and HSC3-C17 cells, which showed similar activity. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in a co-culture with mouse bone marrow cells and UAMS-32 cells. Xenograft tumors generated from these clonal cell lines into the periosteal region of the parietal bone in athymic mice showed that HSC3-C13 cells caused extensive bone destruction and a significant increase in osteoclast numbers as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Gene expression was compared between HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17 cells by using microarray analysis, which showed that CXCL2 gene was highly expressed in HSC3-C13 cells as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the localization of CXCL2 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The increase in osteoclast numbers induced by the HSC3-C13-conditioned medium was dose-dependently inhibited by addition of anti-human CXCL2-neutralizing antibody in a co-culture system. Recombinant CXCL2 increased the expression of Rankl in UAMS-32 cells. These results indicate that CXCL2 is involved in bone destruction induced by oral cancer. This is the first report showing the role of CXCL2 in cancer-associated bone destruction.

Yao XQ, Zhang YH, Long W, Liu PX
Oxysophoridine suppresses the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma in mice: in vivo and cDNA microarray studies.
Chin J Integr Med. 2012; 18(3):209-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To observe the in vivo effects of oxysophoridine on hepatocellular carcinoma in mice and to study the related mechanisms.
METHODS: C57BL mice were inoculated with mouse hepatoma H22 cells subcutaneously, then divided into 5 groups (14 per group), and treated with oxysophoridine (50, 100, or 150 mg/kg) or cisplatin (4 mg/kg) for 10 days. Inhibitory rate of tumor, body weight gain, and influence indices on internal organs (liver, spleen and thymus) were evaluated. The differentially expressed genes between the oxysophoridine-treated group, and the control group were analyzed using cDNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments.
RESULTS: Compared with the tumor weight of the control group (2.75±0.66 g), oxysophoridine significantly suppressed hepatocellular carcinoma growth in mice (P <0.01), with 0.82±0.36 g, 0.57±0.22 g, and 1.22±0.67 g for the tumor weight in the low, moderate, and high dose treatment group, respectively. The moderate dose led to the highest inhibitory rate, 79.3%. Observation of body weight gain and influence on three organs showed that compared with cisplatin, oxysophoridine produced fewer side effects in vivo. cDNA microarray and qRT-PCR showed that the most significant differentially expressed genes in the tumor samples of oxysophoridine-treated mice were mostly involved in regulating apoptosis, with the Tnfrsf11b (osteoprotegerin) gene being the most significantly affected.
CONCLUSION: Oxysophoridine was a promising compound for developing drugs against hepatocellular carcinoma, and its anti-hepatoma effect was probably related to osteoprotegerin activation.

Quan J, Zhou C, Johnson NW, et al.
Molecular pathways involved in crosstalk between cancer cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the invasion of bone by oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Pathology. 2012; 44(3):221-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: This study investigates whether matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), specifically MMP-2 and MMP-9, interacting with other molecules important in osteoblast differentiation and osteoclastogenesis, could play important roles in the invasion of bone by oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
METHODS: Supernatant (conditioned medium, CM) was collected from OSCC cell lines (SCC15 and SCC25), and from cultured osteoblasts (hFOB cell line and a primary culture, OB), and used for indirect co-culture: OSCC cells were treated with CM from osteoblasts and vice versa. Zymogenic activities of MMP-2 and -9, and protein quantities of all molecules studied, were detected by gelatine zymography and Western blotting, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysed mRNA of these molecules. Targeted molecules were examined by immunohistochemistry in tissue sections of bone-invasive OSCCs.
RESULTS: Zymogenic activities of both MMPs were increased in OSCC cells following culture with CM from hFOB: Twist1 protein expression was increased while Runx2 did not alter. The RANKL/OPG ratio, zymogen and protein expression of MMP-9 were increased in hFOB cells cultured with CM from OSCC lines, while zymogen expression of MMP-2 was decreased. Real-time PCR showed generally similar changes in expression of these molecules. All targeted molecules were expressed in invading malignant keratinocytes, and all but OPG were expressed in osteoclasts of clinical samples.
CONCLUSIONS: Crosstalk between different cell types appears to exist in the invasion of bone by OSCC. Understanding and ultimately interfering with the molecules involved may provide therapeutic approaches to inhibit such bone invasion.

Jin X, Wu XX, Jin C, et al.
Delineation of apoptotic genes for synergistic apoptosis of lexatumumab and anthracyclines in human renal cell carcinoma cells by polymerase chain reaction array.
Anticancer Drugs. 2012; 23(4):445-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lexatumumab, a human agonistic monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-2 (TRAIL-R2), is a promising molecular-targeted therapeutic agent. Our past study indicated that low concentrations of doxorubicin sensitized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells to lexatumumab-mediated apoptosis. The present study was designed to examine the cellular and molecular effects of lexatumumab and anthracyclines in RCC cells. The treatment of human RCC cells with lexatumumab in combination with anthracyclines, epirubicin, and pirarubicin had a synergistic cytotoxicity. A marked synergistic apoptosis was induced by lexatumumab in combination with epirubicin or pirarubicin. Epirubicin and pirarubicin significantly increased the TRAIL-R2 expression at both the mRNA and the protein levels. The combination-induced cytotoxicity was significantly suppressed by the human recombinant DR5:Fc chimeric protein. To further explore the molecular mechanisms in this synergistic cytotoxicity with lexatumumab and anthracyclines, the changes in 84 apoptosis-related genes were evaluated by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array. Among these genes, 18 (CD40LG, FASLG, LTA, TNSF7, FAS, BAG3, BAK1, BAX, BID, BIK, BCL10, caspase-1, caspase-5, caspase-6, caspase-10, TNF receptor-associated factor 1, PYCARD, and CIDEA) were significantly upregulated and eight (TNF receptor-associated factor 4, TNFRSF11B, TNF, BCL2, BCL2L1, BNIP3L, caspase-9, and DAPK1) were downregulated at mRNA levels in RCC cells cotreated with lexatumumab and epirubicin. Furthermore, the upregulation of mRNA levels of PYCARD and CIDEA was confirmed using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. The present study demonstrates that anthracylines sensitize RCC cells to lexatumumab-mediated apoptosis by inducing TRAIL-R2 expression, and the utility of PCR array to elucidate the mechanism of synergistic apoptosis.

Guo D, Huang J, Gong J
Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is required for migration and invasion of breast cancer.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2012; 363(1-2):179-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bone-morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play an important role in development and many cellular processes. However, their functional role in the development and progression of breast cancer is not clearly understood. In the present study, we performed a systematic expression analysis of the 14 types of BMPs in 10 human breast cancer cell lines. We found that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) was one of the most frequently expressed BMPs. Furthermore, the expression level of BMP4 was maybe correlated with the metastatic potential of the cancer lines. Accordingly, overexpression of BMP4 in the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MBA-MD-231 promoted the migration and invasion phenotypes of the cancer cells, whereas RNAi-mediated knockdown of BMP4 expression inhibited the migration and invasion activities of the cancer cells. To identify the important factors that may mediate the BMP4 functions in breast cancer cells, we analyzed a panel of cancer-related genes, and found that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) sharply increased at both the mRNA and protein levels in the breast cancer cells overexpressing BMP4. Interestingly, when breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 or MCF-7 were co-cultured with the osteoblast-like cells MG63 to mimic a bone metastasis microenvironment, BMP4 did not exhibit any significant effect on the expression of OPG or RANKL, two important factors in bone remodeling. BMPs antagonists, Noggin, parallel inhibited breast cancer cell migration and invasion and induced bone remodeling. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that BMP4 may promote the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells, at least in part by up-regulating the expressions of MMP-1 and CXCR4. It is conceivable that novel therapeutics for breast cancer may be developed by targeting BMP4 signaling pathway and/or its important downstream mediators in breast cancer cells.

Bilgir O, Bilgir F, Kebapcilar L, et al.
Comparative levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor, procalcitonin, osteoprotegerin, interleukin-8, hs-C reactive protein, D-dimer in febrile neutropenia, newly diagnosed cancer patients, and infectious fever.
Transfus Apher Sci. 2012; 46(1):19-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of procalcitonin (PCT), IL-8 (interleukin-8), MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor), osteoprotegerin (OPG), hs-CRP and D-dimer during fever above 38.3°C due to various causes.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood samples taken from a total of consecutive 65 hospitalized patients during fever were prospectively tested for hsCRP, PCT, IL-8, OPG, MIF and D-dimer. Of these patients, there were 26 patients presenting with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia who had no infectious agents found; 23 patients, who had a malignancy with a febrile episode which was neither a microbiologically documented infection nor a chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and 16 patients who did not have a malignancy and were considered to have a clinically and microbiologically documented infection.
RESULTS: IL-8 and D-dimer levels were higher in patients with febrile neutropenia than in the other two groups. Although MIF and OPG were higher in patients with newly diagnosed cancers, there were no differences among the three groups regarding PCT and hs-CRP values.
CONCLUSION: High serum IL-8 and D-dimer levels can be useful markers to identify hospitalized chemotherapy-induced neutropenia patients. MIF and OPG were found to be higher in patients with newly diagnosed cancer.

Sheng L, Wu CY, Chen XF
[Inhibitory acting mechanism of psoralen-osthole on bone metastasis of breast cancer--an expatiation viewing from OPG/RANKL/RANK system].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2011; 31(5):684-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To find the optimal proportion of Composite Fructus Psoralea and Fructus Cnidii (CFPC) for inhibiting the bone metastasis of breast cancer by way of exploring its acting mechanism viewing from OPG/RANKL/RANK system.
METHODS: The human bone metastasis of breast cancer model was established by injecting tumor cells of MDA-MB-231BO cell line into the left cardiac ventricle of nude mice. The modeled mice were randomly divided into seven groups: the blank group administered with normal saline by gastrogavage, the positive control group with zoledronic acid via peritoneal injection, and the 5 tested group with CFPC in different proportions of Fructus Psoralea and Fructus Cnidii, i.e., (A, 4:0; B, 3:1; C, 1:1; D, 1:3, and E 0:4), given by gastric infusion. The treatment started from 1 week after modeling and lasted for six weeks. By the end of the experiment, the metastatic foci in bone were imaged by radionuclide tracing method and X-ray photograph, and separated for detecting gene and protein expressions of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL), interleukin-8 (IL-8), parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), macrophage colony stimulating factor (MCSF) by Real-time PCR and Western blot respectively.
RESULTS: Inhibition of bone metastasis gene was displayed to some extent in all the tested groups treated with CFPC, showing an increased level of OPG mRNA expression (It was 60.343 +/- 6.274 in the tested group C), and decreased mRNA expressions of IL-8, PTHrP, MCSF, RANKL (218.010 +/- 12.802, 232.399 +/- 14.354, 319.831 +/- 5.322, and 195.701 +/- 4. 862, respectively in the tested group C). The optimal effect was shown in the tested group C, showing significant difference to that in the blank group (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, the OPG in the bone metastatic foci could be up-regulated and protein expressions of RANKL/IL-8/PTHrP/MCSF down-regulated in all the tested groups. The optimal effect was shown in the tested group C, with significant difference from those of the normal saline group.
CONCLUSION: CFPC could inhibit the bone metastasis of breast cancer through activating OPG/RANKL/RANK pathway. Among different proportions of Fructus Psoralea and Fructus Cnidii, 1:1 was the best one.

Cizkova M, Cizeron-Clairac G, Vacher S, et al.
Gene expression profiling reveals new aspects of PIK3CA mutation in ERalpha-positive breast cancer: major implication of the Wnt signaling pathway.
PLoS One. 2010; 5(12):e15647 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The PI3K/AKT pathway plays a pivotal role in breast cancer development and maintenance. PIK3CA, encoding the PI3K catalytic subunit, is the oncogene exhibiting a high frequency of gain-of-function mutations leading to PI3K/AKT pathway activation in breast cancer. PIK3CA mutations have been observed in 30% to 40% of ERα-positive breast tumors. However the physiopathological role of PIK3CA mutations in breast tumorigenesis remains largely unclear.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify relevant downstream target genes and signaling activated by aberrant PI3K/AKT pathway in breast tumors, we first analyzed gene expression with a pangenomic oligonucleotide microarray in a series of 43 ERα-positive tumors with and without PIK3CA mutations. Genes of interest were then investigated in 249 ERα-positive breast tumors by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. A robust collection of 19 genes was found to be differently expressed in PIK3CA-mutated tumors. PIK3CA mutations were associated with over-expression of several genes involved in the Wnt signaling pathway (WNT5A, TCF7L2, MSX2, TNFRSF11B), regulation of gene transcription (SEC14L2, MSX2, TFAP2B, NRIP3) and metal ion binding (CYP4Z1, CYP4Z2P, SLC40A1, LTF, LIMCH1).
CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This new gene set should help to understand the behavior of PIK3CA-mutated cancers and detailed knowledge of Wnt signaling activation could lead to novel therapeutic strategies.

Tang T, Zhang G, Lau CP, et al.
Effect of water-soluble P-chitosan and S-chitosan on human primary osteoblasts and giant cell tumor of bone stromal cells.
Biomed Mater. 2011; 6(1):015004 [PubMed] Related Publications
Water-soluble phosphorylated chitosan (P-chitosan) and disodium (1 → 4)-2-deoxy-2-sulfoamino-β-D-glucopyranuronan (S-chitosan) are two chemically modified chitosans. In this study, we found that P-chitosan significantly promotes cell proliferation of both human primary osteoblasts (OBs) and the OB like stromal cell component of the giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) cells at the concentration from 125 to 1000 µg ml⁻¹ at all time points of 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after treatment. Further investigation of the osteogenic effect of the P-chitosan suggested that it regulates the levels of osteoclastogenic factors, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and osteoprotegerin expression. An interesting finding is that S-chitosan at lower concentration (100 µg ml⁻¹) stimulates cell proliferation while a higher dose (1000 µg ml⁻¹) of S-chitosan inhibits it. The inhibitory effect of S-chitosan on human primary GCT stromal cells was greater than that of OBs (p < 0.05). Taken together, our findings elucidated the osteogenic effect of P-chitosan and the varying effects of S-chitosan on the proliferation of human primary OBs and GCT stromal cells and provided us the rationale for the construction of novel bone repair biomaterials with the dual properties of bone induction and bone tumor inhibition.

Lau CP, Huang L, Tsui SK, et al.
Pamidronate, farnesyl transferase, and geranylgeranyl transferase-I inhibitors affects cell proliferation, apoptosis, and OPG/RANKL mRNA expression in stromal cells of giant cell tumor of bone.
J Orthop Res. 2011; 29(3):403-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Giant cell tumor (GCT) is the most common nonmalignant primary bone tumor reported in Hong Kong. It usually affects young adults between the ages of 20 and 40. This tumor is well known for its potential to recur following treatment. To date no effective adjuvant therapy exists for GCT. Our project aimed to study the effects of pamidronate (PAM), farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI-277), geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor (GGTI-298), and their combinations on GCT stromal cells (SC). Individual treatment with PAM, FTI-277, and GGTI-298, inhibited the cell viability and proliferation of GCT SC in a dose-dependent way. Combination of FTI-277 with GGTI-298 caused synergistic effects in reducing cell viability, and its combination index was 0.49, indicating a strong synergism. Moreover, the combination of FTI-277 with GGTI-298 synergistically enhanced cell apoptosis and activated caspase-3/7, -8, and -9 activities. PAM induced cell-cycle arrest at the S-phase. The combination of PAM with GGTI-298 significantly increased OPG/RANKL mRNA ratio and activated caspase-3/7 activity. Our findings support that the combination of bisphosphonates with GGTIs or FTIs with GGTIs may be used as potential adjuvants in the treatment of GCT of bone.

Nannuru KC, Futakuchi M, Varney ML, et al.
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 regulates mammary tumor-induced osteolysis by activating MMP9 and transforming growth factor-beta signaling at the tumor-bone interface.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(9):3494-504 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The tropism of breast cancer cells for bone and their tendency to induce an osteolytic phenotype are a result of interactions between breast cancer cells and stromal cells and are of paramount importance for bone metastasis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We hypothesize that tumor-stromal interaction alters gene expression in malignant tumor cells and stromal cells creating a unique expression signature that promotes osteolytic breast cancer bone metastasis and that inhibition of such interactions can be developed as targeted therapeutics. Microarray analysis was performed to investigate gene expression profiling at the tumor-bone (TB) interface versus the tumor alone area from syngenic mice injected with three different syngenic mammary tumor cell lines that differ in their metastatic potential. We identified matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13), receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), and integrins binding sialoprotein to be genes upregulated at the TB interface and validated. To determine the functional role of MMP13 in tumor-induced osteolysis, mice with Cl66 mammary tumors were treated with MMP13 antisense oligonucleotides (MMP13-ASO) or control scrambled oligonucleotides (control-ASO). Knockdown of MMP13 expression at the TB interface leads to significant reduction in bone destruction and in the number of activated osteoclasts at the TB interface. Further analysis to evaluate the mechanism of MMP13-dependent osteolytic bone metastasis revealed that MMP13-ASO treatment decreased active MMP9, RANKL levels, and transforming growth factor-beta signaling at the TB interface. Together, our data indicate that upregulation of MMP13 at the TB interface is important in tumor-induced osteolysis and suggest that MMP13 is a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer bone metastasis.

Bao BY, Lin VC, Huang SH, et al.
Clinical significance of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11b polymorphism in prostate cancer.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2010; 17(6):1675-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bone metastases are the most critical complication of prostate cancer (PCa), resulting in severe morbidity and mortality. Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11b (TNFRSF11B) is a critical regulator between PCa cells and the bone environment. Recently, TNFRSF11B rs10505346 has been implicated in PCa risk in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility genomewide association study. However, the association between this variant and biochemical failure in PCa patients receiving radical prostatectomy (RP) has not been determined.
METHODS: Associations of TNFRSF11B rs10505346 with age at diagnosis, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score, pathologic stage, surgical margin, and PSA recurrence were evaluated in a cohort of 314 localized PCa patients receiving RP. The prognostic significance on PSA recurrence was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression model.
RESULTS: The mean level of preoperative PSA and the relative risks of PSA recurrence after RP were lower in individuals with T allele than in those with the G allele at TNFRSF11B rs10505346 (P = 0.019 and 0.014, respectively). The T allele of rs10505346 remained a protective factor against PSA recurrence (P = 0.022) in multivariate Cox regression model after considering all clinicopathological risk factors except PSA level.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that TNFRSF11B rs10505346 is associated with PSA level and might be a prognostic factor for the recurrence of PSA in PCa patients receiving RP.

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