Gene Summary

Gene:NCAM1; neural cell adhesion molecule 1
Aliases: CD56, NCAM, MSK39
Summary:This gene encodes a cell adhesion protein which is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The encoded protein is involved in cell-to-cell interactions as well as cell-matrix interactions during development and differentiation. The encoded protein has been shown to be involved in development of the nervous system, and for cells involved in the expansion of T cells and dendritic cells which play an important role in immune surveillance. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:neural cell adhesion molecule 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NCAM1 (cancer-related)

Holland BC, Sood A, Delfino K, et al.
Age and sex have no impact on expression levels of markers of immune cell infiltration and immune checkpoint pathways in patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder treated with radical cystectomy.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(6):991-997 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Advanced age and female sex have been associated with worse outcomes in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A reduced immune response has been implicated as a mechanism. The objective of our study was to analyze the expression patterns of various cellular proteins active in bladder cancer immune pathways, and assess the correlation between age, sex, and the expression of these immune markers.
METHODS: We obtained surgical tissue samples from equally distributed male/female patients with/without lymph node metastasis who had undergone radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder (n = 50). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD3 (cluster of differentiation), CD4, CD8, CD56, LAG-3 (lymphocyte-activation gene), TIM-3 (T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain), PD-1 (programmed death) and PD-L1 molecules was performed and scored by a single pathologist (high versus low). Spearman's correlation and Chi square tests investigated the association between age, sex, and IHC results.
RESULTS: Mean age at surgery was 67 years (range 50-78 years); all patients were Caucasians. The following percent of patients scored high for a stain: 18% CD3, 10% CD4, 0% CD8, 0% CD56, 20% LAG-3, 4% TIM-3, 0% PD-1 and 0% PD-L1. There was no association between patients' age, sex, and the expression of any of the immune markers (p > 0.05 for all).
CONCLUSIONS: The association between advanced age, female sex, and worse outcomes in bladder cancer may be independent of the immune pathways active in the disease that we examined in this study.

Sasaki A, Hirato J, Hirose T, et al.
Review of ependymomas: assessment of consensus in pathological diagnosis and correlations with genetic profiles and outcome.
Brain Tumor Pathol. 2019; 36(2):92-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
We focused on histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of ependymoma (EPN) with molecular profiles to develop more reproducible criteria of the diagnosis. Three expert neuropathologists reviewed the pathology of 130 samples from the Japan Pediatric Molecular Neuro-Oncology Group study. Confirmed cases were assessed for histology, surrogate markers, molecular subgrouping, and survival data. We reached a consensus regarding the diagnosis of EPNs in 100% of spinal cord tumors and 93% of posterior fossa (PF) tumors that had been diagnosed as EPNs by local pathologists, whereas we reached a consensus regarding only 77% of the local diagnosis of supratentorial (ST) EPNs. Among the PF-EPNs, most of anaplastic ependymomas (AEPNs) were defined as EPN-A by methylation profiling, which was significantly correlated with the subgroup assignment. Regarding prognosis, the overall survival of patients with PF-EPN was significantly better than that of patients with PF AEPN (p = 0.01). Histologically, all ependymoma, RELA fusion-positive (EPN-RELA) qualified as Grade III. Both L1 cell adhesion molecule and nuclear factor kappaB p65 antibodies showed good sensitivity for detecting EPN-RELA. This study indicated that the expert consensus pathological diagnosis could correlate well with the molecular classifications in EPNs. ST EPNs should be diagnosed more carefully by histological and molecular analyses.

Popov A, Druy A, Shorikov E, et al.
Prognostic value of initial bone marrow disease detection by multiparameter flow cytometry in children with neuroblastoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(2):535-542 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Multicolor flow cytometry (MFC) is widely available, fast and has an easy-to perform approach for finding neuroblastoma (NB) cells among normal bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic cells. Aim of the study was to investigate prognostic significance of initial MFC tumor cells' detection in BM of children with NB.
METHODS: 51 patients (24 boys and 27 girls) aged from 6 days to 15 years (median age 1 year 3 months) with NB were included in the study. BM samples at the time of diagnosis were obtained from 2 to 5 aspiration sites per patient. CD45(-)CD56(+)CD81(+)GD2(+)-cells were evaluated by MFC.
RESULTS: NB cells were detected in BM by FC more frequently compared to conventional cytomorphology (49.0% and 29.4% patients, respectively, р = 0.043). Patients with NB cells detected in BM by MFC had significantly worse event-free survival and cumulative incidence of relapse/progression [0.24(0.08) and 0.60(0.10), respectively] compared to children with negative result of immunophenotyping [0.85(0.07) and 0.12(0.06), respectively, p < 0.001 in both cases]. BM involvement detection by MFC maintained its prognostic significance in various patients groups. In multivariate analysis, immunophenotyping proved to be an independent prognostic factor when analyzed jointly with other NB risk factors. In 42 patients BM involvement was also studied by RQ-PCR for PHOX2B and TH genes expression. Within groups of patients divided by RQ-PCR positivity, MFC-positivity retained prognostic significance.
CONCLUSIONS: Thus flow cytometric BM involvement detection has very strong prognostic impact even stronger than RQ-PCR. It could be used in combination with other parameters for the treatment strategy choice in patients with NB.

Klat J, Mladenka A, Dvorackova J, et al.
L1CAM as a Negative Prognostic Factor in Endometrioid Endometrial Adenocarcinoma FIGO Stage IA-IB.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(1):421-424 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: In this study, we aimed to investigate how positivity for L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) was associated with outcome and relapse pattern in patients with Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) stage IA-IB endometrial cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 358 patients who underwent surgical treatment for endometrial carcinoma. Tumor samples from 312 patients (87.2%) were available for L1CAM analysis by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Of the 312 tumor samples analyzed, 93 (29.8%) were L1CAM-positive. L1CAM positivity was significantly more common in grade 3 compared to grade 1-2 carcinomas (p=0.02). Patients with L1CAM positivity more commonly experienced disease progression. Distant metastasis was significantly associated with L1CAM positivity (p=0.01). Progression-free interval and overall survival did not significantly differ between L1CAM-positive and L1CAM-negative cases.
CONCLUSION: L1CAM is a promising independent prognostic marker associated with aggressive tumor behavior and recurrence risk, but not with overall survival.

Yao Q, Morgan GJ, Chim CS
Distinct promoter methylation profile reveals spatial epigenetic heterogeneity in 2 myeloma patients with multifocal extramedullary relapses.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10(1):158 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Spatial and subclonal genetic heterogeneity in multiple myeloma (MM) have been demonstrated by sequencing of plasma cells from multi-focal regions, but studies of spatial epigenetic heterogeneity are scanty. Herein, promoter methylation status of genes implicated in disease progression (CDKN2A and SHP1) and marrow escape (CDH1, CD56, and CXCR4) was studied in two patients with multi-focal extramedullary relapses. Patient 1 developed simultaneous chest wall and duodenal plasmacytoma at relapse. While SHP1 and CDKN2A were hypermethylated in both plasmacytomas, CDH1 hypermethylation was detected only in the chest wall. In patient 2, SHP1 methylation was found in the extradural plasmacytoma but not bone marrow (BM) at diagnosis, and the circulating PCs but not the BM at relapse. As the clonality, based on sequence of the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) of the immunoglobulin gene, was conserved in plasma cells at diagnosis and relapse, differential methylation of CDH1 in patient 1 and SHP1 in patient 2 was an illustration of spatial epigenetic heterogeneity. Furthermore, subclonal epigenetic heterogeneity was identified by the presence of subclonal SHP1 promoter methylation within the chest wall plasmacytoma of patient 1. In summary, our data showed distinct promoter methylation profile of plasma cells from multiple regions. This is the first report of spatial epigenetic heterogeneity in MM.

Li L, Huang Y, Gao Y, et al.
EGF/EGFR upregulates and cooperates with Netrin-4 to protect glioblastoma cells from DNA damage-induced senescence.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1215 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant central nervous system tumor. Alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), is currently the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for GBM. However, the sensitivity of GBM cells to TMZ is affected by many factors. And, several clinic trials, including co-administration of TMZ with other drugs, have failed in successful treatment of GBM. We have previously reported that Netrin-4 (NTN4), a laminin-like axon guidance protein, plays a protective role in GBM cell senescence upon TMZ-triggered DNA damage. However, the master regulator of NTN4 needs further elucidation. Epidermal growth factor/Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF/EGFR) can modulate the expression of various extracellular matrix related molecules, and prevent DNA damage in GBM cells. In this study, we investigated the relationship between EGF/EGFR signaling and NTN4, and explored their effect on therapeutic efficacy in GBM cells upon TMZ treatment.
METHODS: Co-expression analysis were performed by using the RNA sequencing data from NIH 934 cell lines and from single cell RNA sequencing data of GBM tumor. The co-expressing genes were used for GO enrichment and signaling pathway enrichment. mRNA expression of the target genes were quantified by qPCR, and cell senescence were investigated by Senescence-Associated Beta-Galactosidase Staining. Protein phosphorylation were observed and analyzed by immunoblotting. The RNA sequencing data and clinical information of TMZ treated patients were extracted from TCGA-glioblastoma project, and then used for Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.
RESULTS: Analysis of RNA sequencing data revealed a potential co-expression relationship between NTN4 and EGFR. GO enrichment of EGFR-correlated genes indicated that EGFR regulates GBM cells in a manner similar to that in central nervous system development and neural cell differentiation. Pathway analysis suggested that EGFR and its related genes contribute to cell adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and caspase related signaling. We also show that EGF stimulates NTN4 expression in GBM cells and cooperates with NTN4 to attenuate GBM cell senescence induced by DNA damage, possibly via AKT and ERK. Clinical analysis showed that co-expression of EGFR and NTN4 significantly predicts poor survival in TMZ-treated GBM patients.
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that EGF/EGFR regulates and cooperates with NTN4 in DNA damage resistance in GBM. Therefore, our findings provide a potential therapeutic target for GBM.

Jianlan X, Yuhua H, Yuanyuan Z, et al.
Acute Epstein-Barr virus-positive cytotoxic T cell lymphoid hyperplasia in the upper aerodigestive tract, mimicking extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma, nasal type.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 474(2):219-226 [PubMed] Related Publications
To describe the clinicopathological features of nine patients with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cytotoxic T cell lymphoid hyperplasia (EBV+TLH) in the upper aerodigestive tract, in which initial findings led to a preliminary misdiagnosis of extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL). A series of nine cases of EBV+TLH in one Chinese institution over a 9-year interval was retrospectively analyzed. Median age was 16 years (range 5-29 years) with a M:F ratio of 5:4. All patients were previously healthy with an acute onset period of < 1 month. Six patients (66%) presented with masses or polypoid protrusions in the upper aerodigestive tract. Nasopharyngeal symptoms, cervical lymphadenopathy, and fever were found in 89%, 78%, and 56% of patients, respectively. In seven cases, morphology mainly showed small-sized irregular cells and in two cases medium-to-large cells. In all cases, the cells diffusely expressed cytoplasmic CD3 and at least one marker for cytotoxic granules, but were negative for CD56. CD5 expression was detected in eight cases (8/9, 89%). In all cases, double staining for CD3 and EBER indicated that most T cells were infected with EBV. T cell receptor gene rearrangement was performed in five cases and all showed polyclonal results. All patients achieved complete remission within 1 month after diagnosis without any chemoradiotherapy and were followed up 19-124 months without recurrent disease. EBV+TLH in the upper aerodigestive tract is occasionally observed in China. The histopathologic features of EBV+TLH can mimic ENKTL. EBV+TLH should be taken into consideration as a potential diagnosis when the disease duration is short, spontaneous remission is achieved without intervention, and when histology shows infiltration with EBV-infected T lymphocytes.

Ibrahim A, Zahran AM, Aly SS, et al.
CD56 and CD11b Positivity with Low Smac/DIABLO Expression as Predictors of Chemoresistance in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia: Flow Cytometric Analysis
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(11):3187-3192 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle to curing acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and several antigens are claimed to play primary roles in this resistance. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of CD56, CD11b and Smac/DIABLO gene expression levels as prognostic markers of the clinical outcome, response to chemotherapy and survival of AML patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 60 naïve-AML patients who received induction therapy with mitoxantrone and cytarabine combined with a high dose of cytarabine. The CD56,CD11b and Smac/DIABLO expression levels were assessed using flow cytometry at diagnosis and were analysed for correlation with the possible associated risk factors, response to chemotherapy, and median duration of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: The overall results revealed that AML patients who exhibited positive expression for CD56 and CD11b had short median durations of DFS and OS.(P = 0.019, 0.006, 0.029 and 0.024, respectively). Additionally, low Smac/DIABLO expression had a negative impact on treatment outcome in terms of CR rate (p=0.012) and reduced DFS (p=0.000) and OS(p=0.000) values. Conclusions: CD56 and CD11b positivity and low Smac/DIABLO expression are important predictive factors for the occurrence of chemoresistance, in addition to other risk factors, among AML patients.

Devins K, Schuster SJ, Caponetti GC, Bogusz AM
Rare case of low-grade extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, arising in the setting of chronic rhinosinusitis and harboring a novel N-terminal KIT mutation.
Diagn Pathol. 2018; 13(1):92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL-NT), is a rare aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by angioinvasion, angiodestruction, necrosis and strong association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). ENKTCL-NT occurs worldwide and is more prevalent in Asian and the Native American populations of Mexico, Central and South America. It represents approximately 10% of all peripheral T-cell lymphomas worldwide. The aim of this report is to present a rare case of ENKTCL-NT with an unusually indolent clinical course and low-grade histopathologic features.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old Asian woman with a long-standing history of seasonal rhinosinusitis presented with persistent nasal congestion, cough, and fever unresponsive to antihistamines and antibiotics. Histopathological evaluation of a polypoid nasal mass revealed an atypical infiltrate with predominantly small lymphoid cells that were CD2+, surface CD3-, cytoplasmic CD3+, CD5(dim)+, CD7(dim)+, cytotoxic markers (granzyme B and perforin)+, EBER+ and CD56-. The Ki-67 proliferative index was very low (< 1%). T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement studies were positive for a monoclonal rearrangement, and sequencing studies identified a novel KIT mutation (p. K167 M, c. 500 A > T). A diagnosis of low-grade ENKTCL-NT was rendered.
CONCLUSIONS: Our case of ENKTCL-NT is unusual due to (1) an indolent clinical course (2) low-grade histopathologic features including a low proliferative index (3) lack of CD56 expression and (4) a novel KIT mutation. This case raises awareness of the existence of a subset of cases of ENKTCL-NT that can potentially be misdiagnosed as a reactive process, particularly in patients with recurrent chronic rhinosinusitis.

Ongaratti BR, Haag T, D'Ávila MF, et al.
Gene and protein expression of E-cadherin and NCAM markers in non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2019; 38:59-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) are classified as benign tumors of slow growth, but 40% of them present local invasion, a characteristic of behavior still unpredictable with the use of current tumor markers. This work aims to evaluate the tissue markers E-cadherin and NCAM, which act on cell adhesion, in tumor tissue samples of NFPA and its relationship with the degree of local invasiveness. Gene expression of E-cadherin (CDH1) and NCAM (NCAM1) was assessed by real-time PCR and tissue expression by immunohistochemistry. Fifty-three patients with macroadenomas were submitted to transsphenoidal surgery, presented grade II invasive adenomas in 16 cases (30.2%), grade III in 7 (13.2%) and grade IV in 30 (56.6%). In the immunohistochemistry, one case was negative for E-cadherin, 7 showed weak immunostaining, 17 moderate and 28 strong, whereas for NCAM, 5 showed negative, 28 weakly, 14 moderate and 6 strong. Regarding gene expression, 43.3% showed expression for CDH1 (mean of 2.12) and 50% for NCAM1 (mean of 1.86). There was no significant correlation between the immunohistochemical expression of the markers, as well as the gene expression, the degree of invasiveness and clinical data. The results suggest that E-cadherin and NCAM markers are not directly related to the invasiveness in NFPA.

Khoury JD
Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep. 2018; 13(6):477-483 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare malignancy derived from plasmacyoid dendritic cells whose biology, clinical features, and treatment options are increasingly better understood.
RECENT FINDINGS: TCF4 is a master regulator that drives donwstream transcriptional programs in BPDCN. In turn, TCF4 activity is dependent on the bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) protein BRD4 whose inhibition provides a promising therapeutic vulnerability. Notably, TCF4 expression is a highly sensitive marker for BPDCN and augments diagnostic specificity alongside CD4, CD56, CD123, and TCL1. The gene expression profile of BPDCN is characterized by aberrant NF-kappaB pathway activation, while its genomic landscape is dominated by structural chromosomal alterations involving ETV6, MYC, and NR3C1, as well as mutations in epigenetic regulators particularly TET2. Advances in elucidating the biological characteristics of BPDCN are resulting in a more refined diagnostic approach and are opening novel therapeutic avenues for patients with this disease.

Wang RC, Sakata S, Chen BJ, et al.
Mycosis fungoides in Taiwan shows a relatively high frequency of large cell transformation and CD56 expression.
Pathology. 2018; 50(7):718-724 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mycosis fungoides (MF) is an indolent cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and may transform into large cell lymphoma in the disease course. The incidence of MF in Taiwan is lower as compared to that in the West. In this study we aimed to characterise the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and genetic features of transformed MF (t-MF) in Taiwan. We retrospectively collected MF cases from April 2004 to April 2015 from four medical centres in Taiwan, reviewed the clinical history and histopathology, and performed immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridisation for EBV (EBER), and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) for DUSP22/MUM1 gene translocation. Fifty-one specimens from 32 patients with MF were identified with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1 and a median age of 50.5 (range 16-82). Tumours from 11 patients (34%) underwent large cell transformation, with the median age at 61 (range 26-82). The tumour cells of t-MF expressed CD30 and MUM1 in 82% and 100% cases, respectively. CD56 was expressed in two (10%) of 21 MF cases and two (18%) of 11 t-MF cases, respectively; and all four CD56-positive cases were of a helper T-cell phenotype. All CD56 expressing MF and t-MF tumours tested for EBER were negative. FISH study showed rearranged DUSP22/IRF4 in one (9%) of 11 t-MF cases, but not in any of the 19 non-transformed MF specimens. Four patients with t-MF died of disease and six were alive with disease in a median follow-up time of 25 months (mean 44.7 months). Large cell transformation and aberrant CD56 expression were more frequent in patients with MF in Taiwan compared to those in the West. Larger case series and/or national studies are needed to clarify the significance and impact of large cell transformation on the prognosis of patients with MF.

Xu J, Tan Y, Shao X, et al.
Evaluation of NCAM and c-Kit as hepatic progenitor cell markers for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(12):2011-2017 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICCs) are primary liver malignancies and are the second most common type of malignancy after hepatocellular carcinoma. ICCs are heterogeneous in clinical features, genotype, and biological behavior, suggesting that ICCs can initiate in different cell lineages.
AIM: We investigated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma RBE cell lines for the markers neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and c-Kit, which possess hepatic progenitor cells properties.
METHODS: NCAM + c-Kit + cells were tested for hepatic progenitor cell properties including proliferation ability, colony formation, spheroid formation, and invasiveness in NOD/SCID mice. The Agilent Whole Human Genome Microarray Kit was used to evaluate differences in gene expression related to stem cell signaling pathways between NCAM + c-Kit + and NCAM-c-Kit- subset cells. Microarray results were further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR.
RESULTS: NCAM + c-Kit + cells showed hepatic progenitor cell-like traits including the abilities to self-renew and differentiate and tumorigenicity in NOD/SCID mice. Differences were observed in the expression of 421 genes related to stem cell signaling pathways (fc ≥ 2 or fc ≤ 0.5), among which 231 genes were upregulated and 190 genes were downregulated.
CONCLUSION: NCAM + c-Kit + subset cells in RBE may have properties of hepatic progenitor cells. NCAM combined with c-Kit may be a valuable marker for isolating and purifying ICC stem/progenitor cells.

Li Y, Zhang Q, Lovnicki J, et al.
SRRM4 gene expression correlates with neuroendocrine prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2019; 79(1):96-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is an aggressive subtype of castrate-resistant prostate cancer characterized by poor patient outcome. Whole transcriptome sequencing analyses identified a NEPC-specific RNA splicing program that is predominantly controlled by the SRRM4 gene, suggesting that SRRM4 drives NEPC development. However, whether SRRM4 expression in patients may aid pathologists in diagnosing NEPC and predicting patient survival remains to be determined. In this study, we have applied RNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry assays to measure the expressions of SRRM4, NEPC markers (SYP, CD56, and CHGA), and adenocarcinoma (AdPC) markers (AR, PSA) in a series of tissue microarrays constructed from castrate-resistant prostate tumors, treatment-naïve tumors collected from radical prostatectomy, and tumors treated with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) for 0-12 months. Three pathologists also independently evaluated tumor histology and NEPC marker status. Here, we report that SRRM4 in castrate-resistant tumors is highly expressed in NEPC, strongly correlated with SYP, CD56, and CHGA expressions (Pearson correlation r = 0.883, 0.675, and 0.881; P < 0.0001) and negatively correlated with AR and PSA expressions (Pearson correlation r = -0.544 and -0.310; P < 0.05). Overall survival is 12.3 months for patients with SRRM4 positive tumors, comparing to 23 months for patients with SRRM4 negative tumors. In treatment-naïve AdPC, low SRRM4 expression is detected in ∼16% tumor cores. It correlates with SYP and CHGA expressions, but not Gleason scores. AdPC treated with >7 month NHT has significantly higher SRRM4 expression. Based on these findings, we conclude that SRRM4 expression in castrate-resistant tumors is highly correlated with NEPC and poor patient survival. It may serve as a diagnosis and prognosis biomarker of NEPC.

Phelps HM, Al-Jadiry MF, Corbitt NM, et al.
Molecular and epidemiologic characterization of Wilms tumor from Baghdad, Iraq.
World J Pediatr. 2018; 14(6):585-593 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common childhood kidney cancer worldwide, yet its incidence and clinical behavior vary according to race and access to adequate healthcare resources. To guide and streamline therapy in the war-torn and resource-constrained city of Baghdad, Iraq, we conducted a first-ever molecular analysis of 20 WT specimens to characterize the biological features of this lethal disease within this challenged population.
METHODS: Next-generation sequencing of ten target genes associated with WT development and treatment resistance (WT1, CTNNB1, WTX, IGF2, CITED1, SIX2, p53, N-MYC, CRABP2, and TOP2A) was completed. Immunohistochemistry was performed for 6 marker proteins of WT (WT1, CTNNB1, NCAM, CITED1, SIX2, and p53). Patient outcomes were compiled.
RESULTS: Mutations were detected in previously described WT "hot spots" (e.g., WT1 and CTNNB1) as well as novel loci that may be unique to the Iraqi population. Immunohistochemistry showed expression domains most typical of blastemal-predominant WT. Remarkably, despite the challenges facing families and care providers, only one child, with combined WT1 and CTNNB1 mutations, was confirmed dead from disease. Median clinical follow-up was 40.5 months (range 6-78 months).
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that WT biology within a population of Iraqi children manifests features both similar to and unique from disease variants in other regions of the world. These observations will help to risk stratify WT patients living in this difficult environment to more or less intensive therapies and to focus treatment on cell-specific targets.

Yan J, Liu W, Wang X, et al.
Primary Central Nervous System Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type Colliding with Meningioma.
World Neurosurg. 2018; 120:17-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Collision tumors are defined as coexistence of 2 histologically different neoplasms occurring in the same anatomic location. Such co-occurrence of tumors in the brain is uncommon. To our knowledge, meningioma colliding with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma has not been described previously.
CASE DESCRIPTION: A 50-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of progressive memory decline and 2 weeks of drowsiness, bradykinesia, and aphasia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneously enhanced mass beside the left frontal cerebral falx resulting in midline shift. The left frontal lobe mass was resected. Pathologic examination showed the tumor consisted of whorled spindle cells and diffuse medium-sized lymphoid cells. The spindle cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen and negative for S-100. The lymphoid cells expressed CD3ε, CD56, TIA-1, and granzyme B. Epstein-Barr virus encoded small RNAs were detected by in situ hybridization. No monoclonal T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement was detected. Four weeks after surgery, the patient was treated with polychemotherapy and intrathecal methotrexate, but he died 2 months later.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a unique brain collision tumor consisting of a meningioma and an extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma. Diagnosis depends on histopathology. Awareness of this entity is important to distinguish it from other intracranial tumors.

Saeed MEM, Mertens R, Handgretinger R, Efferth T
Identification of fatal outcome in a childhood nasopharyngeal carcinoma patient by protein expression profiling.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(4):1721-1731 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare disease in children with good prognosis and high cure rate. Nevertheless, certain patients have an unfavorable prognosis due to development of refractory NPC that is unresponsive to any therapeutic strategies. The current study studies a case of a 17 years-old female with non-keratinizing NPC type IIb (T2N0M0), who passed away as a consequence of resistance to chemo-, radio- and β-interferon therapy, and to an allogenic stem cell transplantation. In order to identify factors that lead to treatment failure and fatal outcome, immunohistochemical analyses of different tumor biomarkers and hierarchical cluster analysis were performed and compared with those of eight other patients with NPC who experienced complete remission following conventional therapy. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the immunohistochemical results clearly demonstrated that staining for immunological factors (CD4, CD8 and CD56) distinguished this patient from the others. To further investigate a potential role of the immune system, lymphocytic infiltration was assessed in tumor tissue by evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin-stained tumor sections. Indeed, no tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were observed in this NPC case, while 7 out of 8 of the other NPC samples contained variable TIL amounts. The view that immunodeficiency of the patient may be a factor in the fatal outcome of treatment is supported by the fact that this patient with NPC was not positive for Epstein-Barr virus markers and also infected by several other viruses and fungi (herpes simplex virus, human herpes virus 6, Varicella zoster virus, and Candida). In conclusion, the investigation of rare NPC cases with poor prognosis may provide an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in refractory tumors and identification of novel potential therapeutic targets for NPC in the future.

Kommoss FK, Karnezis AN, Kommoss F, et al.
L1CAM further stratifies endometrial carcinoma patients with no specific molecular risk profile.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 119(4):480-486 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The newly developed Proactive Molecular Risk Classifier for Endometrial Cancer (ProMisE) has consistently been shown to be prognostically significant in endometrial carcinomas (EC). Recently, we and others have demonstrated L1 cell-adhesion molecule (L1CAM) to be a significant indicator of high-risk disease in EC. In the current study, it was our aim to determine the prognostic significance of aberrant L1CAM expression in ProMisE subgroups in a large, single centre, population-based EC cohort.
METHODS: ProMisE (POLE; MMR-D; p53 wt/NSMP; p53 abn) classification results from a cohort of 452 EC were available for analysis. L1CAM expression was studied by immunohistochemistry on whole slides. Correlations between clinicopathological data and survival were calculated.
RESULTS: Expression of L1CAM was most frequent in p53 abnormal tumours (80%). L1CAM status was predictive of worse outcome among tumours with no specific molecular profile (p53 wt/NSMP) (p < 0.0001). Among p53 wt/NSMP EC, L1CAM remained a significant prognosticator for disease-specific survival after multivariate analysis (p = 0.035).
CONCLUSION: L1CAM status was able to significantly stratify risk among tumours of the large p53 wt/NSMP ProMisE subgroup of EC. Furthermore, our study confirms a highly significant correlation between mutation-type p53 immunostaining and abnormal L1CAM expression in EC.

Fujino M
The histopathology of myeloma in the bone marrow.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2018; 58(2):61-67 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Myeloma is characterized by the neoplastic proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells. A diagnosis of myeloma is based on the criteria proposed by the International Myeloma Working Group and the pathological findings.Myeloma cells are classified into four types: mature, immature, pleomorphic, and plasmablastic. There are three patterns in which myeloma infiltrates bone marrow - nodular, interstitial, and diffuse. Dutcher bodies are highly specific to neoplastic myeloma cells. On immunohistochemical staining, the specificity of CD138 is high for plasma cells. As a clear image is often not obtained from the immunohistochemical staining of the immunoglobulin light chain, in situ hybridization is recommended. Abnormal expression of CD56 is seen in 70-80% of cases by flow cytometry analysis. CD56 expression definitively indicates myeloma, suggesting its high diagnostic value. Evaluation of the infiltration pattern, monoclonality, and abnormal antigen expression of plasma cells is more important than the plasmocytic ratio to determine whether a case is reactive or neoplastic.Multiple gene abnormalities function in the onset and progression of myeloma. In our department, we analyze CCND1, FGFR3, MAF, and del (17p13) by FISH for all myeloma cases. None of the cases with genetic abnormalities were recognized by G-banding. Therefore, FISH is more effective than G-banding for the evaluation of genetic abnormalities in myeloma.

Corrado G, Laquintana V, Loria R, et al.
Endometrial cancer prognosis correlates with the expression of L1CAM and miR34a biomarkers.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):139 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients with endometrial cancer (EC) and presumably with good prognosis may develop a recurrence indicating that the classification of this tumor is still not definitive and that new markers are needed to identify a subgroup at risk of relapse. The cell adhesion molecule L1CAM is highly expressed in several human carcinomas and has recently been described as a new marker for endometrial and ovarian carcinomas. The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of L1CAM in recurrent EC.
METHODS: In this work we have analyzed, by immunohistochemical and RT-qPCR analysis, the expression of L1CAM in a cohort of 113 endometrial cancers at different stages, which 50% have relapsed. As a predictor of good outcome, the tumors were also analyzed for the expression of miR-34a, a post-transcriptional regulator of L1CAM.
RESULTS: Among metastatic EC, the highest levels (60%) and the median level (24%) of L1CAM in tumors correlate with the progression, suggesting that the expression of this molecule is linked to the tumor component most involved in metastatic processes. We also found an inverse correlation between miR-34a and L1CAM protein expression, suggesting that miR-34a is a positive prognostic marker of EC.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the expression of L1CAM and miR-34a in EC as prognostic factors that identify subgroup of patients at high risk of recurrence suggesting for them more aggressive schedules of treatment.

Schoenfeld JD, Gjini E, Rodig SJ, et al.
Evaluating the PD-1 Axis and Immune Effector Cell Infiltration in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018; 102(1):137-145 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors are approved for the treatment of patients with recurrent and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Ongoing and planned randomized phase 3 trials are testing the benefit of combining PD-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors with chemoradiation for patients with locoregionally confined SCCHN. Few studies have investigated relationships among potential predictive pathologic biomarkers such as PD-L1, PD-L2, and PD-1 in this population and associations between these markers and clinical characteristics.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed records and pathology from 81 patients with locoregional oropharynx SCCHN treated with curative intent. Samples were analyzed for PD-L1, PD-L2, PD-1, CD8, and CD56 expression using immunohistochemistry. Human papilloma virus (HPV) status was determined by p16-immunohistochemistry and confirmed by in situ hybridization or polymerase chain reaction-based HPV typing. Correlations between HPV status, clinical features, and recurrence status with immune markers in both tumor and tumor-associated stroma were determined. Hazard ratios were estimated via Cox proportional hazards model.
RESULTS: Tumor PD-L1 expression was inversely associated with age (P = .01) and the highest levels of expression (>30% of tumor cells) were observed in HPV-associated tumors. There was a correlation between tumor and stromal PD-L1 expression (P = < .0001). PD-1 and CD8 expression within tumor deposits was associated with HPV status (P = 0.003 and P = .008, respectively) and decreased local recurrence (P = .001 and P < .001, respectively). In addition to the association between tumor and stromal PD-1 (P < .0001), PD-1 was also correlated with tumor PD-L1 expression (P < .001). CD56+ natural killer cell infiltrates correlated with PD-L1 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with untreated oropharyngeal SCCHN, HPV-associated tumors displayed the highest levels of PD-L1 expression and PD-1+ and CD8+ immune cells. Locally recurrent tumors had lower levels of PD-L1, PD-1, and CD-8 positivity. Whereas almost all SCCHN tumors had CD56+ infiltrating natural killer cells, most tumors didn't have PD-L2 expression. These associations may help predict which patients may benefit most from immunotherapeutic approaches.

Yang X, Hu Y, Shi H, et al.
The diagnostic value of TROP-2, SLP-2 and CD56 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2018; 275(8):2127-2134 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to explore some novel diagnostic biomarkers for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) by identifying the different expression of TROP-2, SLP-2 and CD56 in benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
METHODS: We evaluated the mRNA expressions of TROP-2 and SLP-2 in fine needle aspirates (FNAs) which contained 10 PTCs and 10 benign follicular adenomas (FAs) using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of TROP-2, SLP-2 and CD56 was also performed on postoperative samples of 30 PTCs and 29 FAs. Membranous or cytoplasmic staining in > 10% of cells was considered as positive. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy of these three biomarkers were carried out. We further analyzed the associations between the clinical features and the expressions of markers in PTCs.
RESULTS: The mRNA expressions of both TROP-2 and SLP-2 were increased substantially in PTCs in comparison with those in FAs (P < 0.05). Similarly, IHC for these two proteins demonstrated higher positive staining in PTCs than in FAs (96.5% vs. 12.5% for TROP-2, 83.3% vs. 20.7% for SLP-2, P < 0.05). Conversely, CD56 expression was lost with 86.7% of PTCs. In identifying malignancy, TROP-2 was the most sensitive marker and CD56 was the most specific one. When the markers were combined, the sensitivity and NPV increased to 100% and had better diagnostic accuracy. However, no association was found between biomarker expressions and clinicopathological factors in PTCs.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that TROP-2, SLP-2 and CD56 were effective diagnostic markers for PTC, especially when they were combined to use.

El-Athman R, Fuhr L, Relógio A
A Systems-Level Analysis Reveals Circadian Regulation of Splicing in Colorectal Cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 33:68-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Accumulating evidence points to a significant role of the circadian clock in the regulation of splicing in various organisms, including mammals. Both dysregulated circadian rhythms and aberrant pre-mRNA splicing are frequently implicated in human disease, in particular in cancer. To investigate the role of the circadian clock in the regulation of splicing in a cancer progression context at the systems-level, we conducted a genome-wide analysis and compared the rhythmic transcriptional profiles of colon carcinoma cell lines SW480 and SW620, derived from primary and metastatic sites of the same patient, respectively. We identified spliceosome components and splicing factors with cell-specific circadian expression patterns including SRSF1, HNRNPLL, ESRP1, and RBM 8A, as well as altered alternative splicing events and circadian alternative splicing patterns of output genes (e.g., VEGFA, NCAM1, FGFR2, CD44) in our cellular model. Our data reveals a remarkable interplay between the circadian clock and pre-mRNA splicing with putative consequences in tumor progression and metastasis.

Jayaram S, Balakrishnan L, Singh M, et al.
Identification of a Novel Splice Variant of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule in Glioblastoma Through Proteogenomics Analysis.
OMICS. 2018; 22(6):437-448 [PubMed] Related Publications
Splice variants are known to be important in the pathophysiology of tumors, including the brain cancers. We applied a proteogenomics pipeline to identify splice variants in glioblastoma (GBM, grade IV glioma), a highly malignant brain tumor, using in-house generated mass spectrometric proteomic data and public domain RNASeq dataset. Our analysis led to the identification of a novel exon that maps to the long isoform of Neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1), expressed on the surface of glial cells and neurons, important for cell adhesion and cell signaling. The presence of the novel exon is supported with the identification of five peptides spanning it. Additional peptides were also detected in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel separated proteins from GBM patient tissue, underscoring the presence of the novel peptides in the intact brain protein. The novel exon was detected in the RNASeq dataset in 18 of 25 GBM samples and separately validated in additional 10 GBM tumor tissues using quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Both transcriptomic and proteomic data indicate downregulation of NCAM1, including the novel variant, in GBM. Domain analysis of the novel NCAM1 sequence indicates that the insertion of the novel exon contributes extra low-complexity region in the protein that may be important for protein-protein interactions and hence for cell signaling associated with tumor development. Taken together, the novel NCAM1 variant reported in this study exemplifies the importance of future multiomics research and systems biology applications in GBM.

Skerget M, Skopec B, Zadnik V, et al.
CD56 Expression Is an Important Prognostic Factor in Multiple Myeloma Even with Bortezomib Induction.
Acta Haematol. 2018; 139(4):228-234 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: In this retrospective study, we evaluated the impact of CD56, CD117, and CD28 expression on clinical characteristics and survival in newly diagnosed myeloma patients treated with bortezomib-based induction therapy.
METHODS: We analyzed 110 myeloma patients. Immunophenotype was determined using panels consisting of CD19/CD38/CD45/CD56/CD138 and CD20, CD28, and CD117 were used additionally. All samples were tested for recurrent chromosomal aberrations.
RESULTS: CD56, CD117, and CD28 expression rates were 71, 6, and 68%, respectively. The lack of CD56 expression was associated with light chain myeloma. The lack of CD117 expression was associated with elevated creatinine levels (p = 0.037). We discovered the correlation between CD 28 expression and female gender. The median progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with revised International Staging System stage 2 disease with CD56 expression or the lack of CD56 expression was 20.5 vs. 13.8 months (p = 0.03). In patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT), we found no difference in PFS and overall survival regarding the CD56 expression. We found no impact of CD117 and CD28 expression on PFS in patients regarding aHSCT.
CONCLUSIONS: Induction treatment incorporating bortezomib diminishes the negative impact of the lack of CD117 expression and aberrancy of CD28 but does not overcome the negative impact of the lack of CD56 expression.

Sumarriva Lezama L, Chisholm KM, Carneal E, et al.
An analysis of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with translocations involving the MYC locus identifies t(6;8)(p21;q24) as a recurrent cytogenetic abnormality.
Histopathology. 2018; 73(5):767-776 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is an aggressive neoplasm with leukaemic features and frequent skin involvement. Translocations involving the MYC locus have been recently identified as recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities in this entity. The aim of this study was to assess the clinicopathological, immunophenotypic and genetic features in MYC-rearranged BPDCN cases.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Pathology archives from six major institutes were queried for cases of BPDCN with 8q24 MYC translocations, and two cases were identified. A literature review identified 14 cases. Clinicopathological features, immunophenotype and cytogenetic and molecular data were reviewed. In these 16 MYC-rearranged cases, the median age at diagnosis was 70.5 years, and there was a male predominance. Whereas all cases showed marrow involvement, skin lesions (62.5%) and lymphadenopathy (50%) were variably seen. The median survival was 11 months. The median percentage of blasts in peripheral blood was 9%. All cases showed expression of CD4, with 10 of 16 being positive for CD56. HLA-DR, CD123, TCL1 and CD303 were positive in all cases tested. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a single recurrent translocation partner of MYC at 6p21 in 11 cases (69%), whereas four cases showed different MYC translocation partners (2p12, Xq24, 3p25, and 14q32). Interestingly, the group of patients with t(6;8)(p21;q24) showed an older median age at diagnosis (74 years) and a remarkably shorter median survival (3 months).
CONCLUSIONS: Translocations involving the 8q24 MYC locus more frequently manifest as t(6;8)(p21;q24), and, given its association with specific clinicopathological features suggesting even more aggressive behaviour, t(6;8)(p21;q24) indicate a genetically defined subgroup within BPDCN.

Pyo JS, Kim DH, Yang J
Diagnostic value of CD56 immunohistochemistry in thyroid lesions.
Int J Biol Markers. 2018; 33(2):161-167 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic roles of CD56 immunohistochemistry in differentiating various thyroid lesions.
METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the rate of loss of CD56 immunohistochemistry expression from 13 eligible studies regarding various thyroid lesions, including papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and follicular adenoma. To confirm the value of CD56 immunohistochemistry in differentiating various thyroid lesions, a diagnostic test accuracy review was conducted.
RESULTS: An 87.8%, 79.1%, 11.9%, 25.5%, and 19.6% loss of CD56 immunohistochemistry expression was identified in papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, follicular adenoma, benign follicular nodule, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, respectively. In the normal thyroid tissue, the rate of loss of CD56 expression was 1.6%. Classical, follicular, diffuse sclerosing, tall cell, and encapsulated variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma showed an 88.4%, 75.3%, 97.2%, 91.7%, and 91.7% loss of CD56 expression, respectively. In the comparison between the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular adenoma, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of CD56 immunohistochemistry was 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70, 0.90) and 0.94 (95% CI 0.83, 0.99), respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio and the area under curve on summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 51.43 (95% CI 5.83, 453.88) and 0.9387, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, these results indicate that the rate of loss of CD56 immunohistochemistry expression was significantly higher in malignant tumors, such as papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular carcinoma, than in follicular adenoma, benign follicular nodule, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. As such, CD56 immunohistochemistry can be useful in differentiating follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma.

Le Roy A, Prébet T, Castellano R, et al.
Immunomodulatory Drugs Exert Anti-Leukemia Effects in Acute Myeloid Leukemia by Direct and Immunostimulatory Activities.
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:977 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) are anticancer drugs with immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenesis, anti-proliferative, and pro-apoptotic properties. IMiDs are currently used for the treatment of multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome, and B-cell lymphoma; however, little is known about efficacy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We proposed in this study to investigate the relevance of IMiDs therapy for AML treatment. We evaluated the effect of IMiDs on primary AML blasts (

Kotani N, Ida Y, Nakano T, et al.
Tumor-dependent secretion of close homolog of L1 results in elevation of its circulating level in mouse model for human lung tumor.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 501(4):982-987 [PubMed] Related Publications
Close homolog of L1 (CHL1) and its truncated form mainly play crucial roles in mouse brain development and neural functions. Herein, we newly identified that truncated form of CHL1 is produced and released from lung tumor tissue in a mouse model expressing human EML4-ALK fusion gene. Both western blot and direct ELISA analysis revealed that mouse CHL1 level in serum (including serum extracellular vesicles) was significantly elevated in EML4-ALK transgenic mice. The correlation between the tumor size and the amount of CHL1 secretion could be examined in this study, and showed a significant positive correlation in a tumor size-dependent manner. Considering these results, the measurement of circulating CHL1 level may contribute to assess a tumor progression in human lung tumor patients.

Wang G, Xiao L, Zhang M, et al.
Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 81 cases.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 79:57-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Small cell carcinoma (SmCC) of the bladder is a rare disease. We retrospectively studied a large series of bladder SmCC from a single institution. The patients included 69 men and 12 women with a mean age of 68 years. Most bladder SmCCs were presented at advanced stage, with tumors invading the muscularis propria and beyond (n = 77). SmCC was pure in 27 cases and mixed with other histologic types in 54 cases, including urothelial carcinoma (UC) (n = 32), UC in situ (n = 26), glandular (n = 14), micropapillary (n = 4), sarcomatoid (n = 4), squamous (n = 3), and plasmacytoid (n = 1) features. Most SmCCs expressed neuroendocrine markers synaptophysin (41/56), chromogranin (26/55), and CD56 (39/41); however, they did not express UC luminal markers CK20 (0/17), GATA3 (1/30), and uroplakin II (1/22). Some SmCCs showed focal expression of CK5/6 (9/25), a marker for the basal molecular subtype. Furthermore, expression of the retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) gene protein was lost in most of the bladder SmCCs (2/23). The patients' survival was significantly associated with cancer stage but did not show a significant difference between mixed and pure SmCCs. Compared with conventional UC at similar stages, SmCC had a worse prognosis only when patients developed metastatic diseases. In conclusion, bladder SmCC is an aggressive disease that is frequently present at an advanced stage. A fraction of SmCCs show a basal molecular subtype, which may underlie its good response to chemotherapy. Inactivation of the RB1 gene may be implicated in the oncogenesis of bladder SmCC.

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