Gene Summary

Gene:TACSTD2; tumor associated calcium signal transducer 2
Aliases: EGP1, GP50, M1S1, EGP-1, TROP2, GA7331, GA733-1
Summary:This intronless gene encodes a carcinoma-associated antigen. This antigen is a cell surface receptor that transduces calcium signals. Mutations of this gene have been associated with gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TACSTD2 (cancer-related)

Hou J, Lv A, Deng Q, et al.
TROP2 promotes the proliferation and metastasis of glioblastoma cells by activating the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(2):753-764 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP2), a single transmembrane domain protein, is often found to be highly expressed in various types of human cancers. However, the biological function and molecular mechanism of TROP2 in glioblastoma have not been fully elucidated, particularly in regards to cell proliferation and metastasis of glioblastoma cells. In the present study, it was demonstrated that TROP2 expression was increased in glioblastoma tissues and glioblastoma cell lines by immunohistochemical analysis and western blot analysis. High TROP2 expression was significantly correlated with the poor survival of glioblastoma patients. MTT assay, BrdU incorporation assay, flow cytometry and Transwell assay were performed to demonstrate that knockdown of TROP2 in glioblastoma cells inhibited cell proliferation and metastasis. We found that the effects of TROP2‑knockdown on glioblastoma cells were associated with the inhibition of JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylation and decreased transcription of STAT3 target genes. In addition, blocking the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling by WP1066 negated the effects of TROP2 overexpression. Furthermore, exogenous IL‑6, which functions as a potent activator of JAK2/STAT3 signaling, was able to rescue the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 in TROP2‑silenced glioblastoma cells and regulate phenotypic changes in these cells. Therefore, we revealed a novel mechanism by which TROP2 activates the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to promote the growth and metastasis of glioblastoma cells. These data offer insight into the function of TROP2 in glioblastoma and indicate that TROP2 is a promising biomarker and therapeutic target for glioblastoma patients.

Sin STK, Li Y, Liu M, et al.
TROP-2 exhibits tumor suppressive functions in cervical cancer by dual inhibition of IGF-1R and ALK signaling.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 152(1):185-193 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes promotes initiation and progression of cervical cancer. This study aims to investigate the tumor suppressive effects of TROP-2 in cervical cancer cells and to explain the underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: The tumor suppressive functions of TROP-2 in cervical cancer cells were examined by in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic functional assays. Downstream factors of TROP-2 were screened using Human Phospho-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Array. Small molecule inhibitors were applied to HeLa cells to test the TROP-2 effects on the oncogenicity of IGF-1R and ALK. Protein interactions between TROP-2 and the ligands of IGF-1R and ALK were detected via immunoprecipitation assay and protein-protein affinity prediction.
RESULTS: In vitro and in vivo functional assays showed that overexpression of TROP-2 significantly inhibited the oncogenicity of cervical cancer cells; while knockdown of TROP-2 exhibited opposite effects. Human Phospho-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Array showed that the activity of IGF-1R and ALK was stimulated by TROP-2 knockdown. Small molecule inhibitors AG1024 targeting IGF-1R and Crizotinib targeting ALK were treated to HeLa cells with and without TROP-2 overexpression, and results from cell viability and migration assays indicated that the oncogenicity of vector-transfected cells was repressed to a greater extent by the inhibition of either IGF-1R or ALK than that of the TROP-2-overexpressed cells. Immunoprecipitation assay and protein-protein affinity prediction suggested protein interactions between TROP-2 and the ligands of IGF-1R and ALK.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results support that TROP-2 exhibits tumor suppressor functions in cervical cancer through inhibiting the activity of IGF-1R and ALK.

Matsui S, Harada K, Miyata N, et al.
Characterization of Peribiliary Gland-Constituting Cells Based on Differential Expression of Trophoblast Cell Surface Protein 2 in Biliary Tract.
Am J Pathol. 2018; 188(9):2059-2073 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peribiliary glands (PBGs) are accessory glands with mucinous and serous acini in the biliary tree. The PBG is composed of a heterogeneous cell population, such as mucus- and pancreatic enzyme-producing epithelial cells, whereas it constitutes niches for multipotential stem/progenitor cells in the human extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD). By contrast, the nature of PBGs in the mouse EHBD remains unclear. Our aim was to establish a method for isolating and characterizing PBG-constituting cells in the mouse EHBD. We found that trophoblast cell surface protein 2 (Trop2) was expressed in the luminal epithelium of mouse EHBD exclusively, but not in the PBG. On the basis of the differential expression profile of Trop2, lumen-forming biliary epithelial cells (LBECs) and PBG-constituting epithelial cells (PBECs) were separately isolated for further characterization. Gene expression analysis revealed that the isolated mouse PBECs expressed several marker genes related to human PBGs. In the colony formation assay, PBECs showed significantly higher colony formation capacity than LBECs. In the organoid formation assay, PBECs formed cystic organoid with LBEC-like phenotype. Interestingly, PBECs proliferated, accompanied by reexpression of Trop2 in vivo after bile duct ligation. Furthermore, the unique expression profile of Trop2 was conserved in human EHBD. Our findings indicate that Trop2 is a useful marker in investigating the pathophysiological roles and characteristics of mouse and human PBGs in biliary diseases.

Yang X, Hu Y, Shi H, et al.
The diagnostic value of TROP-2, SLP-2 and CD56 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2018; 275(8):2127-2134 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to explore some novel diagnostic biomarkers for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) by identifying the different expression of TROP-2, SLP-2 and CD56 in benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
METHODS: We evaluated the mRNA expressions of TROP-2 and SLP-2 in fine needle aspirates (FNAs) which contained 10 PTCs and 10 benign follicular adenomas (FAs) using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of TROP-2, SLP-2 and CD56 was also performed on postoperative samples of 30 PTCs and 29 FAs. Membranous or cytoplasmic staining in > 10% of cells was considered as positive. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy of these three biomarkers were carried out. We further analyzed the associations between the clinical features and the expressions of markers in PTCs.
RESULTS: The mRNA expressions of both TROP-2 and SLP-2 were increased substantially in PTCs in comparison with those in FAs (P < 0.05). Similarly, IHC for these two proteins demonstrated higher positive staining in PTCs than in FAs (96.5% vs. 12.5% for TROP-2, 83.3% vs. 20.7% for SLP-2, P < 0.05). Conversely, CD56 expression was lost with 86.7% of PTCs. In identifying malignancy, TROP-2 was the most sensitive marker and CD56 was the most specific one. When the markers were combined, the sensitivity and NPV increased to 100% and had better diagnostic accuracy. However, no association was found between biomarker expressions and clinicopathological factors in PTCs.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that TROP-2, SLP-2 and CD56 were effective diagnostic markers for PTC, especially when they were combined to use.

Zhao W, Kuai X, Zhou X, et al.
Trop2 is a potential biomarker for the promotion of EMT in human breast cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(2):759-766 [PubMed] Related Publications
Trop2 is considered to have an important function in tumor metastasis and the promotion of epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT). E‑cadherin is a crucial factor in intercellular adhesion and EMT transformation. In the present study, we detected the expression of Trop2 and E‑cadherin in breast cancer (BC) to better define their prognostic value. The mRNA expression levels of these two genes in 20 cases of fresh BC tissues were detected by quantitative real‑time polymerase chain reaction (qRT‑PCR). We also detected the expression levels of these two genes by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 312 BC tissues, and the correlations between the expression of these two genes and the clinicopathological characteristics in BC patients were analyzed. The mRNA and protein expression levels of the two genes in BC cell lines were studied by qRT‑PCR and western blotting. The results indicated that Trop2+/E‑cadherin‑ was expressed in BC tissues more than that in the matched adjacent tissues. The protein expression results obtained via IHC were similar to the mRNA expression results. Trop2+/E‑cadherin‑ that was expressed in BC was associated with lymph node status, metastasis, tumor‑node‑metastasis (TNM) stage, and ER‑/PR‑/HER2‑ expression. BC patients that expressed Trop2+/E‑cadherin‑ had poor overall survival rates. The results of Trop2 and E‑cadherin expression levels obtained in the BC cell lines were the same as those obtained in the BC tissues. Overall, Trop2 has a potential role in the promotion of EMT in BC and it could be considered as a therapeutic target in the future.

Zhang L, Yang G, Zhang R, et al.
Curcumin inhibits cell proliferation and motility via suppression of TROP2 in bladder cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(2):515-526 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bladder cancer (BC) has become a serious health prob-lem and represents the second most commonly diagnosed urological tumor. Curcumin is a principal active natural component of turmeric and has long been used in Asia as a traditional herbal medicine. Curcumin suppresses cell growth in various types of cancer, including BC, by regulating numerous molecular signaling pathways. The human trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (Trop2) belongs to the tumor-associated calcium signal transducer gene family. Trop2 has been described as a cancer driver and is deregulated in various types of cancer. However, whether Trop2 is involved in curcumin-induced BC cell inhibition remains to be elucidated. The present study hypothesized that Trop2 may be a promising target of curcumin in BC cells. It was found that Trop2 was closely involved in curcumin-induced cell proliferation suppression, mobility inhibition, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in BC cells. Curcumin decreased the expression of Trop2 and its downstream target cyclin E1, and increased the level of p27. The overexpression of Trop2 enhanced the oncogenic activity of BC cells, whereas downregulation of the expression of Trop2 suppressed cell proliferation and mobility, increased apoptosis, and sensitized BC cells to curcumin treatment. Therefore, Trop2 may be a promising target of curcumin in BC cells and the inhibition of Trop2 may be an important method for the therapeutic management of patients with BC.

Gu QZ, Nijiati A, Gao X, et al.
TROP2 promotes cell proliferation and migration in osteosarcoma through PI3K/AKT signaling.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(2):1782-1788 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP2) has been noted to serve an important role in the proliferation and migration of various types of human cancers. However, the potential role and the molecular mechanisms of TROP2 in osteosarcoma (OS) remain largely unclear. In the present study, high expression of TROP2 in human OS tissues and cell lines was observed. Overexpression of TROP2 promoted the proliferation and migration of OS cell lines, while TROP2 knockdown markedly decreased cell growth and migration. Furthermore, it was revealed that TROP2 overexpression significantly activated the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway. Collectively, these results suggested that TROP2 may promote OS cell proliferation and migration via PI3K/AKT signaling and may serve as a novel treatment target for OS.

Sekhar V, Pollicino T, Diaz G, et al.
Infection with hepatitis C virus depends on TACSTD2, a regulator of claudin-1 and occludin highly downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS Pathog. 2018; 14(3):e1006916 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV) into hepatocytes is a complex process that involves numerous cellular factors, including the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1), the tetraspanin CD81, and the tight junction (TJ) proteins claudin-1 (CLDN1) and occludin (OCLN). Despite expression of all known HCV-entry factors, in vitro models based on hepatoma cell lines do not fully reproduce the in vivo susceptibility of liver cells to primary HCV isolates, implying the existence of additional host factors which are critical for HCV entry and/or replication. Likewise, HCV replication is severely impaired within hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue in vivo, but the mechanisms responsible for this restriction are presently unknown. Here, we identify tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2), one of the most downregulated genes in primary HCC tissue, as a host factor that interacts with CLDN1 and OCLN and regulates their cellular localization. TACSTD2 gene silencing disrupts the typical linear distribution of CLDN1 and OCLN along the cellular membrane in both hepatoma cells and primary human hepatocytes, recapitulating the pattern observed in vivo in primary HCC tissue. Mechanistic studies suggest that TACSTD2 is involved in the phosphorylation of CLDN1 and OCLN, which is required for their proper cellular localization. Silencing of TACSTD2 dramatically inhibits HCV infection with a pan-genotype effect that occurs at the level of viral entry. Our study identifies TACSTD2 as a novel regulator of two major HCV-entry factors, CLDN1 and OCLN, which is strongly downregulated in malignant hepatocytes. These results provide new insights into the complex process of HCV entry into hepatocytes and may assist in the development of more efficient cellular systems for HCV propagation in vitro.

Lin VC, Huang SP, Huang CY, et al.
Cancer Stem Cell Gene Variants Predict Disease Recurrence in Patients Treated with Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer.
Int J Med Sci. 2017; 14(12):1301-1306 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Guan H, Guo Z, Liang W, et al.
Trop2 enhances invasion of thyroid cancer by inducing MMP2 through ERK and JNK pathways.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):486 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence has showed that Tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (Trop2) is upregulated in various kinds of human cancers and plays important roles in tumorigenesis. However, the expression status and functional significance of Trop2 in thyroid cancer are largely unknown.
METHODS: We first determined the expression of Trop2 by using RNAseqV2 data sets for thyroid cancer deposited on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) website. The expression of Trop2 was then confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry assays. Cell invasion and migration were assessed by conducting Transwell and wound healing assays. Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanisms by using real-time RT-PCR, Western blot, zymography, and luciferase reporter assays.
RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of Trop2 was significantly elevated in thyroid cancer and that its expression level was correlated with the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging and N classification. Dysregulation of Trop2 altered the invasive capability of thyroid cancer cells. Further mechanistic study revealed that MMP2 expression was upregulated by Trop2. Moreover, we found that the effects of Trop2 were dependent on ERK and JNK pathways. The results from clinical specimens showed that Trop2 expression correlated with MMP2 expression in primary thyroid cancer.
CONCLUSION: The current study suggests that elevated expression of Trop2 may represent an important molecular hallmark that is biologically and clinically relevant to the progression of thyroid cancer.

Inamura K, Yokouchi Y, Kobayashi M, et al.
Association of tumor TROP2 expression with prognosis varies among lung cancer subtypes.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(17):28725-28735 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TROP2 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is overexpressed in various cancers. Emerging evidence suggests that TROP2-targeting therapies are efficacious and safe in patients with multiple prior treatments. TROP2 is a promising target for lung cancer treatment; however, little is known regarding the association of TROP2 expression with clinicopathological/molecular features, including prognosis, in lung cancer. We examined consecutive cases of adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC), and high-grade neuroendocrine tumor (HGNET) for the membranous expression of TROP2 using immunohistochemistry. High TROP2 expression was observed in 64% (172/270) of adenocarcinomas, 75% (150/201) of SqCCs, and 18% (21/115) of HGNETs. Intriguingly, the association of TROP2 expression with mortality was dependent on the lung cancer subtype. High TROP2 expression was associated with higher lung cancer-specific mortality in adenocarcinomas [univariable hazard ratio (HR) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-2.44, P = 0.022)], but not in SqCCs (univariable HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.35-1.94, P = 0.79). In HGNETs, high TROP2 expression was associated with lower lung cancer-specific mortality in both univariable and multivariable analyses (multivariable HR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.020-0.44, P = 0.0003). Our results suggest a differential role for TROP2 in different lung cancer subtypes.

Guo X, Zhu X, Zhao L, et al.
Tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 regulates neovascularization of non-small-cell lung cancer via activating ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(3):1010428317694324 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer, especially the non-small-cell lung cancer, is a highly aggressive vascular cancer with excessively activated signaling pathways. Tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2, also known as trop2, was identified to be correlated with tumor proliferation and invasion of non-small-cell lung cancer; however, the biological role of trop2 in neovascularization of non-small-cell lung cancer remained elusive. In this study, we first verified that trop2 was overexpressed in non-small-cell lung cancer tissues as well as cell lines and that the increased expression of trop2 promoted non-small-cell lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Then, we expanded the biological role of trop2 by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assay. The tubular formation analysis revealed that trop2 promoted non-small-cell lung cancer angiogenesis in vitro, and the immunohistochemistry staining of vascular markers (CD31 and CD34) provided evidences that trop2 promoted in vivo neovascularization. The results of polymerase chain reaction array revealed that trop2 promoted the expression level of two well-known angiogenesis factors MMP13 and PECAM1. By screening the trop2-related signaling pathways, we observed that excessive angiogenesis was correlated with activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) could suppress the tubular formation ability induced by trop2 expression. These results suggested that trop2 facilitated neovascularization of non-small-cell lung cancer via activating ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Targeting trop2 might provide novel anti-angiogenesis strategy for non-small-cell lung cancer treatment.

Zhao W, Ding G, Wen J, et al.
Correlation between Trop2 and amphiregulin coexpression and overall survival in gastric cancer.
Cancer Med. 2017; 6(5):994-1001 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is a multistep and multistage disease and the majority of GC cells could overexpressed one or more oncogenes. Trop2 and amphiregulin (AREG) are both overexpressed in various epithelial cell cancers and have the role in the increases tumor cells division and metastasis. However, little is known about the function and correlation of two oncogenes coexpressed in GC. The expression level of these two genes in 791 cases of GC tissues were tested, the correlations between two genes expression and clinical pathological characteristics and overall survival in GC patients through immunohistochemistry (IHC) were analyzed. This study also explored the mRNA expression level of two genes in 26 cases of freshly GC tissues by qRT-PCR. The results indicated that Trop2+/AREG+ coexpression was higher in GC tissues than in adjacent tissues. Trop2+/AREG+ protein coexpression were associated with Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) stage (χ

Timofeeva OA, Palechor-Ceron N, Li G, et al.
Conditionally reprogrammed normal and primary tumor prostate epithelial cells: a novel patient-derived cell model for studies of human prostate cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(14):22741-22758 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our previous study demonstrated that conditional reprogramming (CR) allows the establishment of patient-derived normal and tumor epithelial cell cultures from a variety of tissue types including breast, lung, colon and prostate. Using CR, we have established matched normal and tumor cultures, GUMC-29 and GUMC-30 respectively, from a patient's prostatectomy specimen. These CR cells proliferate indefinitely in vitro and retain stable karyotypes. Most importantly, only tumor-derived CR cells (GUMC-30) produced tumors in xenografted SCID mice, demonstrating maintenance of the critical tumor phenotype. Characterization of cells with DNA fingerprinting demonstrated identical patterns in normal and tumor CR cells as well as in xenografted tumors. By flow cytometry, both normal and tumor CR cells expressed basal, luminal, and stem cell markers, with the majority of the normal and tumor CR cells expressing prostate basal cell markers, CD44 and Trop2, as well as luminal marker, CD13, suggesting a transit-amplifying phenotype. Consistent with this phenotype, real time RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that CR cells predominantly expressed high levels of basal cell markers (KRT5, KRT14 and p63), and low levels of luminal markers. When the CR tumor cells were injected into SCID mice, the expression of luminal markers (AR, NKX3.1) increased significantly, while basal cell markers dramatically decreased. These data suggest that CR cells maintain high levels of proliferation and low levels of differentiation in the presence of feeder cells and ROCK inhibitor, but undergo differentiation once injected into SCID mice. Genomic analyses, including SNP and INDEL, identified genes mutated in tumor cells, including components of apoptosis, cell attachment, and hypoxia pathways. The use of matched patient-derived cells provides a unique in vitro model for studies of early prostate cancer.

Strop P, Tran TT, Dorywalska M, et al.
RN927C, a Site-Specific Trop-2 Antibody-Drug Conjugate (ADC) with Enhanced Stability, Is Highly Efficacious in Preclinical Solid Tumor Models.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(11):2698-2708 [PubMed] Related Publications
Trop-2, also known as TACSTD2, EGP-1, GA733-1, and M1S1, is frequently expressed on a variety of human carcinomas, and its expression is often associated with poor prognosis of the diseases. However, it is also present on the epithelium of several normal tissues. A comprehensively designed Trop-2-targeting antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), balancing both efficacy and toxicity, is therefore necessary to achieve clinical utility. To this end, we developed a cleavable Trop-2 ADC (RN927C) using a site-specific transglutaminase-mediated conjugation method and a proprietary microtubule inhibitor (MTI) linker-payload, PF-06380101. Robust in vitro cytotoxicity of RN927C was observed on a panel of Trop-2-expressing tumor cell lines, with IC

Zeng P, Chen MB, Zhou LN, et al.
Impact of TROP2 expression on prognosis in solid tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:33658 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Over-expression of TROP2 (the trophoblast cell surface antigen 2) was reported to predict poor prognosis in various solid tumors in number of studies. However, the results remained not comprehensive. Therefore, we here carried out this meta-analysis of relevant studies published on this topic to quantitatively evaluate the clinicopathological significance of TROP2 in solid tumors. Relevant articles were identified through searching the PubMed, Web of Science and Embase database. The primary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). In this meta-analysis, 16 studies involving 2,569 participants were included, and we drew the conclusion that TROP2 overexpression was significantly associated with poor OS (pooled HR = 1.896, 95% CI = 1.599-2.247, P < 0.001) and short DFS (pooled HR = 2.336, 95% CI = 1.596-3.419, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the subgroup analysis revealed that the associations between TROP2 overexpression and the outcome endpoints (OS or DFS) were significant in in patients with female genital system neoplasms, as well in gastrointestine neoplasms. In addition, subgroup analysis found no difference HR across populations of different descent.Taken together, TROP2 overexpression was associated with poor survival in human solid tumors. TROP2 may be a valuable prognosis predictive biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in human solid tumors.

Chang CH, Wang Y, Zalath M, et al.
Combining ABCG2 Inhibitors with IMMU-132, an Anti-Trop-2 Antibody Conjugate of SN-38, Overcomes Resistance to SN-38 in Breast and Gastric Cancers.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(8):1910-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sacituzumab govitecan (IMMU-132), an SN-38-conjugated antibody-drug conjugate, is showing promising therapeutic results in a phase I/II trial of patients with advanced Trop-2-expressing, metastatic, solid cancers. As members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters confer chemotherapy resistance by active drug efflux, which is a frequent cause of treatment failure, we explored the use of known inhibitors of ABC transporters for improving the therapeutic efficacy of IMMU-132 by overcoming SN-38 resistance. Two human tumor cell lines made resistant to SN-38, MDA-MB-231-S120 (human breast cancer) and NCI-N87-S120 (human gastric cancer), were established by continuous exposure of the parental cells to stepwise increased concentrations of SN-38 and analyzed by flow cytometry for functional activities of ABCG2 and ABCB1, immunoblotting and qRT-PCR for the expression of ABCG2 at both protein and mRNA levels, and MTS assays for the potency of SN-38 alone or in combination with a modulator of ABC transporters. MDA-MB-231-S120 and NCI-N87-S120 displayed reduced sensitivity to SN-38 in vitro, with IC50 values approximately 50-fold higher than parental MDA-MB-231 and NCI-N87 cells. The increase in drug resistance of both S120 cell populations is associated with the expression of functional ABCG2, but not ABCB1. Importantly, treatment of both S120 sublines with known ABCG2 inhibitors (fumitremorgin C, Ko143, and YHO-13351) restored toxicity of SN-38, and the combination of YHO-13351 with IMMU-132 increased the median survival of mice bearing NCI-N87-S120 xenografts. These results provide a rationale for combination therapy of IMMU-132 and inhibitors of ABC transporters, such as YHO-13351. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(8); 1910-9. ©2016 AACR.

Xu N, Zhang Z, Zhu J, et al.
Overexpression of trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 as an independent marker for a poor prognosis and as a potential therapeutic target in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
Int J Exp Pathol. 2016; 97(2):150-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Most patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are diagnosed at an advanced stage, and therapeutic options for these patients are limited. The identification of suitable biomarkers could be helpful for patients with EOC, who might benefit from targeted therapies even in advanced stages of the disease. Trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP2) is highly expressed in various human malignant tumours; however, this has not been demonstrated clearly in EOC. In this study, we further evaluated whether TROP2 is a promising marker for EOC, and thus also a potential target for EOC immunotherapy. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis were employed to determine TROP2 mRNA and protein expression in both human EOC and normal ovarian cell lines. Additionally, TROP2 protein expression was measured by immunohistochemistry in 128 EOC tissue samples, 21 normal ovarian tissues and 18 normal fallopian tubes. The correlations between TROP2 protein expression and patients' clinicopathological features were investigated, and survival outcomes were analysed. TROP2 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated significantly in EOC cell lines compared with normal cell lines. The protein of TROP2 was expressed in the majority of EOC tissue samples (90.6%) and overexpressed in 75 (58.6%) of the 128 tumour samples. TROP2 overexpression was correlated with relevant clinicopathological characteristics and was associated with significantly shortened overall survival and disease-free survival. Furthermore, TROP2 was an independent prognostic marker for EOCs as analysed by Cox regression. TROP2 was a potential biomarker for targeted therapy in patients with TROP2-overexpressing EOC.

Sawanyawisuth K, Tantapotinan N, Wongkham C, et al.
Suppression of trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 enhances proliferation and migration in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma.
Ann Hepatol. 2016 Jan-Feb; 15(1):71-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP2) or tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2) is a 36-kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein and exerts dual functions as an oncogene and tumor suppressor in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the expression and functions of TROP2 in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: TROP2 expression in 85 CCA tissues was detected by using immunohistochemistry. The methylation status of TROP2 promoter was studied in 15 matched pairs of normal and CCA formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues using the bisulfite genomic sequencing (BGS) method. The functions of TROP2 on cancer cell behavior were investigated using siRNA in CCA cell lines. Proliferation, migration and invasion assays were performed. A PCR array was used to evaluate the impact of TROP2 knockdown on the gene expression profiles.
RESULTS: TROP2 was highly expressed in all normal bile duct epithelia, but significantly down-regulated in CCA cells. Sixty percent of CCA revealed promoter hypermethylation compared to the corresponding adjacent normal tissues. TROP2 knockdown significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration in CCA cell lines, and altered the expressions of MARCK, EMP1 and FILIP1L.
CONCLUSION: We provide new evidence that TROP2 is epigenetically down-regulated and operates as a negative regulator of cell proliferation and migration in liver fluke-associated CCA.

Mamaloudis I, Zacharoulis D, Samara M, et al.
Expression profile of the GA733 gene family in colorectal cancer: correlation with clinicopathological parameters.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):14772-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
GA733-1/-2/-3 genes have been detected in various types of cancer, although their role has not been fully clarified. GA733-2 and GA733-1 have been correlated with lymph node metastases in laryngeal cancer and liver metastases, respectively. Only a few studies have elucidated the mechanisms regulating GA733-1/-2 expression and their effect on colorectal cancer. Therefore, the expression pattern and the role of the aforementioned molecules in colorectal carcinogenesis were evaluated in this study. Tissue samples were obtained from 40 patients with colorectal cancer with no liver metastases. GA733-1/-2 mRNA levels were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. GA733-1/-2 gene expression in noncancerous/cancerous tissues was also correlated with clinicopathological parameters. The GA733-1 mRNA levels were very low; however, the GA733-1 mRNA transcripts were higher in cancerous tissues than in normal tissues (median ratio, 0.004391/0.00093; range, 0.000001- 0.025139/0.000001-0.007761), respectively (P = 0.012). GA733-2 gene expression was higher in noncancerous tissues than in cancerous tissues (median ratio 273.31/115.64; range, 65.24-1,486.41/11.58-1,189.14; P = 0.0000195). Lower GA733-2 expression in cancer tissues appeared to correlate with lymph node metastases (P < 0.05). GA733-1 gene expression was significantly higher in cancerous samples; conversely, the GA733-2 mRNA levels were higher in noncancerous tissues, and were significantly correlated with lymph node perforation in colorectal cancer (P < 0.05). Therefore, GA733-1/-2 mRNA expression levels appear to be a potential predictive marker of tumorigenesis.

Simms A, Jacob RP, Cohen C, Siddiqui MT
TROP-2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: Potential Diagnostic Utility.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2016; 44(1):26-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
TROP-2 is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein which is over-expressed in various malignancies, and is related to epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), also called TROP-1, gp40, and KSA. In this study, we evaluated TROP-2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and compared it to other thyroid neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation for TROP-2 was performed on 137 thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) cell blocks (CB) which included classic PTC (64), follicular variant PTC (FVPTC) (10), anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (AC) (2), medullary carcinoma (MC) (8), follicular neoplasms (FN) (8), Hurthle cell neoplasms (HCN) (9), follicular lesion of uncertain significance (FLUS) (12), and benign thyroid nodule (BTN) (24). IHC for TROP-2 expression was also performed on 331 BTN and malignant tumor tissue sections in tissue microarray (TMA). Membranous staining in >5% of tumor cells was considered positive. TROP-2 stained 61 of 64 PTC CB, 7 of 10 FVPTC CB, and 9 of 12 FLUS CB. All other cases were negative for TROP-2. TROP-2 showed a sensitivity of 95.31% and specificity of 89% for classic PTC in FNA CB. In TMA samples, TROP-2 stained 54 of 60 classic PTC cases and hence showed a high sensitivity and specificity. All BTN in CB and TMA were negative. We conclude that TROP-2 is a highly sensitive and specific IHC marker for identifying classic PTC. TROP-2 may play an important role in diagnosing classic PTC, especially in equivocal cases. This study also identifies a strong role for TROP-2 in separating PTC from BTN.

Kim J, Kim S, Ko S, et al.
Recurrent fusion transcripts detected by whole-transcriptome sequencing of 120 primary breast cancer samples.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(11):681-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Relatively few recurrent gene fusion events have been associated with breast cancer to date. In an effort to uncover novel fusion transcripts, we performed whole-transcriptome sequencing of 120 fresh-frozen primary breast cancer samples and five adjacent normal breast tissues using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Three different fusion-detecting tools (deFuse, Chimerascan, and TopHatFusion) were used, and the results were compared. These tools detected 3,831, 6,630 and 516 fusion transcripts (FTs) overall. We primarily focused on the results obtained using the deFuse software. More FTs were identified from HER2 subtype breast cancer samples than from the luminal or triple-negative subtypes (P < 0.05). Seventy fusion candidates were selected for validation, and 32 (45.7%) were confirmed by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Of the validated fusions, six were recurrent (found in 2 or more samples), three were in-frame (PRDX1-AKR1A1, TACSTD2-OMA1, and C2CD2-TFF1) and three were off-frame (CEACAM7-CEACAM6, CYP4X1-CYP4Z2P, and EEF1DP3-FRY). Notably, the novel read-through fusion, EEF1DP3-FRY, was identified and validated in 6.7% (8/120) of the breast cancer samples. This off-frame fusion results in early truncation of the FRY gene, which plays a key role in the structural integrity during mitosis. Three previously reported fusions, PPP1R1B-STARD3, MFGE8-HAPL, and ETV6-NTRK3, were detected in 8.3, 3.3, and 0.8% of the 120 samples, respectively, by both deFuse and Chimerascan. The recently reported MAGI3-AKT3 fusion was not detected in our analysis. Although future work will be needed to examine the biological significance of our new findings, we identified a number of novel fusions and confirmed some previously reported fusions.

Fűri I, Kalmár A, Wichmann B, et al.
Cell Free DNA of Tumor Origin Induces a 'Metastatic' Expression Profile in HT-29 Cancer Cell Line.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0131699 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epithelial cells in malignant conditions release DNA into the extracellular compartment. Cell free DNA of tumor origin may act as a ligand of DNA sensing mechanisms and mediate changes in epithelial-stromal interactions.
AIMS: To evaluate and compare the potential autocrine and paracrine regulatory effect of normal and malignant epithelial cell-related DNA on TLR9 and STING mediated pathways in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and normal fibroblasts.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA isolated from normal and tumorous colonic epithelia of fresh frozen surgically removed tissue samples was used for 24 and 6 hour treatment of HT-29 colon carcinoma and HDF-α fibroblast cells. Whole genome mRNA expression analysis and qRT-PCR was performed for the elements/members of TLR9 signaling pathway. Immunocytochemistry was performed for epithelial markers (i.e. CK20 and E-cadherin), DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a) and NFκB (for treated HDFα cells).
RESULTS: Administration of tumor derived DNA on HT29 cells resulted in significant (p<0.05) mRNA level alteration in 118 genes (logFc≥1, p≤0.05), including overexpression of metallothionein genes (i.e. MT1H, MT1X, MT1P2, MT2A), metastasis-associated genes (i.e. TACSTD2, MACC1, MALAT1), tumor biomarker (CEACAM5), metabolic genes (i.e. INSIG1, LIPG), messenger molecule genes (i.e. DAPP, CREB3L2). Increased protein levels of CK20, E-cadherin, and DNMT3a was observed after tumor DNA treatment in HT-29 cells. Healthy DNA treatment affected mRNA expression of 613 genes (logFc≥1, p≤0.05), including increased expression of key adaptor molecules of TLR9 pathway (e.g. MYD88, IRAK2, NFκB, IL8, IL-1β), STING pathway (ADAR, IRF7, CXCL10, CASP1) and the FGF2 gene.
CONCLUSIONS: DNA from tumorous colon epithelium, but not from the normal epithelial cells acts as a pro-metastatic factor to HT-29 cells through the overexpression of pro-metastatic genes through TLR9/MYD88 independent pathway. In contrast, DNA derived from healthy colonic epithelium induced TLR9 and STING signaling pathway in normal fibroblasts.

Heubner M, Wimberger P, Kasimir-Bauer S, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the EpCAM-coding gene TACSTD1 in patients with ovarian cancer and their potential translational aspects.
Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015; 292(6):1367-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: EpCAM is overexpressed in many neoplasms including ovarian cancer. We screened the EpCAM-coding gene TACSTD1 for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which could alter ovarian cancer risk, impact upon disease progression, or alter binding of the therapeutic EpCAM-binding antibody, catumaxomab.
METHODS: DNA fragments of 10 healthy volunteers were analyzed to identify SNPs. Subsequently, DNA of ovarian cancer patients (n = 117) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 115) was genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism and pyrosequencing. TACSTD1 genotypes 4461T>C were cloned into a gene expression vector; Hek293 cells were subsequently used for stable transfection. FACS analysis of the transfected Hek293 cells was conducted with HO-3-the EpCAM binding site of catumaxomab-to determine antibody binding.
RESULTS: One SNP was detected in exon 3 (4461T>C; rs1126497), resulting in an amino acid exchange at position 115 (Met115Thr). Another polymorphism was found in the 3'UTR (17225A>G; rs1421). Genotyping of patients and controls for these SNPs did not reveal significant differences in genotype distribution. Regarding 17225A>G, the homozygous AA-genotype was associated with diminished progression-free survival (PFS; p = 0.032). Overall survival, FIGO-stage, grading, and age did not differ significantly between genotypes. FACS analysis of transfected Hek293 cells overexpressing EpCAM 115Met/Thr showed binding of HO-3 to both proteins.
CONCLUSIONS: The AA-genotype of 17225A>G seems to be associated with diminished PFS in ovarian cancer patients. The amino acid exchange resulting from 4461T>C does not appear to alter binding of HO-3, suggesting that treatment with catumaxomab can be offered to patients regardless of their TACSTD1-genotype.

Cardillo TM, Govindan SV, Sharkey RM, et al.
Sacituzumab Govitecan (IMMU-132), an Anti-Trop-2/SN-38 Antibody-Drug Conjugate: Characterization and Efficacy in Pancreatic, Gastric, and Other Cancers.
Bioconjug Chem. 2015; 26(5):919-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sacituzumab govitecan (IMMU-132) is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) made from a humanized anti-Trop-2 monoclonal antibody (hRS7) conjugated with the active metabolite of irinotecan, SN-38. In addition to its further characterization, as the clinical utility of IMMU-132 expands to an ever-widening range of Trop-2-expressing solid tumor types, its efficacy in new disease models needs to be explored in a nonclinical setting. Unlike most ADCs that use ultratoxic drugs and stable linkers, IMMU-132 uses a moderately toxic drug with a moderately stable carbonate bond between SN-38 and the linker. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry disclosed that Trop-2 is expressed in a wide range of tumor types, including gastric, pancreatic, triple-negative breast (TNBC), colonic, prostate, and lung. While cell-binding experiments reveal no significant differences between IMMU-132 and parental hRS7 antibody, surface plasmon resonance analysis using a Trop-2 CM5 chip shows a significant binding advantage for IMMU-132 over hRS7. The conjugate retained binding to the neonatal receptor, but it lost greater than 60% of the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity compared to that of hRS7. Exposure of tumor cells to either free SN-38 or IMMU-132 demonstrated the same signaling pathways, with pJNK1/2 and p21(WAF1/Cip1) upregulation followed by cleavage of caspases 9, 7, and 3, ultimately leading to poly-ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage and double-stranded DNA breaks. Pharmacokinetics of the intact ADC in mice reveals a mean residence time (MRT) of 15.4 h, while the carrier hRS7 antibody cleared at a similar rate as that of the unconjugated antibody (MRT ∼ 300 h). IMMU-132 treatment of mice bearing human gastric cancer xenografts (17.5 mg/kg; twice weekly × 4 weeks) resulted in significant antitumor effects compared to that of mice treated with a nonspecific control. Clinically relevant dosing schemes of IMMU-132 administered either every other week, weekly, or twice weekly in mice bearing human pancreatic or gastric cancer xenografts demonstrate similar, significant antitumor effects in both models. Current Phase I/II clinical trials ( ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT01631552) confirm anticancer activity of IMMU-132 in cancers expressing Trop-2, including gastric and pancreatic cancer patients.

Wang XD, Wang Q, Chen XL, et al.
Trop2 inhibition suppresses the proliferation and invasion of laryngeal carcinoma cells via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(1):865-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The cell surface glycoprotein Trop2 is overexpressed in various types of epithelial cancer. Laryngeal carcinoma is one of the most common types of head and neck cancer and in a previous study, the expression of Trop2 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) was identified as an independent prognostic factor. However, the biological significance of Trop2 in LSCC development remains unclear. In the current study, Trop2 protein expression in fresh LSCC tissue and paracancerous tissue was investigated using western blotting. Trop2 in the Hep2 laryngeal cell line was subsequently suppressed by transfection with small interfering RNA (siRNA). The effects of knockdown of Trop2 on cell viability, migration, invasiveness and ERK/MAPK pathway activity were investigated in the current study. The expression of Trop2 in fresh LSCC tissue was demonstrated to be significantly greater than that in paracancerous tissue. Trop2 expression was also identified to be required for proliferation, migration and invasiveness of Hep2 laryngeal carcinoma cells, as all were blocked by siRNA-mediated Trop2 inhibition. Notably, the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway and cell cycle factor, cyclin D1, were identified to be suppressed following the knockdown of Trop2 in Hep2 cells. These observations suggest that Trop2 serves an oncogenic role in LSCC and has potential as a therapeutic target.

Bauderlique-Le Roy H, Vennin C, Brocqueville G, et al.
Enrichment of Human Stem-Like Prostate Cells with s-SHIP Promoter Activity Uncovers a Role in Stemness for the Long Noncoding RNA H19.
Stem Cells Dev. 2015; 24(10):1252-62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Understanding normal and cancer stem cells should provide insights into the origin of prostate cancer and their mechanisms of resistance to current treatment strategies. In this study, we isolated and characterized stem-like cells present in the immortalized human prostate cell line, RWPE-1. We used a reporter system with green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the promoter of s-SHIP (for stem-SH2-domain-containing 5'-inositol phosphatase) whose stem cell-specific expression has been previously shown. We observed that s-SHIP-GFP-expressing RWPE-1 cells showed stem cell characteristics such as increased expression of stem cell surface markers (CD44, CD166, TROP2) and pluripotency transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2), and enhanced sphere-forming capacity and resistance to arsenite-induced cell death. Concomitant increased expression of the long noncoding RNA H19 was observed, which prompted us to investigate a putative role in stemness for this oncofetal gene. Targeted suppression of H19 with siRNA decreased Oct4 and Sox2 gene expression and colony-forming potential in RWPE-1 cells. Conversely, overexpression of H19 significantly increased gene expression of these two transcription factors and the sphere-forming capacity of RWPE-1 cells. Analysis of H19 expression in various prostate and mammary human cell lines revealed similarities with Sox2 expression, suggesting that a functional relationship may exist between H19 and Sox2. Collectively, we provide the first evidence that s-SHIP-GFP promoter reporter offers a unique marker for the enrichment of human stem-like cell populations and highlight a role in stemness for the long noncoding RNA H19.

Li B, Peng YB, Chen Q, et al.
Differential effects of peripheral and transitional prostatic stromal cells on tumorigenesis.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2015; 20:716-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
The human prostate contains two types of stromal cells, peripheral stromal cells (PSCs) and transitional stromal cells (TSCs). Here, we demonstrate the effects of PSCs and TSCs on tumorigenesis in prostate cancer (PCa) and identify the mechanisms underlying these effects. Using microarray analysis, we identified 3,643 differentially expressed genes in cocultures of TSCs, PSCs, and DU145 cells, a human prostate cancer cell line. Expression of cell division cycle 25 homolog A (CDC25A) was lower and that of tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2) was higher in TSCs than in PSCs. Additionally, increased CDC25A expression or decreased TACSTD2 expression modulated the survival, growth, and migration of DU145 cells. These data suggest that PSCs promote and TSCs inhibit tumorigenesis by regulating the expression of CDC25A and TACSTD2.

Gui T, Dong X, Li R, et al.
Identification of hepatocellular carcinoma-related genes with a machine learning and network analysis.
J Comput Biol. 2015; 22(1):63-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main type of liver cancer. We applied a machine learning approach with maximum-relevance-minimum-redundancy (mRMR) algorithm followed by incremental feature selection (IFS) to a set of microarray data generated from 43 tumor and 52 nontumor samples. With the machine learning approach, we identified 117 gene probes that could optimally separate tumor and nontumor samples. These genes not only include known HCC-relevant genes such as MT1X, BMI1, and CAP2, but also include cancer genes that were not found previously to be closely related to HCC, such as TACSTD2. Then, we constructed a molecular interaction network based on the protein-protein interaction (PPI) data from the STRING database and identified 187 genes on the shortest paths among the genes identified with the machine learning approach. Network analysis reveals new potential roles of ubiquitin C in the pathogenesis of HCC. Based on gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis, we showed that the identified subnetwork is significantly enriched in biological processes related to cell death. These results bring new insights of understanding the process of HCC.

Addati T, Achille G, Centrone M, et al.
TROP-2 expression in papillary thyroid cancer: a preliminary cyto-histological study.
Cytopathology. 2015; 26(5):303-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: TROP-2 (human trophoblast cell surface marker) is a gene-related protein expressed in trophoblastic cells, which is also present in a variety of epithelial cancers and whose overexpression has been found to correlate with a poor prognosis. We analysed the possibility of using the expression of TROP-2 to detect papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) on cytological and histological samples, and compared it with Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1 (HBME-1).
METHODS: From 127 patients, 127 fine needle aspirates (FNAs), in which HBME-1 was detected by immunocytochemistry (ICC), were re-classified according to the Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology (TBSRTC): 20% were benign, 56% were atypical cells/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS), 4% were follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, 5% were suspicious for malignancy and 16% were malignant. Sufficient material to test for TROP-2 was available in 64 FNAs, 22 of which had a histological control. Including six additional cases in which the FNAs were not available, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was carried out with both markers on 94 cases.
RESULTS: Among 88 FNAs with histological control, the sensitivity of HBME-1 to predict PTC was 87.5% (28/32) and the specificity was 86% (48/56), whereas, in 22 FNAs, TROP-2 sensitivity was 100% (13/13) and specificity was 89% (8/9). In 94 histological specimens in which IHC was carried out with both markers, the sensitivity and specificity were 82% and 86%, respectively, for HBME-1 and 87% and 89%, respectively, for TROP-2. The difference between the markers was not significant. Concordance between IHC and ICC was 76% for HBME-1 and 91% for TROP-2.
CONCLUSION: TROP-2 can be used as well as HBME-1 in thyroid cytology to detect PTC. Positivity for either or both markers could help to stratify the risk of malignancy in indeterminate FNAs. Larger studies are need to analyse its role in the behaviour of PTC and its variants.

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