JAK2

Gene Summary

Gene:JAK2; Janus kinase 2
Aliases: JTK10, THCYT3
Location:9p24.1
Summary:This gene product is a protein tyrosine kinase involved in a specific subset of cytokine receptor signaling pathways. It has been found to be constituitively associated with the prolactin receptor and is required for responses to gamma interferon. Mice that do not express an active protein for this gene exhibit embryonic lethality associated with the absence of definitive erythropoiesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tyrosine-protein kinase JAK2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Vitamin A
  • Up-Regulation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Thrombopoiesis
  • Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
  • Receptors, Thrombopoietin
  • Leukaemia
  • JAK2
  • Transfection
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • von Willebrand Factor
  • Polycythemia Vera
  • Translocation
  • ras Proteins
  • VHL
  • Wound Healing
  • Uniparental Disomy
  • Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Vertebral Artery
  • Venous Thrombosis
  • Reference Standards
  • STAT5 Transcription Factor
  • Remission Induction
  • Thrombosis
  • Valine
  • Myeloproliferative Disorders
  • Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic
  • Thrombocythemia, Essential
  • RT-PCR
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Trisomy
  • Stomach Cancer
  • BCR
  • ETV6
  • Sex Factors
  • Chromosome 9
  • Skin Cancer
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Unnecessary Procedures
  • X-Ray Diffraction
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Latest Publications: JAK2 (cancer-related)

Shen L, Zhang G, Lou Z, et al.
Cryptotanshinone enhances the effect of Arsenic trioxide in treating liver cancer cell by inducing apoptosis through downregulating phosphorylated- STAT3 in vitro and in vivo.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):106 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is approved for treating terminal-stage liver cancer in China. Cryptotanshinone (CT), a STAT3 inhibitor, has exhibited certain anti-tumor potency; however, the use of CT enhanced ATO for treating liver cancer has not been reported. Here we try to elucidate how CT could enhance the efficacy of ATO for treating liver cancer and its correlation to STAT3 in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: Cell viability of ATO combined with CT was assessed by (1)MTT assay. Cell apoptosis induced by ATO combined with CT was detected by Annexin V/PI staining and apoptosis-related proteins were detected by western blotting. STAT3-related proteins were analysis by western blotting analysis and Immunofluorescence assays. Efficacy evaluation of ATO combined with CT on xenograft was carried in nude mice and related proteins were analysis by Immunohistochemistry assays.
RESULTS: First we evaluated cell vitality, and our data indicated that the ATO combined with CT showed obvious growth inhibition of Bel-7404 cells compared to ATO or CT alone. Next we found that ATO combined with CT induced cell apoptosis in Bel-7404 cells and upregulated the activation of apoptosis-related proteins cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-9, and cleaved-poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in a time-dependent manner. Next, we found that ATO combined with CT not only inhibited the constitutive levels of phosphorylated-JAK2 and phosphorylated-STAT3(Tyr705) but did so in a time-dependent manner. We also found that ATO combined with CT reversed the upregulated expression of phosphorylated-STAT3(Tyr705) stimulated by interleukin-6 and downregulated STAT3 direct target genes and the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, XIAP, and survivin but obviously upregulated the promoting apoptosis proteins Bak,.In vivo studies showed that ATO combined with CT decreased tumor growth. Tumors from ATO combined with CT-treated mice showed decreased levels of phosphorylated-STAT3(Tyr705) and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 but an increased level of pro-apoptotic protein Bax.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides strong evidence that CT could enhance the efficacy of ATO in treating liver cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Downregulation of phosphorylated-STAT3 expression may play an important role in inducing apoptosis of Bel-7404 cells.

Forbes AS, Yeo FE
Secondary Hypertension, Erythrocytosis, and Unilateral Renal Cystic Disease in a Submariner: A Case Report.
J Spec Oper Med. Winter 2016; 16(4):1-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Erythrocytosis, or increased red blood cell mass, may be primary as in the case of polycythemia vera (PV), or secondary due to a variety of causes related to erythropoietin (EPO) secretion and hypoxia. Chronic pulmonary disease and certain EPO-secreting tumors should be addressed and excluded early during the course of evaluation for a patient presenting with increased red blood cell mass. Inclusion of the JAK2 V617F gene mutation in the recent World Health Organization criteria for the diagnosis of PV allows for facilitated diagnosis and guides therapy. EPO levels can be helpful in diagnosis and guiding therapy, but in the case of cystic renal diseases, EPO levels are often not elevated, creating diagnostic uncertainty. This report describes a case of symptoms directly attributable to erythrocytosis in the setting of negative JAK2 mutation and normal EPO levels. The subsequent discovery of a large cystic renal kidney and PV were the leading diagnostic considerations.

Jin Z, Zhou S, Zhang Y, et al.
Lycorine induces cell death in MM by suppressing Janus Kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription via inducing the expression of SOCS1.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1645-1653 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the use of novel anti-myeloma agents,nearly all patients will eventually relapse or become refractory to drug treatment. New and more effective drugs for multiple myeloma (MM) are urgently needed. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway is important in the proliferation of myeloma cells.Lycorine,a natural alkaloid extracted from amaryllidaceae, has shown anti-tumor effects against a variety of solid tumors. However, its effects on MM remain unclear.In this study,we found that lycorine inhibited cellular viability and induced cell death in MM cell lines and primary myeloma cells which were derived from our four MM patients. The study showed that myeloma cells' cycle was being arrested under the G0/G1 phase followed by the lycorine treatment. Further mechanism analysis demonstrated that lycorine inhibited JAK2/STAT signaling through upregulation of SOCS1 in MM cells and patient MM cells.Importantly, we found that knockdown of HDAC8 resulted in increased expression of SOCS1. Collectively, our findings suggested lycorine acted as a potent novel histone deacetylase inhibitor and inhibited JAK2/STAT signaling through upregulation of SOCS1 in MM cells.

Haslam K, Langabeer SE
Monitoring Minimal Residual Disease in the Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Current Applications and Emerging Approaches.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:7241591 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The presence of acquired mutations within the JAK2, CALR, and MPL genes in the majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) affords the opportunity to utilise these mutations as markers of minimal residual disease (MRD). Reduction of the mutated allele burden has been reported in response to a number of therapeutic modalities including interferon, JAK inhibitors, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation; novel therapies in development will also require assessment of efficacy. Real-time quantitative PCR has been widely adopted for recurrent point mutations with assays demonstrating the specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility required for clinical utility. More recently, approaches such as digital PCR have demonstrated comparable, if not improved, assay characteristics and are likely to play an increasing role in MRD monitoring. While next-generation sequencing is increasingly valuable as a tool for diagnosis of MPN, its role in the assessment of MRD requires further evaluation.

Xu Y, Lv SX
The effect of JAK2 knockout on inhibition of liver tumor growth by inducing apoptosis, autophagy and anti-proliferation via STATs and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1202-1212 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver cancer is a leading cause of cancer death, making it as the second most common cause for death from cancer globally. Though many studies before have explored a lot for liver cancer prevention and treatment, there are still a lot far from to know based on the molecular mechanisms. Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) has been reported to play an essential role in the progression of apoptosis, autophagy and proliferation for cells. Therefore, we were aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which JAK2 performed its role in ameliorating liver cancer. JAK2 knockout liver cancer cell lines were involved for our experiments in vitro and in vivo. Western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), ELISA, Immunohistochemistry, and flow-cytometric analysis were used to determine the key signaling pathway regulated by JAK2 for liver cancer progression. Data here indicated that JAK2, indeed, expressed highly in cancer cell lines compared to the normal liver cells. And apoptosis and autophagy were found in JAK2 knockout liver cancer cells through activating Caspase-3, Cyclin-D1 and mTOR regulated by STAT3/5 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. And also, the liver cancer cells proliferation was inhibited. In addition, tumor size and weight were reduced by knockout of JAK2 in vivo experiments. These findings demonstrated that JAK2 and its down-streaming signaling pathways play a direct role in the progression of liver cancer possibly. To our knowledge, it was the first time to evaluate the role of JAK2 knockout in improving liver cancer from apoptosis, autophagy and proliferation, which could be a potential target for future therapeutic approach clinically.

Pak PJ, Kang BH, Park SH, et al.
Antitumor effects of herbal mixture extract in the pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line PANC1.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2875-2883 [PubMed] Related Publications
A recent study showned that complementary medicine is gradually gaining wide acceptance. In the present study, the herbal mixture extract (H3) composed of 3 oriental herbal plants was investigated for anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. H3 inhibited PANC1 cell growth by promoting G0/G1 arrest (11% increase) and apoptotic cell death (9% increase). H3 also suppressed stem cell-like side population cells (4% decrease) and migration activity (24% decrease). In contrast, gemcitabine decreased side population cells and migration activity by 3 and 11%, respectively. These effects of H3 and gemcitabine were further studied by examining the expression of apoptosis-associated genes (CXCR4, JAK2 and XIAP) and stem cell-associated genes (ABCG2, POU5F1 and SOX2). We also found that H3 suppressed tumor growth by 46% in a PANC1‑xenograft model, while gemcitabine caused a 36% decrease. The antitumor effects of H3 were confirmed by western blot analysis for COX-2 and cytochrome c expression. Furthermore, necrotic cell death and erythrocyte-containing cavities were detected in tumor tissue by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Notably, the combinatorial therapy (H3 and gemcitabine) increased tumor growth compared to that in the control. In conclusion, the present study shows that H3 has promise as a therapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer and its cancer stem cells.

Matsumoto N, Mori S, Hasegawa H, et al.
Simultaneous screening for JAK2 and calreticulin gene mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms with high resolution melting.
Clin Chim Acta. 2016; 462:166-173 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Recently, novel calreticulin (CALR) mutations were discovered in Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) non-mutated myelofibrosis (PMF) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) cases, with a frequency of 60-80%. We examined clinical correlations and CALR mutation frequency in our myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) cases, and introduce an effective test method for use in clinical practice.
METHODS: We examined 177 samples previously investigated for the JAK2 mutation for differential diagnosis of MPN. JAK2 and CALR mutations were analyzed using melting curve analysis and microchip electrophoresis, respectively. Next, we constructed a test for simultaneous screening of the JAK2 and CALR mutations utilizing high resolution melting (HRM).
RESULTS: Among 99 MPN cases, 60 possessed the JAK2 mutation alone. Of the 39 MPN cases without the JAK2 mutation, 14 were positive for the CALR mutation, all of which were ET. Using our novel screening test for the JAK2 and CALR mutations by HRM, the concordance rate of conventional analysis with HRM was 96% for the JAK2 mutation and 95% for the CALR mutation.
CONCLUSION: Our novel simultaneous screening test for the JAK2 and CALR gene mutations with HRM is useful for diagnosis of MPN.

Li ZC, Fu HJ, Wang ZM, et al.
Correlative study between the JAK2V617F mutation and thrombosis in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(3) [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we investigated the correlation between the JAK2V617F mutation and thrombosis in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. The incidence of thrombus was monitored and blood and coagulation were routinely assayed in patients with MPN. The JAK2V617F mutation was found in 8/68 individuals in the control group (11.8%); it was expressed in 44/68 patients with MPN (64.7%), suggesting that the rate of this mutation was significantly higher in patients with MPN than that in the control group. Twenty-six MPN patients (38.2%) showed symptoms of thrombosis; MPN patients with thrombosis showed a significantly higher rate of the JAK2V617F mutation, were of a greater age, and had higher blood pressure than MPN patients without thrombosis. In addition, the white blood cells (WBC) (21.98 ± 1.95) and platelets (364.68 ± 97.72) were significantly higher in patients, expressing the mutated gene, with polycythemia vera than in the patients without the mutation. The WBC (32.89 ± 4.25) and hemoglobin (161.92 ± 16.19) were significantly increased in the essential thrombocythemia patients with gene mutation compared with the patients without mutation. MPN patients showed higher blood clotting ability than the control subjects; moreover, MPN patients with the JAK2V617F mutation showed higher blood clotting ability than those without the mutation. The findings of this study indicate that the JAK2V617F mutation is correlated with the incidence of thrombosis, and analysis of this mutation has important clinical significance in the diagnosis and treatment of MPN.

Gardner JA, Peterson JD, Turner SA, et al.
Detection of CALR Mutation in Clonal and Nonclonal Hematologic Diseases Using Fragment Analysis and Next-Generation Sequencing.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2016; 146(4):448-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To describe three methods used to screen for frameshift mutations in exon 9 of the CALR gene.
METHODS: Genomic DNA from 47 patients was extracted from peripheral blood and bone marrow using the EZ1 DNA Blood Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) and quantified by the Quant-iT PicoGreen dsDNA Assay Kit (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA). After clinical history, cytogenetics, and molecular tests, patients were diagnosed with either clonal or nonclonal hematologic diseases. CALR screening was primarily performed using fragment analysis polymerase chain reaction, then next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing.
RESULTS: Among the 18 patients diagnosed with clonal diseases, one had acute myeloid leukemia (positive for trisomy 8), and 17 had myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), essential thrombocythemia (ET), primary myelofibrosis (PMF), and polycythemia vera (PV). Patients with CML were positive for the BCR-ABL1 fusion. Ten patients were positive for JAK2 (PMF, n = 1; ET, n = 2; PV, n = 7), and three were CALR positive (ET, n = 1; PMF, n = 2). Patients diagnosed with a nonclonal disease were negative for JAK2, BCR-ABL, and CALR mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: Screening for CALR mutations is essential in BCR-ABL-negative MPNs since it not only provides valuable diagnostic and prognostic information but also identifies potential treatment targets. Since this study describes the importance of screening for known and novel biomarkers, we described in detail three methods that could be easily integrated into a clinical laboratory.

Farhadi E, Zaker F, Safa M, Rezvani MR
miR-101 sensitizes K562 cell line to imatinib through Jak2 downregulation and inhibition of NF-κB target genes.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):14117-14128 [PubMed] Related Publications
Imatinib mesylate (IM) is a frontline treatment in the early chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, intrinsic and acquired resistance against this drug has been defined and this issue has become a problem and a challenge in CML treatment. According to new findings, the inhibition of Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) in Bcr-Abl+ cells can promote apoptosis in IM-resistant cells. microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the gene expression by targeting the messenger RNA (mRNA) for degradation. Recently, a growing body of evidence has implicated that dysregulation of miRNAs is associated with cancer initiation and development. In this report, we proposed that miRNA-101 targets Jak2 mRNA and regulates its expression and induces K562 leukemia cell apoptosis. Here, we transduced the K562 cell line with a miR-101-overexpressing vector and evaluated the Jak2 mRNA level. Our results showed that miR-101 overexpression in Bcr-Abl+ cells reduced the Jak2 mRNA level. Moreover, imatinib treatment and miR-101 upregulation led to miR-23a overexpression, which has putative binding site(s) on 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of STAT5, CCND1, and Bcl-2 genes. Our results also indicated that miR-101 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation indicated by the MTT assay and promoted apoptosis detected via flow cytometry. Importantly, mRNA expression of NF-kappa B-regulated anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, MCL-1, XIAP, and survivin) and proliferative (c-Myc and CCND1) genes was decreased. These findings suggest that miR-101 acts as a tumor suppressor by downregulating Jak2 expression and sensitizing K562 cells to imatinib. Therefore, restoration of miR-101 may be a therapeutic approach for CML treatment.

Yang A, Fan H, Zhao Y, et al.
Huaier aqueous extract inhibits proliferation and metastasis of tuberous sclerosis complex cell models through downregulation of JAK2/STAT3 and MAPK signaling pathways.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(3):1491-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder with formation of benign tumors in many different organs. It has attracted increasing attention from researchers to search for therapeutic drugs for TSC patients. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has become an important source for finding antitumor drugs. Trametes robiniophila Μurr. (Huaier) is a kind of officinal fungi in China and has been applied in TCM for approximately 1,600 years. A large number of clinical applications have revealed that Huaier has good antitumor effect. In this study, we have investigated the effects of Huaier aqueous extract on two TSC cell models, including inhibition of proliferation, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and anti-metastasis. We demonstrated that Huaier aqueous extract inhibited JAK2/STAT3 and MAPK signaling pathways in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, based on the low toxicity and the multi-targets of Huaier treatment, Huaier may be a promising therapeutic drug for TSC.

Zaretsky JM, Garcia-Diaz A, Shin DS, et al.
Mutations Associated with Acquired Resistance to PD-1 Blockade in Melanoma.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(9):819-29 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Approximately 75% of objective responses to anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) therapy in patients with melanoma are durable, lasting for years, but delayed relapses have been noted long after initial objective tumor regression despite continuous therapy. Mechanisms of immune escape in this context are unknown.
METHODS: We analyzed biopsy samples from paired baseline and relapsing lesions in four patients with metastatic melanoma who had had an initial objective tumor regression in response to anti-PD-1 therapy (pembrolizumab) followed by disease progression months to years later.
RESULTS: Whole-exome sequencing detected clonal selection and outgrowth of the acquired resistant tumors and, in two of the four patients, revealed resistance-associated loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding interferon-receptor-associated Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) or Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), concurrent with deletion of the wild-type allele. A truncating mutation in the gene encoding the antigen-presenting protein beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) was identified in a third patient. JAK1 and JAK2 truncating mutations resulted in a lack of response to interferon gamma, including insensitivity to its antiproliferative effects on cancer cells. The B2M truncating mutation led to loss of surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, acquired resistance to PD-1 blockade immunotherapy in patients with melanoma was associated with defects in the pathways involved in interferon-receptor signaling and in antigen presentation. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

Xu W, Xu B, Yao Y, et al.
RNA interference against TRIM29 inhibits migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(3):1411-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Tripartite motif-containing 29 (TRIM29) is a member of TRIM proteins family, which plays diverse physiological and pathological roles in humans. Recent studies found that TRIM29 expressed highly in CRC and promoted cell growth in vitro. However, its function in the metastasis of CRC has not been studied. In the present study, we confirmed the previous report that TRIM29 was upregulated in CRC tissues and high levels of TRIM29 expression were associated with poor overall survival of patients. Moreover, TRIM29 knockdown significantly reduced cancer cell proliferation via notably inducing cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. Silencing of TRIM29 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion ability of CRC cells. The protein levels of apoptosis‑, migration‑ and invasion‑related proteins were also changed after TRIM29 knockdown. Furthermore, phosphorylation levels of JAK2 and STAT3 were clearly reduced in TRIM29 knockdown cells, indicating a possible mechanism underlying its effects on colorectal carcinogenesis. Collectively, TRIM29 may exert oncogenic effects in CRC cells via regulating JAK2/STAT3 signaling.

Leszczynska A, Grzenkowicz-Wydra J, Chmielewska-Gorycka L, et al.
Detection of JAK2 Exon 12 Mutations in JAK2 V617F-Negative Polycythemia Vera Patients by Cloning Technique.
Acta Haematol. 2016; 136(2):123-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The identification of mutations of the JAK2 gene is a useful marker in the diagnosis of polycythemia vera (PV) patients. We studied the frequency of JAK2 mutations in a group of PV patients because data are still very limited regarding this subject in Polish patients.
METHODS: The JAK2 V617F mutation was examined using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR method. Direct sequencing and a cloning technique were performed to determine alternations in exon 12 of the JAK2 gene.
RESULTS: A group of 90 consecutive patients with a suspected diagnosis of polycythemia vera were investigated. In 91% of the cases, the JAK2 V617F mutation was identified. The remaining JAK2 V617F-negative patients were subjected to examination for JAK2 exon 12 by direct PCR product sequencing and the cloning technique. The following mutations were identified: H538-K539delinsL, E543-D544del and N542-E543del. These exon 12 mutants constituted 50% of PV JAK2 V617F-negative group and 4.4% (out of 90) of all PV patients (JAK2 V617F-positive and JAK2 V617F-negative).
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the prevalence of JAK2 mutations (V617F and in exon 12) in PV cases. Moreover, the data show that direct sequencing is not an adequate technique for exon 12 mutation identification; therefore, appropriate methodology should be considered for using this molecular marker in the process of diagnosis.

Haslam K, Conneally E, Flynn CM, et al.
CALR mutation profile in Irish patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2016; 9(3):112-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Insertion and/or deletion mutations of the CALR gene have recently been demonstrated to be the second most common driver mutations in the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) of essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Given the diagnostic and emerging prognostic significance of these mutations, in addition to the geographical heterogeneity reported, the incidence of CALR mutations was determined in an Irish cohort of patients with MPNs with a view to incorporate this analysis into a prospective screening program. A series of 202 patients with known or suspected ET and PMF were screened for the presence of CALR mutations. CALR mutations were detected in 58 patients. Type 1 and Type 1-like deletion mutations were the most common (n=40) followed by Type 2 and Type 2-like insertion mutations (n=17). The CALR mutation profile in Irish ET and PMF patients appears similar to that in other European populations. Establishment of this mutational profile allows the introduction of a rational, molecular diagnostic algorithm in cases of suspected ET and PMF that will improve clinical management.

Wu AY, Yang HC, Lin CM, et al.
The Transcriptome Study of Subtype M2 Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015; 72(3):653-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our objective is to explore the tumor-specific mutated genes by transcriptome sequencing of patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. 96 patients with subtype M2 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), admitted during January 2007 to January 2012, were selected. Bone marrow and peripheral blood samples from the patients after the first visit and the patients who were improved or alleviated, were subjected to high-throughput sequencing to compare the gene expression. The single nucleotide mutation related to subtype M2 AML was detected. Meanwhile, real-time fluorescent quantitation RT-PCR was used to detect the AML1/ETO fusion gene and its correlation with prognosis after treatment. Among 96 patients, AML1-ETO fusion gene was positive in 52 cases, the positive rate was 54.17 %. The complete relief (CR) rate of AML1-ETO fusion gene positive patients was 84.62 %, and the CR rate of AML1/ETO fusion gene negative patients was 77.27 %; the CR rate of AML1-ETO positive patients was higher than that of patients without the fusion gene, however there was no statistical difference. In the analysis of recurrent gene mutation in AML-M2 patients, IDH2, ASXL1, TET2, JAK1 and JAK2 gene expressions were not significantly different before treatment and after CR, however, IDHI, JAK3, ABL1 and BCR gene expressions were significantly different. In the study of transcriptome in AML-M2 patients, high-throughput sequencing could effectively detect the difference of the gene expression before treatment and after CR. Furthermore, positive expression of AML1-ETO fusion gene had effect on the prognosis of patients.

Wang P, Lv HY, Zhou DM, Zhang EN
miR-204 suppresses non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) invasion and migration by targeting JAK2.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant expression of microRNA is associated with the development and progression of cancers. MicroRNA-204 (miR-204) down-regulation has been previously demonstrated in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC); however, the underlying mechanism by which miR-204 suppresses tumorigenesis in NSCLC remains elusive. In this study, miR-204 expression was found to be down-regulated, and that of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) was found to be up-regulated in four NSCLC cell lines (A549, H1299, H1650, and H358) compared to the normal lung cell line. The overexpression of miR-204 suppressed the invasive and migratory capacities of H1299 cells. A luciferase assay confirmed that the binding of miR-124 to the -untranslated region of JAK2 inhibited the expression of JAK2 proteins in H1299 cells. JAK-2 overexpression effectively reversed miR-204-repressed NSCLC metastasis. Taken together, our findings revealed that miR-204 functions as a tumor suppressor in NSCLC by targeting JAK2, and that miR-204 may therefore serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of NSCLC.

Andreasen S, Heegaard S, Grauslund M, Homøe P
The interleukin-6/Janus kinase/STAT3 pathway in pleomorphic adenoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland.
Acta Ophthalmol. 2016; 94(8):798-804 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common tumour of the lacrimal gland, but very little is known about its biology. It has a tendency to recur and an ability to transform into the high-grade malignancy carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (ca-ex-PA), which is also largely unexplored. In this study, we examine the expression of the interleukin-6/Janus kinase/STAT3 (IL-6/JAK/STAT3) pathway components in PA and ca-ex-PA.
METHODS: Sixteen PAs and two ca-ex-PAs were examined with immunohistochemistry. Seven PAs were subjected to microdissection and subsequent qPCR.
RESULTS: The IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway was overexpressed in PA compared to normal lacrimal gland. Overexpression of phosphorylated JAK1 (p-JAK1) and cyclin D1 was significantly overexpressed in ductal cells compared with myoepithelial cells in PA. A shift from p-JAK1 to p-JAK2 and p-Tyk2 overexpression was seen between PA and ca-ex-PA, combined with a high p-STAT3 expression in the latter.
CONCLUSION: The IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway is overexpressed in PA, and this overexpression was even more pronounced in ca-ex-PA, with a shift in the JAKs mediating STAT3 phosphorylation. Future studies are needed to clarify whether PA and ca-ex-PA could be treated with targeted therapy directed against components of the IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway.

Park CH, Lee KO, Jang JH, et al.
High frequency of JAK2 exon 12 mutations in Korean patients with polycythaemia vera: novel mutations and clinical significance.
J Clin Pathol. 2016; 69(8):737-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gain-of-function mutations in JAK2 are the molecular hallmarks of polycythaemia vera (PV), one of the myeloproliferative neoplasms. Most (∼95%) patients harbour V617F mutation in exon 15, while the rest have small insertion/deletion mutations in exon 12. We investigated JAK2 mutations in 42 Korean patients with PV. V617F was detected by sequencing and allele-specific PCR. When V617F was negative, sequencing and fragment length analyses were performed to detect exon 12 mutations. As a result, all patients had JAK2 mutations: 37 (88%) harboured V617F, and 5 (12%) had exon 12 mutations. Two patients had novel exon 12 mutations (H538_R541delinsLII and F537_K539delinsVL). Genotype-phenotype correlations demonstrated lower white blood cell and platelet counts in exon 12 mutations than V617F. The frequency of JAK2 exon 12 mutations was higher than expected in Korean patients with PV. Molecular genetic testing for JAK2 exon 12 mutations is mandatory for diagnosis and genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with erythrocytosis and suspected PV.

Lim SL, Mustapha NM, Goh YM, et al.
Metastasized lung cancer suppression by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaf compared to Erlotinib via anti-inflammatory, endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic gene activation.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2016; 416(1-2):85-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasized lung and liver cancers cause over 2 million deaths annually, and are amongst the top killer cancers worldwide. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaves are traditionally consumed as vegetables in the tropics. The macro and micro effects of M. citrifolia (Noni) leaves on metastasized lung cancer development in vitro and in vivo were compared with the FDA-approved anti-cancer drug Erlotinib. The extract inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 cells (IC50 = 23.47 μg/mL) and mouse Lewis (LL2) lung carcinoma cells (IC50 = 5.50 μg/mL) in vitro, arrested cancer cell cycle at G0/G1 phases and significantly increased caspase-3/-8 without changing caspase-9 levels. The extract showed no toxicity on normal MRC5 lung cells. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549-induced BALB/c mice were fed with 150 and 300 mg/kg M. citrifolia leaf extract and compared with Erlotinib (50 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days. It significantly increased the pro-apoptotic TRP53 genes, downregulated the pro-tumourigenesis genes (BIRC5, JAK2/STAT3/STAT5A) in the mice tumours, significantly increased the anti-inflammatory IL4, IL10 and NR3C1 expression in the metastasized lung and hepatic cancer tissues and enhanced the NFE2L2-dependent antioxidant responses against oxidative injuries. The extract elevated serum neutrophils and reduced the red blood cells, haemoglobin, corpuscular volume and cell haemoglobin concentration in the lung cancer-induced mammal. It suppressed inflammation and oedema, and upregulated the endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic genes to suppress the cancer. The 300 mg/kg extract was more effective than the 50 mg/kg Erlotinib for most of the parameters measured.

Hamadou WS, Bourdon V, Gaildrat P, et al.
Mutational analysis of JAK2, CBL, RUNX1, and NPM1 genes in familial aggregation of hematological malignancies.
Ann Hematol. 2016; 95(7):1043-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Familial aggregation of hematological malignancies has been reported highlighting inherited genetic predisposition. In this study, we targeted four candidate genes: JAK2 and RUNX1 genes assuring a prominent function in hematological process and CBL and NPM1 as proto-oncogenes. Their disruption was described in several sporadic hematological malignancies. The aim of this study is to determine whether JAK2, CBL, RUNX1, and NPM1 germline genes mutations are involved in familial hematological malignancies. Using direct sequencing, we analyzed JAK2 (exons 12 and 14); CBL (exons 7, 8 and 9); NPM1 (exon 12) and the entire RUNX1 in 88 independent families belonging to Tunisian and French populations. Twenty-one sporadic acute leukemias were included in this study. We reported a heterozygous intronic c.1641 + 6 T > C JAK2 variant (rs182123615) found in two independent familial cases diagnosed with gastric lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. The in silico analysis suggested a potential impact on splicing, but the functional splicing minigene reporter assay on rs182123615 variant showed no aberrant transcripts. In one sporadic acute myeloblastic leukemia, we reported an insertion 846 in. TGTT in exon 12 of NPM1 gene that may impact the normal reading frame. The rs182123615 JAK2 variant was described in several contexts including myeloproliferative neoplasms and congenital erythrocytosis and was supposed to be pathogenic. Through this current study, we established the assessment of pathogenicity of rs182123615 and we classified it rather as rare polymorphism.

Balko JM, Schwarz LJ, Luo N, et al.
Triple-negative breast cancers with amplification of JAK2 at the 9p24 locus demonstrate JAK2-specific dependence.
Sci Transl Med. 2016; 8(334):334ra53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/04/2017 Related Publications
Amplifications at 9p24 have been identified in breast cancer and other malignancies, but the genes within this locus causally associated with oncogenicity or tumor progression remain unclear. Targeted next-generation sequencing of postchemotherapy triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) identified a group of 9p24-amplified tumors, which contained focal amplification of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) gene. These patients had markedly inferior recurrence-free and overall survival compared to patients with TNBC without JAK2 amplification. Detection of JAK2/9p24 amplifications was more common in chemotherapy-treated TNBCs than in untreated TNBCs or basal-like cancers, or in other breast cancer subtypes. Similar rates of JAK2 amplification were confirmed in patient-derived TNBC xenografts. In patients for whom longitudinal specimens were available, JAK2 amplification was selected for during neoadjuvant chemotherapy and eventual metastatic spread, suggesting a role in tumorigenicity and chemoresistance, phenotypes often attributed to a cancer stem cell-like cell population. In TNBC cell lines with JAK2 copy gains or amplification, specific inhibition of JAK2 signaling reduced mammosphere formation and cooperated with chemotherapy in reducing tumor growth in vivo. In these cells, inhibition of JAK1-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling had little effect or, in some cases, counteracted JAK2-specific inhibition. Collectively, these results suggest that JAK2-specific inhibitors are more efficacious than dual JAK1/2 inhibitors against JAK2-amplified TNBCs. Furthermore, JAK2 amplification is a potential biomarker for JAK2 dependence, which, in turn, can be used to select patients for clinical trials with JAK2 inhibitors.

Baek SH, Ko JH, Lee H, et al.
Resveratrol inhibits STAT3 signaling pathway through the induction of SOCS-1: Role in apoptosis induction and radiosensitization in head and neck tumor cells.
Phytomedicine. 2016; 23(5):566-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is persistently activated in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and can cause uncontrolled cellular proliferation and division.
HYPOTHESIS: Thus, its targeted abrogation could be an effective strategy to reduce the risk of SCCHN. Resveratrol is known for its anti-cancer efficacy in a variety of cancer models.
STUDY DESIGN: The effect resveratrol on STAT3 activation, associated protein kinases, phosphatases, cellular proliferation and apoptosis was investigated.
METHODS: We evaluated the effect of resveratrol on STAT3 signaling cascade and its regulated functional responses in SCCHN cells.
RESULTS: We found that HN3 and FaDu cells expressed strongly phosphorylated STAT3 on both tyrosine 705 and serine 727 residues as compared to other SCCHN cells. The phosphorylation was completely suppressed by resveratrol in FaDu cells, but not substantially in HN3 cells. STAT3 suppression was mediated through the inhibition of activation of upstream JAK2, but not of JAK1 and Src kinases. Treatment with the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor pervanadate reversed the resveratrol-induced down-regulation of STAT3, thereby indicating a critical role for a PTP. We also found that resveratrol induced the expression of the SOCS-1 protein and mRNA. Further, deletion of SOCS-1 gene by siRNA suppressed the induction of SOCS-1, and reversed the inhibition of STAT3 activation. Resveratrol down-regulated various STAT3-regulated gene products, inhibited proliferation, invasion, as well as induced the cell accumulation in the sub-G1 phase and caused apoptosis. Beside, this phytoalexin also exhibited the enhancement of apoptosis when combined with ionizing radiation treatment.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that resveratrol blocks STAT3 signaling pathway through induction of SOCS-1, thus attenuating STAT3 phosphorylation and proliferation in SCCHN cells.

Song B, Zhan H, Bian Q, Gu J
Piperlongumine inhibits gastric cancer cells via suppression of the JAK1,2/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(5):4475-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Piperlongumine (PL), a major active component of long peppers, has been reported to possess anti‑cancer properties; however, its effect on gastric cancer (GC) has remained to be demonstrated. The present study assessed the effects of PL on the MKN45 and AGS GC cell lines and explored the underlying mechanisms. An MTT assay revealed that PL suppressed the proliferation of GC cells, while flow cytometric analysis showed that PL inhibited cell cycle progression. Furthermore, Transwell assays revealed the inhibitory effects of PL on the invasion and migration of GC cells. In addition, PL reduced the phosphorylation of Janus kinase (JAK)1, JAK2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 in a concentration‑dependent manner, as indicated by western blot analysis, and decreased the expression of STAT3‑dependent tumor‑associated genes in GC cells, as revealed by PCR analysis. In conclusion, the present study was the first, to the best of our knowledge, to reveal the efficacy of PL against GC. The consumption of long peppers is therefore recommended for the prevention and treatment of GC, and PL may be a promising candidate drug for treating GC.

Hiemenz MC, Kadauke S, Lieberman DB, et al.
Building a Robust Tumor Profiling Program: Synergy between Next-Generation Sequencing and Targeted Single-Gene Testing.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0152851 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/04/2017 Related Publications
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful platform for identifying cancer mutations. Routine clinical adoption of NGS requires optimized quality control metrics to ensure accurate results. To assess the robustness of our clinical NGS pipeline, we analyzed the results of 304 solid tumor and hematologic malignancy specimens tested simultaneously by NGS and one or more targeted single-gene tests (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, NPM1, FLT3, and JAK2). For samples that passed our validated tumor percentage and DNA quality and quantity thresholds, there was perfect concordance between NGS and targeted single-gene tests with the exception of two FLT3 internal tandem duplications that fell below the stringent pre-established reporting threshold but were readily detected by manual inspection. In addition, NGS identified clinically significant mutations not covered by single-gene tests. These findings confirm NGS as a reliable platform for routine clinical use when appropriate quality control metrics, such as tumor percentage and DNA quality cutoffs, are in place. Based on our findings, we suggest a simple workflow that should facilitate adoption of clinical oncologic NGS services at other institutions.

Ahmed RZ, Rashid M, Ahmed N, et al.
Coexisting JAK2V617F and CALR Exon 9 Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms - Do They Designate a New Subtype?
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(3):923-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The classic BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm is an operational sub-category of MPNs that includes polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The JAK2V617F mutation is found in ~ 95% of PV and 50-60% of ET or PMF. In most of the remaining JAK2V617F- negative PV cases, JAK2 exon 12 mutations are present. Amongst the JAK2V617F-negative ET or PMF 5-10% of patients carry mutations in the MPL gene. Prior to 2013, there was no specific molecular marker described in the remaining 30-40% ET and PMF. In December 2013, two research groups independently reported mutations in the gene CALR found specifically in ET (67-71%) and PMF (56-88%) but not in PV. Initially CALR mutations were reported mutually exclusive with JAK2 or MPL. However, co-occurrence of CALR mutations with JAK2V617F has been reported recently in a few MPN cases. Many studies have reported important diagnostic and prognostic significance of CALR mutations in ET and PMF patients and CALR mutation screening has been proposed to be incorporated into WHO diagnostic criteria for MPN. It is suggestive in diagnostic workup of MPN that CALR mutations should not be studied in MPN patients who carry JAK2 or MPL mutations. However JAK2V617F and CALR positive patients might have a different phenotype and clinical course, distinct from the JAK2-positive or CALR-positive subgroups and identification of the true frequency of these patients may be an important factor for defining the prognosis, risk factors and outcomes for MPN patients.

Sultan S, Irfan SM, Khan SR
Somatic JAK-2 V617F Mutational Analysis in Polycythemia Rubra Vera: a Tertiary Care Center Experience.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(3):1053-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polycythemia rubra vera (PV), being a primary polycythemia, is caused by neoplastic proliferation of erythroid, megakaryocytic and granulocytic lineages which result in panmyelosis. PV patients have a somatic acquired mutation in the Janus kinase (JAK2) pathway, rendering cell proliferation independent of the normal regulatory mechanisms that regulate erythropoiesis. The rational of this study was to determine the prevalence of the JAK-2 V617F mutation in Pakistani patients with PV.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross sectional study, 26 patients with PV were enrolled from January 2010 to December 2014. Patients were diagnosed based on WHO criteria for PV. All were screened for G-T point mutation (V617F) in the JAK2 gene on chromosome 9 by an allele specific PCR.
RESULTS: The mean age was 53.4±9.31 years (range 36-72) and the male to female ratio was 2:1. The frequency of JAK2 V617F positivity in our PV patients was found to be 92.3%. Overall 30.7% of patients were asymptomatic and remaining 69.3% presented with symptomatic disease. The mean hemoglobin was 18.1±1.9g/dl with the mean hematocrit of 55.6±8.3%. The mean total leukocyte count was 12.8±7.1x109/l and the platelet count was 511±341.9x109/l. A positive correlation of JAK2 V617F mutation was established with high TLC count (P=0.01). No correlation of JAK2 V617F could be established with age or gender (P>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The JAK2 V617F mutation frequency in our PV patients was similar to those reported internationally. Screening for the mutation in all suspected PV cases could be beneficial in differentiating patients with reactive and clonal erythrocytosis.

Moorman AV
New and emerging prognostic and predictive genetic biomarkers in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica. 2016; 101(4):407-16 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/04/2017 Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous disease at the genetic level. Chromosomal abnormalities are used as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers to provide subtype, outcome and drug response information. t(12;21)/ETV6-RUNX1 and high hyper-diploidy are good-risk prognostic biomarkers whereas KMT2A(MLL) translocations, t(17;19)/TCF3-HLF, haploidy or low hypodiploidy are high-risk biomarkers. t(9;22)/BCR-ABL1 patients require targeted treatment (imatinib/dasatinib), whereas iAMP21 patients achieve better outcomes when treated intensively. High-risk genetic biomarkers are four times more prevalent in adults compared to children. The application of genomic technologies to cases without an established abnormality (B-other) reveals copy number alterations which can be used either individually or in combination as prognostic biomarkers. Transcriptome sequencing studies have identified a network of fusion genes involving kinase genes -ABL1,ABL2,PDGFRB,CSF1R,CRLF2,JAK2 and EPOR in-vitro and in-vivo studies along with emerging clinical observations indicate that patients with a kinase-activating aberration may respond to treatment with small molecular inhibitors like imatinib/dasatinib and ruxolitinib. Further work is required to determine the true frequency of these abnormalities across the age spectrum and the optimal way to incorporate such inhibitors into protocols. In conclusion, genetic biomarkers are playing an increasingly important role in the management of patients with ALL.

Murugesan G, Guenther-Johnson J, Mularo F, et al.
Validation of a molecular diagnostic assay for CALR exon 9 indels in myeloproliferative neoplasms: identification of coexisting JAK2 and CALR mutations and a novel 9 bp deletion in CALR.
Int J Lab Hematol. 2016; 38(3):284-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The 2008 WHO criteria for the diagnosis and classification of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) rely in part upon the assessment of mutations in JAK2 and MPL genes. Recently, mutations in calreticulin (CALR) have been identified in MPN lacking JAK2 and MPL mutations. We have validated a sensitive fragment analysis assay to detect CALR mutations.
METHODS: Genomic DNA from peripheral blood, bone marrow, and FFPE bone marrow clot preparations from 52 MPN specimens with known JAK2 and MPL mutation status and 29 non-MPN specimens was analyzed. CALR mutation testing was performed by fragment length analysis, and the results were confirmed by sequencing. Accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity, and robustness of the assay were determined.
RESULTS: Forty specimens (32 JAK2+, 2 JAK2-/MPL+, and 6 JAK2-/MPL-) were negative for CALR mutations. Twelve specimens had CALR mutations including 52 bp deletion (5), 5 bp insertion (6), and a novel 9 bp deletion (1). This 9 bp inframe deletion occurring at an allelic burden of 50% would delete three amino acids. One specimen with a 52 bp deletion also had JAK2 V617F mutation. All 29 non-MPN specimens were negative for CALR mutations. The assay accurately identified the mutation status of all 52 MPN specimens and had a coefficient of variation <3% for the fragment size and mutant peaks with a sensitivity of 5% for indels.
CONCLUSIONS: Fragment analysis is an accurate and sensitive method for the detection of CALR indels. The novel 9 bp deletion is likely a germline variant. Consequence of coexisting JAK2 V617F and CALR mutations requires careful interpretation.

Huang JS, Yao CJ, Chuang SE, et al.
Honokiol inhibits sphere formation and xenograft growth of oral cancer side population cells accompanied with JAK/STAT signaling pathway suppression and apoptosis induction.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:245 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Eliminating cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been suggested for prevention of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Honokiol, an active compound of Magnolia officinalis, had been proposed to be a potential candidate drug for cancer treatment. We explored its effects on the elimination of oral CSCs both in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: By using the Hoechst side population (SP) technique, CSCs-like SP cells were isolated from human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines, SAS and OECM-1. Effects of honokiol on the apoptosis and signaling pathways of SP-derived spheres were examined by Annexin V/Propidium iodide staining and Western blotting, respectively. The in vivo effectiveness was examined by xenograft mouse model and immunohistochemical tissue staining.
RESULTS: The SP cells possessed higher stemness marker expression (ABCG2, Ep-CAM, Oct-4 and Nestin), clonogenicity, sphere formation capacity as well as tumorigenicity when compared to the parental cells. Treatment of these SP-derived spheres with honokiol resulted in apoptosis induction via Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-3-dependent pathway. This apoptosis induction was associated with marked suppression of JAK2/STAT3, Akt and Erk signaling pathways in honokiol-treated SAS spheres. Consistent with its effect on JAK2/STAT3 suppression, honokiol also markedly inhibited IL-6-mediated migration of SAS cells. Accordingly, honokiol dose-dependently inhibited the growth of SAS SP xenograft and markedly reduced the immunohistochemical staining of PCNA and endothelial marker CD31 in the xenograft tumor.
CONCLUSIONS: Honokiol suppressed the sphere formation and xenograft growth of oral CSC-like cells in association with apoptosis induction and inhibition of survival/proliferation signaling pathways as well as angiogenesis. These results suggest its potential as an integrative medicine for combating oral cancer through targeting on CSCs.

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