Gene Summary

Gene:IL4; interleukin 4
Aliases: BSF1, IL-4, BCGF1, BSF-1, BCGF-1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by activated T cells. This cytokine is a ligand for interleukin 4 receptor. The interleukin 4 receptor also binds to IL13, which may contribute to many overlapping functions of this cytokine and IL13. STAT6, a signal transducer and activator of transcription, has been shown to play a central role in mediating the immune regulatory signal of this cytokine. This gene, IL3, IL5, IL13, and CSF2 form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 5q, with this gene particularly close to IL13. This gene, IL13 and IL5 are found to be regulated coordinately by several long-range regulatory elements in an over 120 kilobase range on the chromosome. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: IL4 (cancer-related)

Chen X, Cai S, Wang L, et al.
Analysis of the function of MAGE-A in esophageal carcinoma by bioinformatics.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(21):e15774 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Melanoma-associated antigen-A (MAGE-A) was recognized as high-expressed in many solid tumors including esophageal carcinoma (EC), nevertheless, was reported to be low/not-expressed in normal tissues. Thus, it was considered as an extraordinary appropriate target for treatment especially in immunotherapy. Therefore, it demanded more detail knowledge on the precise function of MAGE-A.
METHODS: In this study, we used the data from the Cancer Genome Atlas dataset (TCGA-ESCA) to analyze the expression and survival for MAGE A3/4/11 (the subtype of MAGE-A) using the online tool of UALCAN. Furthermore, the high-throughput sequencing data of the patients with esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) from TCGA dataset were performed to analyze the correlation test, gene ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment of MAGE A3/4/9/11 using LinkeDomics (online tool) and ClueGO (inner software of Cytoscape). Finally, relative gene expressions of MAGE A3/4/9/11 were verified by quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) in the patients with EC.
RESULTS: MAGE A3/4/11 was high-expressed in tissues of patients with ESCC, and there was no difference in survival time for patients between the high-expressed with the low/medium-expressed. The Go enrichment analysis showed that the 4 MAGE-A subtypes (MAGE-A3/4/9/11) were enriched in the regulation of the adaptive immune response, translational initiation, interleukin-4 production, response to type I interferon, and skin development, respectively. The KEGG results showed that they were enriched in T cell receptor signaling pathway (MAGE-A3), Th1 and Th2 differentiation, antigen processing and presentation (MAGE-A4), cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction (MAGE-A9), and chemokine signaling pathway (MAGE-A11).
CONCLUSION: MAGE A3/4/9/11 was high-expressed in EC, and were enrolled in the regulation of immune response. They may consider as candidate immune target for EC treatment and provided the messages for further research in the function of MAGE-A.

Sharma ND, Nickl CK, Kang H, et al.
Epigenetic silencing of SOCS5 potentiates JAK-STAT signaling and progression of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(6):1931-1946 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Activating mutations in cytokine receptors and transcriptional regulators govern aberrant signal transduction in T-cell lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). However, the roles played by suppressors of cytokine signaling remain incompletely understood. We examined the regulatory roles of suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 (SOCS5) in T-ALL cellular signaling networks and leukemia progression. We found that SOCS5 was differentially expressed in primary T-ALL and its expression levels were lowered in HOXA-deregulated leukemia harboring KMT2A gene rearrangements. Here, we report that SOCS5 expression is epigenetically regulated by DNA methyltransferase-3A-mediated DNA methylation and methyl CpG binding protein-2-mediated histone deacetylation. We show that SOCS5 negatively regulates T-ALL cell growth and cell cycle progression but has no effect on apoptotic cell death. Mechanistically, SOCS5 silencing induces activation of JAK-STAT signaling, and negatively regulates interleukin-7 and interleukin-4 receptors. Using a human T-ALL murine xenograft model, we show that genetic inactivation of SOCS5 accelerates leukemia engraftment and progression, and leukemia burden. We postulate that SOCS5 is epigenetically deregulated in T-ALL and serves as an important regulator of T-ALL cell proliferation and leukemic progression. Our results link aberrant downregulation of SOCS5 expression to the enhanced activation of the JAK-STAT and cytokine receptor-signaling cascade in T-ALL.

Cai J, Cui K, Niu F, et al.
Genetics of IL6 polymorphisms: Case-control study of the risk of endometrial cancer.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(4):e00600 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological malignancy. Cytokines gene may be important in endometrial cancer development. This study sought to investigate whether the IL4, IL6 two gene genetic variants were associated with susceptibility to endometrial cancer (EC) in Hainan Chinese Han women by a hospital-based study.
METHODS: The genetic polymorphisms for IL4 and IL6 were analyzed by Agena MassARRAY method. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression.
RESULTS: We observed a significant increase in risk of endometrial cancer of rs1524107 (IL6) (T/C, OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.09-2.37, p = 1.55 × 10
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that IL6 gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with increased EC susceptibility in Hainan Chinese Han women.

Gundamaraju R, Vemuri R, Chong WC, et al.
Bilirubin Attenuates ER Stress-Mediated Inflammation, Escalates Apoptosis and Reduces Proliferation in the LS174T Colonic Epithelial Cell Line.
Int J Med Sci. 2019; 16(1):135-144 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mildly elevated serum unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) concentrations are associated with protection against disease conditions underpinned by cellular and metabolic stress. To determine the potential therapeutic efficacy of UCB we tested it in an

Ma H, Yan D, Wang Y, et al.
Bazedoxifene exhibits growth suppressive activity by targeting interleukin-6/glycoprotein 130/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(3):950-961 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The interleukin (IL)-6/glycoprotein (GP)130/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 pathway is emerging as a target for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. IL-6 binds to IL-6R, forming a binary complex, which further combines with GP130 to transduce extracellular signaling by activating STAT3. Therefore, blocking the interaction between IL-6 and GP130 may inhibit the IL-6/GP130/STAT3 signaling pathway and its biological effects. It has been reported that bazedoxifene acetate (BAZ), a selective estrogen receptor modulator approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, could inhibit IL-6/GP130 protein-protein interactions. Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, wound healing and colony formation assays were used to detect the effect of BAZ on liver cancer cells. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptosis of cells was determined using the Annexin V-FITC detection kit. Mouse xenograft tumor models were utilized to evaluate the effect of BAZ in vivo. Our data showed that BAZ inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation (P-STAT3) and expression of STAT3 downstream genes, inducing apoptosis in liver cancer cells. BAZ inhibited P-STAT3 induced by IL-6, but not by leukemia inhibitory factor. BAZ inhibited P-STAT1 and P-STAT6 less significantly as elicited by interferon-α, interferon-γ and IL-4. In addition, pretreatment of BAZ impeded the translocation of STAT3 to nuclei induced by IL-6. BAZ inhibited cell viability, wound healing and colony formation in vitro. Furthermore, tumor growth in HEPG2 mouse xenografts were significantly inhibited by daily intragastric gavage of BAZ. Our results suggest that BAZ inhibited the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo, indicating another potential strategy for HCC prevention and therapy.

Tahamtan A, Barati M, Tabarraei A, et al.
Antitumor Immunity Induced by Genetic Immunization with Chitosan Nanoparticle Formulated Adjuvanted for HPV-16 E7 DNA Vaccine.
Iran J Immunol. 2018; 15(4):269-280 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In recent years attention has been paid to develop effective adjuvant systems for DNA vaccines. Co-formulation of a gene delivery vector with an immunostimulator can enhance therapeutic efficiency of DNA vaccine.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of chitosan as a nanodelivery system to enhance antitumor effects of human papilloma virus (HPV)-16 DNA vaccine with IL-12 gene for protection against TC-1 tumor using an animal model.
METHODS: The mice were challenged by subcutaneous injection of TC-1 cells and immunized intramuscularly with DNA vaccine thrice at seven-day intervals. One week after the last immunization, mice were sacrificed and antitumor effects were assessed through measuring lymphocyte proliferation, cytotoxicity, cytokines production, and tumor regression.
RESULTS: We found that co-formulation and co-administration of chitosan nanoparticles and IL-12 with HPV-16 E7 DNA vaccine induced higher antitumor effects compared with chitosan or IL-12 alone. E7-specific lymphocyte proliferation index and CTL activity were found to be significantly higher in combination group in comparison to single vaccination with either chitosan or IL-12. Co-formulation of chitosan and IL-12 resulted in higher IFN-γ and IL-4, and decreased IL-10 production. Furthermore, combined vaccination highly inhibited the tumor progression compared with chitosan or IL-12 alone.
CONCLUSION: Chitosan nanoparticle is a promising delivery system for DNA vaccine and IL-12 is an effective genetic adjuvant for the induction of strong antitumor immune response.

Zheng T, Ma G, Tang M, et al.
IL-8 Secreted from M2 Macrophages Promoted Prostate Tumorigenesis via STAT3/MALAT1 Pathway.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 20(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major health problem in males. Metastasis-associated with lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT1), which is overexpressed in PCa tissue, is associated with physiological and pathological conditions of PCa. M2 macrophages are major immune cells abundant in the tumor microenvironment. However, it remains unknown whether M2 macrophages are involved in the effects or not, and molecular mechanisms of MALAT1 on PCa progression have not yet been comprehensively explored. Here we reported that, M2 macrophages (PMA/IL-4 treated THP1) induced MALAT1 expression in PCa cell lines. Knockdown MALAT1 expression level in PCa cell lines inhibited cellular proliferation, invasion, and tumor formation. Further mechanistic dissection revealed that M2 macrophages secreted IL-8 was sufficient to drive up MALAT1 expression level via activating STAT3 signaling pathway. Additional chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assays displayed that STAT3 could bind to the MALAT1 promoter region and transcriptionally stimulate the MALAT1 expression. In summary, our present study identified the IL-8/STAT3/MALAT1 axis as key regulators during prostate tumorigenesis and therefore demonstrated a new mechanism for the MALAT1 transcriptional regulation.

Cárdenas DM, Sánchez AC, Rosas DA, et al.
Preliminary analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-10, IL-4, and IL-4Rα genes and profile of circulating cytokines in patients with gastric Cancer.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2018; 18(1):184 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric Cancer is highly prevalent and deadly worldwide. In Colombia, it is the most lethal form of cancer. Some single-nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-10, IL-4, and IL-4Rα genes have been associated with an anti-inflammatory environment and a Th2 profile in detriment of the antitumor Th1 response. This research sought to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms in promoter sequences, like - 1082 (G/A), - 592 (C/A), and - 819 (C/T), as well as - 590 (C/T) of the IL-10 and IL-4 genes, respectively; in addition to the IL-4Rα mutation variants, Ile50Val and Q576R, together with circulating levels of IL-4, TNF-α, IL-10, and IFN-γ in patients with gastric carcinoma in Cúcuta, Colombia.
METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 17 patients and 30 healthy individuals were genotyped for the six polymorphisms mentioned through PCR-RFLP of DNA obtained from peripheral blood cells and serum samples were analyzed by sandwich ELISA to quantify cytokines. Statistical difference between groups was determined along with the association between the presence of polymorphisms and the risk of gastric cancer, as well as the mortality in patients, using Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression analysis, respectively.
RESULTS: An association between the - 1082 (G/A) and the risk of gastric cancer was found (OR = 7.58, range 0.77-74.06, P = 0.08). Furthermore, patients had a significant increase in IL-4 serum levels (P < 0.01) compared to healthy individuals, both variables showed a higher estimated risk of mortality in patients, although without statistical association (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: We infer that two possible biomarkers (one immunological and one genetic) could be considered in association with gastric cancer in our population, which should be confirmed by subsequent studies involving a greater number of individuals.

Lin Y, Yuan Q, Qian F, et al.
Polymorphism rs4787951 in IL-4R contributes to the increased risk of renal cell carcinoma in a Chinese population.
Gene. 2019; 685:242-247 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Interleukins are important molecules involved in tumor formation. In this study, the association between renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on IL-4/IL-13/IL-4R was assessed.
METHODS: We recruited 620/623 cases/controls and conducted a case-control study. Five tagSNPs (i.e., IL-4R rs8832, IL-4R rs4787951, IL-13 rs1881457, IL-13 rs2066960 and IL-13 rs2069744) were selected. Odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained to appraise the association between SNPs and RCC susceptibility. Luciferase report assay and EMSA were conducted to investigate whether SNPs could affect binding affinity of transcription factors to target genes.
RESULTS: IL-4R rs4787951T>C was significantly associated with RCC susceptibility. Individuals carrying CC genotypes had a significant increment in RCC risk compared with TT genotype carriers (adjusted OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.07-2.28, P = 0.020). By stratified analyses, more pronounced association was found in the female, diabetic or without smoking, drinking and hypertension group. Besides, SNP rs4787951 could influence the binding affinity of IL-4R to transcription factors. Sequence surrounding allele T was prone to bind transcription factor NFATc.
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that IL-4R rs4787951T>C was associated with susceptibility of RCC and could be a predictive biomarker for RCC risk.

Du GH, Wang JK, Richards JR, Wang JJ
Genetic polymorphisms in tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 are associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2019; 66:154-161 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Most cases of cervical cancer are the result of infection with specific high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Investigating the genetic basis of the host immune response, particularly cytokine function, could help further characterize the progression of cervical HPV infection into neoplasia. Prior studies have demonstrated a correlation between genetic variants of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, TNF gene) and/or interleukin-10 (IL-10, IL10 gene) and cervical cancer susceptibility. However, some of the results have been contradictory. We sought to resolve these discrepancies by carrying out our study in a large cohort of Chinese women. In order to assess the association of TNF and IL10 genotypes with cervical cancer susceptibility, the polymorphisms in TNF (-238 G/A, -308 G/A) and IL10 (-592 C/A, -819 C/T, -1082 A/G) were genotyped and odds ratios for the genotype and allele frequencies between cervical cancer patients and healthy controls were calculated. Also, the functional relevance of these polymorphisms was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assays. The TNF-238 AA genotype frequency was lower in patients than in controls (p < 0.05). TNF-308 AA, IL10-592 CA/AA, and IL10-819 CC/CT genotype frequencies were higher in cervical cancer patients than in controls (p < 0.05). The frequency of the TNF-238 A allele was significantly lower in patients, while the frequency of the -308 A allele was significantly higher (p < 0.05). No significant differences between patients and controls were found in the genotype or allele frequencies of IL10-1082 A/G (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the combinations of TNF-238 GA or GG and IL10-592 CC; TNF-238 GA or GG and IL10-592 CA or AA; TNF-308 AA and IL10-592 CC; and TNF-308 AA and IL10-592 CA or AA in cervical cancer patients were statistically significant (p < 0.0167). Upon stimulation with PHA, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the TNF-308AA genotype exhibited significantly higher proliferation rates, elevated IL-4, TGF-β levels, and lower IL-2 levels (p < 0.05). For IL10-592C/A, the AA and CA genotypes were significantly associated with higher proliferation rates, elevated IL-4 and IL-10 levels (p < 0.05). We also found that for TNF-308 G/A or IL10-592 C/A variants, the combination of TNF-308 GG or GA with IL10 CA or AA had an association with the severity of cervical cancer. Taken together, these results suggest that TNF-308 AA and IL10-592 CA/AA genotypes may increase susceptibility to cervical cancer by altering the immune response of an individual.

Orciani M, Caffarini M, Torresetti M, et al.
Breast Implant Texturization Does Not Affect the Crosstalk Between MSC and ALCL Cells.
Inflammation. 2019; 42(2):721-730 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the last decade, there has been a growing interest about the possible association between anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and breast implants (BIA-ALCL). Many variables, such as breast implants texturization, have been investigated. Breast implants often lead to the formation of a periprosthetic capsule, characterized by inflammation. The presence of the inflamed capsule has been found in the majority of patients with BIA-ALCL. Inflammation may be sustained or counteracted by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by the secretion of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines. MSCs were isolated from three capsules surrounding micro-textured (micro-MSCs) and from three capsules surrounding macro-textured (macro-MSCs) implants; after characterization, MSCs were co-cultured with KI-JK cells (a cell line derived from the cutaneous form of ALCL). The secretion of cytokines related to inflammation, the proliferation rate, and the expression of genes referred to pro-tumoral mechanisms were evaluated. Co-cultures of KI-JK cells with micro- or macro-MSCs gave the same results about the secretion of cytokines (increase of IL10, G-CSF, and TGF-β1 and decrease of IL4, IL5, IL12, IL13, IL17A, IFN-γ (p < 0.05) with respect to mock sample), expression of selected genes (increase for ACVR1, VEGF, TGF-βR2, CXCL12, and MKi67 (p < 0.05) with respect to control sample), and the proliferation rate (no variation between mock and co-cultured samples). Our results suggest that MSCs derived from capsules surrounding micro- and macro-textured implants display the same effects on the ALCL cells.

Ibrahimi M, Jamalzei B, Akbari ME, et al.
Association between interleukin 4 (IL-4) VNTR, gene polymorphism, and breast cancer susceptibility in Iranian population: experimental and web base analysis.
Bratisl Lek Listy. 2018; 119(10):651-654 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common types of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among women. Epidemiological studies showed that BC is linked to genetic and environmental factors, and inheritance plays a key role in the pathobiology of this disease. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a key differentiation cytokine and is produced by Th2 and activates Th2 development. Hence the current study aimed to assess the possible association between interleukin 4 (IL-4) VNTR polymorphism, and BC susceptibility in a sample of Iranian population.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: IL-4 VNTR polymorphism was evaluated in 150 women with BC and 150 age-matched healthy women by polymerase chain reaction method.
RESULT: Among 3 possible alleles for IL-4 gene, we only observed 2 alleles. Current findings indicate that RP2/RP2 genotypes can be regarded as potent protective factors against breast cancer (OR = 0.929 [95%CI, 0.929-0.995]).
CONCLUSION: Our result showed that the RP2/RP2 genotype of the IL-4 VNTR polymorphism could be a protective factor for BC susceptibility (Tab. 2, Fig. 1, Ref. 46).

Li X, Lei Y, Wu M, Li N
Regulation of Macrophage Activation and Polarization by HCC-Derived Exosomal lncRNA TUC339.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Exosomes released by cells can serve as vehicles for delivery of biological materials and signals. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-coding RNAs longer than 200 nt, which roles are increasingly appreciated in various biological content. Tumor-derived exosomal lncRNAs have been implicated as signaling mediators to orchestrate cell function among neighbor tumor cells. However, the role of tumor-derived lncRNAs in cross-talk with environmental macrophages has yet to be explored. In this paper, we demonstrated that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells⁻derived exosomes contain elevated levels of lncRNA TUC339 and that HCC-derived exosomes could be taken up by THP-1 cells. In seeking to dissect the biological function of tumor secreting TUC339 in macrophages, we applied loss-of-function and gain-of-function strategies. We observed increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production, increased co-stimulatory molecule expression, and enhanced phagocytosis upon suppression of TUC339 by siRNA in THP-1 cells, and the opposite effect upon over-expression of this lncRNA, which indicates that TUC339 was involved in the regulation of macrophage activation. Moreover, we detected an elevated level of TUC339 in M(IL-4) macrophages as compared to M(IFN-γ + LPS) macrophages and a down-regulation of TUC339 expression during M(IL-4)-to-M(IFN-γ + LPS) repolarization and vice versa. Furthermore, suppression of TUC339 in macrophages diminished the expression of M(IL-4) markers upon IL-4 treatment while overexpression of TUC339 in macrophages enhanced M(IL-4) markers upon IFN-γ + LPS treatment, which suggests a critical function of TUC339 in the regulation of macrophage M1/M2 polarization. Lastly, using microarray analysis, we identified cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, CXCR chemokine receptor binding, Toll-like receptor signaling, FcγR-mediated phagocytosis, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and cell proliferation are related with TUC339 function in macrophages. Our results provide evidence for a novel regulatory function of tumor-derived exosomal lncRNA TUC339 in environmental macrophages and shed light on the complicated interactions between tumor and immune cells through exosomal lncRNAs.

Gohar MK, Ammar MG, Alnagar AA, Abd-ElAziz HA
Serum IgE and Allergy Related Genotypes of IL-4R α and IL-13 Genes: Association with Glioma Susceptibility and Glioblastoma Prognosis.
Egypt J Immunol. 2018; 25(1):19-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gliomas are the commonest type of primary brain tumor in adult. Glioblastoma maltiforms (GBM) is the malignant form with poor prognosis. Certain genotypes of inflammatory gene which associated with asthma and allergic conditions (IL-4R α and IL- 13) are inversely associated with glioma risk. We studied the relation between allergic conditions and serum level of IgE and glioma risk. We also examined the role of SNP of inflammatory genes IL-4 R α (rs 1801275) and IL-13 (rs 1800925) in development of glioma and to find out factors which can modify the prognosis of glioblastoma. This study included 98 Egyptian glioma cases and 98 healthy controls. Full history and clinical data were taken; total serum IgE were assayed, genotyping of IL-4 R α (rs 1801275) and IL-13 (rs 1800925) genes was carried out by restriction digestion after genes amplification. In cases group histopathological examination and tumor grading were done. Past history of allergic condition and elevated serum levels of IgE were more frequent in controls than in cases group (P< 0.05). Genotypes AA and AG of IL- 4R α were significantly frequent in cases and A allele were considered risk factor for glioma OR 2.31(1.53- 3.48), P < 0.001. We also found that C allele of IL-13 is risk factor for glioma susceptibility with p value = 0.006. Longer median survival period in glioblastoma were associated with elevated serum IgE level and who were AA genotypes of IL-4 R α. We conclude an inverse relation between glioma risk, and allergy biomarker IgE and allergy related (IL-4R α; rs 1801275) gene polymorphisms. GBM patients with IL-4Rα AA genotype, have longest survival. Chemotherapy and gross total resection improve GBM prognosis.

Shamoun L, Skarstedt M, Andersson RE, et al.
Association study on IL-4, IL-4Rα and IL-13 genetic polymorphisms in Swedish patients with colorectal cancer.
Clin Chim Acta. 2018; 487:101-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 13 (IL-13) are anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines which share a common cellular receptor IL4Rα and are involved in the same signaling pathways. Our purpose was to assess whether genetic variants within IL-4, IL-13 and IL-4Rα are associated with the risk or clinical outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened in 466 patients with CRC and 445 healthy controls. The selected SNPs were IL-4 SNP rs2243250, IL-4Rα SNP rs1801275 and IL-13 SNP rs1800925.
RESULTS: We found that the genotype variant T/T in IL-13 gene was associated with a higher risk of CRC. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the cancer specific survival differed between C/C and CT + TT for IL-4 SNP. Moreover, the carriers of the T allele were associated with the highest risk of CRC death with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.57, 95% CI 1.06-2.36, p = .024. The observed effect of the T allele was restricted to stage III patients.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate IL-13 SNP rs1800925 as a risk factor for CRC and that IL-4 SNP rs2243250 could be a useful prognostic marker in the follow-up and clinical management of patients with CRC especially in stage III disease.

Meng S, Li L, Zhou M, et al.
Distribution and prognostic value of tumor‑infiltrating T cells in breast cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(5):4247-4258 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are associated with the response to neoadjuvent chemotherapy and prognosis in breast cancer. However, the distribution, interaction and prognostic value of tumor‑infiltrating T cells, the main component of the tumor microenvironment, have seldom been reported. In the present study, surgical specimens of 72 breast cancer patients were analyzed. Tumor‑infiltrating T cell subsets [cluster of differentiation (CD)4+T, CD8+T and regulatory T cells] and expression of their cytokines [interferon‑γ, interleukin (IL)‑4, and IL‑17] were evaluated by flow cytometry. These parameters together with The Cancer Genome Atlas database were used to demonstrate the distribution, interaction and prognostic value of tumor‑infiltrating T cells in breast cancer. Tumor‑infiltrating lymphocytes were closely associated with histological grade (P=0.03), estrogen receptor status (P=0.006), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status (P=0.047) and molecular subtype in breast cancer (P=0.012). The gene expression of CD4, CD8A and forkhead box protein P3 in the tumor was increased compared with healthy breast tissue, and was positively associated with the prognosis of breast cancer patients. HER2+ and triple‑negative breast cancer exhibited a significantly increased percentage of CD4+T cells (P=0.01) and regulatory T cells (P=0.035), and a decreased percentage of CD8+T cells (P=0.006) compared with the luminal subtype. Furthermore, the regulatory T cell number was positively correlated with CD8+T cell number in tumors (R=0.7, P=1.5x10‑162) and significantly inhibited the cytokine secretion of T cells. These results reveal the distribution and interaction of tumor‑infiltrating T cell subsets, and indicate that CD8+T cells and regulatory T cells may be used as reliable predictors of prognosis in breast cancer.

Liu J, Ding D, Jiang Z, et al.
Long non-coding RNA CCAT1/miR-148a/PKCζ prevents cell migration of prostate cancer by altering macrophage polarization.
Prostate. 2019; 79(1):105-112 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Macrophage polarization plays an important role in tumor microenvironment, which regulated the prognosis of prostate cancer. However, the potential role of it is still need further identification.
METHODS: The M1 Macrophages were inducted using 100 ng/mL LPS and 100 ng/mL IFN-γ, the M1 Macrophages were inducted using 20 ng/mL IL-4. TAMs were obtained by culturing monocytes for 7 days in RPMI 1640 10% FBS with 50% of conditioned medium from PC-3 cells real-time PCR was performed to determine the expression of miR-148a, CCAT1, and PKCζ. Western blot was used to measure the level of PKCζ. The cytokine IL-10 was determined using ELISA. Transwell chamber was carried out to determine cell migration. Luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the relationship between miR-148a and PKCζ.
RESULTS: The expression of miR-148a was highest in TAMs, while CCAT1 and PKCζ were highest in M1 Macrophages. Overexpressed miR-148a promoted the level of IL-10 and cell migration. Down-regulated CCAT1 promoted the level of IL-10 and cell migration, while this effects were abolished by co-transfection of si-CCAT1 and miR-148a inhibitor. PKCζ is the target gene of miR-148a. The effects of overexpressed miR-148a on the level of IL-10, genes expression, and cell migration were abolished by miR-148a mimic and pcDNA-PKCζ. In vivo experiments verified the effects of CCAT1 and miR-148a on tumor growth.
CONCLUSION: CCAT1 knockdown promoted M2 macrophages polarization by up-regulating miR-148a, while miR-148a up-regulation promoted M2 macrophages polarization by down-regulating the expression of PKCζ.

Xu F, Cui WQ, Wei Y, et al.
Astragaloside IV inhibits lung cancer progression and metastasis by modulating macrophage polarization through AMPK signaling.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):207 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in cancer progression and metastasis, making M2 polarization of TAMs an ever more appealing target for therapeutic intervention. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), a saponin component isolated from Astragali radix, has been reported to inhibit the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer, but its effects on TAMs during lung cancer progression have not been investigated.
METHODS: Human THP-1 monocytes were induced to differentiate into M2 macrophages through treatments with IL-4, IL-13, and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). We used the lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299 cultured in conditioned medium from M2 macrophages (M2-CM) to investigate the effects of AS-IV on tumor growth, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of lung cancer cells. Macrophage subset distribution, M1 and M2 macrophage-associated markers, and mRNA expression were analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative PCR. The activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways that mediate M2-CM-promoted tumor migration was detected using western blotting.
RESULTS: Here we found that AS-IV significantly inhibited IL-13 and IL-4-induced M2 polarization of macrophages, as illustrated by reduced expression of CD206 and M2-associated genes, and that AS-IV suppressed the M2-CM-induced invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of A549 and H1299 cells. In vivo experiments demonstrated that AS-IV greatly inhibited tumor growth and reduced the number of metastases of Lewis lung cancer. The percentage of M2 macrophages was decreased in tumor tissue after AS-IV treatment. Furthermore, AS-IV inhibited AMPKα activation in M2 macrophages, and silencing of AMPKα partially abrogated the inhibitory effect of AS-IV.
CONCLUSIONS: AS-IV reduced the growth, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of lung cancer by blocking the M2 polarization of macrophages partially through the AMPK signaling pathway, which appears to play an important role in AS-IV's ability to inhibit the metastasis of lung cancer.

Pastuszak-Lewandoska D, Domańska-Senderowska D, Antczak A, et al.
The Expression Levels of IL-4/IL-13/STAT6 Signaling Pathway Genes and SOCS3 Could Help to Differentiate the Histopathological Subtypes of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma.
Mol Diagn Ther. 2018; 22(5):621-629 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6 signaling pathway and the SOCS3 gene, one of its main regulators, constitute an important link between the inflammation process in the epithelial cells and inflammatory-related tumorigenesis. The present study is the first to evaluate IL-4, IL-13, STAT6, and SOCS3 mRNA expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) histopathological subtypes.
METHODS: Gene expression levels were assessed using TaqMan
RESULTS: Increased expression of IL-4, IL-13, and STAT6 was observed in all histopathological NSCLC subtypes (squamous cell carcinoma [SCC], adenocarcinoma [AC], and large cell carcinoma [LCC]). Significantly higher expression of IL-13 and STAT6 (p = 0.019 and p = 0.008, respectively) was found in SCC than in LCC. No statistically significant differences were found for IL-4. Significantly higher SOCS3 expression was found in LCC than in AC (p = 0.027). A negative correlation (rho = -0.519) was observed for the STAT6 and SOCS3 genes in SCC (p = 0.005). No associations were found between gene expression and tumor staging (post-operative Tumor Node Metastasis [pTNM], American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC]), patients' age, sex, or history of smoking.
CONCLUSIONS: As the number of LCC cases in our study was quite low, the statistically significant results obtained should be confirmed in a larger group of patients, particularly as the relationships identified between increased IL-4, IL-13, and STAT6 mRNA expression and decreased SOCS3 expression suggest that these genes may serve as potential diagnostic markers for differentiating between NSCLC histopathological subtypes.

Le KS, Amé-Thomas P, Tarte K, et al.
CXCR5 and ICOS expression identifies a CD8 T-cell subset with T
Blood Adv. 2018; 2(15):1889-1900 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
A better characterization of T-cell subsets in the microenvironment of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) would help to develop immunotherapies. Using multicolor flow cytometry, we identified in 6 of 43 cHL tissue samples a previously unrecognized subset of CD8 T cells coexpressing CXCR5 and inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS) molecules (CD8

Lezina L, Spriggs RV, Beck D, et al.
CD40L/IL-4-stimulated CLL demonstrates variation in translational regulation of DNA damage response genes including ATM.
Blood Adv. 2018; 2(15):1869-1881 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
CD40L/interleukin-4 (IL-4) stimulation occurs in vivo in the tumor microenvironment and induces global translation to varying degrees in individuals with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in vitro. However, the implications of CD40L/IL-4 for the translation of specific genes is not known. To determine the most highly translationally regulated genes in response to CD40L/IL-4, we carried out ribosome profiling, a next-generation sequencing method. Significant differences in the translational efficiency of DNA damage response genes, specifically ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated kinase (ATM) and the MRE11/RAD50/NBN (MRN) complex, were observed between patients, suggesting different patterns of translational regulation. We confirmed associations between CD40L/IL-4 response and baseline ATM levels, induction of ATM, and phosphorylation of the ATM targets, p53 and H2AX. X-irradiation was used to demonstrate that CD40L/IL-4 stimulation tended to improve DNA damage repair. Baseline ATM levels, independent of the presence of 11q deletion, correlated with overall survival (OS). Overall, we suggest that there are individual differences in translation of specific genes, including ATM, in response to CD40L/IL-4 and that these interpatient differences might be clinically important.

Zhenjiang L, Rao M, Luo X, et al.
Cytokine Networks and Survivin Peptide-Specific Cellular Immune Responses Predict Improved Survival in Patients With Glioblastoma Multiforme.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 33:49-56 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: We investigated serum cytokine and T-cell responses directed against tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) in association with survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood from 205 treatment-naïve patients with glioma (GBM = 145; non-GBM = 60) was obtained on the day of surgery to measure (i) circulating T-cells reacting to viral antigens and TAAs, in the presence or absence of cytokine conditioning with IL-2/IL-15/IL-21 or IL-2/IL-7, and (ii) serum cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17A). Patients were followed-up for at least 1000 days post-surgery. Survivin protein and gene expression in resected GBM tumour tissue were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Antigen-specific T-cell responses were gauged by ICS (intracellular cytokine production). Associations between patient survival and immunological reactivity patterns were analysed using univariate and multivariate statistics.
RESULTS: Approximately 2% of patients with GBM and 18% of patients with non-GBM glioma, were alive beyond 1000 days of surgery. Univariate analysis indicated that the combination of three cytokines (IL-4/IL-5/IL-6, p = .0022; IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-17A, p = .0083) but not a 'partial' combination of these cytokines, the IFN-γ immune response to EBV-EBNA-1 (p < .0001) as well as T-cell responses to the survivin
CONCLUSION: Serum cytokine patterns and lymphocyte reactivity to survivin

Vinagre RMDF, Vinagre IDF, Vilar-E-Silva A, et al.
Arq Gastroenterol. 2018 Apr-Jun; 55(2):122-127 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The association between infection with Helicobacter pylori and different gastroduodenal diseases is related to bacterial, host and environmental factors. Studies have demonstrated an association between the genetic diversity of H. pylori, especially in the vacA and cagA genes, and the development of digestive diseases such as peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. In addition, the nature of the host inflammatory response may explain these different manifestations of infection caused by this microorganism. In this respect, host factors that regulate the immune and inflammatory responses involving the functional interaction of H. pylori infection with different components of the immune system, particularly T cells, in gastroduodenal diseases still need further investigation.
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the immune response, including immunity induced by infection with H. pylori, especially virulent strains (vacA alleles and cagA gene), by analyzing the cytokine profile and T-cell population present in gastroduodenal diseases in a Brazilian population.
METHODS: In a prospective study, gastric biopsies were collected from 554 patients with different gastroduodenal diseases for histological analysis and for the determination of bacterial genotype and cytokine production (IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ and IL-12) by ELISA.
RESULTS: The predominant genotype of the H. pylori strains isolated from the patients studied was s1m1cagA+, which was more common among patients with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer. A significant association was observed between the s1m1cagA+ genotype and a higher degree of inflammation, higher neutrophil activity and the development of intestinal metaplasia. The gastric concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-12 were significantly higher in patients infected with H. pylori than in uninfected individuals. Higher levels of these cytokines were detected in patients with gastric ulcer and cancer, while the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in the gastric mucosa were lower in these patients. In addition, IFN-γ and IL-12 concentrations in gastric biopsies were higher in patients infected with the virulent s1m1cagA+ genotype. In contrast, IL-4 and IL-10 levels were higher in tissue infected with s2m2cagA in gastric biopsies.
CONCLUSION: Our study shows that the interaction between the type of infectious strain and the Th1 immune response can influence and perpetuate gastric inflammation, and thus contributes to the development of the different clinical manifestations of H. pylori infection.

De Matteis S, Molinari C, Abbati G, et al.
Immunosuppressive Treg cells acquire the phenotype of effector-T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):172 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) disease onset and progression are influenced by the behavior of specific CD4
METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from newly diagnosed CLL patients (n = 25) and healthy volunteers (n = 25). The phenotypic and functional characterization of Tregs and their subsets was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro analysis of TH1, TH2, TH17 and Tregs cytokines was evaluated by IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17A and IL-10 secretion assays. The transcriptional profiling of 84 genes panel was evaluated by RT
RESULTS: In all CLL samples, we found a significant increase in the frequency of IL-10-secreting Tregs and Tregs subsets, a significant rise of TH2 IL-4
CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that Tregs switch towards an effector-like phenotype in CLL patients. This multifaceted behavior is accompanied by an altered cytokine profiling and transcriptional program of immune genes, leading to a dysfunction in immune response in the peripheral blood environment of CLL patients.

Chen J, Gong C, Mao H, et al.
E2F1/SP3/STAT6 axis is required for IL-4-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of colorectal cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(2):567-578 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a type of cancer with a mortality rate among the highest worldwide owing to its high rate of metastasis. Therefore, inflammation-associated metastasis in the development of CRC is currently a topic of considerable interest. In the present study, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) was identified to promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CRC cells. However, the enhancing effect of IL-4 was more evident in HCT116 cells compared with in RKO cells. Accordingly, an increased expression level of STAT6 was observed in HCT116 cells compared with RKO cells. Further investigations identified that E2F1 was required for maintaining the level of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in HCT116 cells. Mechanistically, E2F1 induced specificity protein 3 (SP3) directly by binding to the promoter of the STAT6 gene and activating its transcription in CRC cells. As a result, phosphorylation-activated STAT6 increased the expression of several EMT drivers, including zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox (Zeb)1 and Zeb2, which serve a critical function in IL-4-induced EMT. Rescue experiments further confirmed that IL-4-induced EMT relied on an intact E2F1/SP3/STAT6 axis in CRC cells. Finally, analysis of clinical CRC specimens revealed a positive correlation between E2F1, SP3 and STAT6. The ectopically expressed E2F1/SP3/STAT6 axis indicated a poor prognosis in patients with CRC. In conclusion, the E2F1/SP3/STAT6 pathway was identified to be essential for IL-4 signaling-induced EMT and aggressiveness of CRC cells.

Bonaventure A, Orsi L, Rudant J, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms of Th2 interleukins, history of asthma or eczema and childhood acute lymphoid leukaemia: Findings from the ESCALE study (SFCE).
Cancer Epidemiol. 2018; 55:96-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the putative role of allergy in the aetiology of childhood leukaemia have reported contradictory results. The present study aimed to analyse the relation between a medical history of asthma or eczema and childhood acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL) in light of potential candidate gene-environment interactions.
METHODS: Analyses were based on a subset of 434 cases of ALL and 442 controls successfully genotyped and of European ancestry children enrolled in a French population-based case-control study conducted in 2003-2004. Information about medical history was obtained during a standardized interview with the mothers. Candidate polymorphisms in genes of the Th2 cytokines IL4, IL10, IL13 and IL4-receptor, were genotyped or imputed.
RESULTS: None of the variant alleles were directly associated with childhood acute lymphoid leukaemia. A medical history of asthma or eczema was reported more often in the control group (OR = 0.7 [0.5-1.0]). This association was mostly seen in the group of children not carrying the IL13-rs20541 variant allele (Interaction Odds Ratio IOR 1.9, p-interaction = 0.07) and in those carrying the IL10 triple variant haplotype (IOR 0.5, p-interaction = 0.04). No interaction was observed with the candidate polymorphisms in IL4 and IL4R.
CONCLUSION: This study provides a new insight into the relationship between allergic symptoms and childhood acute lymphoid leukaemia, by suggesting this inverse association could be limited to children carrying certain genetic polymorphisms. If confirmed, these results could help better understand the biological mechanisms involved in the development of childhood acute lymphoid leukaemia.

Crespo J, Wu K, Li W, et al.
Human Naive T Cells Express Functional CXCL8 and Promote Tumorigenesis.
J Immunol. 2018; 201(2):814-820 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Naive T cells are thought to be functionally quiescent. In this study, we studied and compared the phenotype, cytokine profile, and potential function of human naive CD4

Zhang J, Cao D, Yu S, et al.
Amphotericin B suppresses M2 phenotypes and B7-H1 expression in macrophages to prevent Raji cell proliferation.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):467 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Macrophages in the tumor microenvironment play a critical role in tumorigenesis and anti-cancer drug resistance. Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with dense macrophage infiltration. However, the role for macrophages in BL remains largely unknown.
METHODS: B7-H1, a transmembrane glycoprotein in the B7 family, suppresses T cell activation and proliferation and induces the apoptosis of activated T cells. The expression of B7-H1 in BL clinical tissues was determined by streptavidin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry. The mutual regulation between macrophages and BL Raji cells was investigated in a co-culture system. The cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution of Raji cells were determined using BrdU staining coupled with flow cytometry. CD163, CD204 and B7-H1 expression was assessed by flow cytometry and Western blot. Cell invasion was analyzed by Transwell assay. The expression of cytokines was detected by quantitative RT-PCR. Immunofluorescence and allogeneic T-cell proliferation assays were used to compare the expression of B7-H1, p-STAT6, or p-STAT3 and CD3+ T cell proliferation treated with or without amphotericin B.
RESULTS: B7-H1 was highly expressed in tumor infiltration macrophages in most clinical BL tissues. In vitro, Raji cells synthesized IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 to induce CD163, CD204 and B7-H1 expression in co-cultured macrophages, which in turn promoted Raji cell proliferation and invasion. Interestingly, antifungal agent amphotericin B not only inhibited STAT6 phosphorylation to suppress the M2 polarization of macrophages, but also promoted CD3+ T cell proliferation by regulating B7-H1 protein expression in macrophages.
CONCLUSION: Amphotericin B might represent a novel immunotherapeutic approach to treat patients with BL.

Alyoussef A, Al-Gayyar MMH
Cytotoxic and partial hepatoprotective activity of sodium ascorbate against hepatocellular carcinoma through inhibition of sulfatase-2 in vivo and in vitro.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 103:362-372 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by elevation in the activity of sulfatase-2, an extracellular enzyme that catalyzes removal of 6-O-sulfate groups from heparan sulfate. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate the cytotoxic activity of the strong water-soluble antioxidant, sodium ascorbate, against HCC both in vivo and in vitro. Sodium ascorbate enhanced animal survival in vivo and reduced HepG2 cells survival. The protein levels of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), insulin like growth factor (IGF)-2, sulfatase-2 and glypican-3 were assessed. Inflammation was evaluated by measuring the gene and protein expression of NFκB, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10. We found that sodium ascorbate blocked HCC-induced activation of sulfatase-2 leading to restoration of HSPGs receptors associated with reduction in IGF-2 and glypican-3. Sodium ascorbate exerts anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the expression of NFκB, CRP, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 associated with enhanced expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10. In conclusion, cytotoxic effects of sodium ascorbate against HCC can be partially explained by inhibition of sulfatase-2, restoration of HSPGs receptors and deactivation of the inflammatory pathway.

Huang X, Zhang J, Li X, et al.
Rescue of iCIKs transfer from PD-1/PD-L1 immune inhibition in patients with resectable tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC).
Int Immunopharmacol. 2018; 59:127-133 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and the role of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) patients treated with radical operation combined with chemotherapy and improving cytokine induced killer cells (iCIKs) transfer.
METHODS: Thirteen patients who received radical resection and chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. PD-1/PD-L1 expression was evaluated in TSCC patients. ICIKs were cultured from patient-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. The immunological differences underlying iCIKs transfer were investigated through phenotype, cytokine secretion and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibition analysis.
RESULTS: The serum PD-L1 levels were elevated in the TSCC patients. PD-L1 was detected on both human TSCC cells and tumour tissue sections. PD-1 expression was much higher on the PBMCs of TSCC patients than on in vitro cultured iCIKs. Interruption of PD-1/PD-L1 interaction enhanced the cytotoxicity of iCIKs in vitro. CD3 + CD8+ T cell proportion and cytokine IL-6 secretion decreased after chemotherapy. The infusion of iCIKs effectively reversed the immunosuppression through the upregulation of the CD3 + CD8+ T cell proportion and Th cell cytokine secretion (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-6). Twelve responders are currently alive (95.7+ months), another patient 83 months.
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction contributes to the immunosuppression in TSCC patients. ICIKs transfer is an effective therapy to reverse the immunosuppression caused by surgical procedures and chemotherapy and improve immune system function.

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