Research IndicatorsGraph generated 13 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 13 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (10)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: MAGEA3 (cancer-related)
Background. While cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are restricted in postnatal tissues to testes and germ line-derived cells, their role in cancer development and the clinical significance of their expression still remain to be better defined. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of CTA expression in colon samples from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) in relation to patient clinical status. Methods. Forty-five patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer were included in the study. We selected a panel of 18 CTAs that were previously detected in CRC as well as some new gene candidates, and their expression was detected at the mRNA level by employing RQ-PCR. Additionally, we evaluated CTA expression in three colon cancer cell lines (CL-188, HTB-39, and HTB-37) after exposure to the DNA methylation-modifying drug 5-azacytidine. Results. We report that 6 out of 18 (33%) CTAs tested (MAGEA3, OIP5, TTK, PLU1, DKKL1, and FBXO39) were significantly (p < 0.05) overexpressed in tumor tissue compared with healthy colon samples isolated from the same patients. Conclusions. Moreover, we found that MAGEA3, PLU-1, and DKKL expression positively correlated with disease progression, evaluated according to the Dukes staging system. Finally, 5-azacytidine exposure significantly upregulated expression of CTAs on CRC cells, which indicates that this demethylation agent could be employed therapeutically to enhance the immune response against tumor cells.
Theodoraki MN, Lorenz KJ, Schneider J, et al.Influence of Photodynamic Therapy on the Expression of Cancer/Testis Antigens in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):3973-82 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) represents a palliative treatment resulting in induction of inflammatory reactions with importance for the development of an antitumor immunity. Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) have been associated with poor prognosis in different types of cancer, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor tissue samples before and after PDT were evaluated for the expression of four different CTAs by immunohistochemistry. Expression intensity and subcellular expression pattern were assessed.
RESULTS: Before PDT, expression of any CTA was detectable in 91%. Comparing the overall expression of CTAs, a decreased expression of all melanoma-associated antigens (MAGEs) post-treatment and a slightly increased expression of New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1) was visible. The simultaneous cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of pan-MAGE or MAGE-A3/A4 correlated with reduced treatment-failure-free-survival (TFFS).
CONCLUSION: This study investigated the impact of PDT on CTA expression in HNSCC, detecting modified expression patterns after PDT. These changes may have been caused by immunological pressure or epigenetic regulation of CTA expression.
Xie C, Subhash VV, Datta A, et al.Melanoma associated antigen (MAGE)-A3 promotes cell proliferation and chemotherapeutic drug resistance in gastric cancer.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2016; 39(2):175-86 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE)-A3 is a member of the family of cancer-testis antigens and has been found to be epigenetically regulated and aberrantly expressed in various cancer types. It has also been found that MAGE-A3 expression may correlate with an aggressive clinical course and with chemo-resistance. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between MAGE-A3 promoter methylation and expression and (1) gastric cancer patient survival and (2) its functional consequences in gastric cancer-derived cells.
METHODS: Samples from two independent gastric cancer cohorts (including matched non-malignant gastric samples) were included in this study. MAGE-A3 methylation and mRNA expression levels were determined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), respectively. MAGE-A3 expression was knocked down in MKN1 gastric cancer-derived cells using miRNAs. In addition, in vitro cell proliferation, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle, drug treatment, immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays were performed.
RESULTS: Clinical analysis of 223 primary patient-derived samples (ntumor = 161, nnormal = 62) showed a significant inverse correlation between MAGE-A3 promoter methylation and expression in the cancer samples (R = -0.63, p = 5.99e-19). A lower MAGE-A3 methylation level was found to be associated with a worse patient survival (HR: 1.5, 95 % CI: 1.02-2.37, p = 0.04). In addition, we found that miRNA-mediated knockdown of MAGE-A3 expression in MKN1 cells caused a reduction in its proliferation and colony forming capacities, respectively. Under stress conditions MAGE-A3 was found to regulate the expression of Bax and p21. MAGE-A3 knock down also led to an increase in Puma and Noxa expression, thus contributing to an enhanced docetaxel sensitivity in the gastric cancer-derived cells.
CONCLUSIONS: From our results we conclude that MAGE-A3 expression is regulated epigenetically by promoter methylation, and that its expression contributes to gastric cell proliferation and drug sensitivity. This study underscores the potential implications of MAGE-A3 as a therapeutic target and prognostic marker in gastric cancer patients.
Jin J, Liu BZ, Wu ZMEvaluation of melanoma antigen gene A3 expression in drug resistance of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer treatment.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2015; 11 Suppl:C271-4 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between melanoma antigen gene A3 (MAGE-A3) expression and progression-free survival (PFS) of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKIs) therapy, aiming to provide a basis for research and treatment of EGFR-TKIs resistance.
RESEARCH AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis is conducted of PFS of 359 NSCLC patients who have been tested positive for EGFR, and experienced drug resistance during oral treatment of icotinib. MAGE-A3 expression is tested using immunology and histology chemistry methods, and T790M and c-MeT expression are tested using mutation-enriched polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: (1) MAGE-A3 expression in targeted treatment of NSCLC patients shows a positive rate of 33.98%. The comparative difference between MAGE-A3 expression and T790M, c-MeT and other resistance genes was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). (2) MAGE-A3 expression was higher in patients with NSCLC targeted therapy of primary drug resistance of positive rate than acquired resistance; meanwhile the expression level differences in three modes of acquired resistance are statistically significant (P < 0.05). (3) PFS of MAGE-A3 positive expression in the targeted treatment of acquired drug resistance in patients with NSCLC is shorter than the PFS of MAGE-A3 negative expression (P = 0.01); the comparative PFS differences in the three kinds of acquired drug resistance pattern have statistical significance (P = 0.02). (4) PFS and levels of MAGE-A3 expression in NSCLC patients with the three modes of acquired resistance are negatively correlated (P < 0.01), and MAGE-A3 expression has no correlation with age, gender, pathological type or PS score (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: MAGE-A3 expression in EGFR-TKIs target therapy in NSCLC patient suggests that there might be EGFR-TKIs drug resistance, and the higher the level of expression, the shorter the time of acquired drug resistance.
Lerut E, Van Poppel H, Joniau S, et al.Rates of MAGE-A3 and PRAME expressing tumors in FFPE tissue specimens from bladder cancer patients: potential targets for antigen-specific cancer immunotherapeutics.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(8):9522-32 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Antigen-specific active immunotherapy is an investigational therapeutic approach of potential interest for bladder cancer regardless of disease stage. Clinical development of antigen-specific immunotherapeutics against bladder cancer must be preceded by assessment of the expression of relevant genes in bladder tumors. The objectives of this study (NCT01706185) were to assess the rate of expression of the MAGE-A3 and PRAME genes in bladder tumors and to investigate the feasibility of using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues for testing.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Archived FFPE bladder tumor specimens (any stage) were tested for mRNA expression of MAGE-A3 and PRAME using antigen-specific quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Data on patients and tumor characteristics were obtained from hospital records to investigate these characteristics' possible association with the antigen expression.
RESULTS: Over 92% of the 156 tumors examined gave valid antigen test results. Of the tumors with a valid test, 46.5% were MAGE-A3-positive, 32.2% were PRAME-positive and 59.7% positive for at least one of them. Exploratory analyses of possible associations between antigen expression and patient or tumor characteristics did not identify clear associations between antigen expression and any of the variables investigated.
CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of tumor antigen mRNA expression by using FFPE bladder tissues was feasible. The rates of MAGE-A3-positive and PRAME-positive tumors indicate that both antigens may be interesting targets for immunotherapeutics against bladder cancer.
Krishnadas DK, Shusterman S, Bai F, et al.A phase I trial combining decitabine/dendritic cell vaccine targeting MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3 and NY-ESO-1 for children with relapsed or therapy-refractory neuroblastoma and sarcoma.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2015; 64(10):1251-60 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Antigen-specific immunotherapy was studied in a multi-institutional phase 1/2 study by combining decitabine (DAC) followed by an autologous dendritic cell (DC)/MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3 and NY-ESO-1 peptide vaccine in children with relapsed/refractory solid tumors. Patients aged 2.5-15 years with relapsed neuroblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma, osteosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma were eligible to receive DAC followed by DC pulsed with overlapping peptides derived from full-length MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3 and NY-ESO-1. The primary endpoints were to assess the feasibility and tolerability of this regimen. Each of four cycles consisted of week 1: DAC 10 mg/m(2)/day for 5 days and weeks 2 and 3: DC vaccine once weekly. Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study, of which 10 were evaluable. Generation of DC was highly feasible for all enrolled patients. The treatment regimen was generally well tolerated, with the major toxicity being DAC-related myelosuppression in 5/10 patients. Six of nine patients developed a response to MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3 or NY-ESO-1 peptides post-vaccine. Due to limitations in number of cells available for analysis, controls infected with a virus encoding relevant genes have not been performed. Objective responses were documented in 1/10 patients who had a complete response. Of the two patients who had no evidence of disease at the time of treatment, one remains disease-free 2 years post-therapy, while the other experienced a relapse 10 months post-therapy. The chemoimmunotherapy approach using DAC/DC-CT vaccine is feasible, well tolerated and results in antitumor activity in some patients. Future trials to maximize the likelihood of T cell responses post-vaccine are warranted.
Shida A, Futawatari N, Fukuyama T, et al.Frequent High Expression of Kita-Kyushu Lung Cancer Antigen-1 (KK-LC-1) in Gastric Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(6):3575-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The tumor-associated antigen Kita-Kyushu lung cancer antigen-1 (KK-LC-1) has been reported as not being expressed in normal tissues, except for the testis, and in the setting of non-small cell lung cancer. The present study demonstrated that KK-LC-1 is expressed in gastric cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the expression of KK-LC-1 and cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) in surgical specimens of 49 gastric carcinomas. The expression of KK-LC-1 and CTAs was assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: KK-LC-1 expression was observed in gastric carcinomas. The number of lesions with expression of KK-LC-1, Melanoma antigen gene encoding-A1 (MAGE-A1), MAGE-A3 and New York Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1) was 40 (81.6%), 17 (34.7%), 22 (44.9%) and 8 (16.3%) out of the 49 specimens, respectively.
CONCLUSION: KK-LC-1 should be categorized as a CTA. The frequency of KK-LC-1 expression was higher than that of the other CTAs. KK-LC-1 might be a useful target for immunotherapy and in diagnosis of gastric cancer.
Gruselle O, Coche T, Louahed JDevelopment of a Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of MAGE-A3-Positive Tumors.
J Mol Diagn. 2015; 17(4):382-91 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3) is a member of the MAGE family of tumor antigens and a relevant candidate for use in cancer immunotherapy. However, not all tumors express MAGE-A3, and closely related members of the MAGE family can be co-expressed with MAGE-A3 in the same tumor. Therefore, in the frame of MAGE-A3 clinical trials, it appeared necessary to evaluate tumors for MAGE-A3 expression with a highly specific quantitative assay to select patients who are eligible for anti-MAGE-A3 immunotherapy treatment. Herein, we describe the development and validation of a quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assay for the determination of MAGEA3 gene expression in tumor tissues. In the early phases of development, the designed primers and probe were not able to distinguish between MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A6. To ensure the specificity for MAGE-A3 over MAGE-A6, our strategy was to use a 5'-nuclease probe (or hydrolysis probe). The final assay was shown to be specific and linear within the analytical range, with an acceptable CV for repeatability and intermediate precision. When compared with a reference semiquantitative RT-PCR assay, the two methods were in good agreement, with only 4.23% of the samples giving discordant results. In conclusion, we have developed a MAGE-A3-specific RT-qPCR assay, compatible with a high-throughput setting for the estimation of MAGEA3 gene expression in present and future clinical trials.
Liu X, Sun N, Dong Y, et al.Anticancer effects of adenovirus-mediated calreticulin and melanoma-associated antigen 3 expression on non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2015; 25(2):416-24 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is highly prevalent and needs novel therapies. Melanoma-associated antigen 3 (MAGE-A3) is a lung cancer antigen and calreticulin (CALR) can modulate immune responses. Our previous study has shown that up-regulated MAGE-A3 and CALR expression inhibits the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells. In this study, we examined the effect of adenovirus (Ad)-mediated MAGE-A3 and/or CALR expression on the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis of human NSCLC cells and on the vascular tube formation of human endothelial cells as well as on dendritic cell (DC) activation and induced CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity in vitro. We found that low levels of CALR and MAGE-A3 were expressed by A549 cells, but only very low CALR was expressed by DC. Up-regulated CALR and MAGE-A3 expression by infection with Ad-CALR/MAGE-A3 significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion, but promoted the apoptosis of A549 cells. Up-regulated CALR and MAGE-A3 expression significantly inhibited cyclin D1 expression and the AKT, ERK1/2 and NF-κB expression and phosphorylation in A549 cells. Up-regulated CALR expression inhibited the tube formation in human endothelial cells. Up-regulated CALR and MAGE-A3 expression synergistically enhanced classical DC activation by enhancing IL-12, but reducing IL-10 secretion. Furthermore, CTLs induced by up-regulated CALR and MAGE-A3 expressing DCs synergistically triggered A549 cell apoptosis, which was abrogated by treatment with anti-HLA I, but not anti-HLA II antibodies. Moreover, CTLs induced by CALR and MAGE-A3-expressing DCs had a higher frequency of A549-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells. Our data indicated that up-regulated CALR and MAGE-A3 expression inhibited the carcinogenesis of NSCLC by modulating the AKT, ERK MAPK and NF-κB signaling and enhanced classical DC activation and MAGE-A3-specific CTL cytotoxicity. Therefore, our findings may provide new insights in understanding the role of CALR in modulating antigen-specific T cell immunity and may aid in the design of new therapies for NSCLC.
Zamunér FT, Karia BT, de Oliveira CZ, et al.A Comprehensive Expression Analysis of Cancer Testis Antigens in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Revels MAGEA3/6 as a Marker for Recurrence.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2015; 14(3):828-34 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Despite significant advances in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the survival rate has not changed in the last decades. Therefore, the development of novel therapeutic strategies is pursued. Cancer-testis antigens (CTA) are strong immunogenic proteins with a tumor-restricted expression pattern, and are considered ideal targets for tumor-specific immunotherapeutic approaches. In this study, using an in silico approach, we selected, among 139 previously described CTA, candidates to be evaluated in 89 HNSCC and 20 normal mucosa samples. SPANX-CD (71.9%), MAGEB2 (44.9%), MAGEA1 (44.9%), MAGEB6 (32.6%), and CXORF48 (27.0%) were found frequently expressed in HNSCC, and over 85% of the tumors expressed at least one of these five CTAs. The mRNA positivity of CXORF48, MAGEB6, and CRISP2 presented significant associations with recognized clinical features for poor outcome. Furthermore, MAGEA3/6 positivity was associated with significantly better disease-free survival (DFS, P = 0.014), and the expression of this antigen was shown to be an independent prognostic factor for tumor recurrence. In conclusion, one of five selected CTAs is expressed in at least 85% of the HNSCCs, suggesting a possible usage as target for immunotherapeutic approaches, and the mRNA-positivity for MAGEA3/6 is shown to be an independent marker for DFS.
AIM: To assess the role of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated liver disease.
METHODS: Blood and/or tissue samples were obtained from HCV (genotype 4)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma patients (HCC; n = 120), chronic hepatitis C patients (CH; n = 30) and 33 normal control subjects (n = 33). Serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), alkaline phosphatase, and alanine and aspartate aminotransferases were measured. Cytokeratin 19 (CK19) monoclonal antibody was used to enumerate CTCs, and CD133 and CD90 were used to enumerate CSCs by flow cytometry. The expression levels of the CSCs markers (CD133 and CD90) as well as telomerase, melanoma antigen encoding gene 1 (MAGE1) and MAGE3 were assessed by RT-PCR and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. The number of CTCs and/or the expression levels of CK19, CD133, telomerase, MAGE1 and MAGE3 were correlated to the standard clinicopathologic prognostic factors and disease progression.
RESULTS: Levels of AFP, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly different among the HCC, CH and control groups (P < 0.001), whereas alanine aminotransferase differed significantly between patient (HCC and CH) and control groups (P < 0.001). At the specified cutoff values determine by flow cytometry, CK19 (49.8), CD90 (400) and CD133 (73) were significantly higher in the blood of HCC patients compared to those in the CH and control groups (P < 0.001). On the other hand, CD133 at a 69.5 cutoff was significantly higher in the CH compared to the control group (P ≤ 0.001). Telomerase, MAGE1 and MAGE3 RNA were expressed in 55.71%, 60.00% and 62.86% of the HCC patients, respectively, but were not detected in patients in the CH or control groups, which were statistically significant (Ps < 0.001). The expression levels of telomerase, CD90, MAGE3, CD133 and CK19 were all significantly associated with high tumor grade and advanced stage in HCC patients (all Ps < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: CTC counts and AFP, CK19, telomerase, and MAGE1/MAGE3 expression predict disease progression in patients with HCV, whereas telomerase, MAGE3, CD90, CD133 and CK19 are prognostic markers in HCC.
Cancer-testis (CT) antigens, which are encoded by CT genes, have been recognized as a group of highly attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy. However, the expression and clinical relevance of CT genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) remains largely unknown. The present study aims to analyze the expression profile of 6 individual CT genes including MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, MAGE-A12, cTAGE-1, cTAGE-2, and NY-ESO-1 in ccRCC and further investigate their possible correlations with clinicopathologic characteristics. The mRNA expressions of these CT genes were detected using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 105 ccRCC tissue samples (T1-2 in 70 samples, T3-4 in 35 samples; G1-2 in 65 samples, G3-4 in 40 samples) as well as the paired adjacent normal tissues. The most frequently expressed CT gene was MAGE-A3 (27.6%), followed by MAGE-A12 (23.8%), NY-ESO-1 (21%), MAGE-A1 (20%), cTAGE-1 (17.1%), and cTAGE-2 (14.3%). In contrast, no expression of CT genes was detected in the paired adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, the MAGE-A3 protein expression was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. MAGE-A3 protein was expressed in 21.9% ccRCC samples with a cytoplasmic staining pattern. No MAGE-A3 protein expression was found in the paired adjacent normal tissues. There was a significant correlation between MAGE-A3 expression at both mRNA (P =0.045) and protein (P = 0.03) levels with advanced stages of the disease. Taken together, CT genes may serve as promising targets of specific immunotherapy for ccRCC and particularly, MAGE-A3 may serve as a potential prognostic marker for ccRCC patients.
Expression of Melanoma AntiGen Encoding (MAGE) genes, particularly MAGE-A3, has been correlated with aggressive clinical course, the acquisition of resistance to chemotherapy and poor clinical outcomes of melanoma and other malignancies. MAGE proteins bind to KAP1, a gene repressor and ubiquitin E3 ligase which also binds KRAB domain containing zinc finger transcription factors (KZNFs), and MAGE expression may affect KZNF mediated gene regulation. To investigate mechanisms for these effects, we tested the hypothesis that differences in KRAB domain composition affect KZNF poly-ubiquitination and determine whether MAGE expression increases, decreases, or has no effect on KZNFs mediated gene repression. Using an integrated reporter gene responsive to repression by KRAB domain fusion proteins, we found that MAGE-A3 relieved KZNF mediated repression and induced KZNF poly-ubiquitination and degradation in association with expression of the A+B box KRAB domain. In contrast, MAGE-A3 enhanced KAP1 mediated repression of KZNFs expressing A or A+b box KRAB domains but caused no increase in poly-ubiquitination or degradation. MAGE-A3 has no significant impact on KZNFs with KRAB domains containing the Scan box motif. These data support our hypothesis by showing that the effects of MAGE-A3 on gene repression depend on the type of KZNF KRAB domain involved.
Luetkens T, Kobold S, Cao Y, et al.Functional autoantibodies against SSX-2 and NY-ESO-1 in multiple myeloma patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2014; 63(11):1151-62 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM) is the malignancy with the most frequent expression of the highly immunogenic cancer-testis antigens (CTA), and we have performed the first analysis of longitudinal expression, immunological properties, and fine specificity of CTA-specific antibody responses in MM.
METHODS: Frequency and characteristics of antibody responses against cancer-testis antigens MAGE-A3, NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and SSX-2 were analyzed using peripheral blood (N = 1094) and bone marrow (N = 200) plasma samples from 194 MM patients.
RESULTS: We found that antibody responses against CTA were surprisingly rare, only 2.6 and 3.1 % of patients evidenced NY-ESO-1- and SSX-2-specific antibodies, respectively. NY-ESO-1-specific responses were observed during disease progression, while anti-SSX-2 antibodies appeared after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and persisted during clinical remission. We found that NY-ESO-1- and SSX-2-specific antibodies were both capable of activating complement and increasing CTA uptake by antigen-presenting cells. SSX-2-specific antibodies were restricted to IgG3, NY-ESO-1 responses to IgG1 and IgG3. Remarkably, NY-ESO-1-positive sera recognized various non-contiguous regions, while SSX-2-specific responses were directed against a single 6mer epitope, SSX-2(85-90).
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that primary autoantibodies against intracellular MM-specific tumor antigens SSX-2 and NY-ESO-1 are rare but functional. While their contribution to disease control still remains unclear, our data demonstrate their theoretic ability to affect cellular anti-tumor immunity by formation and uptake of mono- and polyvalent immune complexes.
Braga WM, da Silva BR, Alves VL, et al.Is there any relationship between gene expression of tumor antigens and CD4+ T cells in multiple myeloma?
Immunotherapy. 2014; 6(5):569-75 [PubMed
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AIM: The present study aimed at correlating the expression of cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) with the expression of genes related to tumor-infiltrating T cells.
MATERIALS & METHODS: MAGE-C1/CT-7, MAGEA3/6, NY-ESO-1, LAGE-1 and GAGE expression were evaluated in 46 bone marrow multiple myeloma (MM) aspirates by RT-PCR. Expression of FOXP3/CTLA4 and RORyt, as markers for Tregs and Th17 cells, respectively, was investigated by quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: MAGEC1/CT7 was expressed in 66% of MM samples. We did not find correlation between the presence of single CTA and expression of CTLA4 or RORyt neither expression of CD4(+) T-cell markers and the number of CTA simultaneously expressed in the tumor. However, we did observe a correlation between the percentage of plasma cells and the number of CTAs expressed in the patients' bone marrow.
CONCLUSION: Although CTAs and immunomodulatory CD4(+) T cells represent potential targets for immunotherapy in MM, we did not find association among expression of such genes in MM.
Grah JJ, Katalinic D, Juretic A, et al.Clinical significance of immunohistochemical expression of cancer/testis tumor-associated antigens (MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3/4, NY-ESO-1) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Tumori. 2014 Jan-Feb; 100(1):60-8 [PubMed
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AIMS AND BACKGROUND: This paper deals with the clinical significance of the immunohistochemical expression of MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1 antigens in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The study included 80 patients with NSCLC (40 with adenocarcinoma, 40 with squamous cell carcinoma) who had undergone surgery. MAGE-A1 and MAGE-A3/4 antigen expression was determined by an immunohistochemical method using the monoclonal antibody 57B, and NY-ESO-1 antigen expression was determined with the addition of the B188.8.131.52 antibody. The expression of these antigens was compared with the clinicopathological features of the tumors and the survival of the patients.
RESULTS: MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1 were expressed in 17.3%, 44.4% and 18.5% of NSCLC patients, respectively. A statistically higher immunohistological expression rate of MAGE-A3/4 was found in squamous cell carcinoma (P <0.001) and a significantly higher amount of tumor necrosis was observed in tumors with MAGE-3 expression (P = 0.001), but no correlation with positive lymph nodes was found. There was a statistically significant correlation between MAGE-A1 expression in adenocarcinoma and the presence of tumor necrosis (P = 0.05). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between NY-ESO-1 expression and positive lymph nodes in adenocarcinoma, but not in squamous cell carcinoma. No statistically significant difference in patient survival was found with regard to tumor type and the observed histopathological characteristics except tumor size. Statistically significantly better survival was found in the group of patients with adenocarcinomas who had positive expression of MAGE-A3/4 (P = 0.012).
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the expression of MAGE-A3/4 antigen might be a valuable prognostic factor regarding survival in patients with NSCLC.
Ayyoub M, Scarlata CM, Hamaï A, et al.Expression of MAGE-A3/6 in primary breast cancer is associated with hormone receptor negative status, high histologic grade, and poor survival.
J Immunother. 2014 Feb-Mar; 37(2):73-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The cancer testis antigen (CTA), melanoma-associated antigen A3/6 (MAGE-A3/6), is expressed in human cancers of different histologic types, to variable extents, and is an important target for immunotherapy. In this study, to address the potential of MAGE-A3/6 as an immunotherapeutic target in breast cancer (BC), we assessed MAGE-A3/6 expression by PCR in a cohort of 362 primary BC tumors and analyzed the correlation between MAGE-A3/6 expression, tumors hormone receptor (HR) status, and other clinicopathologic features. We found expression of MAGE-A3/6 in 10% of primary BC tumors. MAGE-A3/6 expression was significantly correlated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) negative status and was frequent in ER (29%) and in PR (24%) tumors. MAGE-A3/6 expression was also significantly associated with high histologic grade but not with patients age, tumor size, tumor type, lymph-node invasion, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression. Consistent with the associated poor clinicopathologic features, patients with MAGE-A3/6-expressing tumors had a worse disease-specific survival as compared with patients with MAGE-A3/6 tumors. The frequent expression of MAGE-A3/6 in tumors of patients with primary HR BC, who have, for a large part, limited therapeutic options, encourages the selection of BC patients bearing MAGE-A3/6-expressing tumors for targeted immunotherapy.
Myxoid and round-cell liposarcoma is a frequently encountered liposarcoma subtype. The mainstay of treatment remains surgical excision with or without chemoradiation. However, treatment options are limited in the setting of metastatic disease. Cancer-testis antigens are immunogenic antigens with the expression largely restricted to testicular germ cells and various malignancies, making them attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy. Gene expression studies have reported the expression of various cancer-testis antigens in liposarcoma, with mRNA expression of CTAG1B, CTAG2, MAGEA9, and PRAME described specifically in myxoid and round-cell liposarcoma. Herein, we further explore the expression of the cancer-testis antigens MAGEA1, ACRBP, PRAME, and SSX2 in myxoid and round-cell liposarcoma by immunohistochemistry in addition to determining mRNA levels of CTAG2 (LAGE-1), PRAME, and MAGEA3 by quantitative real-time PCR. Samples in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks (n=37) and frozen tissue (n=8) were obtained for immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Full sections were stained with antibodies to MAGEA1, ACRBP, PRAME, and SSX2 and staining was assessed for intensity (1-2+) and percent tumor positivity. The gene expression levels of CTAG2, PRAME, and MAGEA3 were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. In total, 37/37 (100%) of the samples showed predominantly strong, homogenous immunoreactivity for PRAME. There was a variable, focal expression of MAGEA1 (11%) and SSX2 (16%) and no expression of ACRBP. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated PRAME and CTAG2 transcripts in all eight samples: six tumors with high mRNA levels; two tumors with low mRNA levels. The gene expression of MAGEA3 was not detected in the majority of cases. In conclusion, myxoid and round-cell liposarcomas consistently express PRAME by immunohistochemistry as well as CTAG2 and PRAME by qualitative real-time PCR. This supports the use of cancer-testis antigen-targeted immunotherapy in the treatment of this malignancy.
Adam V, Wauters I, Vansteenkiste JMelanoma-associated antigen-A3 vaccination in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer.
Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2014; 14(3):365-76 [PubMed
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INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer is a common health problem with a bad prognosis, despite recent advances in its treatment. Antigen-specific immunotherapy implies the administration of tumor-specific antigens with an immunostimulant to induce a powerful antitumor immune response, which has shown to be capable of eliminating tumor cells. Melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) A3 is a good antigen to use in antigen-specific immunotherapy, since it is aberrantly expressed in cancer cells, but not expressed in normal tissue, except in germline and placental cells.
AREAS COVERED: Trials have been performed with the MAGE-A3 vaccine in the adjuvant setting after resection of non-small-cell lung cancer. They have shown that the MAGE-A3 vaccine is safe and well tolerated, with promising signs of clinical benefit, especially in patients expressing a specific gene signature. Outcome data are currently expected of a large Phase III randomized controlled trial in the same setting.
EXPERT OPINION: The future is hopeful for antigen-specific immunotherapy in general and MAGE-A3 vaccine in specific. Further research needs to identify new tumor-specific antigens, more potent adjuvants and genetic profiles suggestive of a better response toward antigen-specific immunotherapy. The MAGE-A3 vaccine has to be investigated in other settings than the adjuvant one and in other tumor types expressing MAGE-A3.
Batchu RB, Gruzdyn OV, Moreno-Bost AM, et al.Efficient lysis of epithelial ovarian cancer cells by MAGE-A3-induced cytotoxic T lymphocytes using rAAV-6 capsid mutant vector.
Vaccine. 2014; 32(8):938-43 [PubMed
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MAGE-A3 is highly expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), making it a promising candidate for immunotherapy. We investigated whether dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a rAAV-6 capsid mutant vector Y445F could elicit effective MAGE-A3-specific anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in vitro. MAGE-A3 was cloned and rAAV-6-MAGE-A3 purified, followed by proviral genome detection using real-time PCR. Immunofluorescence detection of rAAV-6-Y445F-MAGE-A3-transduced DCs demonstrated 60% transduction efficiency. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis confirmed chromosomal integration of rAAV vectors. Flow cytometric analysis of transduced DCs showed unaltered expression of critical monocyte-derived surface molecules with retention of allo-stimulatory activity. Co-culture of autologous T lymphocytes with MAGE-A3-expressing DCs produced CTLs that secreted IFN-γ, and efficiently killed MAGE-A3+ EOC cells. This form of rAAV-based DC immunotherapy, either alone or more likely in combination with other immune-enhancing protocols, may prove useful in the clinical setting for management of EOC.
Lin L, Wei J, Chen Y, et al.Induction of antigen-specific immune responses by dendritic cells transduced with a recombinant lentiviral vector encoding MAGE-A3 gene.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(2):281-9 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Melanoma antigen gene A3 (MAGE-A3) is aberrantly expressed in a number of cancer types. Because of its high specificity, MAGE-A3 has shown to be a promising candidate for cancer immunotherapy. Dendritic cells (DCs) have emerged as the natural agents for antigen delivery. DCs transduced with antigen may increase immune response and maintain immune durability. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of DCs transduced with lentiviral vectors (LVs) encoding full-length MAGE-A3 gene in cancer immunotherapy .
METHODS: A LV containing full-length MAGE-A3 gene (rLV/MAGE-A3) was constructed. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing were performed to verify the construct. Human DCs derived from umbilical cord blood were then transduced with rLV/MAGE-A3. The potency of rLV/MAGE-A3-transduced DCs was examined by measurement of surface markers and mixed lymphocyte reaction. The MAGE-A3-specific T-cell response induced by DCs was detected using the lactate dehydrogenase release assay.
RESULTS: rLV/MAGE-A3 was constructed successfully and used to transduce DCs efficiently. DCs transduced with rLV/MAGE-A3 stably expressed MAGE-A3 and yielded high percentage of cells expressing CD80, CD86, and HLA-DR. rLV/MAGE-A3 transduction did not impair DCs viability and maturation at a multiplicity of infection of 30. The rLV/MAGE-A3-transduced DCs induced MAGE-A3-specific T lymphocytes that exhibited a significant lysis activity against MAGE-A3-bearing tumor cell lines (HuH-7 and SGC-7901).
CONCLUSIONS: DC-directed rLV/MAGE-A3 efficiently induced antigen-specific immune responses, indicating the possibility of DC-based MAGE-A3 antigen vaccine as a promising strategy for treatment of MAGE-A3-associated cancer.
Bode PK, Thielken A, Brandt S, et al.Cancer testis antigen expression in testicular germ cell tumorigenesis.
Mod Pathol. 2014; 27(6):899-905 [PubMed
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Cancer testis antigens are encoded by germ line-associated genes that are present in normal germ cells of testis and ovary but not in differentiated tissues. Their expression in various human cancer types has been interpreted as 're-expression' or as intratumoral progenitor cell signature. Cancer testis antigen expression patterns have not yet been studied in germ cell tumorigenesis with specific emphasis on intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified as a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors. Immunohistochemistry was used to study MAGEA3, MAGEA4, MAGEC1, GAGE1 and CTAG1B expression in 325 primary testicular germ cell tumors, including 94 mixed germ cell tumors. Seminomatous and non-seminomatous components were separately arranged and evaluated on tissue microarrays. Spermatogonia in the normal testis were positive, whereas intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified was negative for all five CT antigens. Cancer testis antigen expression was only found in 3% (CTAG1B), 10% (GAGE1, MAGEA4), 33% (MAGEA3) and 40% (MAGEC1) of classic seminoma but not in non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors. In contrast, all spermatocytic seminomas were positive for cancer testis antigens. These data are consistent with a different cell origin in spermatocytic seminoma compared with classic seminoma and support a progression model with loss of cancer testis antigens in early tumorigenesis of testicular germ cell tumors and later re-expression in a subset of seminomas.
Beard RE, Abate-Daga D, Rosati SF, et al.Gene expression profiling using nanostring digital RNA counting to identify potential target antigens for melanoma immunotherapy.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(18):4941-50 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The success of immunotherapy for the treatment of metastatic cancer is contingent on the identification of appropriate target antigens. Potential targets must be expressed on tumors but show restricted expression on normal tissues. To maximize patient eligibility, ideal target antigens should be expressed on a high percentage of tumors within a histology and, potentially, in multiple different malignancies.
DESIGN: A Nanostring probeset was designed containing 97 genes, 72 of which are considered potential candidate genes for immunotherapy. Five established melanoma cell lines, 59 resected metastatic melanoma tumors, and 31 normal tissue samples were profiled and analyzed using Nanostring technology.
RESULTS: Of the 72 potential target genes, 33 were overexpressed in more than 20% of studied melanoma tumor samples. Twenty of those genes were identified as differentially expressed between normal tissues and tumor samples by ANOVA analysis. Analysis of normal tissue gene expression identified seven genes with limited normal tissue expression that warrant further consideration as potential immunotherapy target antigens: CSAG2, MAGEA3, MAGEC2, IL13RA2, PRAME, CSPG4, and SOX10. These genes were highly overexpressed on a large percentage of the studied tumor samples, with expression in a limited number of normal tissue samples at much lower levels.
CONCLUSION: The application of Nanostring RNA counting technology was used to directly quantitate the gene expression levels of multiple potential tumor antigens. Analysis of cell lines, 59 tumors, and normal tissues identified seven potential immunotherapy targets for the treatment of melanoma that could increase the number of patients potentially eligible for adoptive immunotherapy.
Shen X, Jin J, Ding Y, et al.Novel immunodominant epitopes derived from MAGE-A3 and its significance in serological diagnosis of gastric cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2013; 139(9):1529-38 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: To evaluate the significance of MAGE-A3 novel immunodominant epitopes in serological diagnosis of gastric cancer.
METHODS: B cell, CTL, and Th epitopes of MAGE-A3 were analyzed using computer-assisted techniques. Three possible immunodominant epitope peptides located at 5aa-23aa (QRSQHCKPEEGLEARGEAL), 112aa-131aa (KVAELVHFLLLKYRAREPVT), and 232aa-246aa (EGREDSILGDPKKLL) with potential B cell-dominant epitope, high-score HLA-A2 and A24 restriction CTL epitope, and HLA-DRB restriction Th epitope were selected. After optimized by prokaryotic codon, these genes were expressed as Trx-His-tag recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-NTA agarose beads. Three recombinant proteins were identified by Western blotting using His-tag monoclonal antibody and the serum antibodies from the patient of gastric cancer. The level of specific antibodies in the sera from 210 patients with gastric cancer, 56 patients with chronic gastritis, and 116 healthy controls was further analyzed by indirect ELISA.
RESULTS: Three MAGE-A3 epitope recombinant proteins about 20 kDa molecular weight were specifically recognized by His-tag monoclonal antibody and the serum of gastric cancer patients. ELISA based on the epitope recombinant protein indicated that gastric cancer patients had significantly higher reactivity to these immunodominant epitope proteins compared with chronic gastritis and healthy individuals (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the serum antibody positive rate in the gastric cancer group was also significantly higher than that in the chronic gastritis patients and healthy controls (P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in gastritis group and the healthy control group (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: These study results demonstrated that these three predictive epitopes may be potential targets for applications in the design of serological diagnosis tools for gastric cancer.
Weber G, Caruana I, Rouce RH, et al.Generation of tumor antigen-specific T cell lines from pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia--implications for immunotherapy.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(18):5079-91 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Although modern cure rates for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) exceed 80%, the outlook remains poor in patients with high-risk disease and those who relapse, especially when allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is not feasible. Strategies to improve outcome and prevent relapse are therefore required. Immunotherapy with antigen-specific T cells can have antileukemic activity without the toxicities seen with intensive chemotherapy, and therefore represents an attractive strategy to improve the outcome of high-risk patients with ALL. We explored the feasibility of generating tumor antigen-specific T cells ex vivo from the peripheral blood of 50 patients with ALL [26 National Cancer Institute (NCI) high-risk and 24 standard-risk] receiving maintenance therapy.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with complete peptide libraries of WT1, Survivin, MAGE-A3, and PRAME, antigens frequently expressed on ALL blasts.
RESULTS: T-cell lines were successfully expanded from all patients, despite low lymphocyte counts and irrespective of NCI risk group. Antigen-specificity was observed in more than 50% of patients after the initial stimulation and increased to more than 90% after three stimulations as assessed in IFN-γ-enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) and (51)Cr-release assays. Moreover, tumor-specific responses were observed by reduction of autologous leukemia blasts in short- and long-term coculture experiments.
CONCLUSION: This study supports the use of immunotherapy with adoptively transferred autologous tumor antigen-specific T cells to prevent relapse and improve the prognosis of patients with high-risk ALL.
An obstacle to cancer immunotherapy has been that the affinity of T-cell receptors (TCRs) for antigens expressed in tumors is generally low. We initiated clinical testing of engineered T cells expressing an affinity-enhanced TCR against HLA-A*01-restricted MAGE-A3. Open-label protocols to test the TCRs for patients with myeloma and melanoma were initiated. The first two treated patients developed cardiogenic shock and died within a few days of T-cell infusion, events not predicted by preclinical studies of the high-affinity TCRs. Gross findings at autopsy revealed severe myocardial damage, and histopathological analysis revealed T-cell infiltration. No MAGE-A3 expression was detected in heart autopsy tissues. Robust proliferation of the engineered T cells in vivo was documented in both patients. A beating cardiomyocyte culture generated from induced pluripotent stem cells triggered T-cell killing, which was due to recognition of an unrelated peptide derived from the striated muscle-specific protein titin. These patients demonstrate that TCR-engineered T cells can have serious and not readily predictable off-target and organ-specific toxicities and highlight the need for improved methods to define the specificity of engineered TCRs.
Vansteenkiste J, Zielinski M, Linder A, et al.Adjuvant MAGE-A3 immunotherapy in resected non-small-cell lung cancer: phase II randomized study results.
J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31(19):2396-403 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: The MAGE-A3 protein is expressed in approximately 35% of patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Several immunization approaches against the MAGE-A3 antigen have shown few, but often long-lasting, clinical responses in patients with metastatic melanoma.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase II study was performed assessing clinical activity, immunologic response, and safety following immunization with recombinant MAGE-A3 protein combined with an immunostimulant (13 doses over 27 months) in completely resected MAGE-A3-positive stage IB to II NSCLC. The primary end point was disease-free interval (DFI).
RESULTS: Patients were randomly assigned to either MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic (n = 122) or placebo (n = 60). After a median postresection period of 44 months, recurrence was observed in 35% of patients in the MAGE-A3 arm and 43% in the placebo arm. No statistically significant improvement in DFI (hazard ratio [HR], 0.75, 95% CI, 0.46 to 1.23; two-sided P = .254), disease-free survival (DFS; HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.21; P = .248), or overall survival (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.40; P = .454) was observed. Corresponding analysis after a median of 70 months of follow-up revealed a similar trend for DFI and DFS. All patients receiving the active treatment showed a humoral immune response to the MAGE-A3 antigen, although no correlation was observed with outcome. No significant toxicity was observed.
CONCLUSION: In this early development study with a limited number of patients, postoperative MAGE-A3 immunization proved to be feasible with minimal toxicity. These results are being investigated further in a large phase III study.
Ulloa-Montoya F, Louahed J, Dizier B, et al.Predictive gene signature in MAGE-A3 antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy.
J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31(19):2388-95 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: To detect a pretreatment gene expression signature (GS) predictive of response to MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic in patients with metastatic melanoma and to investigate its applicability in a different cancer setting (adjuvant therapy of resected early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer [NSCLC]).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were participants in two phase II studies of the recombinant MAGE-A3 antigen combined with an immunostimulant (AS15 or AS02B). mRNA from melanoma biopsies was analyzed by microarray analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. These results were used to identify and cross-validate the GS, which was then applied to the NSCLC data.
RESULTS: In the patients with melanoma, 84 genes were identified whose expression was potentially associated with clinical benefit. This effect was strongest when the immunostimulant AS15 was included in the immunotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] for overall survival, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.13 to 1.05; P = .06) and was less strong with the other immunostimulant AS02B (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.36 to 1.97; P = .70). The same GS was then used to predict the outcome for patients with resected NSCLC treated with MAGE-A3 plus AS02B; actively treated GS-positive patients showed a favorable disease-free interval compared with placebo-treated GS-positive patients (HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.17 to 1.03; P = .06), whereas among GS-negative patients, no such difference was found (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.59 to 2.31; P = .65). The genes identified were mainly immune related, involving interferon gamma pathways and specific chemokines, suggesting that their pretreatment expression influences the tumor's immune microenvironment and the patient's clinical response.
CONCLUSION: An 84-gene GS associated with clinical response for MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic was identified in metastatic melanoma and confirmed in resected NSCLC.
Yamada R, Takahashi A, Torigoe T, et al.Preferential expression of cancer/testis genes in cancer stem-like cells: proposal of a novel sub-category, cancer/testis/stem gene.
Tissue Antigens. 2013; 81(6):428-34 [PubMed
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Cancer/testis (CT) antigens encoded by CT genes are immunogenic antigens, and the expression of CT gene is strictly restricted to only the testis among mature organs. Therefore, CT antigens are promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy. In a previous study, we identified a novel CT antigen, DNAJB8. DNAJB8 was found to be preferentially expressed in cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs), and it is thus a novel CSC antigen. In this study, we hypothesized that CT genes are preferentially expressed in CSCs/CICs rather than in non-CSCs/-CICs and we examined the expression of CT genes in CSCs/CICs. The expression of 74 CT genes was evaluated in side population (SP) cells (=CSC) and main population (MP) cells (=non-CSC) derived from LHK2 lung adenocarcinoma cells, SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cells and MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma cells by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Eighteen genes (MAGEA2, MAGEA3, MAGEA4, MAGEA6, MAGEA12, MAGEB2, GAGE1, GAGE8, SPANXA1, SPANXB1, SPANXC, XAGE2, SPA17, BORIS, PLU-1, SGY-1, TEX15 and CT45A1) showed higher expression levels in SP cells than in MP cells, whereas 10 genes (BAGE1, BAGE2, BAGE4, BAGE5, XAGE1, LIP1, D40, HCA661, TDRD1 and TPTE) showed similar expression levels in SP cells and MP cells. Thus, considerable numbers of CT genes showed preferential expression in CSCs/CICs. We therefore propose a novel sub-category of CT genes in this report: cancer/testis/stem (CTS) genes.
Lee HS, Kim SW, Hong JC, et al.Expression of MAGE A1-6 and the clinical characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(4):1731-5 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The expression of melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) gene has been studied in many types of cancer. In the present study we evaluated the correlation between MAGE expression and the clinical features and oncologic outcomes of patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 85 patients who underwent surgery for PTC and analysis of their tumor tissue by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with the MAGE common primer to detect the MAGE A1-6 gene. The associations between MAGE expression and clinical characteristics were analyzed.
RESULTS: Expression of MAGE A1-6 in PTC was identified in 31 patients (36.5%). Only papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) was significantly related to MAGE expression in our univariate analysis (p=0.002) and multivariate analysis (p=0.006). MAGE had no significant impact on survival.
CONCLUSION: Expression of MAGE A1-6 in PTC is significantly correlated with the presence of PTMC. Our study suggests that MAGE expression may be related to early-stage PTC.