Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia


Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression (21)

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MYD88 3p22.2 MYD88D -MYD88 and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
IGH 14q32.33 IGD1, IGH@, IGHJ, IGHV, IGHD@, IGHJ@, IGHV@, IGH.1@, IGHDY1 -IGH and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
CXCR4 2q21 FB22, HM89, LAP3, LCR1, NPYR, WHIM, CD184, LAP-3, LESTR, NPY3R, NPYRL, WHIMS, HSY3RR, NPYY3R, D2S201E -CXCR4 and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
HAS1 19q13.41 HAS -HAS1 and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
IRAK1 Xq28 IRAK, pelle -IRAK1 and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
HCK 20q11.21 JTK9, p59Hck, p61Hck -HCK and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
IL6 7p15.3 CDF, HGF, HSF, BSF2, IL-6, BSF-2, IFNB2, IFN-beta-2 -IL6 and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
HDAC4 2q37.3 HD4, AHO3, BDMR, HDACA, HA6116, HDAC-4, HDAC-A -HDAC4 and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
BCL10 1p22.3 CLAP, mE10, CIPER, IMD37, c-E10, CARMEN -BCL10 and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
IRAK2 3p25.3 IRAK-2 -IRAK2 and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
FCGR2B 1q23.3 CD32, FCG2, CD32B, FCGR2, IGFR2, FCGR2C, FcRII-c -FCGR2B and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
EGLN3 14q13.1 PHD3, HIFPH3, HIFP4H3 -EGLN3 and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
CRP 1q23.2 PTX1 -CRP and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
POU2F2 19q13.2 OCT2, OTF2, Oct-2 -POU2F2 and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
PRF1 10q22.1 P1, PFP, FLH2, PFN1, HPLH2 -PRF1 and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
EGLN1 1q42.2 HPH2, PHD2, SM20, ECYT3, HALAH, HPH-2, HIFPH2, ZMYND6, C1orf12, HIF-PH2 -EGLN1 and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
POU2F1 1q24.2 OCT1, OTF1, oct-1B -POU2F1 and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
IL4 5q31.1 BSF1, IL-4, BCGF1, BSF-1, BCGF-1 -IL4 and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
FCGR2A 1q23.3 CD32, FCG2, FcGR, CD32A, CDw32, FCGR2, IGFR2, FCGR2A1 -FCGR2A and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
GZMB 14q12 C11, HLP, CCPI, CGL1, CSPB, SECT, CGL-1, CSP-B, CTLA1, CTSGL1 -GZMB and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
PTPRC 1q31.3-q32.1 LCA, LY5, B220, CD45, L-CA, T200, CD45R, GP180 -PTPRC and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications

Sekiguchi N, Nomoto J, Nagata A, et al.
Gene Expression Profile Signature of Aggressive Waldenström Macroglobulinemia with Chromosome 6q Deletion.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:6728128 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare, indolent B-cell lymphoma. Clinically, chromosome 6q deletion (6q del) including loss of the B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 gene (BLIMP-1) is reported to be associated with poor prognosis. However, it remains unclear how the underlying biological mechanism contributes to the aggressiveness of WM with 6q del.
Methods: Here, we conducted oligonucleotide microarray analysis to clarify the differences in gene expression between WM with and without 6q del. Gene ontology (GO) analysis was performed to identify the main pathways underlying differences in gene expression. Eight bone marrow formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of WM were processed for interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, and three were shown to have 6q del.
Results: GO analysis revealed significant terms including "lymphocyte activation" (corrected p value=6.68E-11), which included 31 probes. Moreover,
Conclusion: The present study suggested that the BCR signaling pathway and

McMaster ML, Berndt SI, Zhang J, et al.
Two high-risk susceptibility loci at 6p25.3 and 14q32.13 for Waldenström macroglobulinemia.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):4182 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM)/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) is a rare, chronic B-cell lymphoma with high heritability. We conduct a two-stage genome-wide association study of WM/LPL in 530 unrelated cases and 4362 controls of European ancestry and identify two high-risk loci associated with WM/LPL at 6p25.3 (rs116446171, near EXOC2 and IRF4; OR = 21.14, 95% CI: 14.40-31.03, P = 1.36 × 10

Spinner MA, Varma G, Advani RH
Novel Approaches in Waldenström Macroglobulinemia.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2018; 32(5):875-890 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent advances in the understanding of Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) biology have paved the way for development of a plethora of novel therapeutic strategies. The success of ibrutinib in WM has shifted treatment paradigms away from conventional chemoimmunotherapy approaches. Recognition of high-risk genomic subgroups as well as mechanisms of acquired resistance to ibrutinib have led to targeting of additional pathways. In this article, the authors review ongoing and emerging trials of novel therapies in WM that target the B-cell receptor pathway beyond ibrutinib, toll-like receptor pathway, chemokine signaling, apoptotic pathway, chromatin remodeling, protein transport, the immune microenvironment, and CD19-directed immunotherapy.

McMaster ML
Familial Waldenström Macroglobulinemia: Families Informing Populations.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2018; 32(5):787-809 [PubMed] Related Publications
Familial clustering of Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) has been observed for nearly 6 decades. Family studies have provided seminal observations in delineating the phenotypic spectrum of WM susceptibility and confirming the importance of immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (IgM MGUS) as a precursor condition for WM, providing the rationale for large population-based epidemiologic studies of IgM MGUS and WM, and providing both the basis and the material for ongoing genetic studies aimed at identifying WM predisposition genes. Together, these investigations may help elucidate the host factors underlying WM development.

Jalali S, Ansell SM
The Bone Marrow Microenvironment in Waldenström Macroglobulinemia.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2018; 32(5):777-786 [PubMed] Related Publications
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is an indolent B-cell lymphoma defined predominantly by infiltration of lymphoplasmacytic cells into the bone marrow (BM) and increased production of monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) by lymphoplasmacytic cells, and the secretion of IgM is enhanced by cytokines in the bone marrow microenvironment. This article highlights the available data regarding the interaction of WM cells with both the cellular and noncellular compartments of the BM microenvironment and discusses how the BM promotes malignant cell growth and increases IgM production in this disease.

Magierowicz M, Tomowiak C, Leleu X, Poulain S
Working Toward a Genomic Prognostic Classification of Waldenström Macroglobulinemia: C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 4 Mutation and Beyond.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2018; 32(5):753-763 [PubMed] Related Publications
Waldenström macroglobulinemia is a rare indolent B-cell lymphoma. Whole-exome sequencing studies have improved our knowledge of the Waldenström macroglobulinemia mutational landscape. The MYD88 L265P mutation is present in nearly 90% of patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia. CXCR4 mutations are identified in approximately 30% of MYD88L265P cases and have been associated with ibrutinib resistance in clinical trials. Mutations in CD79B, ARID1a, or TP53 were described at lower frequency. Deciphering the earliest initiating lesions and identifying the molecular alterations leading to disease progression currently represent important goals in the future to identify the most relevant targets for precision therapy in Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

Treon SP, Xu L, Liu X, et al.
Genomic Landscape of Waldenström Macroglobulinemia.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2018; 32(5):745-752 [PubMed] Related Publications
Next-generation sequencing has revealed recurring somatic mutations in Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). Common mutations include MYD88 (95%-97%), as well as CXCR4 (30%-40%), ARID1A (17%), and CD79B (8%-15%), which are typically found in MYD88-mutated patients. The genomic findings provide important insights into the pathogenesis, prognostication, and treatment outcome in WM. We discuss the genomic landscape of WM, and the impact of underlying genomics on disease presentation, transcriptional changes, treatment outcome, and overall survival impact.

Akasaka T, Kishimori C, Maekawa F, et al.
Pulmonary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma that presented with macroglobulinemia and marked plasmacytic cell proliferation carrying the t(14;18)(q32;q21)/MALT1-immunoglobulin heavy-chain fusion gene in pleural fluid.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2018; 58(3):141-147 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
An 80-year-old man presented with the accumulation of pleural fluid in the right thoracic cavity. Serum electrophoresis revealed an M-component and immunofixation confirmed IgM/λ. The level of IgM was 1,526 mg/dL. Imaging studies showed an infiltrative condition of the ipsilateral lung parenchyma. The fluid contained abundant neoplastic cells with the morphological and immunophenotypic features of plasma cells, which expressed IgM/λ monoclonal immunoglobulins on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm. The karyotype was 48,XY,+3,add(9)(p13),+12,add(14)(q32),del(16)(q22),-18,+mar, and a series of fluorescence in situ hybridization studies demonstrated that the add(14) chromosome represented der(14)t(14;18)(q32;q21), at which the MALT1-immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) fusion gene was localized. A long-distance polymerase chain reaction amplified the fragment encompassing the two genes, showing that the junction occurred at the J6 segment of IGH and 3.7-kb upstream of the MALT1 breakpoint cluster. We propose that this case represents an extreme form of the plasmacytic differentiation of extranodal marginal zone lymphoma that developed in the lung.

Fang H, Kapoor P, Gonsalves WI, et al.
Defining Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma: Does MYD88L265P Define a Pathologically Distinct Entity Among Patients With an IgM Paraprotein and Bone Marrow-Based Low-Grade B-Cell Lymphomas With Plasmacytic Differentiation?
Am J Clin Pathol. 2018; 150(2):168-176 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objectives: Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) remains a poorly defined entity, even with the discovery of MYD88L265P mutations and association with Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). Among bone marrow (BM)-based, low-grade B-cell lymphoma with plasmacytic differentiation (LGBLPD) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) paraproteins, we sought to determine whether MYD88L265P defines a distinct entity and can help refine diagnostic criteria for LPL.
Methods: BMs diagnosed with LGBLPD or LPL and serum IgM paraprotein were studied (2007-2013). Clinicopathologic features were reviewed and specimens were tested for MYD88L265P.
Results: In total, 138 (87%) of 159 cases had MYD88L265P, and 158 of 159 were clinically considered WM. MYD88L265P cases had higher disease burden than MYD88WT. Features associated with MYD88L265P include increased mast cells and lymphocyte (not plasma cell)-predominant infiltrate. Hemosiderin, Dutcher bodies, and paratrabecular growth were not associated with MYD88L265P.
Conclusions: Our data support a clinicopathologic approach to LPL diagnosis and recognition that it may manifest with varying morphologies, phenotypes, and molecular features.

Yu X, Li W, Deng Q, et al.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(10):2457-2462 [PubMed] Related Publications
Next-generation sequencing has revealed cancer genomic landscapes, in which over 100 driver genes that, when altered by intragenic mutations, can promote oncogenesis.

Drandi D, Genuardi E, Dogliotti I, et al.
Highly sensitive
Haematologica. 2018; 103(6):1029-1037 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We here describe a novel method for

Jiménez C, Prieto-Conde MI, García-Álvarez M, et al.
Unraveling the heterogeneity of IgM monoclonal gammopathies: a gene mutational and gene expression study.
Ann Hematol. 2018; 97(3):475-484 [PubMed] Related Publications
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathies show considerable variability, involving three different stages of presentation: IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (IgM-MGUS), asymptomatic Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (AWM), and symptomatic WM (SWM). Despite recent findings about the genomic and transcriptomic characteristics of such disorders, we know little about the causes of this clinical heterogeneity or the mechanisms involved in the progression from indolent to symptomatic forms. To clarify these matters, we have performed a gene expression and mutational study in a well-characterized cohort of 69 patients, distinguishing between the three disease presentations in an attempt to establish the relationship with the clinical and biological features of the patients. Results showed that the frequency of genetic alterations progressively increased from IgM-MGUS to AWM and SWM. This means that, in contrast to MYD88 p.L265P and CXCR4 WHIM mutations, present from the beginning of the pathogenesis, most of them would be acquired during the course of the disease. Moreover, the expression study revealed a higher level of expression of genes belonging to the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway in symptomatic versus indolent forms, which was also reflected in the disease presentation and prognosis. In conclusion, our findings showed that IgM monoclonal gammopathies present higher mutational burden as the disease progresses, in parallel to the upregulation of relevant pathogenic pathways. This study provides a translational view of the genomic basis of WM pathogenesis.

Castillo JJ, Treon SP
Toward personalized treatment in Waldenström macroglobulinemia.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2017; 2017(1):365-370 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare lymphoma with 1000 to 1500 new patients diagnosed per year in the United States. Patients with WM can experience prolonged survival times, which seem to have increased in the last decade, but relapse is inevitable. The identification of recurrent mutations in the MYD88 and CXCR4 genes has opened avenues of research to better understand and treat patients with WM. These developments are giving way to personalized treatment approaches for these patients, focusing on increasing depth and duration of response alongside lower toxicity rates. In the present document, we review the diagnostic differential, the clinical manifestations, and the pathological and genomic features of patients with WM. We also discuss the safety and efficacy data of alkylating agents, proteasome inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with WM. Finally, we propose a genomically driven algorithm for the treatment of WM. The future of therapies for WM appears bright and hopeful, but we should be mindful of the cost-effectiveness and long-term toxicity of novel agents.

Treon SP, Gustine J, Xu L, et al.
MYD88 wild-type Waldenstrom Macroglobulinaemia: differential diagnosis, risk of histological transformation, and overall survival.
Br J Haematol. 2018; 180(3):374-380 [PubMed] Related Publications
MYD88 mutations are present in 95% of Waldenstrom Macroglobulinaemia (WM) patients, and support diagnostic discrimination from other IgM-secreting B-cell malignancies. Diagnostic discrimination can be difficult among suspected wild-type MYD88 (MYD88

Abeykoon JP, Paludo J, King RL, et al.
MYD88 mutation status does not impact overall survival in Waldenström macroglobulinemia.
Am J Hematol. 2018; 93(2):187-194 [PubMed] Related Publications
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is an immunoglobulin M-associated lymphoma, with majority of cases demonstrating MYD88 locus alteration, most commonly, MYD88

Szemlaky Z, Mikala G
[Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and its individualized therapy options].
Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(41):1604-1614 [PubMed] Related Publications
Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia is a form of lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma that preferentially localizes to the bone marrow and causes a special syndrome characterized by monoclonal IgM hypersecretion. Recent results point to the fact that this disease has at least three different pathobiological forms with different clinical presentation. While mutations of MYD88 occur in 95-97% of the cases, there are CXCR4 mutations in 30-40%, ARID1A mutations in 17% and CD79B mutations in approximately 10% of afflicted individuals. CXCR pathway signaling is able to transcriptionally silence tumor suppressors induced by MYD88 activation. Patients with mutated MYD88 and CXCR4 present with higher tumor burden, slower developing and less deep response upon therapy with more frequent resistance. In this review, based on the most recent data, a treatment selection advice is provided for the therapy of symptomatic patients. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(41): 1604-1614.

Varettoni M, Zibellini S, Defrancesco I, et al.
Pattern of somatic mutations in patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia or IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.
Haematologica. 2017; 102(12):2077-2085 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We analyzed

Growkova K, Kufová Z, Sevcikova T, et al.
Diagnostic Tools of Waldenströms Macroglobulinemia - Best Possibilities for Non-invasive and Long-term Disease Monitoring.
Klin Onkol. Summer 2017; 30(Supplementum2):81-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Waldenströms macroglobulinemia (WM) is a B-cell malignancy characterized by high level of monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) paraprotein in blood serum and associated with the bone marrow infiltration by malignant cells with lymphoplasmacytic differentiation. WM remains incurable advances in therapy. Most of WM cases are associated with a somatic point mutation L265P in MYD88. Significantly higher risk of progression from the IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (IgM MGUS) to WM for patients with mutated MYD88 gene suggests that this mutation is an early oncogenic event and plays a central role in development of malignant clones. The second, most prevalent mutation in WM is found in the CXCR4 gene and is often associated with drug resistance and aggressive disease presentation. Therefore, detection of these mutations (MYD88L265P and CXCR4S338X) could be useful diagnostic and prognostic tool for the patients with WM. While detection of these mutations in bone marrow sample is common, the aim of our study was to compare sensitivity of detection of mutation from different cell fraction from peripheral blood and bone marrow. The results show possibility to describe MYD88 and CXCR4 mutation status even from peripheral blood sample (sensitivity for MYD88L265P was 100%, for CXCR4S338X 91%), which significantly facilitate material collection. Moreover, comparable detection sensitivity of these mutations in bone marrow and peripheral blood samples examined before and during the therapy offers a promising tool for more routine diagnostic and monitoring of disease progression.Key words: Waldenström macroglobulinemia - hematology - neoplasms - lymphoma - mutation - MYD88 - CXCR4.

Meng Q, Cao XX, Li J
Significances of MYD88
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2017; 39(4):578-582 [PubMed] Related Publications
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia(WM) is a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma characterized by serum monoclonal IgM immunoglobulin.Recently,the high mutation rates of MYD88

Jiménez C, Alonso-Álvarez S, Alcoceba M, et al.
From Waldenström's macroglobulinemia to aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a whole-exome analysis of abnormalities leading to transformation.
Blood Cancer J. 2017; 7(8):e591 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transformation of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) occurs in up to 10% of patients and is associated with an adverse outcome. Here we performed the first whole-exome sequencing study of WM patients who evolved to DLBCL and report the genetic alterations that may drive this process. Our results demonstrate that transformation depends on the frequency and specificity of acquired variants, rather than on the duration of its evolution. We did not find a common pattern of mutations at diagnosis or transformation; however, there were certain abnormalities that were present in a high proportion of clonal tumor cells and conserved during this transition, suggesting that they have a key role as early drivers. In addition, recurrent mutations gained in some genes at transformation (for example, PIM1, FRYL and HNF1B) represent cooperating events in the selection of the clones responsible for disease progression. Detailed comparison reveals the gene abnormalities at diagnosis and transformation to be consistent with a branching model of evolution. Finally, the frequent mutation observed in the CD79B gene in this specific subset of patients implies that it is a potential biomarker predicting transformation in WM.

Poulain S, Roumier C, Bertrand E, et al.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(20):6325-6335 [PubMed] Related Publications

Paulus A, Akhtar S, Yousaf H, et al.
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia cells devoid of BTK
Blood Cancer J. 2017; 7(5):e565 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although ibrutinib is highly effective in Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM), no complete remissions in WM patients treated with ibrutinib have been reported to date. Moreover, ibrutinib-resistant disease is being steadily reported and is associated with dismal clinical outcome (overall survival of 2.9-3.1 months). To understand mechanisms of ibrutinib resistance in WM, we established ibrutinib-resistant in vitro models using validated WM cell lines. Characterization of these models revealed the absence of BTK

Sacco A, Fenotti A, Affò L, et al.
The importance of the genomic landscape in Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia for targeted therapeutical interventions.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(21):35435-35444 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Literature has recently reported on the importance of genomics in the field of hematologic malignancies, including B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders such as Waldenström's Macrolgobulinemia (WM). Particularly, whole exome sequencing has led to the identification of the MYD88L265P and CXCR4C1013G somatic variants in WM, occurring in about 90% and 30% of the patients, respectively. Subsequently, functional studies have demonstrated their functional role in supporting WM pathogenesis and disease progression, both in vitro and in vivo, thus providing the pre-clinical evidences for extremely attractive targets for novel therapeutic interventions in WM. Of note, recent evidences have also approached and defined the transcriptome profiling of WM cells, revealing a signature that mirrors the somatic aberrations demonstrated within the tumor clone. A parallel research field has also reported on microRNAs (miRNAs), highlighting the oncogenic role of miRNA-155 in WM. In the present review, we focus on the latest reports on genomics and miRNAs in WM, providing an overview of the clinical relevance of the latest acquired knowledge about genomics and miRNA aberrations in WM.

Fukushima M, Okoshi Y, Fukazawa K, et al.
Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma Presenting with Diarrhea and Joint Pain Which was Successfully Diagnosed by an MYD88 Mutation Analysis.
Intern Med. 2017; 56(7):847-851 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A 55-year-old man presented to our department with diarrhea, weight loss, fatigability, and polyarthralgia. Blood tests revealed elevated soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels and IgG-type M protein positivity, without any findings that were suggestive of collagen disease. After computed tomography (CT) detected enlarged lymph nodes in the abdominal para-aortic region, lymphoma was suspected. CT-guided needle biopsy of the lymph node did not help to achieve a definitive diagnosis; however, a bone marrow test showed the pathological features of B-cell lymphoma. A genetic examination detected a MYD88 L265P mutation; the mutation analysis was valuable in diagnosing lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma in a IgM-type M protein-negative patient.

Kida T, Tanimura A, Ono A, et al.
Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma accompanied by transformed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with the MYD88
Rinsho Ketsueki. 2017; 58(2):155-160 [PubMed] Related Publications
The gene mutation occurring with transformation in lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) /Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) has not been fully elucidated. Herein, we report a 61-year-old man with LPL/WM. In this case, the MYD88 gene mutation appeared with transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Bone marrow biopsy revealed the involvement of CD20 positive small plasmacytoid lymphocytes, indicating LPL/WM. However, the samples taken from both the cervical lymph node and the pleural effusion provided a pathological diagnosis of DLBCL. All samples showed the same patterns of surface antigen expressions and immunoglobulin gene rearrangements. Therefore, these lymphomas had identical clonality and were regarded as transformation from LPL/WM to DLBCL. The MYD88

Hunter ZR, Yang G, Xu L, et al.
Genomics, Signaling, and Treatment of Waldenström Macroglobulinemia.
J Clin Oncol. 2017; 35(9):994-1001 [PubMed] Related Publications
Next-generation sequencing has revealed recurring somatic mutations in Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). Commonly recurring mutations include MYD88 (95% to 97%), CXCR4 (30% to 40%), ARID1A (17%), and CD79B (8% to 15%). Diagnostic discrimination of WM from overlapping B-cell malignancies is aided by MYD88 mutation status. Transcription is affected by MYD88 and CXCR4 mutations and includes overexpression of genes involved in VDJ recombination, CXCR4 pathway signaling, and BCL2 family members. Among patients with MYD88 mutations, those with CXCR4 mutations show transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressors associated with acquisition of mutated MYD88. Deletions involving chromosome 6q are common and include genes that modulate nuclear factor-κB, BCL2, BTK, apoptosis, differentiation, and ARID1B. Non-chromosome 6q genes are also frequently deleted and include LYN, a regulator of B-cell receptor signaling. MYD88 and CXCR4 mutations affect WM disease presentation and treatment outcome. Patients with wild-type MYD88 show lower bone marrow disease burden and serum immunoglobulin M levels but show an increased risk of death. Patients with CXCR4 mutations have higher bone marrow disease burden, and those with nonsense CXCR4 mutations have higher serum immunoglobulin M levels and incidence of symptomatic hyperviscosity. Mutated MYD88 triggers BTK, IRAK1/IRAK4, and HCK growth and survival signaling, whereas CXCR4 mutations promote AKT and extracellular regulated kinase-1/2 signaling and drug resistance in the presence of its ligand CXCL12. Ibrutinib is active in patients with WM and is affected by MYD88 and CXCR4 mutation status. Patients with mutated MYD88 and wild-type CXCR4 mutation status exhibit best responses to ibrutinib. Lower response rates and delayed responses to ibrutinib are associated with mutated CXCR4 in patients with WM. MYD88 and CXCR4 mutation status may be helpful in treatment selection for symptomatic patients. Novel therapeutic approaches under investigation include therapeutics targeting MYD88, CXCR4, and BCL2 signaling.

Xu L, Tsakmaklis N, Yang G, et al.
Acquired mutations associated with ibrutinib resistance in Waldenström macroglobulinemia.
Blood. 2017; 129(18):2519-2525 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ibrutinib produces high response rates and durable remissions in Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) that are impacted by MYD88 and CXCR4

Ren Y, Zhou BQ, Xu Y, et al.
[The clinical features of patients with lymphoplasmacytic diseases harboring MyD88 L265P mutation].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2016; 37(12):1054-1059 [PubMed] Related Publications

Baer C, Dicker F, Kern W, et al.
Genetic characterization of MYD88-mutated lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma in comparison with MYD88-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(6):1355-1362 [PubMed] Related Publications
MYD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response 88) is mutated in the majority of Waldenström macroglobulinemia/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL); but also, albeit less frequently, in other B-cell malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). This suggests MYD88 as a central regulator of pathogenesis, but requests a broader approach to define diagnostically relevant genetic profiles for LPL and CLL. We identified the L265P hotspot mutation in 86% (n=67/78) of our LPL and 2% (n=12/767) of our CLL cohort. Importantly, in CLL (n=5), but also in LPL (n=4) other MYD88 mutations were identified. MYD88-mutated LPL was characterized by CXCR4 mutations (25%) and del(6q) (19%), whereas both aberrations were absent in the MYD88-unmutated LPL cases. MYD88-mutated CLL formed a prognostically favorable subset with a high frequency of del(13q), mutated IGHV status and no adverse aberrations (del(11q), del(17p), TP53 mutations). MYD88-mutated CLL differed from LPL with respect to cytogenetic aberrations and the absence of CXCR4 mutations. In both entities, based on mutation load evaluation, MYD88 mutations were found to be present in the stem clone in each case, whereas CXCR4 (LPL) and SF3B1 (CLL) mutations also occurred in subclones only.

Mailankody S, Landgren O
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2016; 29(2):187-193 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since the initial identification of patients with monoclonal elevation of gamma globulin and associated clinical symptoms in 1944 by Jan Waldenström, several new insights have been gained using a range of approaches. For example, IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering Waldenström's macroglobulinemia are defined clinical precursor states to symptomatic Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. Epidemiologic studies have established the prevalence of these conditions and the estimated risk of progression to symptomatic disease. Recent molecular studies have identified mutations in the MYD88 and CXCR4 genes as early events in the pathogenesis of IgM MGUS and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. In this review we summarize the epidemiologic and molecular features of Waldenström precursor states, the risk stratification and clinical evaluation of these conditions and possible management options. With the advent of more effective and safer treatments for Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, we highlight the possibility of clinical treatment trials targeting patients with smoldering Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/waldenstroms.html Accessed:

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