Gene Summary

Gene:POU2F2; POU class 2 homeobox 2
Aliases: OCT2, OTF2, Oct-2
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a homeobox-containing transcription factor of the POU domain family. The encoded protein binds the octamer sequence 5'-ATTTGCAT-3', a common transcription factor binding site in immunoglobulin gene promoters. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:POU domain, class 2, transcription factor 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (13)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Octamer Transcription Factor-2
  • Long Noncoding RNA
  • Brain, Astrocytoma, Childhood
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • DNA Methylation
  • Promoter Regions
  • Cancer DNA
  • Brain Tumours
  • Trans-Activators
  • Epigenetics
  • Base Sequence
  • Chromosome 19
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Nucleic Acid Regulatory Sequences
  • Binding Sites
  • Protein Binding
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Immunoglobulins
  • NF-kappa B
  • MicroRNAs
  • Transfection
  • Messenger RNA
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Plasmacytoma
  • Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
  • Valosin Containing Protein
  • Transcription Factors
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Apoptosis
  • Phenotype
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Mutation
  • Octamer Transcription Factor-1
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Transcription
  • T-Cell Lymphoma
Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: POU2F2 (cancer-related)

Chang HH, Hsueh YS, Cheng YW, et al.
Association between Polymorphisms of
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Insulin-sensitizer treatment with metformin is widely used in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the treatment effectiveness shows individual differences in PCOS patients. Organic cation transporter (OCT) 1 and 2 have been reported to mediate metformin transport in the liver and kidney, respectively. In this study, we investigated the association between the polymorphisms of

Moirangthem A, Wang X, Yan IK, Patel T
Network analyses-based identification of circular ribonucleic acid-related pathways in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2018; 40(9):1010428318795761 [PubMed] Related Publications
Circular ribonucleic acids are non-coding ribonucleic acids that can be identified from genome sequencing studies. Although they can be readily detected, their regulation and functional role in human diseases such as cancer are unknown. Using a systematic approach, we analyzed ribonucleic acid-sequencing data from a well-characterized cohort of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma to identify genetic pathways related to circular ribonucleic acids. Although the expression of most circular ribonucleic acids was similar in both the cancer and non-cancer tissues, expression of circ2174 was significantly increased in cancer tissues. Network analysis of co-related genes identified several pathways associated with circ2174, and common regulatory mediators between genes in these pathways and circ2174. Among these, alterations in several genes involved in interleukin-16 signaling responses such Lck, interleukin-16, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1-beta were the most prominent. Octamer transcription factor (Oct)-2 was identified as a signal transducer that was common to both circ2174 and interleukin-16. Circ2174 has sequence complementarity to miR149 which can target Oct-2. These data suggest a mechanism whereby circ2174 can act as a sponge to regulate the expression of miR149, and thereby modulate Oct-2 and interleukin-16 signaling pathways in cholangiocarcinoma.

Hamidreza Kheiri M, Alimohammadi N, Danafar H
Preparation of biocompatible copolymeric micelles as a carrier of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin for potential anticancer activity study.
Pharm Dev Technol. 2019; 24(3):303-313 [PubMed] Related Publications
Statins are widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. However, their inhibitory action on HMG-CoA reductase also results in the depletion of intermediate biosynthetic products, which importantly contribute to cell proliferation. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the individual commercially available statins on investigational breast cancer. Thus, in this study, biodegradable polymeric micelles as carrier of statins were prepared using biodegradable copolymers (PCL-PEG-PCL). These nanoparticles were prepared with two statins (atorvastatin and rosuvastatin) and drug loading, release, kinetic release, and anti-cancer activity of these drugs were studied. The triblock copolymer PCL-PEG-PCL was synthesized by a ring opening polymerization of e-caprolactone in the presence of PEG as the initiator and Sn(oct)

Buß I, Hamacher A, Sarin N, et al.
Relevance of copper transporter 1 and organic cation transporters 1-3 for oxaliplatin uptake and drug resistance in colorectal cancer cells.
Metallomics. 2018; 10(3):414-425 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oxaliplatin is a routinely used drug in the treatment of colorectal cancer. However, development of resistance is a major hurdle of the chemotherapy success. Defects in cellular accumulation represent a frequently reported feature of cells with acquired resistance to platinum drugs. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of oxaliplatin uptake and their role in oxaliplatin resistance remain poorly elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of copper transporter 1 (CTR1) and organic cation transporters 1-3 (OCT1-3) for oxaliplatin uptake and resistance to the drug in sensitive and oxaliplatin-resistant ileocecal colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Co-incubation with copper(ii) sulfate, a CTR1 substrate, significantly decreased oxaliplatin accumulation but not cytotoxicity in both cell lines. Pre- as well as co-incubation with the OCT1 inhibitor atropine led to a significant reduction in oxaliplatin accumulation in sensitive but not in resistant cells. However, oxaliplatin cytotoxicity was also decreased in the presence of atropine in both cell lines. Cimetidine, an inhibitor of OCT2, induced a significant reduction in the cellular accumulation and potency of oxaliplatin in sensitive and resistant cells. An inhibitor of OCT3, decynium-22, had no influence on oxaliplatin accumulation and cytotoxicity in either cell line. No differences in the transporter expressions were observed between the cell lines, drug-treated or not, either at the mRNA or protein levels. A fluorescent oxaliplatin derivative CFDA-oxPt co-localized with CTR1, OCT1 and OCT2 in sensitive cells, but only with CTR1 and OCT2 in the resistant cell line. Our results suggest that oxaliplatin is transported into the cell by CTR1 in both cell lines. However, contribution of CTR1-mediated uptake to resistance seems unlikely. Uptake of oxaliplatin via OCT1 appears to take place in the sensitive but not in the resistant cell line underscoring the transporter relevance for oxaliplatin resistance. OCT2 is likely to be involved in the uptake of oxaliplatin to a similar extent in both cell lines suggesting no major contribution of this transporter to resistance. In contrast, OCT3 appears to be irrelevant for oxaliplatin transport into the cell and resistance.

Peng Z, Wang J, Shan B, et al.
Genome-wide analyses of long noncoding RNA expression profiles in lung adenocarcinoma.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):15331 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
LncRNAs have emerged as a novel class of critical regulators of cancer. We aimed to construct a landscape of lncRNAs and their potential target genes in lung adenocarcinoma. Genome-wide expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs was determined using microarray. qRT-PCR was performed to validate the expression of the selected lncRNAs in a cohort of 42 tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues. R and Bioconductor were used for data analysis. A total of 3045 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between the paired tumor and normal tissues (1048 up and 1997 down). Meanwhile, our data showed that the expression NONHSAT077036 was associated with N classification and clinical stage. Further, we analyzed the potential co-regulatory relationship between the lncRNAs and their potential target genes using the 'cis' and 'trans' models. In the 25 related transcription factors (TFs), our analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA) found that patients with lower expression of POU2F2 and higher expression of TRIM28 had a shorter overall survival time. The POU2F2 and TRIM28 co-expressed lncRNA landscape characterized here may shed light into normal biology and lung adenocarcinoma pathogenesis, and be valuable for discovery of biomarkers.

Wei L, Shao M, Zhao Y, et al.
Functional role of PLCE1 intronic insertion variant associated with susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Carcinogenesis. 2018; 39(2):191-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have consistently identified PLCE1 as esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) susceptibility gene; however, the functional role of PLCE1 variants remains to be verified. In this study, we performed fine mapping of the PLCE1 region using our previous ESCC GWAS data and identified 33 additional risk variants in this susceptibility locus. Here, we report the functional characterization of a four-nucleotide insertion/deletion variation (rs71031566 C----/CATTT) in PLCE1 that was associated with risk of developing ESCC. We demonstrate for the first time that rs71031566[CATTT] insertion creates a silencer element, repressing PLCE1 transcription via long-range interaction with PLCE1 promoter mediated by OCT-2 binding. PLCE1 is down-regulated in majority of clinical ESCC samples and overexpression of PLCE1 in ESCC cells suppresses cell growth in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a tumor suppressor role of this gene. Therefore, repression of PLCE1 transcription may be the underlying mechanism for the rs71031566[CATTT] variant to be susceptible to ESCC.

Suenaga M, Schirripa M, Cao S, et al.
Potential role of polymorphisms in the transporter genes ENT1 and MATE1/OCT2 in predicting TAS-102 efficacy and toxicity in patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer.
Eur J Cancer. 2017; 86:197-206 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Trifluridine (FTD) is an active cytotoxic component of the metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) drug TAS-102, and thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor (TPI) inhibits the rapid degradation of FTD. We tested whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in FTD metabolism and TPI excretion could predict outcome in patients with mCRC treated with TAS-102.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated three different cohorts: a training cohort (n = 52) and a testing cohort (n = 129) both receiving TAS-102 and a control cohort (n = 52) receiving regorafenib. SNPs of TK1, ENT1, CNT1, MATE1, MATE2 and OCT2 were analysed by polymerase chain reaction-based direct DNA sequencing.
RESULTS: In the training cohort, patients with any ENT1 rs760370 G allele had a significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS; 3.5 versus 2.1 months, respectively, hazard ratio [HR] 0.44, P = 0.004) and overall survival (OS; 8.7 versus 5.3 months, respectively, HR 0.27, P = 0.003) than the A/A genotype. These findings were validated in the testing cohort (P = 0.021 and 0.009 for PFS and OS, respectively). In addition, the combination of ENT1 rs760370, MATE1 rs2289669 and OCT2 rs316019 SNPs significantly stratified patients with the risk of PFS and OS in both cohorts (P < 0.001 for PFS and OS in the training cohort; P = 0.053 and 0.025 for PFS and OS, respectively, in the testing cohort). No significant differences were observed in the control group.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of ENT1, MATE1 and OCT2 SNPs may serve as a predictive and prognostic marker in mCRC patients treated with TAS-102.

Dhingra P, Martinez-Fundichely A, Berger A, et al.
Identification of novel prostate cancer drivers using RegNetDriver: a framework for integration of genetic and epigenetic alterations with tissue-specific regulatory network.
Genome Biol. 2017; 18(1):141 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We report a novel computational method, RegNetDriver, to identify tumorigenic drivers using the combined effects of coding and non-coding single nucleotide variants, structural variants, and DNA methylation changes in the DNase I hypersensitivity based regulatory network. Integration of multi-omics data from 521 prostate tumor samples indicated a stronger regulatory impact of structural variants, as they affect more transcription factor hubs in the tissue-specific network. Moreover, crosstalk between transcription factor hub expression modulated by structural variants and methylation levels likely leads to the differential expression of target genes. We report known prostate tumor regulatory drivers and nominate novel transcription factors (ERF, CREB3L1, and POU2F2), which are supported by functional validation.

Gaudelot K, Gibier JB, Pottier N, et al.
Targeting miR-21 decreases expression of multi-drug resistant genes and promotes chemosensitivity of renal carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(7):1010428317707372 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma, the most common neoplasm of adult kidney, accounts for about 3% of adult malignancies and is usually highly resistant to conventional therapy. MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs, which have been previously shown to promote malignant initiation and progression. In this study, we focused our attention on miR-21, a well described oncomiR commonly upregulated in cancer. Using a cohort of 99 primary renal cell carcinoma samples, we showed that miR-21 expression in cancer tissues was higher than in adjacent non-tumor tissues whereas no significant difference was observed with stages, grades, and metastatic outcome. In vitro, miR-21 was also overexpressed in renal carcinoma cell lines compared to HK-2 human proximal tubule epithelial cell line. Moreover, using Boyden chambers and western blot techniques, we also showed that miR-21 overexpression increased migratory, invasive, proliferative, and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways whereas opposite results were observed using an anti-miR-21-based silencing strategy. Finally, we assessed the role of miR-21 in mediating renal cell carcinoma chemoresistance and further showed that miR-21 silencing significantly (1) increased chemosensitivity of paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and dovitinib; (2) decreased expression of multi-drug resistance genes; and (4) increased SLC22A1/OCT1, SLC22A2/OCT2, and SLC31A1/CTR1 platinum influx transporter expression. In conclusion, our results showed that miR-21 is a key actor of renal cancer progression and plays an important role in the resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. In renal cell carcinoma, targeting miR-21 is a potential new therapeutic strategy to improve chemotherapy efficacy and consequently patient outcome.

Gupta N, Nasim M, Spitzer SG, Zhang X
Primary Central Nervous System T-Cell Lymphoma With Aberrant Expression of CD20 and CD79a: A Diagnostic Pitfall.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2017; 25(7):599-603 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma (PCNSTCL) is rare, accounting for 2% of CNS lymphomas. We report the first case of PCNSTCL with aberrant expression of CD20 and CD79a in an 81-year-old man with a left periventricular brain mass. A biopsy revealed dense lymphoid infiltrate consisting of medium-sized cells in a background of gliosis and many histiocytes. The lymphoid cells were positive for CD2, CD3, CD7, CD8, T-cell intracellular antigen-1, granzyme B, CD20, and CD79a and negative for CD4, CD5, PAX-5, OCT-2, BOB-1, human herpes virus-8, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs. Molecular studies revealed clonal TCR-β and TCR-γ gene rearrangements and negative immunoglobulin gene rearrangements. The patient was treated with chemotherapy (vincristine and methotrexate) and rituximab, but he died 1 month after the diagnosis. This is a unique case that emphasizes the use of a multimodal approach, including a broad immunohistochemical panel and molecular studies in lineage determination for lymphomas with ambiguous phenotype.

Nakatsuka SI, Yutani C, Kurashige M, et al.
An unusual case of Epstein-Barr virus-positive large B-cell lymphoma lacking various B-cell markers.
Diagn Pathol. 2017; 12(1):15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUD: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with B-cell lymphoma in various conditions, such as immunodeficiency and chronic inflammation. We report an unusual case of EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) lacking the expression of many B-cell markers.
CASE PRESENTATION: An 83-year-old man presented with a submandibular tumor. Histology of a lymph node biopsy specimen revealed diffuse proliferation of centroblast- or immunoblast-like lymphoid cells with plasmacytic differentiation. Scattered Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg-like cells were also visible. A routine immunohistochemistry antibody panel revealed that the tumor cells were negative for B-cell and T-cell markers (i.e., CD3, CD19, CD20, CD38, CD45RO, CD79a, CD138, and Pax-5), but were positive for CD30 and MUM-1, not defining the lineage of tumor cells. The final diagnosis of EBV-positive DLBCL was confirmed based on the expression of B-cell-specific transcription factors (Oct-2 and BOB.1), PCR-based identification of monoclonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin genes, and the presence of EBV-encoded small RNAs in the tumor cells (identified using in situ hybridization).
CONCLUSION: The downregulation of broad band of B-cell markers in the present case with EBV-positive DLBCL posed a diagnostic dilemma, as the possible diagnoses included differentiation from anaplastic large cell lymphoma and CD20-negative B-cell lymphomas. Results of immunohistochemical panel including B-cell-specific transcription factors and gene rearrangement analyses critically support the correct diagnosis.

Pan Z, Hu S, Li M, et al.
ALK-positive Large B-cell Lymphoma: A Clinicopathologic Study of 26 Cases With Review of Additional 108 Cases in the Literature.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2017; 41(1):25-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive large B-cell lymphoma (ALK LBCL) is a rare, aggressive subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with characteristic ALK rearrangements. Diagnosis of ALK LBCL can be challenging because of its rarity, unique morphologic characteristics, and unusual immunophenotypic features, which significantly overlap with other hematologic and nonhematologic neoplasms. The purpose of this study is to further explore the clinicopathologic features of ALK LBCL to ensure the awareness and accurate diagnosis of this entity. We retrospectively reviewed the data from 26 cases in our institutions and additional 108 cases from the literature. ALK LBCL typically occurred in the lymph nodes of young and middle-aged, immunocompetent patients. The medium age was 35 years with a male to female ratio of 3.5:1. Vast majority of cases showed immunoblastic and/or plasmablastic morphology. All cases expressed ALK protein with a cytoplasmic granular pattern in most of them. Common B-cell markers (CD20, CD79a, and PAX5) were typically negative, but the tumor cells mostly expressed 2 B-cell transcriptional factors, BOB1 and OCT2. The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 34%, and the median survival was 1.83 years. In patients with stage III/IV disease, the 5-year OS was only 8%. Moreover, patients below 35 years of age had a significantly better OS than those aged 35 years or above.

Qian CY, Zheng Y, Wang Y, et al.
Associations of genetic polymorphisms of the transporters organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1), and ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 2 (ABCC2) with platinum-based chemotherapy response and toxicity in non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Chin J Cancer. 2016; 35(1):85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Platinum-based chemotherapy is the first-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); it is therefore important to discover biomarkers that can be used to predict the efficacy and toxicity of this treatment. Four important transporter genes are expressed in the kidney, including organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1), ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1), and ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 2 (ABCC2), and genetic polymorphisms in these genes may alter the efficacy and adverse effects of platinum drugs. This study aimed to evaluate the association of genetic polymorphisms of these transporters with platinum-based chemotherapy response and toxicity in NSCLC patients.
METHODS: A total of 403 Chinese NSCLC patients were recruited for this study. All patients were newly diagnosed with NSCLC and received at least two cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy. The tumor response and toxicity were evaluated after two cycles of treatment, and the patients' genomic DNA was extracted. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms in four transporter genes were selected to investigate their associations with platinum-based chemotherapy toxicity and response.
RESULTS: OCT2 rs316019 was associated with hepatotoxicity (P = 0.026) and hematological toxicity (P = 0.039), and MATE1 rs2289669 was associated with hematological toxicity induced by platinum (P = 0.016). In addition, ABCC2 rs717620 was significantly associated with the platinum-based chemotherapy response (P = 0.031). ABCB1 polymorphisms were associated with neither response nor toxicity.
CONCLUSION: OCT2 rs316019, MATE1 rs2289669, and ABCC2 rs717620 might be potential clinical markers for predicting chemotherapy toxicity and response induced by platinum-based treatment in NSCLC patients. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-RNC-12002892.

Liu Y, Zheng X, Yu Q, et al.
Epigenetic activation of the drug transporter OCT2 sensitizes renal cell carcinoma to oxaliplatin.
Sci Transl Med. 2016; 8(348):348ra97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is known for its multidrug resistance. Using data obtained from the cancer transcriptome database Oncomine and the proteome database The Human Protein Atlas, we identified the repression of organic cation transporter OCT2 as a potential factor contributing to oxaliplatin resistance in RCC. By analyzing OCT2 expression in collected patient tissues and commercial tissue microarray specimens, we demonstrated OCT2 repression in RCC at both transcription and protein levels. Epigenetic analysis revealed that the repressed OCT2 promoter in RCC is characterized by hypermethylated CpG islands and the absence of H3K4 methylation. Further mechanistic studies showed that DNA hypermethylation blocked MYC activation of OCT2 by disrupting its interaction with the E-Box motif, which prevented MYC from recruiting MLL1 to catalyze H3K4me3 at the OCT2 promoter and resulted in repressed OCT2 transcription. Targeting this mechanism, we designed a sequential combination therapy and demonstrated that epigenetic activation of OCT2 by decitabine sensitizes RCC cells to oxaliplatin both in vitro and in xenografts. Our study highlights the potential of translating "omics" data into the development of targeted therapies.

Winter S, Fisel P, Büttner F, et al.
Methylomes of renal cell lines and tumors or metastases differ significantly with impact on pharmacogenes.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:29930 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Current therapies for metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) show limited efficacy. Drug efficacy, typically investigated in preclinical cell line models during drug development, is influenced by pharmacogenes involved in targeting and disposition of drugs. Here we show through genome-wide DNA methylation profiling, that methylation patterns are concordant between primary ccRCC and macro-metastases irrespective of metastatic sites (rs ≥ 0.92). However, 195,038 (41%) of all investigated CpG sites, including sites within pharmacogenes, were differentially methylated (adjusted P < 0.05) in five established RCC cell lines compared to primary tumors, resulting in altered transcriptional expression. Exemplarily, gene-specific analyses of DNA methylation, mRNA and protein expression demonstrate lack of expression of the clinically important drug transporter OCT2 (encoded by SLC22A2) in cell lines due to hypermethylation compared to tumors or metastases. Our findings provide evidence that RCC cell lines are of limited benefit for prediction of drug effects due to epigenetic alterations. Similar epigenetic landscape of ccRCC-metastases and tumors opens new avenue for future therapeutic strategies.

Qian X, Zhao FQ
Regulatory roles of Oct proteins in the mammary gland.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1859(6):812-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The expression of Oct-1 and -2 and their binding to the octamer motif in the mammary gland are developmentally and hormonally regulated, consistent with the expression of milk proteins. Both of these transcription factors constitutively bind to the proximal promoter of the milk protein gene β-casein and might be involved in the inhibition or activation of promoter activity via interactions with other transcription factors or cofactors at different developmental stages. In particular, the lactogenic hormone prolactin and glucocorticoids induce Oct-1 and Oct-2 binding and interaction with both the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and the glucocorticoid receptor on the β-casein promoter to activate β-casein expression. In addition, increasing evidence has shown the involvement of another Oct factor, Oct-3/4, in mammary tumorigenesis, making Oct-3/4 an emerging prognostic marker of breast cancer and a molecular target for the gene-directed therapeutic intervention, prevention and treatment of breast cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Oct Transcription Factor Family, edited by Dr. Dean Tantin.

Bentrari F, Chantôme A, Knights A, et al.
Oct-2 forms a complex with Oct-1 on the iNOS promoter and represses transcription by interfering with recruitment of RNA PolII by Oct-1.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2015; 43(20):9757-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oct-1 (POU2f1) and Oct-2 (POU2f2) are members of the POU family of transcription factors. They recognize the same DNA sequence but fulfil distinct functions: Oct-1 is ubiquitous and regulates a variety of genes while Oct-2 is restricted to B-cells and neurones. Here we examine the interplay and regulatory mechanisms of these factors to control the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, NOS2). Using two breast cancer cell lines as a comparative model, we found that MCF-7 express iNOS upon cytokine stimulation while MDA-MB-231 do not. Oct-1 is present in both cell lines but MDA-MB-231 also express high levels of Oct-2. Manipulation of Oct-2 expression in these cell lines demonstrates that it is directly responsible for the repression of iNOS in MDA-MB-231. In MCF-7 cells Oct-1 binds the iNOS promoter, recruits RNA PolII and triggers initiation of transcription. In MDA-MB-231 cells, both Oct-1 and Oct-2 bind the iNOS promoter, forming a higher-order complex which fails to recruit RNA PolII, and as a consequence iNOS transcription does not proceed. Unravelling the mechanisms of transcription factor activity is paramount to the understanding of gene expression patterns that determine cell behaviour.

Wang SM, Tie J, Wang WL, et al.
POU2F2-oriented network promotes human gastric cancer metastasis.
Gut. 2016; 65(9):1427-38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Aberrant upregulation of POU2F2 expression has been discovered in metastatic gastric cancer (GC). However, the mechanisms underlying the aberrant upregulation and the potential functions of POU2F2 remain uncertain.
DESIGN: The role and mechanism of POU2F2 in GC metastasis were investigated in gastric epithelial cells, GC cell lines and an experimental metastasis animal model by gain of function and loss of function. Upstream and downstream targets of POU2F2 were selected by bioinformatics and identified by luciferase reporter assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation PCR. The influence of miR-218 on its putative target genes (POU2F2, ROBO1 and IKK-β) and GC metastasis was further explored via in vitro and in vivo approaches.
RESULTS: Increased POU2F2 expression was detected in metastatic GC cell lines and patient samples. POU2F2 was induced by the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and, in turn, regulated ROBO1 transcription, thus functionally contributing to GC metastasis. Finally, miR-218 was found to suppress GC metastasis by simultaneously mediating multiple molecules in the POU2F2-oriented network.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that NF-κB and the SLIT2/ROBO1 interaction network with POU2F2 as the central part may exert critical effects on tumour metastasis. Blocking the activation of the POU2F2-oriented metastasis network using miR-218 precursors exemplified a promising approach that sheds light on new strategies for GC treatment.

Wang WG, Cui WL, Wang L, et al.
Loss of B-cell receptor expression defines a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma characterized by silent BCR/PI3K/AKT signaling and a germinal center phenotype displaying low-risk clinicopathologic features.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(7):902-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is crucial for the survival of normal and neoplastic B cells, and inhibitors targeting BCR signaling pathways have shown promising therapeutic outcomes for patients with B-cell lymphomas. In the current study, we analyzed de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma without BCR expression (DLBCL, BCR) in 25 cases to determine the BCR/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT (BCR/PI3K/AKT) signaling status, clinicopathologic features, and underlying causes leading to the loss of BCR. On the basis of clinical features, 15 (60%) DLBCL, BCR patients were classified into the low-risk group, and 18 (86%) experienced complete remission. Morphologically and immunophenotypically, DLBCL, BCR demonstrated centroblastic cytology (21/25, 84%) and germinal center B-cell-like cell origin (18/25, 72%). Other components in BCR complexity remained intact, on the basis of immunohistochemical findings. Epstein-Barr virus infection, deficiency in B-lineage transcription factors (PAX5, Oct-2, and Bob.1), and oncogene rearrangement did not seem to be associated with BCR loss. The activated form of signaling proteins (pSYK and pAKT) involved in the BCR/PI3K/AKT pathway were expressed at low levels in DLBCL, BCR tissue. In vitro validation revealed that in DLBCL, BCR cell lines, the BCR/PI3K/AKT pathway did not respond to BCR stimulation or inhibition. Our findings suggest that DLBCL, BCR was characterized by a silent BCR/PI3K/AKT pathway, germinal center phenotype, and low risk and may not be a candidate for BCR-targeted therapies.

Al-Hussain T, Bakshi N, Akhtar M
Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of the testis: a brief review.
Adv Anat Pathol. 2015; 22(3):202-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germ cell tumors of the testis may be divided into 3 broad categories according to age at presentation. The tumors in the pediatric age group include teratoma and yolk sac tumor. These tumors are generally not associated with convincing intratubular neoplasia. The second group consists of tumors presenting in third and fourth decade of life and include seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, choriocarcinoma, and teratoma as well as mixed germ cell tumors. The precursor cell for these tumors is an abnormal gonocyte that fails to differentiate completely into spermatogonia. These abnormal cells stay dormant in the gonad during intrauterine life as well as infancy and childhood, but undergo proliferation during puberty and can be identified as intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (IGCNU). These tumor cells continue to manifest protein expression pattern that resembles primitive germ cells (PLAP, c-KIT, OCT3/4). After a variable interval following puberty, IGCNU cells may acquire ability to penetrate the seminiferous tubules and present as an overt germ cell tumor. Acquisition of isochrome 12 and other genetic abnormalities are usually associated with this transition. The level of DNA methylation generally determines the phenotype of the germ cell tumor. The third type of germ cell tumors is spermatocytic seminoma, which is a rare tumor encountered later in life usually in fifth and sixth decade. The cell of origin of this tumor is probably postpubertal mature spermatogonia which acquire abnormal proliferative capability probably due to gain of chromosome 9 resulting in activation and amplification of genes such as DMRT1. The tumor cells manifest many of the proteins normally expressed by mature sperms such as VASA, SSX2, and occasionally OCT2. Although spermatocytic seminoma may also have an intratubular growth phase, it completely lacks features of IGCNU.

Uccini S, Al-Jadiry MF, Scarpino S, et al.
Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in children: a disease reminiscent of Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(5):716-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pediatric Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (EBV+ DLBCL) is a rare disease in nonimmunocompromised hosts. In a review of 231 cases of malignant lymphoma (87 Hodgkin lymphoma and 144 non-Hodgkin lymphoma) occurring in Iraqi children, 7 cases (5% of NHLs) were classified as EBV+ DLBCL. Six children presented with nodal disease, and 1 presented with extranodal localization (bone). In all cases, the disease was at an advanced clinical stage (III/IV). Evidence of immunodeficiency (Evans syndrome and selective IgA deficiency) was observed in a single case. Two cases were "monomorphic" with immunoblastic histology, and 5 cases were "polymorphic" with histologic aspects reminiscent of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (2 cases) and of CD30+ classical Hodgkin lymphoma (3 cases). In all cases, tumor cells were EBV infected (EBER+/LMP-1+), were medium-large B-cells (CD20+/CD79a+/PAX-5+/BOB-1+/OCT-2+) of non-germinal center (non-GC) origin (CD10-/MUM-1+), and had high proliferative activity (50%-70%). Chromosomal translocations involving BCL2, MYC, and IGH genes were not observed. IGH monoclonality could be demonstrated in 3 of 3 investigated cases. Six cases of EBV-negative DLBCL (4% of NHL) were present in the same series. All had monomorphic histology with centroblastic/immunoblastic morphology; 3 cases were of GC type and 3 of non-GC type. Our findings indicate that in Iraq, DLBCLs are 9% of NHLs. Moreover, 2 different types of the disease do exist; the EBV-positive cases, with strong histologic and immunohistochemical resemblance with EBV+ DLBCL of the elderly, and the EBV-negative cases, which are similar to the pediatric DLBCL usually observed in Western populations.

Murakami I, Takata K, Matsushita M, et al.
Immunoglobulin expressions are only associated with MCPyV-positive Merkel cell carcinomas but not with MCPyV-negative ones: comparison of prognosis.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(12):1627-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer, often associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Recently, immunoglobulin (Ig) expression was reported in MCC, thereby suggesting that B cells might be their cellular ancestors. We tested 30 MCCs (20 MCPyV-positive and 10 MCPyV-negative) using immunohistochemistry for the expressions of IgG, IgA, IgM, Igκ, Igλ, terminal desoxynucleotidyl transferase, paired box gene 5 (PAX5), octamer transcription factor-2 (Oct-2), and sex-determining region Y-box 11 (SOX11). We performed in situ hybridization for Igκ-mRNA or Igλ-mRNA and Ig heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement (IgH-R) analyses. The expressions of PAX5, TdT, Oct-2, and SOX11 were not significantly different between MCPyV-positive and MCPyV-negative MCCs. At least 1 of IgG, IgA, IgM, or Igκ was expressed in MCPyV-positive (14/20, 70%) and none in MCPyV-negative MCCs (P=0.0003). There was a higher tendency for Igκ-mRNA expression (7/19, using in situ hybridization) and IgH-R (10/20, using polymerase chain reaction) in MCPyV-positive than in MCPyV-negative MCCs (0/10 and 2/10, respectively), thus suggesting a different Ig production pattern and pathogenesis between the 2 types of MCC. Ig expression or IgH-R in MCPyV-positive MCCs might be associated with MCPyV gene integration or expression in cancer cells but do not necessarily suggest a B-cell origin for MCCs. IgH expression or IgH-R nonsignificantly correlated with improved prognosis. However, these might be important factors that influence the survival of neoplastic cells and might allow the development of novel therapies for patients with MCPyV-positive MCCs.

Li J, Kim S, Sha X, et al.
Complex disease-, gene-, and drug-drug interactions: impacts of renal function, CYP2D6 phenotype, and OCT2 activity on veliparib pharmacokinetics.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(15):3931-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Veliparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, undergoes renal excretion and liver metabolism. This study quantitatively assessed the interactions of veliparib with metabolizing enzyme (CYP2D6) and transporter (OCT2) in disease settings (renal impairment).
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Veliparib in vitro metabolism was examined in human liver microsomes and recombinant enzymes carrying wild-type CYP2D6 or functional defect variants (CYP2D6*10 and *4). Plasma pharmacokinetics were evaluated in 27 patients with cancer. A parent-metabolite joint population model was developed to characterize veliparib and metabolite (M8) pharmacokinetics and to identify patient factors influencing veliparib disposition. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model integrated with a mechanistic kidney module was developed to quantitatively predict the individual and combined effects of renal function, CYP2D6 phenotype, and OCT2 activity on veliparib pharmacokinetics.
RESULTS: In vitro intrinsic clearance of CYP2D6.1 and CYP2D6.10 for veliparib metabolism were 0.055 and 0.017 μL/min/pmol CYP, respectively. Population mean values for veliparib oral clearance and M8 clearance were 13.3 and 8.6 L/h, respectively. Creatinine clearance was identified as the significant covariate on veliparib oral clearance. Moderate renal impairment, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer, and co-administration of OCT2 inhibitor (cimetidine) increased veliparib steady-state exposure by 80%, 20%, and 30%, respectively. These factors collectively led to >2-fold increase in veliparib exposure.
CONCLUSIONS: Renal function (creatinine clearance) is a significant predictor for veliparib exposure in patients with cancer. Although a single factor (i.e., renal impairment, CYP2D6 deficiency, and reduced OCT2 activity) shows a moderate impact, they collectively could result in a significant and potentially clinically relevant increase in veliparib exposure.

Zhou Y, Liu X, Xu L, et al.
Transcriptional repression of plasma cell differentiation is orchestrated by aberrant over-expression of the ETS factor SPIB in Waldenström macroglobulinaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 166(5):677-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
In Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM), the mechanism(s) responsible for repression of B-cell differentiation remains unknown. We found that expression of SPIB and ID2 were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in WM lymphoplasmacytic cells (LPC). Ectopic expression of SPIB in healthy donor CD19(+) cells inhibited plasmacytic differentiation in conjunction with decreased transcription of IRF4 and XBP1 spliced form. In primary WM LPC, knock-down of SPIB induced plasmacytic differentiation in conjunction with increased transcription of PRDM1, XBP1 spliced form, IRF4 and ID2. Knock-down of SPIB also led to decreased BCL2 expression. Given that SPIB is a direct target of POU2AF1 (OBF1) in complex with POU2F2 or POU2F1, we next examined their expression in WM LPC. POU2F2 transcription, as well as POU2F2 and POU2AF1 protein expression was higher in WM LPC. Ectopic expression of POU2F2 in healthy donor CD19(+) cells induced transcription of SPIB and suppressed transcription of PRDM1 and IRF4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in BCWM.1 WM cells confirmed binding of POU2F2 and POU2AF1 in SPIB and ID2 promoters. These findings establish a molecular hierarchy among POU2F2, SPIB and ID2 during B-cell differentiation, and suggest that aberrant expression of these transcription factors plays an important role in arresting plasmacytic differentiation in WM.

Wang Y, Yin JY, Li XP, et al.
The association of transporter genes polymorphisms and lung cancer chemotherapy response.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e91967 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers and is the leading cause of death worldwide. Platinum-based chemotherapy is the main treatment method in lung cancer patients. Our previous studies indicated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in some transporter genes played important role in platinum-based chemotherapy efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of SNPs in transporter genes and platinum-based chemotherapy efficacy. The main polymorphisms on transporters OCT2, LRP, AQP2, AQP9 and TMEM205 genes were genotyped in 338 lung cancer patients. The rs195854 in genotypic model, rs896412 in genotypic and recessive models for all subjects showed significant association with chemotherapy response. In stratification analysis, TMEM205 rs896412, OCT2 rs1869641 and rs195854, AQP9 rs1516400 and AQP2 rs7314734 showed significant relation to chemotherapy response. In conclusion, the genetic polymorphisms in OCT2, AQP2, AQP9 and TMEM205 may contribute to chemotherapy response in lung cancer patients.

Schweighofer N, Lerchbaum E, Trummer O, et al.
Metformin resistance alleles in polycystic ovary syndrome: pattern and association with glucose metabolism.
Pharmacogenomics. 2014; 15(3):305-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Insulin-sensitizer treatment with metformin is common in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). OCT alleles were investigated in PCOS patients to identify genetic 'bad responders' and 'nonresponders' to metformin including their possible effects on glucose metabolism without treatment. We genotyped eight SNPs in OCT1, OCT2 and ATM genes in 676 women with PCOS and 90 control women, we also measured oral glucose tolerance tests prior to treatment. Nonfunctional alleles were present in 29.8% and low-functional alleles in 57.9% of our PCOS cohort. OCT variants were significantly associated with elevated baseline and glucose-induced C-peptide levels in PCOS. Metformin bad responders or nonresponders based on OCT genotypes might be relevant in clinical practice - their modulation of metformin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and metformin-independent glucose effects remain to be elucidated.

Naganuma F, Yoshikawa T, Nakamura T, et al.
Predominant role of plasma membrane monoamine transporters in monoamine transport in 1321N1, a human astrocytoma-derived cell line.
J Neurochem. 2014; 129(4):591-601 [PubMed] Related Publications
Monoamine neurotransmitters should be immediately removed from the synaptic cleft to avoid excessive neuronal activity. Recent studies have shown that astrocytes and neurons are involved in monoamine removal. However, the mechanism of monoamine transport by astrocytes is not entirely clear. We aimed to elucidate the transporters responsible for monoamine transport in 1321N1, a human astrocytoma-derived cell line. First, we confirmed that 1321N1 cells transported dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and histamine in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Kinetics analysis suggested the involvement of low-affinity monoamine transporters, such as organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 and 3 and plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT). Monoamine transport in 1321N1 cells was not Na(+) /Cl(-) dependent but was inhibited by decynium-22, an inhibitor of low-affinity monoamine transporters, which supported the importance of low-affinity transporters. RT-PCR assays revealed that 1321N1 cells expressed OCT3 and PMAT but no other neurotransmitter transporters. Another human astrocytoma-derived cell line, U251MG, and primary human astrocytes also exhibited the same gene expression pattern. Gene-knockdown assays revealed that 1321N1 and primary human astrocytes could transport monoamines predominantly through PMAT and partly through OCT3. These results might indicate that PMAT and OCT3 in human astrocytes are involved in monoamine clearance.

Li H, Kaminski MS, Li Y, et al.
Mutations in linker histone genes HIST1H1 B, C, D, and E; OCT2 (POU2F2); IRF8; and ARID1A underlying the pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma.
Blood. 2014; 123(10):1487-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma (FL) constitutes the second most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the western world. FL carries characteristic recurrent structural genomic aberrations. However, information regarding the coding genome in FL is still evolving. Here, we describe the results of massively parallel exome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism 6.0 array genomic profiling of 11 highly purified FL cases, and 1 transformed FL case and the validation of selected mutations in 102 FL cases. We report the identification of 15 novel recurrently mutated genes in FL. These include frequent mutations in the linker histone genes HIST1H1 B-E (27%) and mutations in OCT2 (also known as POU2F2; 8%), IRF8 (6%), and ARID1A (11%). A subset of the mutations in HIST1H1 B-E affected binding to DNMT3B, and mutations in HIST1H1 B-E and in EZH2 or ARID1A were largely mutually exclusive, implicating HIST1H1 B-E in epigenetic deregulation in FL. Mutations in OCT2 (POU2F2) affected its transcriptional and functional properties as measured through luciferase assays, the biological analysis of stably transduced cell lines, and global expression profiling. Finally, multiple novel mutated genes located within regions of acquired uniparental disomy in FL are identified. In aggregate, these data substantially broaden our understanding of the genomic pathogenesis of FL.

Ciarimboli G
Membrane transporters as mediators of cisplatin side-effects.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(1):547-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
The clinical use of the efficient chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin is limited by its specific severe organ toxicities such as nephro-, oto-, and also peripheral neurotoxicity. Membrane transporters such as the copper transporter-1 (Ctr1), the copper transporter-2 (Ctr2), the P-type copper-transporting ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B, the organic cation transporter-2 (OCT2), and the multidrug extrusion transporter-1 (MATE1) mediate cellular transport of cisplatin. Since OCT2 is specifically expressed in the kidneys, its role as possible target of specific organ protection against undesired cisplatin toxicity is under investigation. We could show that OCT2 is also expressed in the cochlea in hair cells and in cells of the stria vascularis and also in dorsal root ganglia of mice. Moreover, we could show in a mouse model of cisplatin acute toxicities that the expression of OCT is critical for the development of ototoxicity, peripheral neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Competition of cisplatin transport by the OCT2 substrate cimetidine was able to suppress ototoxicity, and reduce nephrotoxicity. Only few human tumors express OCT2, its expression being apparently down-regulated by epigenetic modifications, suggesting that a protective therapy by competition for the transport of cisplatin by OCT2 may be generally feasible without affecting its antitumor potency. There is already some evidence that patients bearing a mutation in OCT2 gene or co-medicated with cimetidine are protected against cisplatin nephrotoxicity. In conclusion, OCT2 seems to be an ideal target for the establishment of protective therapies aimed to specifically reduce cisplatin side-effects and increase the quality of life of the patients.

Jiang S, Willox B, Zhou H, et al.
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C binds to BATF/IRF4 or SPI1/IRF4 composite sites and recruits Sin3A to repress CDKN2A.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(1):421-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) repression of CDKN2A p14(ARF) and p16(INK4A) is essential for immortal human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) growth. EBNA3C ChIP-sequencing identified >13,000 EBNA3C sites in LCL DNA. Most EBNA3C sites were associated with active transcription; 64% were strong H3K4me1- and H3K27ac-marked enhancers and 16% were active promoters marked by H3K4me3 and H3K9ac. Using ENCODE LCL transcription factor ChIP-sequencing data, EBNA3C sites coincided (±250 bp) with RUNX3 (64%), BATF (55%), ATF2 (51%), IRF4 (41%), MEF2A (35%), PAX5 (34%), SPI1 (29%), BCL11a (28%), SP1 (26%), TCF12 (23%), NF-κB (23%), POU2F2 (23%), and RBPJ (16%). EBNA3C sites separated into five distinct clusters: (i) Sin3A, (ii) EBNA2/RBPJ, (iii) SPI1, and (iv) strong or (v) weak BATF/IRF4. EBNA3C signals were positively affected by RUNX3, BATF/IRF4 (AICE) and SPI1/IRF4 (EICE) cooccupancy. Gene set enrichment analyses correlated EBNA3C/Sin3A promoter sites with transcription down-regulation (P < 1.6 × 10(-4)). EBNA3C signals were strongest at BATF/IRF4 and SPI1/IRF4 composite sites. EBNA3C bound strongly to the p14(ARF) promoter through SPI1/IRF4/BATF/RUNX3, establishing RBPJ-, Sin3A-, and REST-mediated repression. EBNA3C immune precipitated with Sin3A and conditional EBNA3C inactivation significantly decreased Sin3A binding at the p14(ARF) promoter (P < 0.05). These data support a model in which EBNA3C binds strongly to BATF/IRF4/SPI1/RUNX3 sites to enhance transcription and recruits RBPJ/Sin3A- and REST/NRSF-repressive complexes to repress p14(ARF) and p16(INK4A) expression.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. POU2F2, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/POU2F2.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 30 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999