Gene Summary

Gene:CREBBP; CREB binding protein
Aliases: CBP, RSTS, KAT3A, RSTS1
Summary:This gene is ubiquitously expressed and is involved in the transcriptional coactivation of many different transcription factors. First isolated as a nuclear protein that binds to cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), this gene is now known to play critical roles in embryonic development, growth control, and homeostasis by coupling chromatin remodeling to transcription factor recognition. The protein encoded by this gene has intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity and also acts as a scaffold to stabilize additional protein interactions with the transcription complex. This protein acetylates both histone and non-histone proteins. This protein shares regions of very high sequence similarity with protein p300 in its bromodomain, cysteine-histidine-rich regions, and histone acetyltransferase domain. Mutations in this gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). Chromosomal translocations involving this gene have been associated with acute myeloid leukemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:CREB-binding protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Rubinstein-Taybi SyndromeCREBBP mutation in Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome is an autosomal dominant chromosomal disorder characterized by mental retardation, broad thumbs, and webbing of fingers and toes. Individuals with RTS have an increased risk of brain tumors and certain other cancers.
View Publications97
Breast CancerCREBBP and Breast Cancer View Publications16
Esophageal CancerCREBBP and Esophageal Cancer
CREBBP alterations were noted in a GWAS study of Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Song, 2014))
View Publications4

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CREBBP (cancer-related)

Sato K, Ando R, Kobayashi H, Nishio T
2-Ethoxybenzamide stimulates melanin synthesis in B16F1 melanoma cells via the CREB signaling pathway.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2016; 423(1-2):39-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are frequently used for the treatment of inflammation, pain, and fever. In this study, we found that 2-ethoxybenzamide (ETZ) significantly enhanced melanin synthesis in B16F1 melanoma cells, and also induced melanosome formation. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism by which ETZ up-regulated melanin synthesis. Western blot analysis demonstrated that ETZ increased melanogenic protein levels, except that for TRP-2. Moreover, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that ETZ enhanced the mRNA levels of melanogenic genes, including microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and melanocortin 1 receptor. We also observed phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) following ETZ treatment. However, ETZ did not affect intracellular cAMP levels. ERK was also activated by ETZ treatment, and melanin content was enhanced upon treatment with the specific ERK inhibitor PD98059. Together, our results indicate that ETZ induces melanin synthesis via CREB phosphorylation.

Fluhr S, Boerries M, Busch H, et al.
CREBBP is a target of epigenetic, but not genetic, modification in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.
Clin Epigenetics. 2016; 8:50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm of childhood whose clinical heterogeneity is only poorly represented by gene sequence alterations. It was previously shown that aberrant DNA methylation of distinct target genes defines a more aggressive variant of JMML, but only few significant targets are known so far. To get a broader picture of disturbed CpG methylation patterns in JMML, we carried out a methylation screen of 34 candidate genes in 45 patients using quantitative mass spectrometry.
FINDINGS: Five of 34 candidate genes analyzed showed recurrent hypermethylation in JMML. cAMP-responsive element-binding protein-binding protein (CREBBP) was the most frequent target of epigenetic modification (77 % of cases). However, no pathogenic mutations of CREBBP were identified in a genetic analysis of 64 patients. CREBBP hypermethylation correlated with clinical parameters known to predict poor outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the relevance of epigenetic aberrations in JMML pathophysiology. Our data confirm that DNA hypermethylation in JMML is highly target-specific and associated with higher-risk features. These findings encourage the development of prognostic markers based on epigenetic alterations, which will be helpful in the difficult clinical management of this heterogeneous disease.

Schulten HJ, Hussein D, Al-Adwani F, et al.
Microarray Expression Data Identify DCC as a Candidate Gene for Early Meningioma Progression.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153681 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Meningiomas are the most common primary brain tumors bearing in a minority of cases an aggressive phenotype. Although meningiomas are stratified according to their histology and clinical behavior, the underlying molecular genetics predicting aggressiveness are not thoroughly understood. We performed whole transcript expression profiling in 10 grade I and four grade II meningiomas, three of which invaded the brain. Microarray expression analysis identified deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) as a differentially expressed gene (DEG) enabling us to cluster meningiomas into DCC low expression (3 grade I and 3 grade II tumors), DCC medium expression (2 grade I and 1 grade II tumors), and DCC high expression (5 grade I tumors) groups. Comparison between the DCC low expression and DCC high expression groups resulted in 416 DEGs (p-value<0.05; fold change>2). The most significantly downregulated genes in the DCC low expression group comprised DCC, phosphodiesterase 1C (PDE1C), calmodulin-dependent 70kDa olfactomedin 2 (OLFM2), glutathione S-transferase mu 5 (GSTM5), phosphotyrosine interaction domain containing 1 (PID1), sema domain, transmembrane domain (TM) and cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 6D (SEMA6D), and indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT). The most significantly upregulated genes comprised chromosome 5 open reading frame 63 (C5orf63), homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), and basic helix-loop-helix family, member e40 (BHLHE40). Biofunctional analysis identified as predicted top upstream regulators beta-estradiol, TGFB1, Tgf beta complex, LY294002, and dexamethasone and as predicted top regulator effectors NFkB, PIK3R1, and CREBBP. The microarray expression data served also for a comparison between meningiomas from female and male patients and for a comparison between brain invasive and non-invasive meningiomas resulting in a number of significant DEGs and related biofunctions. In conclusion, based on its expression levels, DCC may constitute a valid biomarker to identify those benign meningiomas at risk for progression.

Araf S, Okosun J, Koniali L, et al.
Epigenetic dysregulation in follicular lymphoma.
Epigenomics. 2016; 8(1):77-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The adoption of next-generation sequencing technologies has led to a remarkable shift in our understanding of the genetic landscape of follicular lymphoma. While the disease has been synonymous with the t(14;18), the prevalence of alterations in genes that regulate the epigenome has been established as a pivotal hallmark of these lymphomas. Giant strides are being made in unraveling the biological consequences of these alterations in tumorigenesis opening up new opportunities for directed therapies.

Kikuchi D, Tanimoto K, Nakayama K
CREB is activated by ER stress and modulates the unfolded protein response by regulating the expression of IRE1α and PERK.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016; 469(2):243-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Living cells are frequently exposed to various stresses. Hypoxic conditions induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) to maintain homeostasis. We previously reported that CREB has an important role in the proper response to prolonged hypoxia. To further understand the role of CREB in the hypoxic response, CREB stable knock-down (CREB-KD) cells were established from breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells and analyzed. CREB was activated by ER stress, and activation of CREB and the UPR pathway occurred in a coordinated manner in response to different stimuli, including ER stress-inducing chemicals, prolonged hypoxia, and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Depletion of CREB decreased the expression of IRE1α and PERK, two critical UPR signaling molecules. Promoter analysis and a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that CREB binds to the promoter region of these genes and regulates their expression. ER stress induced by hypoxia was reduced in CREB-KD cells, leading to reduced tumor metastasis to the lung. Finally, OGD strongly activated the UPR and induced cell death in control cells, whereas the UPR was moderately activated in CREB-KD cells, which were more resistant to cell death. This study demonstrates a new role for CREB as a regulator of ER stress, which is required to properly respond to stressful conditions, such as hypoxia.

Tang Z, Yu W, Zhang C, et al.
CREB-binding protein regulates lung cancer growth by targeting MAPK and CPSF4 signaling pathway.
Mol Oncol. 2016; 10(2):317-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
CBP (CREB-binding protein) is a transcriptional co-activator which possesses HAT (histone acetyltransferases) activity and participates in many biological processes, including embryonic development, growth control and homeostasis. However, its roles and the underlying mechanisms in the regulation of carcinogenesis and tumor development remain largely unknown. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms and potential targets of CBP involved in tumor growth and survival in lung cancer cells. Elevated expression of CBP was detected in lung cancer cells and tumor tissues compared to the normal lung cells and tissues. Knockdown of CBP by siRNA or inhibition of its HAT activity using specific chemical inhibitor effectively suppressed cell proliferation, migration and colony formation and induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells by inhibiting MAPK and activating cytochrome C/caspase-dependent signaling pathways. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence analyses revealed the co-localization and interaction between CBP and CPSF4 (cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 4) proteins in lung cancer cells. Knockdown of CPSF4 inhibited hTERT transcription and cell growth induced by CBP, and vice versa, demonstrating the synergetic effect of CBP and CPSF4 in the regulation of lung cancer cell growth and survival. Moreover, we found that high expression of both CBP and CPSF4 predicted a poor prognosis in the patients with lung adenocarcinomas. Collectively, our results indicate that CBP regulates lung cancer growth by targeting MAPK and CPSF4 signaling pathways.

Ogiwara H, Sasaki M, Mitachi T, et al.
Targeting p300 Addiction in CBP-Deficient Cancers Causes Synthetic Lethality by Apoptotic Cell Death due to Abrogation of MYC Expression.
Cancer Discov. 2016; 6(4):430-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Loss-of-function mutations in the CBP/CREBBP gene, which encodes a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), are present in a variety of human tumors, including lung, bladder, gastric, and hematopoietic cancers. Consequently, development of a molecular targeting method capable of specifically killing CBP-deficient cancer cells would greatly improve cancer therapy. Functional screening of synthetic-lethal genes in CBP-deficient cancers identified the CBP paralog p300/EP300 Ablation of p300 in CBP-knockout and CBP-deficient cancer cells induced G1-S cell-cycle arrest, followed by apoptosis. Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed that MYC is a major factor responsible for the synthetic lethality. Indeed, p300 ablation in CBP-deficient cells caused downregulation of MYC expression via reduction of histone acetylation in its promoter, and this lethality was rescued by exogenous MYC expression. The p300-HAT inhibitor C646 specifically suppressed the growth of CBP-deficient lung and hematopoietic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo; thus p300 is a promising therapeutic target for treatment of CBP-deficient cancers.
SIGNIFICANCE: Targeting synthetic-lethal partners of genes mutated in cancer holds great promise for treating patients without activating driver gene alterations. Here, we propose a "synthetic lethal-based therapeutic strategy" for CBP-deficient cancers by inhibition of the p300 HAT activity. Patients with CBP-deficient cancers could benefit from therapy using p300-HAT inhibitors.

Postel-Vinay S, Boursin Y, Massard C, et al.
Seeking the driver in tumours with apparent normal molecular profile on comparative genomic hybridization and targeted gene panel sequencing: what is the added value of whole exome sequencing?
Ann Oncol. 2016; 27(2):344-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Molecular tumour profiling technologies have become increasingly important in the era of precision medicine, but their routine use is limited by their accessibility, cost, and tumour material availability. It is therefore crucial to assess their relative added value to optimize the sequence and combination of such technologies.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Within the MOSCATO-01 trial, we investigated the added value of whole exome sequencing (WES) in patients that did not present any molecular abnormality on array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and targeted gene panel sequencing (TGPS) using cancer specific panels. The pathogenicity potential and actionability of mutations detected on WES was assessed.
RESULTS: Among 420 patients enrolled between December 2011 and December 2013, 283 (67%) patients were analysed for both TGPS and aCGH. The tumour sample of 25 (8.8%) of them presented a flat (or low-dynamic) aCGH profile and no pathogenic mutation on TGPS. We selected the first eligible 10 samples-corresponding to a heterogeneous cohort of different tumour types-to perform WES. This allowed identifying eight mutations of interest in two patients: FGFR3, PDGFRB, and CREBBP missense single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in an urothelial carcinoma; FGFR2, FBXW7, TP53, and MLH1 missense SNVs as well as an ATM frameshift mutation in a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. The FGFR3 alteration had been previously described as an actionable activating mutation and might have resulted in treatment by an FGFR inhibitor. CREBBP and ATM alterations might also have suggested a therapeutic orientation towards epigenetic modifiers and ataxia-telangectasia and Rad3-related inhibitors, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The therapeutic added value of performing WES on tumour samples that do not harbour any genetic abnormality on TGPS and aCGH might be limited and variable according to the histotype. Alternative techniques, including RNASeq and methylome analysis, might be more informative in selected cases.

da Silva Almeida AC, Abate F, Khiabanian H, et al.
The mutational landscape of cutaneous T cell lymphoma and Sézary syndrome.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(12):1465-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sézary syndrome is a leukemic and aggressive form of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) resulting from the malignant transformation of skin-homing central memory CD4(+) T cells. Here we performed whole-exome sequencing of tumor-normal sample pairs from 25 patients with Sézary syndrome and 17 patients with other CTCLs. These analyses identified a distinctive pattern of somatic copy number alterations in Sézary syndrome, including highly prevalent chromosomal deletions involving the TP53, RB1, PTEN, DNMT3A and CDKN1B tumor suppressors. Mutation analysis identified a broad spectrum of somatic mutations in key genes involved in epigenetic regulation (TET2, CREBBP, KMT2D (MLL2), KMT2C (MLL3), BRD9, SMARCA4 and CHD3) and signaling, including MAPK1, BRAF, CARD11 and PRKG1 mutations driving increased MAPK, NF-κB and NFAT activity upon T cell receptor stimulation. Collectively, our findings provide new insights into the genetics of Sézary syndrome and CTCL and support the development of personalized therapies targeting key oncogenically activated signaling pathways for the treatment of these diseases.

Chen B, Liu B
[MiRNA-381 inhibits the invasion of renal carcinoma and 
the underlying mechanisms].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2015; 40(10):1053-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine the inhibitory effect of miRNA-381 on renal carcinoma invasion and to explore the underlying mechanisms.

METHODS: After up-regulation of miRNA-381, the inhibitory effect of miR-381 on cell invasion was investigated. We screened the target genes of miRNA-381 in a database (starBase) through combination of five programs including targetscan, picTar, RNA22, PITA and miRanda. Then, the predicted targeting genes were verified by the dual luciferase reporter assay. We also examined the expression of miRNA-381 and its target genes in renal cancer cells and tissues.

RESULTS: Transfection and up-regulation of miRNA-381 resulted in a significant decrease in trans-membrane cell numbers and the ability of renal cell invasion. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CREB binding protein (CBP), β-catenin and lymphoid enhancer binding factor-1 (LEF-1) were the potential targets of miRNA-381. In the luciferase reporter gene system, co-transfection of miRNA-381 with the 3'UTR of wild-type target gene led to a significant decrease in luciferase activity. The expression of miRNA-381 was decreased in various renal cancer cells, and it was particularly lower in highly metastatic cell lines (786-OHM). On the contrary, the expression levels of miRNA-381 target genes (CBP, β-catenin and LEF-1) were significantly increased in cells and tissues.

CONCLUSION: MiRNA-381 can inhibit cell invasion in renal cancer by block the function of CBP, β-catenin and LEF-1.

Xiao H, Wang LM, Luo Y, et al.
Mutations in epigenetic regulators are involved in acute lymphoblastic leukemia relapse following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(3):2696-708 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although steady improvements to chemotherapeutic treatments has helped cure 80% of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases, chemotherapy has proven to be less effective in treating the majority of adult patients, leaving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) as the primary adult treatment option. Nevertheless relapse are the leading cause of death following allo-HSCT. The genetic pathogenesis of relapse following allo-HSCT in Philadelphia chromosome- negative ALL (Ph- ALL) remains unexplored. We performed longitudinal whole-exome sequencing analysis in three adult patients with Ph- B-cell ALL (Ph- B-ALL) on samples collected from diagnosis to relapse after allo-HSCT. Based on these data, we performed target gene sequencing on 23 selected genes in 58 adult patients undergoing allo-HSCT with Ph- B-ALL. Our results revealed a significant enrichment of mutations in epigenetic regulators from relapsed samples, with recurrent somatic mutations in SETD2, CREBBP, KDM6A and NR3C1. The relapsed samples were also enriched in signaling factor mutations, including KRAS, PTPN21, MYC and USP54. Furthermore, we are the first to reveal the clonal evolution patterns during leukemia relapse after allo-HSCT. Cells present in relapsed specimens were genetically related to the diagnosed tumor, these cells therefore arose from either an existing subclone that was not eradicated by allo-HSCT therapy, or from the same progenitor that acquired new mutations. In some cases, however, it is possible that leukemia recurrence following allo-HSCT could result from a secondary malignancy with a distinct set of mutations. We identified novel genetic causes of leukemia relapse after allo-HSCT using the largest generated data set to date from adult patients with Ph- B-ALL.

Lunning MA, Green MR
Mutation of chromatin modifiers; an emerging hallmark of germinal center B-cell lymphomas.
Blood Cancer J. 2015; 5:e361 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas align with different stages of B-cell development. Germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL) and Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) each share molecular similarities with normal GCB cells. Recent next-generation sequencing studies have gained insight into the genetic etiology of these malignancies and revealed a high frequency of mutations within genes encoding proteins that modifying chromatin. These include activating and inactivating mutations of genes that perform post-translational modification of histones and organize chromatin structure. Here, we discuss the function of histone acetyltransferases (CREBBP, EP300), histone methyltransferases (KDM2C/D, EZH2) and regulators of higher order chromatin structure (HIST1H1C/D/E, ARID1A and SMARCA4) that have been reported to be mutated in ⩾5% of DLBCL, FL or BL. Mutations of these genes are an emerging hallmark of lymphomas with GCB-cell origins, and likely represent the next generation of therapeutic targets for these malignancies.

Sun F, Pan Y, Li Y
[Advances of Researches on the Role of Histone Modification in Hematological Neoplasms].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2015; 23(4):1184-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a crucial part of epigenetic regulation, the histone modification catalyzed by histone modification enzymes can alter the chromatin structure and modulate the gene expression. The role of histone modification in disease pathogenesis, especially in tumorigenesis, has become a research hotspot. The deregulation of histone modification, such as the overexpression and gain-of-function mutations of histone methyltransferase EZH2, the inactive mutations of histone methyltransferase MLL2, histone acetyltransferase CREBBP and EP300 are crucial for the development of hematological neoplasms. Some of Epi-drugs such as HDAC inhibitors, EZH2 inhibitors, are already clinically used, some are still in basic research stage, which are important field of new drug development for hematological neoplasms. In this review, the researches advances of basic medical sciences and clinical applications of aberrant histone modifications in hematological neoplasms are summarized.

Pastore A, Jurinovic V, Kridel R, et al.
Integration of gene mutations in risk prognostication for patients receiving first-line immunochemotherapy for follicular lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of a prospective clinical trial and validation in a population-based registry.
Lancet Oncol. 2015; 16(9):1111-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Follicular lymphoma is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease, but the prognostic value of somatic mutations has not been systematically assessed. We aimed to improve risk stratification of patients receiving first-line immunochemotherapy by integrating gene mutations into a prognostic model.
METHODS: We did DNA deep sequencing to retrospectively analyse the mutation status of 74 genes in 151 follicular lymphoma biopsy specimens that were obtained from patients within 1 year before beginning immunochemotherapy consisting of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). These patients were recruited between May 4, 2000, and Oct 20, 2010, as part of a phase 3 trial (GLSG2000). Eligible patients had symptomatic, advanced stage follicular lymphoma and were previously untreated. The primary endpoints were failure-free survival (defined as less than a partial remission at the end of induction, relapse, progression, or death) and overall survival calculated from date of treatment initiation. Median follow-up was 7·7 years (IQR 5·5-9·3). Mutations and clinical factors were incorporated into a risk model for failure-free survival using multivariable L1-penalised Cox regression. We validated the risk model in an independent population-based cohort of 107 patients with symptomatic follicular lymphoma considered ineligible for curative irradiation. Pretreatment biopsies were taken between Feb 24, 2004, and Nov 24, 2009, within 1 year before beginning first-line immunochemotherapy consisting of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CVP). Median follow-up was 6·7 years (IQR 5·7-7·6).
FINDINGS: We established a clinicogenetic risk model (termed m7-FLIPI) that included the mutation status of seven genes (EZH2, ARID1A, MEF2B, EP300, FOXO1, CREBBP, and CARD11), the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status. In the training cohort, m7-FLIPI defined a high-risk group (28%, 43/151) with 5-year failure-free survival of 38·29% (95% CI 25·31-57·95) versus 77·21% (95% CI 69·21-86·14) for the low-risk group (hazard ratio [HR] 4·14, 95% CI 2·47-6·93; p<0·0001; bootstrap-corrected HR 2·02), and outperformed a prognostic model of only gene mutations (HR 3·76, 95% CI 2·10-6·74; p<0·0001; bootstrap-corrected HR 1·57). The positive predictive value and negative predictive value for 5-year failure-free survival were 64% and 78%, respectively, with a C-index of 0·80 (95% CI 0·71-0·89). In the validation cohort, m7-FLIPI again defined a high-risk group (22%, 24/107) with 5-year failure-free survival of 25·00% (95% CI 12·50-49·99) versus 68·24% (58·84-79·15) in the low-risk group (HR 3·58, 95% CI 2·00-6·42; p<0.0001). The positive predictive value for 5-year failure-free survival was 72% and 68% for negative predictive value, with a C-index of 0·79 (95% CI 0·69-0·89). In the validation cohort, risk stratification by m7-FLIPI outperformed FLIPI alone (HR 2·18, 95% CI 1·21-3·92), and FLIPI combined with ECOG performance status (HR 2·03, 95% CI 1·12-3·67).
INTERPRETATION: Integration of the mutational status of seven genes with clinical risk factors improves prognostication for patients with follicular lymphoma receiving first-line immunochemotherapy and is a promising approach to identify the subset at highest risk of treatment failure.
FUNDING: Deutsche Krebshilfe, Terry Fox Research Institute.

Bordonaro M, Lazarova DL
CREB-binding protein, p300, butyrate, and Wnt signaling in colorectal cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2015; 21(27):8238-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This paper reviews the distinctive roles played by the transcriptional coactivators CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 in Wnt/β-catenin signaling and cell physiology in colorectal cancer (CRC). Specifically, we focus on the effects of CBP- and p300-mediated Wnt activity on (1) neoplastic progression; (2) the activities of butyrate, a breakdown product of dietary fiber, on cell signaling and colonic cell physiology; (3) the development of resistance to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), including butyrate and synthetic HDACis, in colonic cells; and (4) the physiology and number of cancer stem cells. Mutations of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway initiate the majority of CRC cases, and we have shown that hyperactivation of this pathway by butyrate and other HDACis promotes CRC cell apoptosis. This activity by butyrate may in part explain the preventive action of fiber against CRC. However, individuals with a high-fiber diet may still develop neoplasia; therefore, resistance to the chemopreventive action of butyrate likely contributes to CRC. CBP or p300 may modify the ability of butyrate to influence colonic cell physiology since the two transcriptional coactivators affect Wnt signaling, and likely, its hyperactivation by butyrate. Also, CBP and p300 likely affect colonic tumorigenesis, as well as stem cell pluripotency. Improvement of CRC prevention and therapy requires a better understanding of the alterations in Wnt signaling and gene expression that underlie neoplastic progression, stem cell fate, and the development of resistance to butyrate and clinically relevant HDACis. Detailed knowledge of how CBP- and p300 modulate colonic cell physiology may lead to new approaches for anti-CRC prevention and therapeutics, particularly with respect to combinatorial therapy of CBP/p300 inhibitors with HDACis.

Vicente C, Schwab C, Broux M, et al.
Targeted sequencing identifies associations between IL7R-JAK mutations and epigenetic modulators in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica. 2015; 100(10):1301-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is caused by the accumulation of multiple oncogenic lesions, including chromosomal rearrangements and mutations. To determine the frequency and co-occurrence of mutations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, we performed targeted re-sequencing of 115 genes across 155 diagnostic samples (44 adult and 111 childhood cases). NOTCH1 and CDKN2A/B were mutated/deleted in more than half of the cases, while an additional 37 genes were mutated/deleted in 4% to 20% of cases. We found that IL7R-JAK pathway genes were mutated in 27.7% of cases, with JAK3 mutations being the most frequent event in this group. Copy number variations were also detected, including deletions of CREBBP or CTCF and duplication of MYB. FLT3 mutations were rare, but a novel extracellular mutation in FLT3 was detected and confirmed to be transforming. Furthermore, we identified complex patterns of pairwise associations, including a significant association between mutations in IL7R-JAK genes and epigenetic regulators (WT1, PRC2, PHF6). Our analyses showed that IL7R-JAK genetic lesions did not confer adverse prognosis in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases enrolled in the UK ALL2003 trial. Overall, these results identify interconnections between the T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia genome and disease biology, and suggest a potential clinical application for JAK inhibitors in a significant proportion of patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Chen C, Bartenhagen C, Gombert M, et al.
Next-generation-sequencing of recurrent childhood high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia reveals mutations typically associated with high risk patients.
Leuk Res. 2015; 39(9):990-1001 [PubMed] Related Publications
20% of children suffering from high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia develop recurrent disease. The molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the genetic landscape of five patients at relapse, who developed recurrent disease without prior high-risk indication using whole-exome- and whole-genome-sequencing. Oncogenic mutations of RAS pathway genes (NRAS, KRAS, FLT3, n=4) and deactivating mutations of major epigenetic regulators (CREBBP, EP300, each n=2 and ARID4B, EZH2, MACROD2, MLL2, each n=1) were prominent in these cases and virtually absent in non-recurrent cases (n=6) or other pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases (n=18). In relapse nucleotide variations were detected in cell fate determining transcription factors (GLIS1, AKNA). Structural genomic alterations affected genes regulating B-cell development (IKZF1, PBX1, RUNX1). Eleven novel translocations involved the genes ART4, C12orf60, MACROD2, TBL1XR1, LRRN4, KIAA1467, and ELMO1/MIR1200. Typically, patients harbored only single structural variations, except for one patient who displayed massive rearrangements in the context of a germline tumor suppressor TP53 mutation and a Li-Fraumeni syndrome-like family history. Another patient harbored a germline mutation in the DNA repair factor ATM. In summary, the relapse patients of our cohort were characterized by somatic mutations affecting the RAS pathway, epigenetic and developmental programs and germline mutations in DNA repair pathways.

Benderska N, Dittrich AL, Knaup S, et al.
miRNA-26b Overexpression in Ulcerative Colitis-associated Carcinogenesis.
Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015; 21(9):2039-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Longstanding ulcerative colitis (UC) bears a high risk for development of UC-associated colorectal carcinoma (UCC). The inflammatory microenvironment influences microRNA expression, which in turn deregulates target gene expression. microRNA-26b (miR-26b) was shown to be instrumental in normal tissue growth and differentiation. Thus, we aimed to investigate the impact of miR-26b in inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis.
METHODS: Two different cohorts of patients were investigated. In the retrospective group, a tissue microarray with 38 samples from 17 UC/UCC patients was used for miR-26b in situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. In the prospective group, we investigated miR-26b expression in 25 fresh-frozen colon biopsies and corresponding serum samples of 6 UC and 15 non-UC patients, respectively. In silico analysis, Ago2-RNA immunoprecipitation, luciferase reporter assay, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction examination, and miR-26b mimic overexpression were employed for target validation.
RESULTS: miR-26b expression was shown to be upregulated with disease progression in tissues and serum of UC and UCC patients. Using miR-26b and Ki-67 expression levels, an UCC was predicted with high accuracy. We identified 4 novel miR-26b targets (DIP1, MDM2, CREBBP, BRCA1). Among them, the downregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase DIP1 was closely related to death-associated protein kinase stabilization along the normal mucosa-UC-UCC sequence. In silico functional pathway analysis revealed that the common cellular pathways affected by miR-26b are highly related to cancerogenesis and the development of gastrointestinal diseases.
CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that miR-26b could serve as a biomarker for inflammation-associated processes in the gastrointestinal system. Because miR-26b expression is downregulated in sporadic colon cancer, it could discriminate between UCC and the sporadic cancer type.

Xia Z, Guo M, Liu H, et al.
CBP-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling is crucial in regulation of MDR1 transcription.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2015; 15(6):519-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant expression of the MDR1-encoded P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is often associated with clinical multi-drug resistance (MDR) leading to poor prognosis and failure of chemotherapy. However, the precise and cooperative molecular mechanism responsible for MDR1 transcription and expression in acquired MDR remains elusive. We, herein, demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway is constitutively activated in Doxorubicin-induced MDR cancer cells, in which nuclear β -catenin specifically interacts with the transcriptional coactivator CBP in a MEK(1/2)/ERK(1/2) signal-dependent manner. Specific knockdown of both β-catenin and CBP by RNAi-mediated depletion abrogates MDR1 transcription and expression resulting in a complete reversal of P-gp-dependent efflux function and restoration of sensitivity to the Doxorubincin-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, following pharmacological disruption of CBP and β - catenin interaction through inhibition of the MEK(1/2)/ERK(1/2) signal by the specific inhibitor PD98059, MDR1 transcription and its encoded P-gp-dependent function are abolished. These findings conclude that the CBP/β-catenin complex is a core component of the MDR1 transcriptional "enhancesome".

Malinowska-Ozdowy K, Frech C, Schönegger A, et al.
KRAS and CREBBP mutations: a relapse-linked malicious liaison in childhood high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(8):1656-67 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High hyperdiploidy defines the largest genetic entity of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Despite its relatively low recurrence risk, this subgroup generates a high proportion of relapses. The cause and origin of these relapses remains obscure. We therefore explored the mutational landscape in high hyperdiploid (HD) ALL with whole-exome (n=19) and subsequent targeted deep sequencing of 60 genes in 100 relapsing and 51 non-relapsing cases. We identified multiple clones at diagnosis that were primarily defined by a variety of mutations in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/Ras pathway and chromatin-modifying genes. The relapse clones consisted of reappearing as well as new mutations, and overall contained more mutations. Although RTK/Ras pathway mutations were similarly frequent between diagnosis and relapse, both intergenic and intragenic heterogeneity was essentially lost at relapse. CREBBP mutations, however, increased from initially 18-30% at relapse, then commonly co-occurred with KRAS mutations (P<0.001) and these relapses appeared primarily early (P=0.012). Our results confirm the exceptional susceptibility of HD ALL to RTK/Ras pathway and CREBBP mutations, but, more importantly, suggest that mutant KRAS and CREBBP might cooperate and equip cells with the necessary capacity to evolve into a relapse-generating clone.

Wang G, Cheng Z, Liu F, et al.
CREB is a key negative regulator of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) in gastric cancer.
Cell Signal. 2015; 27(7):1369-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Carbonic anhydrase IX(CA9)is a member of the carbonic anhydrase family that catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide, and plays a key role in the regulation of pH. Although a large number of studies have shown that CA9 is strongly up-regulated by HIF1-α, little is known about the negative regulation mechanism of CA9 in cancer cells. Here we find that CREB is a key negative regulator of CA9 in gastric cancer. Over-expression of CREB can significantly repress the expression of CA9. Treating with anisomycin (ANS), an activator of p38, the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of CREB are both promoted, while the transcription of CA9 is repressed. Besides, our results firstly identify that CREB can recruit SIRT1 (class III HDACS) by adaptor protein p300, then repress the expression of CA9. These findings may contribute to understand the negative regulation mechanisms of CA9 in gastric cancer.

Zhang L, Zhou Y, Cheng C, et al.
Genomic analyses reveal mutational signatures and frequently altered genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Am J Hum Genet. 2015; 96(4):597-611 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the fourth most lethal cancer in China. However, although genomic studies have identified some mutations associated with ESCC, we know little of the mutational processes responsible. To identify genome-wide mutational signatures, we performed either whole-genome sequencing (WGS) or whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 104 ESCC individuals and combined our data with those of 88 previously reported samples. An APOBEC-mediated mutational signature in 47% of 192 tumors suggests that APOBEC-catalyzed deamination provides a source of DNA damage in ESCC. Moreover, PIK3CA hotspot mutations (c.1624G>A [p.Glu542Lys] and c.1633G>A [p.Glu545Lys]) were enriched in APOBEC-signature tumors, and no smoking-associated signature was observed in ESCC. In the samples analyzed by WGS, we identified focal (<100 kb) amplifications of CBX4 and CBX8. In our combined cohort, we identified frequent inactivating mutations in AJUBA, ZNF750, and PTCH1 and the chromatin-remodeling genes CREBBP and BAP1, in addition to known mutations. Functional analyses suggest roles for several genes (CBX4, CBX8, AJUBA, and ZNF750) in ESCC. Notably, high activity of hedgehog signaling and the PI3K pathway in approximately 60% of 104 ESCC tumors indicates that therapies targeting these pathways might be particularly promising strategies for ESCC. Collectively, our data provide comprehensive insights into the mutational signatures of ESCC and identify markers for early diagnosis and potential therapeutic targets.

Ma X, Edmonson M, Yergeau D, et al.
Rise and fall of subclones from diagnosis to relapse in pediatric B-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:6604 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is incomplete understanding of genetic heterogeneity and clonal evolution during cancer progression. Here we use deep whole-exome sequencing to describe the clonal architecture and evolution of 20 pediatric B-acute lymphoblastic leukaemias from diagnosis to relapse. We show that clonal diversity is comparable at diagnosis and relapse and clonal survival from diagnosis to relapse is not associated with mutation burden. Six pathways were frequently mutated, with NT5C2, CREBBP, WHSC1, TP53, USH2A, NRAS and IKZF1 mutations enriched at relapse. Half of the leukaemias had multiple subclonal mutations in a pathway or gene at diagnosis, but mostly with only one, usually minor clone, surviving therapy to acquire additional mutations and become the relapse founder clone. Relapse-specific mutations in NT5C2 were found in nine cases, with mutations in four cases being in descendants of the relapse founder clone. These results provide important insights into the genetic basis of treatment failure in ALL and have implications for the early detection of mutations driving relapse.

Marschalek R
MLL leukemia and future treatment strategies.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2015; 348(4):221-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal rearrangements of the MLL gene are associated with high-risk infant, pediatric, adult, and therapy-induced acute leukemias. So far, about 80 different direct MLL fusions and about 120 reciprocal MLL fusions have been characterized at the molecular level. The common theme in these leukemia-associated genetic rearrangements is the genetic disruption of the MLL gene. This leads to MLL-X fusion proteins that still bind to nuclear factors (e.g., MEN1, LEDGF), which in turn allow them to target promoters and cause ectopic gene transcription. In addition, the most frequent MLL fusions (MLL-AF4, MLL-AF9, MLL-AF10, and MLL-ENL) are all recruiting the wild-type AF4 multiprotein complex that contains the target proteins P-TEFb, BRD4, and DOT1L. Vice versa, reciprocal X-MLL fusions exhibit a PHD domain (H3K4me3 reader domain), sequester the histone acetyltransferases CREBBP and MOF1 and bear a histone methyltransferase domain at their very C-terminus (SET domain). Except for AF4-MLL, the functional consequences deriving from reciprocal fusion proteins are not very well understood. However, based on our knowledge about the above-mentioned MLL fusions, it is reasonable to inhibit their oncogenic activity in a targeted fashion. Recent efforts in developing such inhibitors and their mode of action will be critically discussed.

Grasso CS, Cani AK, Hovelson DH, et al.
Integrative molecular profiling of routine clinical prostate cancer specimens.
Ann Oncol. 2015; 26(6):1110-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Comprehensive molecular profiling led to the recognition of multiple prostate cancer (PCa) molecular subtypes and driving alterations, but translating these findings to clinical practice is challenging.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We developed a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue compatible integrative assay for PCa molecular subtyping and interrogation of relevant genetic/transcriptomic alterations (MiPC). We applied MiPC, which combines capture-based next generation sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), to 53 FFPE PCa specimens representing cases not well represented in frozen tissue cohorts, including 8 paired primary tumor and lymph node metastases. Results were validated using multiplexed PCR based NGS and Sanger sequencing.
RESULTS: We identified known and novel potential driving, somatic mutations and copy number alterations, including a novel BRAF T599_V600insHT mutation and CYP11B2 amplification in a patient treated with ketoconazole (a potent CYP11B2 inhibitor). qRT-PCR integration enabled comprehensive molecular subtyping and provided complementary information, such as androgen receptor (AR) target gene module assessment in advanced cases and SPINK1 over-expression. MiPC identified highly concordant profiles for all 8 tumor/lymph node metastasis pairs, consistent with limited heterogeneity amongst driving events. MiPC and exome sequencing were performed on separately isolated conventional acinar PCa and prostatic small cell carcinoma (SCC) components from the same FFPE resection specimen to enable direct comparison of histologically distinct components. While both components showed TMPRSS2:ERG fusions, the SCC component exclusively harbored complete TP53 inactivation (frameshift variant and copy loss) and two CREBBP mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the feasibility of integrative profiling of routine PCa specimens, which may have utility for understanding disease biology and enabling personalized medicine applications.

Green MR, Kihira S, Liu CL, et al.
Mutations in early follicular lymphoma progenitors are associated with suppressed antigen presentation.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(10):E1116-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is incurable with conventional therapies and has a clinical course typified by multiple relapses after therapy. These tumors are genetically characterized by B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) translocation and mutation of genes involved in chromatin modification. By analyzing purified tumor cells, we identified additional novel recurrently mutated genes and confirmed mutations of one or more chromatin modifier genes within 96% of FL tumors and two or more in 76% of tumors. We defined the hierarchy of somatic mutations arising during tumor evolution by analyzing the phylogenetic relationship of somatic mutations across the coding genomes of 59 sequentially acquired biopsies from 22 patients. Among all somatically mutated genes, CREBBP mutations were most significantly enriched within the earliest inferable progenitor. These mutations were associated with a signature of decreased antigen presentation characterized by reduced transcript and protein abundance of MHC class II on tumor B cells, in line with the role of CREBBP in promoting class II transactivator (CIITA)-dependent transcriptional activation of these genes. CREBBP mutant B cells stimulated less proliferation of T cells in vitro compared with wild-type B cells from the same tumor. Transcriptional signatures of tumor-infiltrating T cells were indicative of reduced proliferation, and this corresponded to decreased frequencies of tumor-infiltrating CD4 helper T cells and CD8 memory cytotoxic T cells. These observations therefore implicate CREBBP mutation as an early event in FL evolution that contributes to immune evasion via decreased antigen presentation.

Mullighan CG
The genomic landscape of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and young adults.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2014; 2014(1):174-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our understanding of the genetic basis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been greatly advanced by genomic profiling and sequencing studies. These efforts have characterized the genetic basis of recently described and poorly understood subtypes of ALL, including early T-cell precursor ALL, Philadelphia chromosome-like (Ph-like) ALL, and ALL with intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21, and have identified several rational therapeutic targets in high-risk ALL, notably ABL1-class and JAK-STAT inhibitors in Ph-like ALL. Deep sequencing studies are also refining our understanding of the genetic basis of clonal heterogeneity and relapse. These studies have elucidated the nature of clonal evolution during disease progression and identified genetic changes that confer resistance to specific therapeutic agents, including CREBBP and NT5C2. Genomic profiling has also identified common and rare inherited genetic variants that influence the risk of developing leukemia. These efforts are now being extended to ALL in adolescents and adults with the goal of fully defining the genetic landscape of ALL to further improve treatment outcomes in high-risk populations.

Johannesen EJ, Williams T, Miller DC, Tuller E
Synchronous ovarian and endometrial carcinomas in a patient with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome: a case report and literature review.
Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2015; 34(2):132-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is characterized by distinctive facial and limb features and is associated with several types of tumors. A 29-yr-old woman with this syndrome presented with a large, complex ovarian mass. She was subsequently diagnosed with a low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary and an endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is an autosomal dominant, multiple congenital anomalies-mental retardation syndrome. Two genes, CREBBP and EP300, have been found to be associated with this disorder, although some cases do not have an identifiable cause. These genes code for proteins that acetylate histone tails, an epigenetic modification that serves to control transcription. They also serve as cofactors to several transcription factors and modulate p53. Although these patients have a predisposition to benign and malignant neoplasms, no malignant gynecologic neoplasm has been described thus far. Although no significant evidence linking CREBBP and EP300 to gynecologic malignancies has yet been found, some studies have suggested that hypoacetylation of histones may be involved in endometrial and ovarian carcinomas.

Yang SF, Lee WJ, Tan P, et al.
Upregulation of miR-328 and inhibition of CREB-DNA-binding activity are critical for resveratrol-mediated suppression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and subsequent metastatic ability in human osteosarcomas.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(5):2736-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteosarcomas, the most common malignant bone tumors, show a potent capacity for local invasion and pulmonary metastasis. Resveratrol (RESV), a phytochemical, exhibits multiple tumor-suppressing activities and has been tested in clinical trials. However, the antitumor activities of RESV in osteosarcomas are not yet completely defined. In osteosarcoma cells, we found that RESV inhibited the migration/invasion in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. We identified that RESV exhibited a transcriptional inhibitory effect on MMP-2 through reducing CREB-DNA-binding activity. Moreover, a microRNA (miR) analysis showed that miR-328 was predominantly upregulated after RESV treatment. Inhibition of miR-328 significantly relieved MMP-2 and motility suppression imposed by RESV treatment. Furthermore, ectopic miR-328 expression in highly invasive cells decreased MMP-2 expression and invasive abilities. Mechanistic investigations found that JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways were involved in RESV-regulated CREB-DNA-binding activity, miR328 expression, and cell motility. Clinical samples indicated inverse expression between MMP-2 and miR-328 in normal bone and osteosarcoma tissues. The inverse correlation of MMP-2 and miR-328 was also observed in tumor specimens, and MMP-2 expression was linked to tumor metastasis. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the role of RESV-induced molecular and epigenetic regulation in suppressing tumor metastasis.

Das A, Chai JC, Jung KH, et al.
JMJD2A attenuation affects cell cycle and tumourigenic inflammatory gene regulation in lipopolysaccharide stimulated neuroectodermal stem cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2014; 328(2):361-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
JMJD2A is a lysine trimethyl-specific histone demethylase that is highly expressed in a variety of tumours. The role of JMJD2A in tumour progression remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to identify JMJD2A-regulated genes and understand the function of JMJD2A in p53-null neuroectodermal stem cells (p53(-/-) NE-4Cs). We determined the effect of LPS as a model of inflammation in p53(-/-) NE-4Cs and investigated whether the epigenetic modifier JMJD2A alter the expression of tumourigenic inflammatory genes. Global gene expression was measured in JMJD2A knockdown (kd) p53(-/-) NE-4Cs and in LPS-stimulated JMJD2A-kd p53(-/-) NE-4C cells. JMJD2A attenuation significantly down-regulated genes were Cdca2, Ccnd2, Ccnd1, Crebbp, IL6rα, and Stat3 related with cell cycle, proliferation, and inflammatory-disease responses. Importantly, some tumour-suppressor genes including Dapk3, Timp2 and TFPI were significantly up-regulated but were not affected by silencing of the JMJD2B. Furthermore, we confirmed the attenuation of JMJD2A also down-regulated Cdca2, Ccnd2, Crebbp, and Rest in primary NSCs isolated from the forebrains of E15 embryos of C57/BL6J mice with effective p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α). Transcription factor (TF) motif analysis revealed known binding patterns for CDC5, MYC, and CREB, as well as three novel motifs in JMJD2A-regulated genes. IPA established molecular networks. The molecular network signatures and functional gene-expression profiling data from this study warrants further investigation as an effective therapeutic target, and studies to elucidate the molecular mechanism of JMJD2A-kd-dependent effects in neuroectodermal stem cells should be performed.

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