Gene Summary

Gene:FCGR2A; Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIa
Aliases: CD32, FCG2, FcGR, CD32A, CDw32, FCGR2, IGFR2, FCGR2A1
Summary:This gene encodes one member of a family of immunoglobulin Fc receptor genes found on the surface of many immune response cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a cell surface receptor found on phagocytic cells such as macrophages and neutrophils, and is involved in the process of phagocytosis and clearing of immune complexes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-a
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
FCGR2A is implicated in:
- IgG binding
- integral to membrane
- plasma membrane
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FCGR2A (cancer-related)

Qi X, Li F, Wu Y, et al.
Optimization of 4-1BB antibody for cancer immunotherapy by balancing agonistic strength with FcγR affinity.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2141 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Costimulation of T cell responses with monoclonal antibody agonists (mAb-AG) targeting 4-1BB showed robust anti-tumor activity in preclinical models, but their clinical development was hampered by low efficacy (Utomilumab) or severe liver toxicity (Urelumab). Here we show that isotype and intrinsic agonistic strength co-determine the efficacy and toxicity of anti-4-1BB mAb-AG. While intrinsically strong agonistic anti-4-1BB can activate 4-1BB in the absence of FcγRs, weak agonistic antibodies rely on FcγRs to activate 4-1BB. All FcγRs can crosslink anti-41BB antibodies to strengthen co-stimulation, but activating FcγR-induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity compromises anti-tumor immunity by deleting 4-1BB

Wei Y, Lao XM, Xiao X, et al.
Plasma Cell Polarization to the Immunoglobulin G Phenotype in Hepatocellular Carcinomas Involves Epigenetic Alterations and Promotes Hepatoma Progression in Mice.
Gastroenterology. 2019; 156(6):1890-1904.e16 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the composition and generation of plasma cell subsets in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and how these associate with outcomes. We investigated whether, or how, plasma cells differentiate and function in patients with HCC and mice with liver tumors.
METHODS: We analyzed subset composition and distribution of plasma cells in HCC samples from 342 patients who underwent curative resection at the Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University in China; samples of non-tumor liver tissue were used as controls. We associated plasma cell profiles with patient outcomes. Tissue-derived leukocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The ability of macrophages to regulate plasma cell differentiation was determined in ex vivo cultures of cells from human HCC tissues. C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were given injections of Hepa1-6 cells, which formed hepatomas, or H22 cells, which formed ascitic hepatomas. Gene expression patterns were analyzed in human HCC, mouse hepatoma, and non-tumor tissues by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mice with hepatomas were given injections of GSK126 (an inhibitor of histone H3 lysine 27 methyltransferase [EZH2]) and 5-AZA-dC (an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases); tumor tissues were analyzed by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry for the presence of immune cells and cytokines.
RESULTS: B cells isolated from HCCs had somatic hypermutations and class-switch recombinations to the IgG phenotype that were not observed in non-tumor tissues. Increased level of plasma cells correlated with poor outcomes of patients. Activated CD4
CONCLUSIONS: Human HCC tissues contain B cells with class-switch recombinations to the IgG phenotype. Activated CD4

Masu T, Atsukawa M, Nakatsuka K, et al.
Anti-CD137 monoclonal antibody enhances trastuzumab-induced, natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity against pancreatic cancer cell lines with low human epidermal growth factor-like receptor 2 expression.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0200664 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Because human epidermal growth factor-like receptor (HER) 2 is expressed on the surface of human pancreatic carcinoma cells to varying degrees, trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb), is expected to exert antibody-dependent, natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against the cells. However, some reports found that the effect of trastuzumab against human pancreatic carcinoma cells was limited because most express only limited HER2. We examined whether anti-CD137 stimulating mAb could enhance trastuzumab-mediated ADCC against Panc-1, a human pancreatic cancer cell line with low HER2 expression, in vitro. Supplementation of anti-CD137 mAb could improve trastuzumab-mediated ADCC against Panc-1 which was insufficient without this stimulating antibody. The ADCC differed in individual cells, and this was related to the expression of CD137 on the surface of NK cells after trastuzumab stimulation in association with the Fcγ-RIIIA polymorphism. NK cells with Fcγ-RIIIA-VV/VF showed high levels of ADCC against Panc-1, but those with Fcγ-RIIIA-FF did not show optimal ADCC. In addition, trastuzumab-mediated ADCC against the human pancreatic cancer cell line Capan-1 with high HER2 expression was generally high and not affected by the Fcγ-RIIIA polymorphism. These results demonstrated that in Fcγ-RIIIA-VV/VF-carrying healthy individuals, trastuzumab plus αCD137 mAb could induce effective ADCC against HER2-low-expressing pancreatic cancer cell lines, and that such an approach may result in similar findings in patients with pancreatic cancer.

Benonisson H, Sow HS, Breukel C, et al.
High FcγR Expression on Intratumoral Macrophages Enhances Tumor-Targeting Antibody Therapy.
J Immunol. 2018; 201(12):3741-3749 [PubMed] Related Publications
Therapy with tumor-specific Abs is common in the clinic but has limited success against solid malignancies. We aimed at improving the efficacy of this therapy by combining a tumor-specific Ab with immune-activating compounds. In this study, we demonstrate in the aggressive B16F10 mouse melanoma model that concomitant application of the anti-TRP1 Ab (clone TA99) with TLR3-7/8 or -9 ligands, and IL-2 strongly enhanced tumor control in a therapeutic setting. Depletion of NK cells, macrophages, or CD8

Petit-Pedrol M, Sell J, Planagumà J, et al.
LGI1 antibodies alter Kv1.1 and AMPA receptors changing synaptic excitability, plasticity and memory.
Brain. 2018; 141(11):3144-3159 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) is a secreted neuronal protein that forms a trans-synaptic complex that includes the presynaptic disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 23 (ADAM23), which interacts with voltage-gated potassium channels Kv1.1, and the postsynaptic ADAM22, which interacts with AMPA receptors. Human autoantibodies against LGI1 associate with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis characterized by severe but treatable memory impairment and frequent faciobrachial dystonic seizures. Although there is evidence that this disease is immune-mediated, the underlying LGI1 antibody-mediated mechanisms are unknown. Here, we used patient-derived immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to determine the main epitope regions of LGI1 and whether the antibodies disrupt the interaction of LGI1 with ADAM23 and ADAM22. In addition, we assessed the effects of patient-derived antibodies on Kv1.1, AMPA receptors, and memory in a mouse model based on cerebroventricular transfer of patient-derived IgG. We found that IgG from all patients (n = 25), but not from healthy participants (n = 20), prevented the binding of LGI1 to ADAM23 and ADAM22. Using full-length LGI1, LGI3, and LGI1 constructs containing the LRR1 domain (EPTP1-deleted) or EPTP1 domain (LRR3-EPTP1), IgG from all patients reacted with epitope regions contained in the LRR1 and EPTP1 domains. Confocal analysis of hippocampal slices of mice infused with pooled IgG from eight patients, but not pooled IgG from controls, showed a decrease of total and synaptic levels of Kv1.1 and AMPA receptors. The effects on Kv1.1 preceded those involving the AMPA receptors. In acute slice preparations of hippocampus, patch-clamp analysis from dentate gyrus granule cells and CA1 pyramidal neurons showed neuronal hyperexcitability with increased glutamatergic transmission, higher presynaptic release probability, and reduced synaptic failure rate upon minimal stimulation, all likely caused by the decreased expression of Kv1.1. Analysis of synaptic plasticity by recording field potentials in the CA1 region of the hippocampus showed a severe impairment of long-term potentiation. This defect in synaptic plasticity was independent from Kv1 blockade and was possibly mediated by ineffective recruitment of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. In parallel with these findings, mice infused with patient-derived IgG showed severe memory deficits in the novel object recognition test that progressively improved after stopping the infusion of patient-derived IgG. Different from genetic models of LGI1 deficiency, we did not observe aberrant dendritic sprouting or defective synaptic pruning as potential cause of the symptoms. Overall, these findings demonstrate that patient-derived IgG disrupt presynaptic and postsynaptic LGI1 signalling, causing neuronal hyperexcitability, decreased plasticity, and reversible memory deficits.

Su S, Zhao J, Xing Y, et al.
Immune Checkpoint Inhibition Overcomes ADCP-Induced Immunosuppression by Macrophages.
Cell. 2018; 175(2):442-457.e23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) critically contribute to the efficacy of anti-tumor therapeutic antibodies. We report here an unexpected finding that macrophages after ADCP inhibit NK cell-mediated ADCC and T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in breast cancers and lymphomas. Mechanistically, AIM2 is recruited to the phagosomes by FcγR signaling following ADCP and activated by sensing the phagocytosed tumor DNAs through the disrupted phagosomal membrane, which subsequently upregulates PD-L1 and IDO and causes immunosuppression. Combined treatment with anti-HER2 antibody and inhibitors of PD-L1 and IDO enhances anti-tumor immunity and anti-HER2 therapeutic efficacy in mouse models. Furthermore, neoadjuvant trastuzumab therapy significantly upregulates PD-L1 and IDO in the tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) of HER2

Arthur SE, Jiang A, Grande BM, et al.
Genome-wide discovery of somatic regulatory variants in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):4001 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive cancer originating from mature B-cells. Prognosis is strongly associated with molecular subgroup, although the driver mutations that distinguish the two main subgroups remain poorly defined. Through an integrative analysis of whole genomes, exomes, and transcriptomes, we have uncovered genes and non-coding loci that are commonly mutated in DLBCL. Our analysis has identified novel cis-regulatory sites, and implicates recurrent mutations in the 3' UTR of NFKBIZ as a novel mechanism of oncogene deregulation and NF-κB pathway activation in the activated B-cell (ABC) subgroup. Small amplifications associated with over-expression of FCGR2B (the Fcγ receptor protein IIB), primarily in the germinal centre B-cell (GCB) subgroup, correlate with poor patient outcomes suggestive of a novel oncogene. These results expand the list of subgroup driver mutations that may facilitate implementation of improved diagnostic assays and could offer new avenues for the development of targeted therapeutics.

Sahin A, Sanchez C, Bullain S, et al.
Development of third generation anti-EGFRvIII chimeric T cells and EGFRvIII-expressing artificial antigen presenting cells for adoptive cell therapy for glioma.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0199414 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and deadly form of adult brain cancer. Despite of many attempts to identify potential therapies for this disease, including promising cancer immunotherapy approaches, it remains incurable. To address the need of improved persistence, expansion, and optimal antitumor activity of T-cells in the glioma milieu, we have developed an EGFRvIII-specific third generation (G3-EGFRvIII) chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that expresses both co-stimulatory factors CD28 and OX40 (MR1-CD8TM-CD28-OX40-CD3ζ). To enhance ex vivo target specific activation and optimize T-cell culturing conditions, we generated artificial antigen presenting cell lines (aAPC) expressing the extracellular and transmembrane domain of EGFRvIII (EGFRVIIIΔ654) with costimulatory molecules including CD32, CD80 and 4-1BBL (EGFRVIIIΔ654 aAPC and CD32-80-137L-EGFRVIIIΔ654 aAPC). We demonstrate that the highest cell growth was achieved when G3-EGFRvIII CAR T-cells were cocultured with both co-stimulatory aAPCs and with exposure to EGFRvIII (CD32-80-137L-EGFRVIIIΔ654 aAPCs) in culturing periods of three to six weeks. G3-EGFRvIII CAR T-cells showed an increased level of IFN-γ when cocultured with CD32-80-137L-EGFRVIIIΔ654 aAPCs. Evaluation of G3-EGFRvIII CAR T-cells in an orthotropic human glioma xenograft model demonstrated a prolonged survival of G3-EGFRvIII CAR treated mice compared to control mice. Importantly, we observed survival of G3-EGFRvIII CAR T-cells within the tumor as long as 90 days after implantation in low-dose and single administration, accompanied by a marked tumor stroma demolition. These findings suggest that G3-EGFRvIII CAR cocultured with CD32-80-137L-EGFRVIIIΔ654 aAPCs warrants itself as a potential anti-tumor therapy strategy for glioblastoma.

Pandey JP, Namboodiri AM, Armeson KE, et al.
IGHG, IGKC, and FCGR genes and endogenous antibody responses to GARP in patients with breast cancer and matched controls.
Hum Immunol. 2018; 79(8):632-637 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant (GARP) is a transmembrane protein that is highly expressed in breast cancer. Its overexpression correlates with worse survival, and antibodies to GARP appear to play a protective role in a mouse model. No large-scale studies of immunity to GARP in humans have yet been undertaken. In this investigation, using a large multiethnic cohort (1738 subjects), we aimed to determine whether the magnitude of anti-GARP antibody responsiveness was significantly different in patients with breast cancer from that in matched healthy controls. We also investigated whether the allelic variation at the immunoglobulin GM (γ marker), KM (κ marker), and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) loci contributed to the interindividual variability in anti-GARP IgG antibody levels. A combined analysis of all subjects showed that levels of anti-GARP antibodies were significantly higher in patients with breast cancer than in healthy controls (mean ± SD: 7.4 ± 3.5 vs. 6.9 ± 3.5 absorbance units per mL (AU/μL), p < 0.0001). In the two populations with the largest sample size, the probability of breast cancer generally increases as anti-GARP antibody levels increase. Several significant individual and epistatic effects of GM, KM, and FcγR genotypes on anti-GARP antibody responsiveness were noted in both patients and controls. These results, if confirmed by independent investigations, will aid in devising personalized GARP-based immunotherapeutic strategies against breast cancer and other GARP-overexpressing malignancies.

Yin J, Albers AJ, Smith TS, et al.
Differential regulation of human monocytes and NK cells by antibody-opsonized tumors.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2018; 67(8):1239-1250 [PubMed] Related Publications
The monocyte network is important for therapeutic efficacy of antibody therapies against cancer. One mechanism which monocytes/macrophages use to kill cancer cells is phagocytosis. Using trastuzumab and human breast cancer cell lines as a model, we used flow cytometry to evaluate the importance of avidity, antigen density, Fcγ receptor (FcγR) expression, and FcγR polymorphisms in human monocyte phagocytosis. By increasing avidity for the tumor through the addition of pertuzumab to trastuzumab, there was a two-to-threefold increase in phagocytosis potency against the HCC1419 cell line compared to antibodies alone, while NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) failed to increase tumor cell death. Consistent with increasing the avidity through multiple antibodies, antigen density significantly enhanced phagocytosis with breast cancer cell lines that were HER2 gene-amplified compared to non-amplified tumor cells. Confirmation that high antigen density enhanced phagocytosis was obtained when HER2 was overexpressed in HER2 non-amplified cell lines. In contrast, NK cell ADCC failed to distinguish differences in tumor cell death when comparing gene-amplified and non-amplified breast cancer cell lines. The level of phagocytosis was influenced by FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIa expression. Most monocytes are FcγRIIIa

Brøndum L, Alsner J, Sørensen BS, et al.
Associations between skin rash, treatment outcome, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in head and neck cancer patients receiving the EGFR-inhibitor zalutumumab: results from the DAHANCA 19 trial.
Acta Oncol. 2018; 57(9):1159-1164 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To study the associations between development of moderate to severe skin rash, clinical outcome, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes in head and neck cancer patients from the DAHANCA 19 trial receiving the EGFR-inhibitor zalutumumab concurrently with radiation treatment.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: 310 patients were included from the zalutumumab-arm of the DAHANCA 19 study. Nine SNPs in the candidate genes EGFR, EGF, AREG, FCGR2A, FCGR3A, and CCND1 were successfully determined in 294 patients. Clinical endpoints were moderate to severe skin rash within the first 3 weeks of treatment, loco-regional failure (LRF), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: During the first 3 weeks of treatment, 86% of the patients experienced any grade of rash and 17% experienced a moderate to severe rash. Development of moderate to severe rash was not associated with LRF or DSS but was associated with improved OS, HR 0.40 (95% CI: 0.19-0.82). The effect was similar for patients with p16-negative or p16-positive tumors (p = .90). After adjustment for comorbidity and performance status, the minor alleles of SNPs rs9996584 and rs13104811 located near the AREG gene were significantly associated with increased risk of moderate to severe rash with per-allele odds ratios of 1.61 (1.01-2.54) and 1.56 (1.00-2.44). SNP rs11942466 located close to rs9996584 had a borderline significant association, and none of the other SNPS were significantly associated with risk of skin rash.
CONCLUSIONS: Moderate to severe skin rash after zalutumumab during radiation treatment was associated with improved OS, independent of HPV/p16-status. Genetic variants in AREG (member of the EGF family) may be associated with increased risk of skin rash.

Azhdarinia A, Voss J, Ghosh SC, et al.
Evaluation of Anti-LGR5 Antibodies by ImmunoPET for Imaging Colorectal Tumors and Development of Antibody-Drug Conjugates.
Mol Pharm. 2018; 15(6):2448-2454 [PubMed] Related Publications
Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) is highly expressed in colorectal tumors and marks colon cancer stem cells that drive tumor growth and metastasis. Recently, we showed that LGR5 is a promising target for antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) therapy. However, it is important to identify LGR5-positive tumors that would respond to ADC treatment. Prior to drug conjugation, we evaluated two different anti-LGR5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 8F2 and 9G5, using

Nicolaides NC, Schweizer C, Somers EB, et al.
CA125 suppresses amatuximab immune-effector function and elevated serum levels are associated with reduced clinical response in first line mesothelioma patients.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2018; 19(7):622-630 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
The tumor-shed antigen CA125 has recently been found to bind certain monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and suppress immune-effector mediated killing through perturbation of the Fc domain with CD16a and CD32a Fc-γ activating receptors on immune-effector cells. Amatuximab is a mAb targeting mesothelin whose mechanism of action utilizes in part antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). It is being tested for its therapeutic activity in patients with mesothelioma in combination with first line standard-of-care. To determine if CA125 has immunosuppressive effects on amatuximab ADCC and associated clinical outcomes, post hoc subgroup analysis of patients from a Phase 2 study with primary diagnosed stage III/IV unresectable mesothelioma treated with amatuximab plus cisplatin and pemetrexed were conducted. Analysis found patients with baseline CA125 levels no greater than 57 U/m (∼3X the upper limit of normal) had a 2 month improvement in progression free survival (HR = 0.43, p = 0.0062) and a 7 month improvement in overall survival (HR = 0.40, p = 0.0022) as compared to those with CA125 above 57 U/mL. In vitro studies found that CA125 was able to bind amatuximab and perturb ADCC activity via decreased Fc-γ-receptor engagement. These data suggest that clinical trial designs of antibody-based drugs in cancers producing CA125, including mesothelioma, should consider stratifying patients on baseline CA125 levels for mAbs that are experimentally determined to be bound by CA125.

Yeo SG, Won YS, Kim SH, Park DC
Differences in C-type lectin receptors and their adaptor molecules in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis and gynecologic cancers.
Int J Med Sci. 2018; 15(4):411-416 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Endometriosis, although not malignant, has clinically demonstrated properties of invasiveness and metastasis. The pathogenesis of endometriosis, however, has not yet been elucidated. The immunological differences between endometriosis and malignant gynecologic tumors were analyzed by assessing C-type lectin receptors, which are associated with innate immunity, and immunoglobulin secretion, which is associated with B cell adaptive immunity, in the peritoneal fluid of these patients. Peritoneal fluid samples were obtained from 42 patients with benign masses (control group), 38 with endometriosis, and 43 with gynecologic (ovarian, uterine, and cervical) cancers. The levels of expression in these samples of mRNAs encoding the C-type lectin receptors Dectin-1, MR1, MR2, DC-SIGN, Syk, Card 9, Bcl 10, Malt 1, src, Dec 205, Galectin, Tim 3, Trem 1, and DAP 12, were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the concentrations of IgG, IgA and IgM were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Findings in the three groups were compared. The level of galectin mRNA was significantly lower, and the levels of MR2 and DAP 12 mRNAs significantly higher, in the endometriosis than in the control group (p<0.05 each). Compared with the gynecologic cancer group, the level of Bcl 10 mRNA was significantly lower, and the levels of MR1, MR2, Syk, Card 9, Malt 1, Dec 205, Tim 3, and DAP 12 mRNAs significantly higher, in the endometriosis group (p<0.05 each). The levels of MR2 and DAP 12 mRNAs were significantly higher in the endometriosis than in the control group (p<0.05 each), whereas the level of galectin mRNA was similar in the endometriosis and gynecologic cancer groups. IgA and IgG concentrations in peritoneal fluid were significantly lower in the gynecologic cancer than in the control group (p<0.05 each). However, concentrations of all three immunoglobulins in the endometriosis group did not differ from those in the other two groups (p>0.05). C-type lectin receptors and immunoglobulins act cooperatively and are closely associated in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The decreased expression of galectin mRNA in the peritoneal fluid of the endometriosis group suggests that endometriosis and gynecologic cancers have similar immunologic characteristics.

Mahmud H, Kasai T, Khayrani AC, et al.
Targeting Glioblastoma Cells Expressing CD44 with Liposomes Encapsulating Doxorubicin and Displaying Chlorotoxin-IgG Fc Fusion Protein.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(3) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
We recently have established a successful xenograft model of human glioblastoma cells by enriching hyaluronic acid-dependent spheroid-forming populations termed U251MG-P1 cells from U251MG cells. Since U251MG-P1 cells have been confirmed to express CD44 along with principal stemness marker genes,

Wang YH, Zhang TQ, Fu JN, et al.
The role of macrophages in the differentiation process of ureteral polyps.
J Int Med Res. 2018; 46(3):1015-1023 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Objective To evaluate the role of macrophage infiltration in the differentiation process of ureteral polyps and cancers. Methods This retrospective immunohistochemical study analysed archival samples of pathologically-confirmed specimens of low- and high-grade ureteral cancer, ureteral papilloma and ureteral polyps. The samples were immunohistochemically stained for cluster of differentiation (CD)4, CD8, CD16, CD25, CD56 and CD68 using immunofluorescence in order to identify different T-lymphocyte populations and macrophages. Results A total of 70 specimens were included in the analysis: 21 specimens of ureteral cancer, 17 specimens of ureteral papilloma, and 32 specimens of ureteral polyps. The largest proportion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells was observed in the low-grade ureteral cancer group and almost none were observed in ureteral papillomas. The largest proportion of CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes was observed in the ureteral polyps. The largest proportion of CD56+ natural killer cells was detected in the ureteral polyps, with very low levels observed in the other three groups. The largest proportion of CD16+CD68+ macrophages was observed in the high-grade ureteral cancer group, which was significantly higher than that observed in the ureteral papillomas. Conclusions This study revealed that CD16+CD68+ macrophages appear to participate in ureteral neoplastic transformation.

Deng W, Liu J, Pan H, et al.
A Bispecific Antibody Based on Pertuzumab Fab Has Potent Antitumor Activity.
J Immunother. 2018; 41(1):1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is frequently overexpressed and activated in metastatic breast cancers. Monoclonal antibodies targeting Her2, such as trastuzumab and pertuzumab, have become important targeted therapies for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Both trastuzumab and pertuzumab can reduce Her2 positive tumor burden by inhibiting Her2 signaling and inducing ADCC activities (antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity). In this study, we have generated a bispecific antibody, Her2(Per)-S-Fab, by linking the pertuzumab Fab to an anti-CD16 single domain antibody. The Her2(Per)-S-Fab can be expressed and purified efficiently from Escherichia coli. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed Her2(Per)-S-Fab had potent cytotoxicity against Her2-positive tumor cells. Thus, Her2(Per)-S-Fab may provide an alternative to treat Her2-positive cancer patients.

Chen W, Pilling D, Gomer RH
C-reactive protein (CRP) but not the related pentraxins serum amyloid P and PTX3 inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of the leukemia cell line Mono Mac 6.
BMC Immunol. 2017; 18(1):47 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pentraxins are a family of highly conserved secreted proteins that regulate the innate immune system, including monocytes and macrophages. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a plasma protein whose levels can rise to 1000 μg/ml from the normal <3 μg/ ml during inflammation.
RESULTS: We find that CRP inhibits proliferation of the human myeloid leukemia cell line Mono Mac 6 with an IC50 of 75 μg/ ml by inducing apoptosis of these cells. The related proteins serum amyloid P (SAP) and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) do not inhibit Mono Mac 6 proliferation. CRP has no significant effect on the proliferation of other leukemia cell lines such as HL-60, Mono Mac 1, K562, U937, or THP-1, or the survival of normal peripheral blood cells. The effect of CRP appears to be dependent on the CRP receptor FcγRI, and is negatively regulated by a phosphatidylinositol -3-kinase pathway.
CONCLUSION: These data reveal differential signaling by pentraxins on immune cells, and suggest that CRP can regulate the proliferation of some myeloid leukemia cells.

Mazumder S, Johnson JM, Swank V, et al.
Primary Immunoprevention of Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma by Vaccination against the Extracellular Domain of Anti-Müllerian Hormone Receptor II.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2017; 10(11):612-624 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is the most prevalent form of ovarian cancer in the United States, representing approximately 85% of all cases and causing more deaths than any other gynecologic malignancy. We propose that optimized control of EOC requires the incorporation of a vaccine capable of inducing safe and effective preemptive immunity in cancer-free women. In addition, we hypothesize that ovarian-specific self-proteins that are "retired" from autoimmune-inducing expression levels as ovaries age but are expressed at high levels in emerging EOC may serve as vaccine targets for mediating safe and effective primary immunoprevention. Here, we show that expression of the extracellular domain of anti-Müllerian hormone receptor II (AMHR2-ED) in normal tissues is confined exclusively to the human ovary, drops to nonautoimmune inducing levels in postmenopausal ovaries, and is at high levels in approximately 90% of human EOC. We found that AMHR2-ED vaccination significantly inhibits growth of murine EOC and enhances overall survival without inducing oophoritis in aged female mice. The observed inhibition of EOC growth was mediated substantially by induction of AMHR2-ED-specific IgG antibodies that agonize receptor signaling of a Bax/caspase-3-dependent proapoptotic cascade. Our results indicate that AMHR2-ED vaccination may be particularly useful in providing safe and effective preemptive immunity against EOC in women at high genetic or familial risk who have the greatest need for a preventive vaccine and ultimately in cancer-free postmenopausal women who account for 75% of all EOC cases.

Pandey JP, Namboodiri AM, Wolf B, et al.
Endogenous antibody responses to mucin 1 in a large multiethnic cohort of patients with breast cancer and healthy controls: Role of immunoglobulin and Fcγ receptor genes.
Immunobiology. 2018; 223(2):178-182 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
High levels of naturally occurring IgG antibodies to mucin 1 (MUC1), a membrane-bound glycoprotein that is overexpressed in patients with breast cancer, are associated with good prognosis. This suggests that endogenous anti-MUC1 antibodies have a protective effect and, through antibody-mediated host immunosurveillance mechanisms, might contribute to a cancer-free state. To test this possibility, we characterized a large number of multiethnic patients with breast cancer and matched controls for IgG antibodies to MUC1. We also aimed to determine whether the magnitude of anti-MUC1 antibody responsiveness was associated with particular immunoglobulin GM (γ marker), KM (κ marker), and Fcγ receptors (FcγR) genotypes. After adjusting for the confounding variables in a multivariate analysis, we found no significant difference in the levels of anti-MUC1 IgG antibodies between patients and cancer-free controls. However, in patients and controls, particular GM, KM, and FcγR genotypes-individually or epistatically-were significantly associated with the levels of anti-MUC1 IgG antibodies in a racially restricted manner. These findings, if confirmed in an independent investigation, could help identify individuals most likely to benefit from a MUC1-based therapeutic or prophylactic vaccine for MUC1-overexpressing malignancies.

Kaifu T, Nakamura A
Polymorphisms of immunoglobulin receptors and the effects on clinical outcome in cancer immunotherapy and other immune diseases: a general review.
Int Immunol. 2017; 29(7):319-325 [PubMed] Related Publications
Receptors for the Fc domain of immunoglobulins [Fc receptors (FcRs)] are essential for the maintenance of antibody-mediated immune responses. FcRs consist of activating- and inhibitory-type receptors that regulate adequate thresholds for various immune cells. In particular, polymorphisms and/or gene copy-number variations of FcRs for IgG (FcγRs) are closely associated with the development of inflammatory disorders, including autoimmune diseases. Recent evidence has implicated polymorphisms of FcRs in the efficacy of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated therapy. This review provides an overview of genetic variations in human FcγRs and the clinical contribution of FcγR polymorphisms in mAb treatments for cancer, autoimmune diseases and allergies.

Kim ES, Kim SY, Koh M, et al.
C-reactive protein binds to integrin α2 and Fcγ receptor I, leading to breast cell adhesion and breast cancer progression.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(1):28-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein synthesized upon the inflammatory responses, associated with breast cancer. The process of tumor cell invasion and metastasis involves the adherence of cells to the extracellular matrix via integrin as a receptor for matrix molecules. The present study investigated the role of CRP in the adhesive phenotype of breast cells and the underlying mechanisms. Here, we first showed that CRP induces adhesion of MCF10A human breast epithelial cells through the activation of integrin α2 signaling. Expression of integrin α2 was induced by CRP in which transcription factors c-fos and SP1 may be involved. Binding of CRP with integrin α2 leads to the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin and ERKs. CRP also binds to an Fcγ receptor Fcγ receptor I (FcγRI), and induces activation of paxillin, FAK and ERKs. Integrin α2 and FAK have crucial roles in the adhesive and invasive phenotypes as well as MMP-9 upregulation induced by CRP in MCF10A cells. Treatment with an inflammatory lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate induced CRP, which may be secreted and exert an autocrine effect by binding to FcγRI and integrin α2. Involvement of CRP in adhesion, invasion, anchorage-independent growth and upregulation of integrin α2, paxillin and FAK was observed in MDA-MB-231 triple-negative human breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Using an in vivo invasion model and an orthotopic mouse tumor model with MDA-MB-231 cells, we showed that CRP has an important role in intravasation and tumor growth in vivo, demonstrating the in vivo relevance of our in vitro results. The present study elucidates a critical molecular basis between CRP, integrin α2 and FcγRI pathways in MCF10A breast cells and MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells, thereby providing useful information on CRP-induced aggressiveness of breast cells in the inflammatory microenvironment.

Streltsova MA, Barsov E, Erokhina SA, Kovalenko EI
Retroviral gene transfer into primary human NK cells activated by IL-2 and K562 feeder cells expressing membrane-bound IL-21.
J Immunol Methods. 2017; 450:90-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Natural killer (NK) cells are capable of rapidly recognizing and efficiently killing tumor cells. This makes them a potentially promising agent for cancer immunotherapy. Additional genetic modifications of NK cells may further improve their anti-tumor efficacy. Numerous technical challenges associated with gene delivery into NK cells have significantly tempered this approach. We achieved efficient retroviral vector transduction of primary human NK cells that were stimulated by a combination of IL-2 and engineered K562 cells expressing membrane-bound IL-21. The activated NK cells were in less differentiated state and expressed NK cell activation receptors NKG2D, NKp30, CD16, and were highly HLA-DR-positive. This NK cell population was highly susceptible to the transduction by both GFP- and NGFR-expressing retroviral vectors, with transduction efficiency exceeding 50%. More mature CD57

Cao W, Tian J, Li C, et al.
A novel bladder cancer - specific oncolytic adenovirus by CD46 and its effect combined with cisplatin against cancer cells of CAR negative expression.
Virol J. 2017; 14(1):149 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Conditionally replicative oncolytic adenoviruses (CRAds) display significant anti-tumor effects. However, the traditional adenovirus of serotype 5 (Ad5) entering cancer cells via coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) can't be utilized for bladder cancer with low expression of CAR, which limits the application of Ad5.
METHODS: We utilized Ad5/F11p containing the chimeric fiber gene encoding the Ad5 fiber tail domain and Ad11p fiber shaft and knob domains to construct bladder cancer-specific chimeric type viruses Ad5/F11p-PSCAE-UPII-E1A, which can infect bladder cancer cells mediated by CD46 molecule. We carried out series of experiments in vitro to research anti-tumor effect of Ad5/F11p-PSCAE-UPII-E1A and the interaction in combination with cisplatin.
RESULTS: The results demonstrated Ad5/F11p-PSCAE-UPII-E1A could infect bladder cancer cells (T24, EJ and 5637) in a CAR-independent way, and exert anti-tumor effect by blocking the cancer cells in G1 phase and inducing apoptosis. Ad5/F11p-PSCAE-UPII-E1A plus cisplatin enhanced the anti-proliferative effect and increased the number of apoptotic cells compared with viruses or cisplatin alone. Ad5/F11p-PSCAE-UPII-E1A plus cisplatin could upregulate the proteins expression of p53, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3, and downregulated Bcl-2 protein expression in T24, EJ and 5637 cells.
CONCLUSION: We constructed a bladder cancer-specific oncolytic adenovirus and provided new combination treatment strategies for bladder cancer.

Li YL, Li YF, Li HF, et al.
Role of SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling pathway in clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Biosci Rep. 2017; 37(4) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
The present study aims to explore the role of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)/stromal cell-derived factor receptor-4 (CXCR4) signaling pathway to the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). From January 2009 to December 2010, 102 patients with NPC and 80 patients with chronic nasopharyngitis were enrolled for the study. Immunohistochemical staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blotting were employed to determine the expressions of SDF-1α and CXCR4 proteins in NPC tissues and chronic nasopharyngitis tissues. Chi-square test was conducted to analyze the associations of the expressions of SDF-1α and CXCR4 proteins with the clinicopathological features of NPC patients. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the SDF-1α protein expression and CXCR4 protein expression. The mRNA and protein expressions of SDF-1α and CXCR4 in NPC tissues were significantly higher than those in chronic nasopharyngitis tissues. The expressions of SDF-1α and CXCR4 proteins showed associations with T staging, N staging, tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging, skull base invasion, and cervical lymph node metastasis of NPC patients. Compared with NPC patients showing negative expressions of SDF-1α and CXCR4 proteins, those with positive expressions of SDF-1α and CXCR4 proteins had a significantly shorter survival time. SDF-1α protein, CXCR4 protein, EBV-IgG status, T staging, N staging, TNM staging, skull base invasion, and cervical lymph node metastasis were independent risk factors for the prognosis of NPC. The findings indicated that SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling pathway might be associated with the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with NPC.

Braster R, Grewal S, Visser R, et al.
Human IgG3 with extended half-life does not improve Fc-gamma receptor-mediated cancer antibody therapies in mice.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(5):e0177736 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Current anti-cancer therapeutic antibodies that are used in the clinic are predominantly humanized or fully human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). These antibodies bind with high affinity to the target antigen and are efficient in activating the immune system via IgG Fc receptors and/or complement. In addition to IgG1, three more isotypes are present in humans, of which IgG3 has been found to be superior compared to human IgG1 in inducing antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC), phagocytosis or activation of complement in some models. Nonetheless, no therapeutic human IgG3 mAbs have been developed due to the short in vivo half-life of most known IgG3 allotypes. In this manuscript, we compared the efficacy of V-gene matched IgG1 and IgG3 anti-tumour mAb (TA99) in mice, using natural variants of human IgG3 with short- or long half-life, differing only at position 435 with an arginine or histidine, respectively.
RESULTS: In vitro human IgG1 and IgG3 did not show any differences in opsonisation ability of B16F10-gp75 mouse melanoma cells. IgG1, however, was superior in inducing phagocytosis of tumour cells by mouse macrophages. Similarly, in a mouse peritoneal metastasis model we did not detect an improved effect of IgG3 in preventing tumour outgrowth. Moreover, replacing the arginine at position 435 for a histidine in IgG3 to enhance half-life did not result in better suppression of tumour outgrowth compared to wild type IgG3 when injected prior to tumour cell injection.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, human IgG3 does not have improved therapeutic efficacy compared to human IgG1 in a mouse tumour model.

Xochelli A, Baliakas P, Kavakiotis I, et al.
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia with Mutated IGHV4-34 Receptors: Shared and Distinct Immunogenetic Features and Clinical Outcomes.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(17):5292-5301 [PubMed] Related Publications

Chen Y, You F, Jiang L, et al.
Gene-modified NK-92MI cells expressing a chimeric CD16-BB-ζ or CD64-BB-ζ receptor exhibit enhanced cancer-killing ability in combination with therapeutic antibody.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(23):37128-37139 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in monoclonal antibody-mediated immunotherapy through the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) mechanism. NK-92MI is an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-independent cell line, which was derived from NK-92 cells with superior cytotoxicity toward a wide range of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Nonetheless, the Fc-receptor (CD16) that usually mediates ADCC is absent in NK-92 and NK-92MI cells. To apply NK-92MI cell-based immunotherapy to cancer treatment, we designed and generated two chimeric receptors in NK-92MI cells that can bind the Fc portion of human immunoglobulins. The construct includes the low-affinity Fc receptor CD16 (158F) or the high-affinity Fc receptor CD64, with the addition of the CD8a extracellular domain, CD28 transmembrane domains, two costimulatory domains (CD28 and 4-1BB), and the signaling domain from CD3ζ. The resulting chimeric receptors, termed CD16-BB-ζ and CD64-BB-ζ, were used to generate modified NK-92MI cells expressing the chimeric receptor, which were named NK-92MIhCD16 and NK-92MIhCD64 cells, respectively. We found that NK-92MIhCD16 and NK-92MIhCD64 cells significantly improved cytotoxicity against CD20-positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cells in the presence of rituximab. These results suggest that the chimeric receptor-expressing NK-92MI cells may enhance the clinical responses to currently available anticancer monoclonal antibodies.

Guy J, Wagner-Ballon O, Pages O, et al.
A 5-color flow cytometric method for extended 8-part leukocyte differential.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2017; 92(6):498-507 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Microscopic leukocyte differentials display many drawbacks. Several single 5 to 8-color tubes using multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) are able to provide extended differentials with sequential gating-based analysis strategies. We investigated a new 5-color MFC method to perform an extended 8-part differential with a simplified gating strategy.
METHODS: Whole blood was stained with a combination of antibodies including HLA-DR-FITC/CD19-PE/CD45-ECD/CD16-PC5 + CD71-PC5/CD5-PC7.
RESULTS: An original approach was developed to exclude debris and straightforwardly gate the cells to identify sixteen populations. Strong correlations were obtained with the analyzer for neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils (R
CONCLUSIONS: Here a new cytometric differential is proposed with a robust gating strategy which may be used even by unskilled cytometrists and can be easily automated. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

Cao XX, Meng Q, Cai H, et al.
Detection of MYD88 L265P and WHIM-like CXCR4 mutation in patients with IgM monoclonal gammopathy related disease.
Ann Hematol. 2017; 96(6):971-976 [PubMed] Related Publications
A broad spectrum of diseases are associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy, including Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM), various types of B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), primary amyloidosis (AL), and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS); these are called IgM monoclonal gammopathy related diseases (IgM-RD). We investigated MYD88 L265P and WHIM-like CXCR4 mutations in various IgM-RD. Patients with serum immunofixation electrophoresis confirmed IgM monoclonal gammopathy who had enough material for DNA extraction and presented between January 2008 and October 2016 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled in this cohort. We performed real-time allele-specific-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing to explore the presence of MYD88 L265P and WHIM-like CXCR4 mutations. One hundred and twelve patients (64 male and 48 female patients) were included in this retrospective study. The median age at diagnosis was 62 years (range, 30-84 years). In total, 64 patients (57.1%) carried the MYD88 L265P mutation and 14 patients (12.5%) carried the CXCR4 WHIM-like mutation. We identified the MYD88 L265P somatic variant in cases with WM (39/42), MGUS (8/18), NHL (14/41, including 4/13 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 1/8 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, 3/6 splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL), 1/4 chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 2/3 nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL), 1/2 mantle cell lymphoma, 1 Burkitt lymphoma, and 1 B cell NHL that could not be classified), primary AL (2/2), and IgM-PN (1/1). The mutation was absent in five patients with Cryoglobulinemia, two with primary cold agglutinin disease and one with MM. The CXCR4 WHIM-like mutation was present in 10/42 patients with WM, 3/41 with NHL (1 DLBCL, 1 SMZL, and 1 NMZL), and 1/18 patients with IgM MGUS. Among the patients with NHL, those with the mutated MYD88 L265P genotype were younger and had lower level of IgG and IgA than the patients with the wild-type genotype. Patients with the mutated MYD88 L265P genotype with WM and MZL were compared. More male patients, higher levels of IgM and lower levels of LDH were found in the WM group. There was no significant difference in overall survival between the two groups. We present a study of the prevalence of the MYD88 L265P mutation and CXCR4 WHIM-like mutation in IgM RD. The MYD88 L265P mutation may play a key role in the pathogenesis of IgM monoclonal gammopathies. It would be interesting in the future to use MYD88 mutation status to differentiate among diseases.

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