Gene Summary

Gene:FCGR2A; Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIa, receptor (CD32)
Aliases: CD32, FCG2, FcGR, CD32A, CDw32, FCGR2, IGFR2, FCGR2A1
Summary:This gene encodes one member of a family of immunoglobulin Fc receptor genes found on the surface of many immune response cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a cell surface receptor found on phagocytic cells such as macrophages and neutrophils, and is involved in the process of phagocytosis and clearing of immune complexes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-a
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
FCGR2A is implicated in:
- IgG binding
- integral to membrane
- plasma membrane
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 26 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FCGR2A (cancer-related)

Aoki Y, Watanabe T, Saito Y, et al.
Identification of CD34+ and CD34- leukemia-initiating cells in MLL-rearranged human acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood. 2015; 125(6):967-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Translocation of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene with AF4, AF9, or ENL results in acute leukemia with both lymphoid and myeloid involvement. We characterized leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) in primary infant MLL-rearranged leukemia using a xenotransplantation model. In MLL-AF4 patients, CD34(+)CD38(+)CD19(+) and CD34(-)CD19(+) cells initiated leukemia, and in MLL-AF9 patients, CD34(-)CD19(+) cells were LICs. In MLL-ENL patients, either CD34(+) or CD34(-) cells were LICs, depending on the pattern of CD34 expression. In contrast, in patients with these MLL translocations, CD34(+)CD38(-)CD19(-)CD33(-) cells were enriched for normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with in vivo long-term multilineage hematopoietic repopulation capacity. Although LICs developed leukemic cells with clonal immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) rearrangement in vivo, CD34(+)CD38(-)CD19(-)CD33(-) cells repopulated recipient bone marrow and spleen with B cells, showing broad polyclonal IGH rearrangement and recipient thymus with CD4(+) single positive (SP), CD8(+) SP, and CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) T cells. Global gene expression profiling revealed that CD9, CD32, and CD24 were over-represented in MLL-AF4, MLL-AF9, and MLL-ENL LICs compared with normal HSCs. In patient samples, these molecules were expressed in CD34(+)CD38(+) and CD34(-) LICs but not in CD34(+)CD38(-)CD19(-)CD33(-) HSCs. Identification of LICs and LIC-specific molecules in primary human MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia may lead to improved therapeutic strategies for MLL-rearranged leukemia.

Holmes TD, Wilson EB, Black EV, et al.
Licensed human natural killer cells aid dendritic cell maturation via TNFSF14/LIGHT.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(52):E5688-96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interactions between natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DCs) aid DC maturation and promote T-cell responses. Here, we have analyzed the response of human NK cells to tumor cells, and we identify a pathway by which NK-DC interactions occur. Gene expression profiling of tumor-responsive NK cells identified the very rapid induction of TNF superfamily member 14 [TNFSF14; also known as homologous to lymphotoxins, exhibits inducible expression, and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for HVEM, a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes (LIGHT)], a cytokine implicated in the enhancement of antitumor responses. TNFSF14 protein expression was induced by three primary mechanisms of NK cell activation, namely, via the engagement of CD16, by the synergistic activity of multiple target cell-sensing NK-cell activation receptors, and by the cytokines IL-2 and IL-15. For antitumor responses, TNFSF14 was preferentially produced by the licensed NK-cell population, defined by the expression of inhibitory receptors specific for self-MHC class I molecules. In contrast, IL-2 and IL-15 treatment induced TNFSF14 production by both licensed and unlicensed NK cells, reflecting the ability of proinflammatory conditions to override the licensing mechanism. Importantly, both tumor- and cytokine-activated NK cells induced DC maturation in a TNFSF14-dependent manner. The coupling of TNFSF14 production to tumor-sensing NK-cell activation receptors links the tumor immune surveillance function of NK cells to DC maturation and adaptive immunity. Furthermore, regulation by NK cell licensing helps to safeguard against TNFSF14 production in response to healthy tissues.

Domínguez-Soto A, de las Casas-Engel M, Bragado R, et al.
Intravenous immunoglobulin promotes antitumor responses by modulating macrophage polarization.
J Immunol. 2014; 193(10):5181-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intravenous Igs (IVIg) therapy is widely used as an immunomodulatory strategy in inflammatory pathologies and is suggested to promote cancer regression. Because progression of tumors depends on their ability to redirect the polarization state of tumor-associated macrophages (from M1/immunogenic/proinflammatory to M2/anti-inflammatory), we have evaluated whether IVIg limits tumor progression and dissemination through modulation of macrophage polarization. In vitro, IVIg inhibited proinflammatory cytokine production from M1 macrophages and induced a M2-to-M1 polarization switch on human and murine M2 macrophages. In vivo, IVIg modified the polarization of tumor-associated myeloid cells in a Fcεr1γ chain-dependent manner, modulated cytokine blood levels in tumor-bearing animals, and impaired tumor progression via FcγRIII (CD16), FcγRIV, and FcRγ engagement, the latter two effects being macrophage mediated. Therefore, IVIg immunomodulatory activity is dependent on the polarization state of the responding macrophages, and its ability to trigger a M2-to-M1 macrophage polarization switch might be therapeutically useful in cancer, in which proinflammatory or immunogenic functions should be promoted.

Zhao H, Cai W, Su S, et al.
Screening genes crucial for pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma using weighted gene coexpression network analysis combined with methylation data analysis.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2014; 21(10):448-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
To identify novel genes associated with pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) for better understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the pediatric PA pathogenesis. Gene expression profile data of GSE50161 and GSE44971 and the methylation data of GSE44684 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between PA and normal control samples were screened using the limma package in R, and then used to construct weighted gene coexpression network (WGCN) using the WGCN analysis (WGCNA) package in R. Significant modules of DEGs were selected using the clustering analysis. Function enrichment analysis of the DEGs in significant modules were performed using the WGCNA package and clusterprofiler package in R. Correlation between methylation sites of DEGs and PA was analyzed using the CpGassoc package in R. Totally, 3479 DEGs were screened in PA samples. Thereinto, 3424 DEGs were used to construct the WGCN. Several significant modules of DEGs were selected based on the WGCN, in which the turquoise module was positively related to PA, whereas blue module was negatively related to PA. DEGs (for example, DOCK2 (dedicator of cytokinesis 2), DOCK8 and FCGR2A (Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIa)) in blue module were mainly involved in Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis pathway and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity pathway. Methylations of 14 DEGs among the top 30 genes in blue module were related to PA. Our data suggest that DOCK2, DOCK8 and FCGR2A may represent potential therapeutic targets in PA that merits further investigation.

Takata K, Hong ME, Sitthinamsuwan P, et al.
Primary cutaneous NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type and CD56-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma: a cellular lineage and clinicopathologic study of 60 patients from Asia.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(1):1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary cutaneous, extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (PC-ENKTL), is a rare Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated neoplasm with poorly defined clinicopathologic features. We performed a multinational retrospective study of PC-ENKTL and CD56-positive EBV-negative peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PC-CD56+PTCL) in Asia in an attempt to elucidate their clinicopathologic features. Using immunohistochemistry for T-cell receptors (TCRs), in situ hybridization for EBV, and TCR gene rearrangement, we classified 60 tumors into 51 with PC-ENKTL (20 of NK-cell, 17 T-cell, and 14 indeterminate lineages) and 9 with PC-CD56+PTCL. Tumors of T-cell origin accounted for 46% of PC-ENKTLs with half of these cases being TCR-silent. As compared with T-lineage tumors, PC-ENKTLs of NK-cell lineage had more frequent involvement of regional lymph nodes and more frequently CD8-negative and CD56-positive. Cases of PC-ENKTL showed more frequent tumor necrosis, younger age, and a higher frequency of CD16 and CD30 expression than cases of PC-CD56+PTCL. CD56-positive T-lineage PC-ENKTL tumors (n=8) had more localized disease in the TNM (tumor-node-metastasis) staging and were more often of γδ T-cell origin compared with cases of PC-CD56+PTCL (n=9). PC-ENKTLs and PC-CD56+PTCLs were equally aggressive, with a 5-year overall survival rate of 25%. Tumor necrosis and CD16 expression may serve as useful surrogates for differentiating PC-ENKTL from PC-CD56+PTCL. A single lesion, an elevated lactate dehydrogenase level, and the presence of B symptoms were independent poor prognostic factors for PC-ENKTL in multivariate analysis. Further studies with more cases are warranted to delineate the clinicopathologic features and significance of EBV in these rare lymphomas.

Wang J, Ni Z, Duan Z, et al.
Altered expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and its regulatory genes in gastric cancer tissues.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e99835 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tissue hypoxia induces reprogramming of cell metabolism and may result in normal cell transformation and cancer progression. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), the key transcription factor, plays an important role in gastric cancer development and progression. This study aimed to investigate the underlying regulatory signaling pathway in gastric cancer using gastric cancer tissue specimens. The integration of gene expression profile and transcriptional regulatory element database (TRED) was pursued to identify HIF-1α ↔ NFκB1 → BRCA1 → STAT3 ← STAT1 gene pathways and their regulated genes. The data showed that there were 82 differentially expressed genes that could be regulated by these five transcription factors in gastric cancer tissues and these genes formed 95 regulation modes, among which seven genes (MMP1, TIMP1, TLR2, FCGR3A, IRF1, FAS, and TFF3) were hub molecules that are regulated at least by two of these five transcription factors simultaneously and were associated with hypoxia, inflammation, and immune disorder. Real-Time PCR and western blot showed increasing of HIF-1α in mRNA and protein levels as well as TIMP1, TFF3 in mRNA levels in gastric cancer tissues. The data are the first study to demonstrate HIF-1α-regulated transcription factors and their corresponding network genes in gastric cancer. Further study with a larger sample size and more functional experiments is needed to confirm these data and then translate into clinical biomarker discovery and treatment strategy for gastric cancer.

Kjersem JB, Skovlund E, Ikdahl T, et al.
FCGR2A and FCGR3A polymorphisms and clinical outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with first-line 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid and oxaliplatin +/- cetuximab.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:340 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms of genes encoding the Fcy receptors (Fc fragment of IgG receptor 2A (FCGR2A) and 3A (FCGR3A)), which influence their affinity for the Fc fragment, have been linked to the pharmacodynamics of monoclonal antibodies. Most studies have been limited by small samples sizes and have reported inconsistent associations between the FCGR2A and the FCGR3A polymorphisms and clinical outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with cetuximab. We investigated the association of these polymorphisms and clinical outcome in a large cohort of mCRC patients treated with first-line 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) +/- cetuximab in the NORDIC-VII study (NCT00145314).
METHODS: 504 and 497 mCRC patients were evaluable for the FCGR2A and FCGR3A genotyping, respectively. Genotyping was performed on TaqMan ABI HT 7900 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) with pre-designed SNP genotyping assays for FCGR2A (rs1801274) and FCGR3A (rs396991).
RESULTS: The response rate for patients with the FCGR2A R/R genotype was significantly increased when cetuximab was added to Nordic FLOX (31% versus 53%, interaction P = 0.03), but was not significantly different compared to the response rate of patients with the FCGR2A H/H or H/R genotypes given the same treatment. A larger increase in response rate with the addition of cetuximab to Nordic FLOX in patients with KRAS mutated tumors and the FCGR2A R/R genotype was observed (19% versus 50%, interaction P = 0.04). None of the FCGR3A polymorphisms were associated with altered response when cetuximab was added to Nordic FLOX (interaction P = 0.63). Neither of the FCGR polymorphisms showed any significant associations with progression-free survival or overall survival.
CONCLUSION: Patients with KRAS mutated tumors and the FCGR2A R/R polymorphism responded poorly when treated with chemotherapy only, and experienced the most benefit of the addition of cetuximab in terms of response rate.

McAllister JM, Modi B, Miller BA, et al.
Overexpression of a DENND1A isoform produces a polycystic ovary syndrome theca phenotype.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(15):E1519-27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by increased ovarian androgen biosynthesis, anovulation, and infertility, affects 5-7% of reproductive-age women. Genome-wide association studies identified PCOS candidate loci that were replicated in subsequent reports, including DENND1A, which encodes a protein associated with clathrin-coated pits where cell-surface receptors reside. However, these studies provided no information about functional roles for DENND1A in the pathogenesis of PCOS. DENND1A protein was located in the cytoplasm as well as nuclei of theca cells, suggesting a possible role in gene regulation. DENND1A immunostaining was more intense in the theca of PCOS ovaries. Using theca cells isolated and propagated from normal cycling and PCOS women, we found that DENND1A variant 2 (DENND1A.V2) protein and mRNA levels are increased in PCOS theca cells. Exosomal DENND1A.V2 RNA was significantly elevated in urine from PCOS women compared with normal cycling women. Forced overexpression of DENND1A.V2 in normal theca cells resulted in a PCOS phenotype of augmented CYP17A1 and CYP11A1 gene transcription, mRNA abundance, and androgen biosynthesis. Knock-down of DENND1A.V2 in PCOS theca cells reduced androgen biosynthesis and CYP17A1 and CYP11A1 gene transcription. An IgG specific to DENND1A.V2 also reduced androgen biosynthesis and CYP17 and CYP11A1 mRNA when added to the medium of cultured PCOS theca cells. We conclude that the PCOS candidate gene, DENND1A, plays a key role in the hyperandrogenemia associated with PCOS. These observations have both diagnostic and therapeutic implications for this common disorder.

Boross P, Jansen JH, van Tetering G, et al.
Anti-tumor activity of human IgG1 anti-gp75 TA99 mAb against B16F10 melanoma in human FcgammaRI transgenic mice.
Immunol Lett. 2014; 160(2):151-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patients suffering from advanced melanoma have a very poor prognosis. Despite recent advances in the understanding of oncogenic mechanisms and therapeutic interventions, the median survival of patients with metastatic disease is less than 12 months. Immunotherapy of melanoma has been intensely investigated and holds great promises. Tyrosinase-related protein-1 or gp75 (TYRP-1/gp75) antigen is a melanosomal polypeptide. It is the most abundant glycoprotein synthesized by pigmented melanocytes and melanomas. It is specific for melanocytes and both primary and metastatic melanomas. In mice, administration of the mouse mAb anti-gp75 TA99 prevents outgrowth of B16F10 melanoma metastases. The activity of TA99 is dependent on the presence and activity of the IgG specific, Fc receptors. TA99 cross-reacts with human gp75, and is currently being used for diagnosis of patients. Here, we sequenced mIgG2a TA99 and found that the locus harboring the endogenous light chain of the fusion partner in the TA99 hybridoma cells is not inactivated, resulting in the production of a mixed pool of mAbs that mitigates binding to gp75. Since human IgG1 (hIgG1) is the most frequently used mAb format in clinical studies, we produced a recombinant hIgG1 TA99 molecule. Whereas it is known that hIgG1 can functionally interact with mouse Fc receptors, we found that hIgG1 TA99 did not exhibit in vivo activity against B16F10 melanoma in wild type C57BL/6 mice. However, results obtained in this study demonstrated anti-tumor activity of hIgG1 TA99 in FcγRIIB knockout mice and in human FcγRI transgenic mice. These results emphasize the need for testing hIgG mAb in mice with functional human FcγRs.

Todo K, Koga O, Nishikawa M, Hikida M
IgG1 cytoplasmic tail is essential for cell surface expression in Igβ down-regulated cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 445(3):572-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been shown that cytoplasmic tail of the IgG1 B cell receptors (BCRs) are essential for the induction of T-dependent immune responses. Also it has been revealed that unique tyrosine residue in the cytoplasmic tail of IgG2a has the potential of being phosphorylated at tyrosine and that this phosphorylation modulates BCR signaling. However, it still remains unclear whether such phosphorylation of IgG cytoplasmic tail is involved in the regulation of BCR surface expression. In order to approach the issue, we established and analyzed the cell lines which express wild-type or mutated forms of IgG1 BCR. As the result, we found that IgG1 BCR expressed normally on the surface of A20 B cell line independent of the cytoplasmic tail. In contrast, IgG1 BCR whose cytoplasmic tyrosine was replaced with glutamic acid which mimics phosphorylated tyrosine, was expressed most efficiently on the surface of non-B lineage cells and Igβ-down-regulated B cell lines. These results suggest that tyrosine residue in IgG cytoplasmic tail is playing a essential role for the efficient expression of IgG BCR on the cell surface when BCR associated signaling molecules, including Igβ, are down-regulated.

Tsukerman P, Stern-Ginossar N, Yamin R, et al.
Expansion of CD16 positive and negative human NK cells in response to tumor stimulation.
Eur J Immunol. 2014; 44(5):1517-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
NK cells are innate immune lymphocytes that express a vast repertoire of germ-line encoded receptors for target recognition. These receptors include inhibitory and activating proteins, among the latter of which is CD16, a low affinity binding Fc receptor. Here, we show that human NK cells expand in response to stimulation with various tumor cell lines. We further demonstrate that the tumor-derived expansion of NK cells is accompanied by rapid, cell-dependent, changes in CD16 expression levels. We show that in NK cells expanded in response to the EBV-transformed cell line 721.221, CD16 is shed and therefore approximately half of the expanded 721.221-derived NK-cell population does not express CD16. We also show, in contrast, that in response to 1106mel cells, CD16 expression is maintained on the cell surface of the expanded NK cells due to an antibody-dependent mechanism. Our results may provide a basis for the selective expansion of NK cells that may be used for tumor immunotherapy.

Petricevic B, Laengle J, Singer J, et al.
Trastuzumab mediates antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and phagocytosis to the same extent in both adjuvant and metastatic HER2/neu breast cancer patients.
J Transl Med. 2013; 11:307 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies (mAb), such as trastuzumab are a valuable addition to breast cancer therapy. Data obtained from neoadjuvant settings revealed that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a major mechanism of action for the mAb trastuzumab. Conflicting results still call into question whether disease progression, prolonged treatment or concomitant chemotherapy influences ADCC and related immunological phenomena.
METHODS: We analyzed the activity of ADCC and antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) positive breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab therapy either in an adjuvant (n = 13) or metastatic (n = 15) setting as well as from trastuzumab treatment-naive (t-naive) HER2/neu negative patients (n = 15). PBMCs from healthy volunteers (n = 24) were used as controls. ADCC and ADCP activity was correlated with the expression of antibody binding Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR)I (CD64), FcγRII (CD32) and FcγRIII (CD16) on CD14+ (monocytes) and CD56+ (NK) cells, as well as the expression of CD107a+ (LAMP-1) on CD56+ cells and the total amount of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ (Treg) cells. In metastatic patients, markers were correlated with progression-free survival (PFS).
RESULTS: ADCC activity was significantly down regulated in metastatic, adjuvant and t-naive patient cohorts as compared to healthy controls. Reduced ADCC activity was inversely correlated with the expression of CD107a on CD56+ cells in adjuvant patients. ADCC and ADCP activity of the patient cohorts were similar, regardless of treatment duration or additional chemotherapy. PFS in metastatic patients inversely correlated with the number of peripheral Treg cells.
CONCLUSION: The reduction of ADCC in patients as compared to healthy controls calls for adjuvant strategies, such as immune-enhancing agents, to improve the activity of trastuzumab. However, efficacy of trastuzumab-specific ADCC and ADCP appears not to be affected by treatment duration, disease progression or concomitant chemotherapy. This finding supports the application of trastuzumab at any stage of the disease.

Baker K, Rath T, Flak MB, et al.
Neonatal Fc receptor expression in dendritic cells mediates protective immunity against colorectal cancer.
Immunity. 2013; 39(6):1095-107 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancers arising in mucosal tissues account for a disproportionately large fraction of malignancies. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) have an important function in the mucosal immune system that we have now shown extends to the induction of CD8(+) T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. We demonstrate that FcRn within dendritic cells (DCs) was critical for homeostatic activation of mucosal CD8(+) T cells that drove protection against the development of colorectal cancers and lung metastases. FcRn-mediated tumor protection was driven by DCs activation of endogenous tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells via the cross-presentation of IgG complexed antigens (IgG IC), as well as the induction of cytotoxicity-promoting cytokine secretion, particularly interleukin-12, both of which were independently triggered by the FcRn-IgG IC interaction in murine and human DCs. FcRn thus has a primary role within mucosal tissues in activating local immune responses that are critical for priming efficient anti-tumor immunosurveillance.

Vardi A, Agathangelidis A, Sutton LA, et al.
IgG-switched CLL has a distinct immunogenetic signature from the common MD variant: ontogenetic implications.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(2):323-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Immunoglobulin G-switched chronic lymphocytic leukemia (G-CLL) is a rare variant of CLL, whose origin and ontogenetic relationship to the common IgM/IgD (MD-CLL) variant remains undefined. Here, we sought for clues about the ontogeny of G-CLL versus MD-CLL by profiling the relevant IG gene repertoires.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using purpose-built bioinformatics methods, we performed detailed immunogenetic profiling of a multinational CLL cohort comprising 1,256 cases, of which 1,087 and 169 expressed IG mu/delta and gamma heavy chains, respectively.
RESULTS: G-CLL has a highly skewed IG gene repertoire that is distinct from MD-CLL, especially in terms of (i) overuse of the IGHV4-34 and IGHV4-39 genes and (ii) differential somatic hypermutation (SHM) load. Repertoire differences were also found when comparing subgroups with similar SHM status and were mainly attributed to the exclusive representation in G-CLL of two major subsets with quasi-identical (stereotyped) B-cell receptors. These subsets, namely #4 (IGHV4-34/IGKV2-30) and #8 (IGHV4-39/IGKV1(D)-39), were found to display sharply contrasting SHM and clinical behavior.
CONCLUSIONS: G-CLL exhibits an overall distinct immunogenetic signature from MD-CLL, prompting speculations about distinct ontogenetic derivation and/or immune triggering. The reasons underlying the differential regulation of SHM among G-CLL cases remain to be elucidated.

Saito R, Suzuki H, Yamada T, et al.
Predicting skin toxicity according to EGFR polymorphisms in patients with colorectal cancer receiving antibody against EGFR.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(11):4995-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can extend progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with unresectable colorectal cancer; however, skin toxicity often interferes with therapy continuation.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed the polymorphisms in EGFR and IgG fragment C receptor (FCGR) genes and determined their associations with clinical outcomes including PFS, OS, and skin toxicity. Five polymorphisms in EGFR and FCGR genes in 32 patients with unresectable colorectal cancer who were treated with antibodies against EGFR were examined.
RESULTS: Patients carrying the C/C genotype of the EGFR D994D polymorphism displayed significantly less skin toxicity than those with other genotypes, although no significant differences in PFS and OS were noted and no significant interactions were detected for other gene polymorphisms.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the EGFR D994D polymorphism is a useful biomarker for predicting the severity of skin toxicity in patients receiving antibody against EGFR.

Psathas JN, Doonan PJ, Raman P, et al.
The Myc-miR-17-92 axis amplifies B-cell receptor signaling via inhibition of ITIM proteins: a novel lymphomagenic feed-forward loop.
Blood. 2013; 122(26):4220-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The c-Myc oncoprotein regulates >15% of the human transcriptome and a limited number of microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we establish that in a human B-lymphoid cell line, Myc-repressed, but not Myc-stimulated, genes are significantly enriched for predicted binding sites of Myc-regulated miRNAs, primarily those comprising the Myc-activated miR-17~92 cluster. Notably, gene set enrichment analysis demonstrates that miR-17∼92 is a major regulator of B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway components. Many of them are immunoreceptor tyrosine inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing proteins, and ITIM proteins CD22 and FCGR2B were found to be direct targets of miR-17∼92. Consistent with the propensity of ITIM proteins to recruit phosphatases, either MYC or miR-17~92 expression was necessary to sustain phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and the B-cell linker protein (BLNK) upon ligation of the BCR. Further downstream, stimulation of the BCR response by miR-17-92 resulted in the enhanced calcium flux and elevated levels of Myc itself. Notably, inhibition of the miR-17~92 cluster in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines diminished the BCR response as measured by SYK and BLNK phosphorylation. Conversely, human DLBCLs of the BCR subtype express higher Myc and mir17hg transcript levels than other subtypes. Hence, the Myc-miR-17-92-BCR axis, frequently affected by genomic rearrangements, constitutes a novel lymphomagenic feed-forward loop.

Griesinger AM, Birks DK, Donson AM, et al.
Characterization of distinct immunophenotypes across pediatric brain tumor types.
J Immunol. 2013; 191(9):4880-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite increasing evidence that antitumor immune control exists in the pediatric brain, these findings have yet to be exploited successfully in the clinic. A barrier to development of immunotherapeutic strategies in pediatric brain tumors is that the immunophenotype of these tumors' microenvironment has not been defined. To address this, the current study used multicolor FACS of disaggregated tumor to systematically characterize the frequency and phenotype of infiltrating immune cells in the most common pediatric brain tumor types. The initial study cohort consisted of 7 pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), 19 ependymoma (EPN), 5 glioblastoma (GBM), 6 medulloblastoma (MED), and 5 nontumor brain (NT) control samples obtained from epilepsy surgery. Immune cell types analyzed included both myeloid and T cell lineages and respective markers of activated or suppressed functional phenotypes. Immune parameters that distinguished each of the tumor types were identified. PA and EPN demonstrated significantly higher infiltrating myeloid and lymphoid cells compared with GBM, MED, or NT. Additionally, PA and EPN conveyed a comparatively activated/classically activated myeloid cell-skewed functional phenotype denoted in particular by HLA-DR and CD64 expression. In contrast, GBM and MED contained progressively fewer infiltrating leukocytes and more muted functional phenotypes similar to that of NT. These findings were recapitulated using whole tumor expression of corresponding immune marker genes in a large gene expression microarray cohort of pediatric brain tumors. The results of this cross-tumor comparative analysis demonstrate that different pediatric brain tumor types exhibit distinct immunophenotypes, implying that specific immunotherapeutic approaches may be most effective for each tumor type.

Pandey JP, Kistner-Griffin E, Black L, et al.
IGKC and FcγR genotypes and humoral immunity to HER2 in breast cancer.
Immunobiology. 2014; 219(2):113-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Immunoglobulin κ constant (IGKC) gene has recently been identified as a strong prognostic marker in several human solid tumors, including breast cancer. Although the mechanisms underlying the IGKC signature are not yet known, identification of tumor-infiltrating plasma cells as the source of IGKC expression strongly suggests a role for humoral immunity in breast cancer progression. The primary aim of the present investigation was to determine whether the genetic variants of IGKC, KM (κ marker) allotypes, are risk factors for breast cancer, and whether they influence the magnitude of humoral immunity to epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), which is overexpressed in 25-30% of breast cancer patients and is associated with poor prognosis. Using a matched case-control design, we genotyped a large (1719 subjects) study population from Japan and Brazil for KM alleles. Both cases and controls in this study population had been previously characterized for GM (γ marker) and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) alleles, and the cases had also been characterized for anti-HER2 antibodies. Conditional logistic regression analysis of the data showed that KM1 allele additively contributed to the risk of breast cancer in the Japanese subjects from Nagano: Compared to KM3 homozygotes, KM1 homozygotes were almost twice as likely to develop breast cancer (OR=1.77, CI 1.06-2.95). Additionally, KM genotypes-individually and in particular epistatic combinations with FcγRIIa genotypes-contributed to the magnitude of anti-HER2 antibody responsiveness in the Japanese patients. This is the first report implicating KM alleles in the immunobiology of breast cancer.

Pandey JP, Kistner-Griffin E, Namboodiri AM, et al.
Suggestive evidence that Fc variants of IgG2 and FcγRIIa loci interact to contribute to the risk of prostate cancer.
Hum Immunol. 2013; 74(12):1656-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
GM and KM allotypes-hereditary antigenic variants of immunoglobulin γ and κ chains, respectively-and the genetic variants of activating Fcγ receptors (FcγR) are associated with the immunobiology of several malignant diseases, but their role in susceptibility to prostate cancer has not been examined. This investigation aimed to determine whether these genes-individually or in particular epistatic combinations-contribute to the risk of prostate cancer. We genotyped DNA from 200 Caucasian patients with prostate cancer and 185 healthy controls (matched for age, race, gender, and geography) for several GM, KM, FcγRIIa, and FcγRIIIa alleles by molecular methods. None of the genotypes by itself was associated with the risk of prostate cancer. However, particular alleles at GM 23 and FcγRIIa loci interactively contributed to the risk of this malignancy (p = 0.031), the odds ratios ranging from 0.44 in subjects homozygous for the GM 23- allele at the IgG2 locus and for the histidine allele at the FcγRIIa locus to 2.86 in subjects homozygous for the GM 23+ allele at the IgG2 locus and the histidine allele at the FcγRIIa locus. To our knowledge, this is the first report implicating GM and FcγR loci as risk/protective factors for prostate cancer. Additional, independent, studies are warranted to confirm and extend these findings.

Spijkers-Hagelstein JA, Pinhanços SS, Schneider P, et al.
Chemical genomic screening identifies LY294002 as a modulator of glucocorticoid resistance in MLL-rearranged infant ALL.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(4):761-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Successful treatment results for MLL-rearranged Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) in infants remain difficult to achieve. Significantly contributing to therapy failure is poor response to glucocorticoids (GCs), like prednisone. Thus, overcoming resistance to these drugs may be a crucial step towards improving prognosis. We defined a gene signature that accurately discriminates between prednisolone-resistant and prednisolone-sensitive MLL-rearranged infant ALL patient samples. In the current study, we applied Connectivity Map analysis to perform an in silico screening for agents capable of reversing the prednisolone-resistance profile and induce sensitivity. These analyses revealed that LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, would potentially fulfill this task. Subsequent validation experiments demonstrated that indeed LY294002, and other known PI3K inhibitors, markedly sensitized otherwise resistant MLL-rearranged ALL cells to prednisolone in vitro. Using quantitative RT-PCR analyses, we validated the modulating effects of the PI3K inhibitors on the expression of the genes present in our prednisolone-resistance profile. Interestingly, prednisolone-sensitizing actions may be mediated by inhibition of FCGR1B. Moreover, only high-level expression of FCGR1B showed to be predictive for a poor prognosis and shRNA-mediated knock-down of FCGR1B led to in vitro prednisolone sensitization. Thus, implementing FDA-approved PI3K inhibitors in current treatments may potentially improve the GC response and prognosis in patients with MLL-rearranged ALL.

Kim HK, Hwang HL, Park SY, et al.
Simple and versatile molecular method of copy-number measurement using cloned competitors.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e69414 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Variations and alterations of copy numbers (CNVs and CNAs) carry disease susceptibility and drug responsiveness implications. Although there are many molecular methods to measure copy numbers, sensitivity, reproducibility, cost, and time issues remain. In the present study, we were able to solve those problems utilizing our modified real competitive PCR method with cloned competitors (mrcPCR). First, the mrcPCR for ERBB2 copy number was established, and the results were comparable to current standard methods but with a shorter assay time and a lower cost. Second, the mrcPCR assays for 24 drug-target genes were established, and the results in a panel of NCI-60 cells were comparable to those from real-time PCR and microarray. Third, the mrcPCR results for FCGR3A and the FCGR3B CNVs were comparable to those by the paralog ratio test (PRT), but without PRT's limitations. These results suggest that mrcPCR is comparable to the currently available standard or the most sensitive methods. In addition, mrcPCR would be invaluable for measurement of CNVs in genes with variants of similar structures, because combination of the other methods is not necessary, along with its other advantages such as short assay time, small sample amount requirement, and applicability to all sequences and genes.

Thiago LS, Perez-Andres M, Balanzategui A, et al.
Circulating clonotypic B cells in multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.
Haematologica. 2014; 99(1):155-62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The B-cell compartment in which multiple myeloma stem cells reside remains unclear. We investigated the potential presence of mature, surface-membrane immunoglobulin-positive B lymphocytes clonally related to the tumor bone marrow plasma cells among different subsets of peripheral blood B cells from ten patients (7 with multiple myeloma and 3 with monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance). The presence of clonotypic immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements was determined in multiple highly-purified fractions of peripheral blood B-lymphocytes including surface-membrane IgM(+) CD27(-) naïve B-lymphocytes, plus surface-membrane IgG(+), IgA(+) and IgM(+) memory CD27(+) B cells, and normal circulating plasma cells, in addition to (mono)clonal plasma cells, by a highly-specific and sensitive allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction directed to the CDR3 sequence of the rearranged IGH gene of tumor plasma cells from individual patients. Our results showed systematic absence of clonotypic rearrangements in all the different B-cell subsets analyzed, including M-component isotype-matched memory B-lymphocytes, at frequencies <0.03 cells/μL (range: 0.0003-0.08 cells/μL); the only exception were the myeloma plasma cells detected and purified from the peripheral blood of four of the seven myeloma patients. These results indicate that circulating B cells from patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance are usually devoid of clonotypic B cells while the presence of immunophenotypically aberrant myeloma plasma cells in peripheral blood of myeloma patients is a relatively frequent finding.

Géraud C, Mogler C, Runge A, et al.
Endothelial transdifferentiation in hepatocellular carcinoma: loss of Stabilin-2 expression in peri-tumourous liver correlates with increased survival.
Liver Int. 2013; 33(9):1428-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumour that is characterized by extensive vascular remodelling and responsiveness to treatment with the anti-angiogenic multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. The aim was to study endothelial remodelling in HCC.
METHODS: The murine inducible albumin-SV40-large T-antigen model and two tissue microarrays (TMA) with 295 tumourous and 83 peri-tumourous samples of 296 patients with HCC were analysed for expression of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC)-specific marker proteins, stabilin-1 and stabilin-2, LYVE-1 and CD32b.
RESULTS: LSEC marker proteins were sequentially lost during HCC progression in the murine HCC model being absent from tumour nodules larger than 800 μm in diameter. Similarly, the TMA analysis of human HCCs revealed loss of all four marker proteins in the majority of tumourous tissue samples. Preservation of LYVE-1 expression showed a significant correlation with low grading (G1). In corresponding peri-tumourous liver tissue, loss of all marker proteins was seen in a minor proportion of cases (34%) while the majority of cases retained expression of at least one of the marker proteins. Loss of stabilin-2 expression in peri-tumourous liver tissue of patients with HCC was significantly less likely to occur (38%) than loss of the other marker proteins (63-95%) and it was associated with significantly longer tumour-specific (P = 0.0523) and overall (P = 0.0338) survival. Loss of stabilin-2 may enhance survival in HCC by preventing endothelial-tumour cell adhesive interactions and microvascular invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, endothelial transdifferentiation is a major pathogenic event in HCC development indicating a switch from vessel co-option/intussusceptive angiogenesis to sprouting angiogenesis.

Hugwil AV
The meaning of the anti-cancer antibody CLN-IgG (Pritumumab) generated by human × human hybridoma technology against the cyto-skeletal protein, vimentin, in the course of the treatment of malignancy.
Med Hypotheses. 2013; 81(3):489-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells in a tumor mass form a very small subpopulation ranging from below 0.1% in a brain tumor but they have the crucial ability to become malignant. The goal of cancer therapy has been the total killing of tumor cells. However we should clarify that most of all tumor cells are differentiated cancer cells. Thus the elimination of 99.9% of tumor cells under histological criteria cannot ensure the cancer will be cured. Rather cancer cell biologists should turn their attention to reprogramming cancer stem cells to normal stem cells by which malignancy recuperates normal organogenesis from the aspect of the dichotomy of cancer stem cell. The cue points underlying the reverse cancer stem cell at blastogenesis in inflammation site is depending upon cell-to-cell recognition of the tumor-niche cells. Normalization of tumor-niche promises to lead cancer stem cell into normal stem cell owing to autonomous healing mechanisms that reside in the self-defense mechanisms in immunity and the cell competition mechanisms in the wound healing of the tissue cells. Among the cyto-skeletal proteins, vimentin becomes a target of self-restoration of cancer stem cell by means of immune surveillance. A human monoclonal antibody, CLN-IgG recognizes vimentin expressing on the cell surface of the malignant tumor. Since vimentin network resides in the cytoplasm connecting the plasma membrane with chromatin assembly in the nucleus, it is highly likely vimentin plays an important role in up-regulation and down-regulation through signal transduction between certain membrane receptors and gene expression with respect to the transformation of the cell. Aberrant arrangement of vimentin undergoes malignancy accompanied by epithelial-mesenchymal-transition relating to the aberrant apoptotic cellular behavior in the tumor-niche. Restraint of the aberrant expression of vimentin on the plasma membrane of the malignant cell evokes a pertinent signal transduction pathway for healing that is an indication there must be a reverse path that reprograms cancer stem cells to normal organogenesis.

Roca L, Diéras V, Roché H, et al.
Correlation of HER2, FCGR2A, and FCGR3A gene polymorphisms with trastuzumab related cardiac toxicity and efficacy in a subgroup of patients from UNICANCER-PACS 04 trial.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 139(3):789-800 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to investigate, in the context of a prospective node-positive-breast cancer trial HER2 containing-regimen (UNICANCER-PACS 04 trial), the predictive value of HER2, FCGRIIA, and FCGRIIIA gene polymorphisms for cardiac toxicity and efficacy of trastuzumab. We analyzed HER2-I655V, FCGR2A-H131R, and FCGR3A-V158F single nucleotide polymorphisms in patients in adjuvant setting treated by six courses of either fluorouracil 500 mg/m(2), epirubicin 100 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m(2), or epirubicin 75 mg/m(2) and docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks then randomly assigned, in case of HER2 overexpressing tumor, to either trastuzumab for 1 year or nothing. Left ventricular ejection fraction and clinical examination were monitored in each patient, seven times throughout the study to detect congestive heart failure or asymptomatic subclinical cardiac toxicity. All genotypes were analyzed in relation to cardiac toxicity, EFS, and OS. One hundred and thirty-two HER2-positive breast cancer patients were analyzed. The HER2-I655V genotype was significantly associated with cardiac toxicity (p = 0.025). The FCGR2A-131 H/H genotype was significantly correlated with a shorter EFS (p = 0.027). The FCGR3A-158 V/V genotype was not correlated with EFS nor OS. These results might be useful in making a treatment choice of HER2 blockers in adjuvant setting by with an increase in efficacy and decrease in toxicity.

Clémenceau B, Vivien R, Pellat C, et al.
The human natural killer cytotoxic cell line NK-92, once armed with a murine CD16 receptor, represents a convenient cellular tool for the screening of mouse mAbs according to their ADCC potential.
MAbs. 2013 Jul-Aug; 5(4):587-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To take advantage of the large number of well-characterized mouse immunoglobulins (IgGs) for the study of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in human cells, we armed human cytotoxic lymphocytes with a mouse receptor for the Fc portion of IgG antibodies. The human ΝΚ-92 natural killer cell line was transduced with a mouse receptor gene (mCD16), which was stably expressed on the cell surface (referred to as NK-92 (mCD16) ). When tested against a B-lymphoblastoid cell line (BLCL) coated with mouse anti-CD20 IgG1, IgG2a or IgG2b monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), the newly expressed mouse Fc receptor enabled the NK-92 (mCD16) cells to kill the BLCL by ADCC. Next, using the NK-92 (mCD16) we compared mouse mAbs directed at B lineage specific CD antigens for their ability to induce ADCC against human Epstein-Barr virus- infected B lymphoblastoid (for anti-CD19, -CD20 and -CD21) or against myeloma (for anti-CD38 and -CD138) target cells. Our results demonstrated that the "NK-92 (mCD16) assay" allows convenient and sensitive discrimination of mouse mAbs for their ability to mediate ADCC in a human cellular system. In addition, our results provide examples of dissociation between opsonization and target cell killing through ADCC. These "murinized" human effector cells thus represent a convenient cellular tool for the study of ADCC.

Laurent S, Queirolo P, Boero S, et al.
The engagement of CTLA-4 on primary melanoma cell lines induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and TNF-α production.
J Transl Med. 2013; 11:108 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CTLA-4 (Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4) is traditionally known as a negative regulator of T cell activation. The blocking of CTLA-4 using human monoclonal antibodies, such as Ipilimumab, is currently used to relieve CTLA-4-mediated inhibition of anti-tumor immune response in metastatic melanoma. Herein, we have analyzed CTLA-4 expression and Ipilimumab reactivity on melanoma cell lines and tumor tissues from cutaneous melanoma patients. Then, we investigated whether Ipilimumab can trigger innate immunity in terms of antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) or Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α release. Finally, a xenograft murine model was set up to determine in vivo the effects of Ipilimumab and NK cells on melanoma.
METHODS: CTLA-4 expression and Ipilimumab reactivity were analyzed on 17 melanoma cell lines (14 primary and 3 long-term cell lines) by cytofluorimetry and on 33 melanoma tissues by immunohistochemistry. CTLA-4 transcripts were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Soluble CTLA-4 and TNF-α were tested by ELISA. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), NK and γδT cells were tested in ADCC assay with Ipilimumab and melanoma cell lines. TNF-α release was analyzed in NK-melanoma cell co-cultures in the presence of ipilimumab. In vivo experiments of xenotransplantation were carried out in NOD/SCID mice. Results were analyzed using unpaired Student's t-test.
RESULTS: All melanoma cell lines expressed mRNA and cytoplasmic CTLA-4 but surface reactivity with Ipilimumab was quite heterogeneous. Accordingly, about 2/3 of melanoma specimens expressed CTLA-4 at different level of intensity.Ipilimumab triggered, via FcγReceptorIIIA (CD16), ex vivo NK cells as well as PBMC, IL-2 activated NK and γδT cells to ADCC of CTLA-4+ melanoma cells. No ADCC was detected upon interaction with CTLA-4- FO-1 melanoma cell line. TNF-α was released upon interaction of NK cells with CTLA-4+ melanoma cell lines. Remarkably, Ipilimumab neither affected proliferation and viability nor triggered ADCC of CTLA-4+ T lymphocytes. In a chimeric murine xenograft model, the co-engraftment of Ipilimumab-treated melanoma cells with human allogeneic NK cells delayed and significantly reduced tumor growth, as compared to mice receiving control xenografts.
CONCLUSIONS: Our studies demonstrate that Ipilimumab triggers effector lymphocytes to cytotoxicity and TNF-α release. These findings suggest that Ipilimumab, besides blocking CTLA-4, can directly activate the elimination of CTLA-4+ melanomas.

Pandey JP, Namboodiri AM, Kistner-Griffin E
IgG and FcγR genotypes and humoral immunity to mucin 1 in prostate cancer.
Hum Immunol. 2013; 74(8):1030-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Immunoglobulin GM and KM allotypes-hereditary antigenic determinants of γ and κ chains, respectively-and Fcγ receptor IIa (FcγRIIa) and FcγRIIIa genes are associated with the immunobiology of several malignant diseases, but their role in humoral immunity to the tumor-associated antigen mucin 1 (MUC1) in prostate cancer has not been examined. This investigation aimed to determine whether these genes-individually or in particular epistatic combinations-contribute to the inter-individual variability in the magnitude of antibody responsiveness to MUC1 in patients with prostate cancer. We genotyped DNA from 127 Caucasian American (CA) and 76 African American (AA) patients with histologically verified adenocarcinoma of the prostate for several GM, KM, FcγRIIa, and FcγRIIIa alleles by molecular methods. We also quantitated antibodies to MUC1 in the plasma from these patients by ELISA. In CA patients, homozygosity for the valine allele at the FcγRIIIa locus was significantly associated with low antibody responsiveness to MUC1 (p=0.029). In AA patients, the KM 1/3 heterozygotes had significantly higher anti-MUC1 antibody levels than 1/1 and 3/3 homozygotes (p=0.044). These results, the first to implicate FcγRIIIa and KM loci in humoral immunity to MUC1 in prostate cancer, might be relevant to MUC1-based immunotherapy of this malignancy.

Lagrange B, Martin RZ, Droin N, et al.
A role for miR-142-3p in colony-stimulating factor 1-induced monocyte differentiation into macrophages.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1833(8):1936-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
The differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into macrophages can be reproduced ex vivo by culturing the cells in the presence of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1). Using microarray profiling to explore the role of microRNAs (miRNAs), we identified a dramatic decrease in the expression of the hematopoietic specific miR-142-3p. Up- and down-regulation of this miRNA in primary human monocytes altered CSF1-induced differentiation of monocytes, as demonstrated by changes in the expression of the cell surface markers CD16 and CD163. One of the genes whose expression is repressed by miR-142-3p encodes the transcription factor Early Growth Response 2 (Egr2). In turn, Egr2 associated with its co-repressor NGFI-A (Nerve Growth Factor-Induced gene-A) binding protein 2 (NAB2) binds to the pre-miR-142-3p promoter to negatively regulate its expression. Interestingly, the expression of miR-142-3p is abnormally low in monocytes from patients with the most proliferative forms of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), and miR-142-3p re-expression in CMML dysplastic monocytes can improve their differentiation potential. Altogether, miR-142-3p which functions in a molecular circuitry with Egr2 is an actor of CSF1-induced differentiation of human monocytes whose expression could be altered in CMML.

Reiners KS, Topolar D, Henke A, et al.
Soluble ligands for NK cell receptors promote evasion of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from NK cell anti-tumor activity.
Blood. 2013; 121(18):3658-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Natural killer (NK) cells are a major component of the anti-tumor immune response. NK cell dysfunctions have been reported in various hematologic malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Here we investigated the role of tumor cell-released soluble and exosomal ligands for NK cell receptors that modulate NK cell activity. Soluble CLL plasma factors suppressed NK cell cytotoxicity and down-regulated the surface receptors CD16 and CD56 on NK cells of healthy donors. The inhibition of NK cell cytotoxicity was attributed to the soluble ligand BAG6/BAT3 that engages the activating receptor NKp30 expressed on NK cells. Soluble BAG6 was detectable in the plasma of CLL patients, with the highest levels at the advanced disease stages. In contrast, NK cells were activated when BAG6 was presented on the surface of exosomes. The latter form was induced in non-CLL cells by cellular stress via an nSmase2-dependent pathway. Such cells were eliminated by lymphocytes in a xenograft tumor model in vivo. Here, exosomal BAG6 was essential for tumor cell killing because BAG6-deficient cells evaded immune detection. Taken together, the findings show that the dysregulated balance of exosomal vs soluble BAG6 expression may cause immune evasion of CLL cells.

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