Gene Summary

Gene:CXCR3; C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3
Aliases: GPR9, MigR, CD182, CD183, Mig-R, CKR-L2, CMKAR3, IP10-R
Summary:This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor with selectivity for three chemokines, termed CXCL9/Mig (monokine induced by interferon-g), CXCL10/IP10 (interferon-g-inducible 10 kDa protein) and CXCL11/I-TAC (interferon-inducible T cell a-chemoattractant). Binding of chemokines to this protein induces cellular responses that are involved in leukocyte traffic, most notably integrin activation, cytoskeletal changes and chemotactic migration. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. One of the isoforms (CXCR3-B) shows high affinity binding to chemokine, CXCL4/PF4 (PMID:12782716). [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 13 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (15)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (5)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 13 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Disease Progression
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Chemokines
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Messenger RNA
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Lung Cancer
  • CXCR4
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cell Movement
  • Th2 Cells
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Staging
  • Kidney Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • X Chromosome
  • Receptors, Chemokine
  • Chemokine CXCL11
  • Receptors, Cytokine
  • Down-Regulation
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
  • Chemokine CXCL10
  • Case-Control Studies
  • CXCR3
  • Chemokines, CXC
  • Chemokine CXCL9
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Signal Transduction
  • Gene Expression
  • Breast Cancer
  • Transcription
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets
  • Systems Biology
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Survival Rate
  • Cervical Cancer
Tag cloud generated 13 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CXCR3 (cancer-related)

Jiskra J, Antošová M, Krátký J, et al.
CXCR3, CCR5, and CRTH2 Chemokine Receptor Expression in Lymphocytes Infiltrating Thyroid Nodules with Coincident Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Obtained by Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy.
J Immunol Res. 2016; 2016:2743614 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective. To determine the expression of chemokine receptors in lymphocytes from thyroid nodules and peripheral blood in patients with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Patients and Methods. The study included 46 women with thyroid nodules and HT and 60 women with thyroid nodules without HT (controls) who underwent a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Expression of chemokine receptors CXCR3, CCR5, and CRTH2 was assessed by flow cytometry in lymphocytes from FNAB samples and from peripheral blood. Results. The percentage of CRTH2+ lymphocytes was higher in nodules with HT in comparison with controls, both in FNAB samples (13.95 versus 6.7%, p = 0.008) and in peripheral blood (6.7 versus 5.13%, p = 0.047), and positively correlated with serum antibodies to thyroid peroxidase (r = 0.243; p = 0.026) and negatively correlated with thyroid volume (r = -0.346; p = 0.008). Lymphocytes from neoplastic nodules showed a higher expression of both CXCR3 and CCR5 than those from hyperplastic ones. Conclusion. Flow cytometry performed in FNAB samples may serve as a good tool in investigation of intrathyroidal expression of immunological parameters. In our study, the CRTH2 expression on thyroid-infiltrating lymphocytes as well as on lymphocytes from peripheral blood was increased in HT as compared to controls.

Zhou H, Wu J, Wang T, et al.
CXCL10/CXCR3 axis promotes the invasion of gastric cancer via PI3K/AKT pathway-dependent MMPs production.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 82:479-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
CXCR3, a G-protein coupled chemokine receptor, has been found to be overexpressed in many tumors and act as an independent prognostic marker. However, it is still unclear whether CXCR3 is involved in gastric cancer progression. In this study, we found that CXCR3 was markedly expressed in gastric cancer cells and tissues. High CXCR3 expression correlated with advanced tumor stage, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis and poor survival of gastric cancer patients. Activation of CXCR3 by one of its ligands CXCL10 promoted the invasion and migration of gastric cancer BGC-823 and MGC-803 cells, and increased the secretion and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9. However, the effects of CXCL10 on gastric cancer cells were attenuated by CXCR3 siRNA transfection. Furthermore, overexpression of CXCR3 enhanced CXCL10-mediated cell invasion and migration of gastric cancer MKN28 cells. In addition, CXCR3 time-dependently induced activation of AKT. PI3K/AKT pathway was required for CXCR3-mediated gastric cancer cell invasion, migration and MMP-2/9 production. Together, our findings suggest that CXCL10/CXCR3 axis promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and migration by upregulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 production via PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus, CXCR3 could be a potential target for the gastric cancer treatment.

Jafarzadeh A, Fooladseresht H, Nemati M, et al.
Higher circulating levels of chemokine CXCL10 in patients with breast cancer: Evaluation of the influences of tumor stage and chemokine gene polymorphism.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 16(4):545-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The CXCL10 receptor, CXCR3, is preferentially expressed on Th1 and NK cells. Therefore, CXCL10 acts as a chemoattractant for these cells.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the CXCL10 levels and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs4508917, in chemokine gene, in patients with breast cancer (BC).
METHODS: A total of 200 subjects including 100 women with BC and 100 healthy women were enrolled into study. The serum CXCL10 levels were measured by ELISA and the SNP rs4508917 was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).
RESULTS: The CXCL10 levels were significantly higher in patients than control group (P< 0.0001). There was also significant difference between tumor stages regarding the CXCL10 levels (P< 0.0001). The frequencies of GG genotype and G allele at rs4508917 were significantly higher in patients than controls (P< 0.0001). The CXCL10 levels were higher in patients with GG genotype whereas they were lower in healthy subjects having GG genotype as compared with those having AA genotype at rs4508917 (P< 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Higher CXCL10 levels in patients with BC represent that the chemokine may contributes in tumor development. The rs4508917 may play a role in the susceptibility to BC. Different association was also observed between rs4508917 and CXCL10 levels in patients with BC and healthy subjects.

Qin Y, Xu SQ, Pan DB, et al.
Silencing of WWP2 inhibits adhesion, invasion, and migration in liver cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):6787-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role and clinical implication of the WWP2 E3 ubiquitin ligase in liver cancer are poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the expression level of WWP2 and its functions in cell adhesion, invasion, and migration in liver cancer. We used real-time PCR to detect the expression of WWP2 in liver cancer and adjacent samples from the People's Hospital of Lishui and also analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-seq data by bioinformatics. Migration and invasion were detected by transwell analysis. We detected a strong WWP2 expression in tumor tissues of the People's Hospital of Lishui, and the survival rate was significantly higher in patients with lower WWP2-expressing tumors. WWP2 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentivirus stably infected cells (shWWP2), Huh7, showed slower growth speed compared with scramble control-infected cells in a xenograft mouse model. Knockdown of WWP2 Huh7 and BEL-7404 cells demonstrated a reduction in adhesion, invasion, and migration. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that WWP2 is positively correlated to cancer-related pathways including the chemokine signaling pathway. WWP2 also regulated MMP-9, caspase-9, CXCR3, and CCR5 expression in liver cancer cells. In addition, knockdown of CXCR3 and CCR5 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, adhesion, invasion, and migration in Huh7 and BEL-7404 cells. Our data suggest that targeting of WWP2 may be a therapeutic strategy for liver cancer treatment.

Yang L, Gao L, Chen Y, et al.
The Differential Expression and Function of the Inflammatory Chemokine Receptor CXCR5 in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer.
Int J Med Sci. 2015; 12(11):853-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chemokine and chemokine receptors could have played an important role in tumor angiogenesis and distant metastasis. The mechanism of inflammation, expression and function of chemokines and chemokine receptors in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa) remain unclear. The purpose of present study is to detect differential expression and function of chemokines and chemokine receptors (CCRs) in BPH and PCa.
METHODS: BPH-1 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were co-cultured in Transwell chambers, and human normal prostate (NP) tissues, BPH tissues and PCa tissues were collected. CCR gene-chips were used to analyze and compare the differential expression of CCRs in BPH-1 cells, BPH-1 cells co-cultured with PBMCs, and LNCaP cells. The differential expression of CCRs was detected and validated using real-time PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence (IF). The proliferation of LNCaP cells was also investigated after the knockdown CXCR5.
RESULTS: RESULTS of gene-chips indicated that there was low or no expression of CCR10, CXCR1, CXCR3 and CXCR5 in BPH-1 cells, whereas the expression of these receptors in BPH-1 cells was increased by PBMCs, and the expression was high in LNCaP cells. Furthermore, real-time PCR and western blotting confirmed the above mentioned results. IF verified no or low expression of CXCR1, CXCR3 and CXCR5 in NP tissues, low or moderate expression in BPH and high expression in PCa. However, CCR10 was not expressed at detectable levels in the three groups. The growth and proliferation of LNCaP cells was markedly inhibited after down-regulation of CXCR5.
CONCLUSIONS: PCa cells expressed high levels of CCR10, CXCR1, CXCR3 and CXCR5. Although BPH cells did not express these factors, their expression was up-regulated when BPH-1 cells were incubated with inflammatory cells. Finally, down-regulation of CXCR5 inhibited the growth and proliferation of LNCaP cells.

Feng J, Cen J, Li J, et al.
Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) promotes the epithelial mesenchymal transition of colorectal cancer cells via up regulation of Snail.
Cell Adh Migr. 2015; 9(6):495-501 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) have been shown to have antiproliferative activity through cell-cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Our present study revealed that one HDAC inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), can obviously promote in vitro motility of HCT-116 and SW480 cells. VPA treatment significantly down regulates the expression of epithelial markers E-Cadherin (E-Cad) and Zona occludin-1(ZO-1) while up regulates the mesenchymal markers Vimentin (Vim) and N-cadherin (N-Cad), suggesting that VPA can trigger the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CRC cells. VPA treatment significantly increases the expression and nuclear localization of Snail, the key transcription factors of EMT. Snail knockdown by siRNAs obviously reverses VPA induced EMT of HCT-116 and SW480 cells. Further, VPA can decrease the ubiquitination, increase the acetylation, and then elevate the stabilization of Snail. VPA also increases the phosphorylation of Akt/GSK-3β. The inhibitor of PI3K/Akt, LY2994002, significantly attenuates VPA induced phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β and up regulation of Snail and Vim. Collectively, our data reveal that VPA can trigger the EMT of CRC cells via up regulation of Snail through AKT/GSK-3β signals and post-transcriptional modification. It suggests that more attention should be paid when VPA used as a new anticancer drug for CRC patients.

Al-Mahdi R, Babteen N, Thillai K, et al.
A novel role for atypical MAPK kinase ERK3 in regulating breast cancer cell morphology and migration.
Cell Adh Migr. 2015; 9(6):483-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ERK3 is an atypical Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK6). Despite the fact that the Erk3 gene was originally identified in 1991, its function is still unknown. MK5 (MAP kinase- activated protein kinase 5) also called PRAK is the only known substrate for ERK3. Recently, it was found that group I p21 protein activated kinases (PAKs) are critical effectors of ERK3. PAKs link Rho family of GTPases to actin cytoskeletal dynamics and are known to be involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. In this study we demonstrate that ERK3 protein levels are elevated as MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells adhere to collagen I which is concomitant with changes in cellular morphology where cells become less well spread following nascent adhesion formation. During this early cellular adhesion event we observe that the cells retain protrusive activity while reducing overall cellular area. Interestingly exogenous expression of ERK3 delivers a comparable reduction in cell spread area, while depletion of ERK3 expression increases cell spread area. Importantly, we have detected a novel specific endogenous ERK3 localization at the cell periphery. Furthermore we find that ERK3 overexpressing cells exhibit a rounded morphology and increased cell migration speed. Surprisingly, exogenous expression of a kinase inactive mutant of ERK3 phenocopies ERK3 overexpression, suggesting a novel kinase independent function for ERK3. Taken together our data suggest that as cells initiate adhesion to matrix increasing levels of ERK3 at the cell periphery are required to orchestrate cell morphology changes which can then drive migratory behavior.

Zhu G, Yan HH, Pang Y, et al.
CXCR3 as a molecular target in breast cancer metastasis: inhibition of tumor cell migration and promotion of host anti-tumor immunity.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(41):43408-19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chemokines and chemokine receptors have critical roles in cancer metastasis and have emerged as one of the targeting options in cancer therapy. However, the treatment efficacy on both tumor and host compartments needs to be carefully evaluated. Here we report that targeting CXCR3 decreased tumor cell migration and at the same time improved host anti-tumor immunity. We observed an increased expression of CXCR3 in metastatic tumor cells compared to those from non-metastatic tumor cells. Knockdown (KD) of CXCR3 in metastatic tumor cells suppressed tumor cell migration and metastasis. Importantly, CXCR3 expression in clinical breast cancer samples correlated with progression and metastasis. For the host compartment, deletion of CXCR3 in all host cells in 4T1 mammary tumor model significantly decreased metastasis. The underlying mechanisms involve a decreased expression of IL-4, IL-10, iNOs, and Arg-1 in myeloid cells and an increased T cell response. IFN-γ neutralization diminished the metastasis inhibition in the CXCR3 knockout (KO) mice bearing 4T1 tumors, suggesting a critical role of host CXCR3 in immune suppression. Consistently, targeting CXCR3 using a small molecular inhibitor (AMG487) significantly suppressed metastasis and improved host anti-tumor immunity. Our findings demonstrate that targeting CXCR3 is effective in both tumor and host compartments, and suggest that CXCR3 inhibition is likely to avoid adverse effects on host cells.

Delitto D, Perez C, Han S, et al.
Downstream mediators of the intratumoral interferon response suppress antitumor immunity, induce gemcitabine resistance and associate with poor survival in human pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2015; 64(12):1553-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The cancer microenvironment allows tumor cells to evade immune surveillance through a variety of mechanisms. While interferon-γ (IFNγ) is central to effective antitumor immunity, its effects on the microenvironment are not as clear and have in some cancers been shown to induce immune checkpoint ligands. The heterogeneity of these responses to IFNγ remains poorly characterized in desmoplastic malignancies with minimal inflammatory cell infiltration, such as pancreatic cancer (PC). Thus, the IFNγ response within and on key cells of the PC microenvironment was evaluated. IFNγ induced expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II on PC cell lines, primary pancreatic cancer epithelial cells (PPCE) and patient-derived tumor-associated stroma, concomitant with an upregulation of PDL1 in the absence of CD80 and CD86 expression. As expected, IFNγ also induced high levels of CXCL10 from all cell types. In addition, significantly higher levels of CXCL10 were observed in PC specimens compared to those from chronic pancreatitis, whereby intratumoral CXCL10 concentration was an independent predictor of poor survival. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a subset of CXCR3-positive cancer cells in over 90 % of PC specimens, as well as on a subset of cultured PC cell lines and PPCE, whereby exposure to CXCL10 induced resistance to the chemotherapeutic gemcitabine. These findings suggest that IFNγ has multiple effects on many cell types within the PC microenvironment that may lead to immune evasion, chemoresistance and shortened survival.

Shen D, Cao X
Potential role of CXCR3 in proliferation and invasion of prostate cancer cells.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(7):8091-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the potential role of CXCR3 expression on prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion and to illustrate its mechanism.
METHODS: Human PC-3 cells were transfected with siRNA-CXCR3A and siRNA-CXCR3B plasmids respectively. The mRNA expressions of CXCR3A and CXCR3B in PC-3 cells from each group were analyzed using RT-PCR. Besides, cell proliferation ability and cell invasion ability of PC-3 cells in each group were analyzed using MTT assay and Matrige assay respectively. Additionally, expressions of CXCR3 downstream proteins were detected using Western blotting.
RESULTS: mRNA level of CXCR3A was decreased while CXCR3B mRNA level was increased in PC-3 cells (P<0.05). Compared with the controls, down-regulation of CXCR3A but up-regulation of CXCR3B significantly inhibited PC-3 cell proliferation and cell invasion ability (P<0.05). Besides, aberrant CXCR3 expression significantly increased expressions of phospholipase C (PLCβ), matrix metallo proteinase (MMP-1), and MMP-3 except MMP-7 in PC-3 cells (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: The data presented in our study suggested that aberrant CXCR3 expression may play crucial roles in suppressing PC metastasis via inhibiting cell proliferation and invasion ability through the PCLβ signaling pathway.

Liu J, Li F, Ping Y, et al.
Local production of the chemokines CCL5 and CXCL10 attracts CD8+ T lymphocytes into esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):24978-89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a very common malignant tumor with poor prognosis in China. Chemokines secreted by tumors are pivotal for the accumulation of CD8(+) T lymphocytes within malignant lesions in several types of cancers, but the exact mechanism underlying CD8(+) T lymphocyte homing is still unknown in ESCC. In this study, we revealed that, compared with marginal tissues, the expression of both chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) and (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) was upregulated in ESCC tissues. CCL5 expression was positively associated with the overall survival of patients. Meanwhile, RT-PCR data showed that the expression of CCL5 and CXCL10 was positively correlated with the local expressions of the CD8(+) T lymphocyte markers (CD8 and Granzyme B) in tumor tissues. Correspondingly, CD8(+) T lymphocytes were more frequently CCR5- and CXCR3-positive in tumor than in peripheral blood. Transwell analysis showed both CCL5 and CXCL10 were important for the chemotactic movement of CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Our data indicate that CCL5 and CXCL10 serve as the key chemokines to recruit CD8(+) T lymphocytes into ESCC tissue and may play a role in patient survival.

Mori K, Haraguchi S, Hiori M, et al.
Tumor-associated macrophages in oral premalignant lesions coexpress CD163 and STAT1 in a Th1-dominated microenvironment.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:573 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are implicated in the growth, invasion and metastasis of various solid tumors. However, the phenotype of TAMs in premalignant lesions of solid tumors has not been clarified. In the present study, we identify the phenotype of TAMs in leukoplakia, an oral premalignant lesion, by immunohistochemical analysis and investigate the involvement of infiltrated T cells that participate in the polarization of TAMs.
METHODS: The subjects included 30 patients with oral leukoplakia and 10 individuals with normal mucosa. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were examined for the histological grades, and immunohistochemical analysis was carried out using antibodies against CD68 (pan-MΦ), CD80 (M1 MΦ), CD163 (M2 MΦ), CD4 (helper T cells: Th), CD8 (cytotoxic T cells), CXCR3, CCR5 (Th1), CCR4 (Th2), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1), phosphorylated STAT1 (pSTAT1) and chemokine CXCL9. The differences in the numbers of positively stained cells among the different histological grades were tested for statistical significance using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Correlations between different types of immune cells were determined using Spearman's rank analysis.
RESULTS: An increase in the rate of CD163(+) TAM infiltration was observed in mild and moderate epithelial dysplasia, which positively correlated with the rate of intraepithelial CD4(+) Th cell infiltration. Although CCR4(+) cells rarely infiltrated, CXCR3(+) and CCR5(+) cells were observed in these lesions. Cells positive for STAT1 and chemokine CXCL9, interferon- (IFN)-induced gene products, and pSTAT1 were also observed in the same lesions. Double immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that the cells that were positive for CD163 were also positive for STAT1.
CONCLUSIONS: CD163(+) TAMs in oral premalignant lesions coexpress CD163 and STAT1, suggesting that the TAMs in oral premalignant lesions possess an M1 phenotype in a Th1-dominated micromilieu.

Liu RX, Wei Y, Zeng QH, et al.
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3-positive B cells link interleukin-17 inflammation to protumorigenic macrophage polarization in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology. 2015; 62(6):1779-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: B cells consistently represent abundant cellular components in tumors; however, direct evidence supporting a role for B cells in the immunopathogenesis of human cancers is lacking, as is specific knowledge of their trafficking mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3-positive (CXCR3(+)) B cells constitute approximately 45% of B-cell infiltrate in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and that their levels are positively correlated with early recurrence of HCC. These cells selectively accumulate at the invading edge of HCC and undergo further somatic hypermutation and immunoglobulin G-secreting plasma cell differentiation. Proinflammatory interleukin-17(+) cells are important for the induction of epithelial cell-derived CXCR3 ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, which subsequently promote the sequential recruitment and further maturation of CXCR3(+) B cells. More importantly, we provide evidence that CXCR3(+) B cells, but not their CXCR3(-) counterparts, may operate in immunoglobulin G-dependent pathways to induce M2b macrophage polarization in human HCC. Depletion of B cells significantly suppresses M2b polarization and the protumorigenic activity of tumor-associated macrophages and restores the production of antitumorigenic interleukin-12 by those cells in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Selective recruitment of CXCR3(+) B cells bridges proinflammatory interleukin-17 response and protumorigenic macrophage polarization in the tumor milieu, and blocking CXCR3(+) B-cell migration or function may help defeat HCC.

Martin AC, Cardoso AC, Selistre-de-Araujo HS, Cominetti MR
Recombinant disintegrin domain of human ADAM9 inhibits migration and invasion of DU145 prostate tumor cells.
Cell Adh Migr. 2015; 9(4):293-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
One of the most important features of malignant cells is their capacity to invade adjacent tissues and metastasize to distant organs. This process involves the creation, by tumor and stroma cells, of a specific microenvironment, suitable for proliferation, migration and invasion of tumor cells. The ADAM family of proteins has been involved in these processes. This work aimed to investigate the role of the recombinant disintegrin domain of the human ADAM9 (rADAM9D) on the adhesive and mobility properties of DU145 prostate tumor cells. rADAM9D was able to support DU145 cell adhesion, inhibit the migration of DU145 cells, as well as the invasion of this cell line through matrigel in vitro. Overall this work demonstrates that rADAM9D induces specific cellular migratory properties when compared with different constructs having additional domains, specially those of metalloproteinase and cysteine-rich domains. Furthermore, we showed that rADAM9D was able to inhibit cell adhesion, migration and invasion mainly through interacting with α6β1 in DU145 tumor cell line. These results may contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies for prostate cancer.

Henderson V, Smith B, Burton LJ, et al.
Snail promotes cell migration through PI3K/AKT-dependent Rac1 activation as well as PI3K/AKT-independent pathways during prostate cancer progression.
Cell Adh Migr. 2015; 9(4):255-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Snail, a zinc-finger transcription factor, induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is associated with increased cell migration and metastasis in cancer cells. Rac1 is a small G-protein which upon activation results in formation of lamellipodia, the first protrusions formed by migrating cells. We have previously shown that Snail promotes cell migration through down-regulation of maspin tumor suppressor. We hypothesized that Snail's regulation of cell migration may also involve Rac1 signaling regulated by PI3K/AKT and/or MAPK pathways. We found that Snail overexpression in LNCaP and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells increased Rac1 activity associated with increased cell migration, and the Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766, could inhibit Snail-mediated cell migration. Conversely, Snail downregulation using shRNA in the aggressive C4-2 prostate cancer cells decreased Rac1 activity and cell migration. Moreover, Snail overexpression increased ERK and PI3K/AKT activity in 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. Treatment of Snail-overexpressing 22Rv1 cells with LY294002, PI3K/AKT inhibitor or U0126, MEK inhibitor, decreased cell migration significantly, but only LY294002 significantly reduced Rac1 activity, suggesting that Snail promotes Rac1 activation via the PI3K/AKT pathway. Furthermore, 22Rv1 cells overexpressing Snail displayed decreased maspin levels, while inhibition of maspin expression in 22Rv1 cells with siRNA, led to increased PI3K/AKT, Rac1 activity and cell migration, without affecting ERK activity, suggesting that maspin is upstream of PI3K/AKT. Overall, we have dissected signaling pathways by which Snail may promote cell migration through MAPK signaling or alternatively through PI3K/AKT-Rac1 signaling that involves Snail inhibition of maspin tumor suppressor. This may contribute to prostate cancer progression.

Mierke CT
Physical view on migration modes.
Cell Adh Migr. 2015; 9(5):367-79 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cellular motility is essential for many processes such as embryonic development, wound healing processes, tissue assembly and regeneration, immune cell trafficing and diseases such as cancer. The migration efficiency and the migratory potential depend on the type of migration mode. The previously established migration modes such as epithelial (non-migratory) and mesenchymal (migratory) as well as amoeboid (squeezing motility) relay mainly on phenomenological criteria such as cell morphology and molecular biological criteria such as gene expression. However, the physical view on the migration modes is still not well understood. As the process of malignant cancer progression such as metastasis depends on the migration of single cancer cells and their migration mode, this review focuses on the different migration strategies and discusses which mechanical prerequisites are necessary to perform a special migration mode through a 3-dimensional microenvironment. In particular, this review discusses how cells can distinguish and finally switch between the migration modes and what impact do the physical properties of cells and their microenvironment have on the transition between the novel migration modes such as blebbing and protrusive motility.

Al Moustafa AE
E5 and E6/E7 of high-risk HPVs cooperate to enhance cancer progression through EMT initiation.
Cell Adh Migr. 2015; 9(5):392-3 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It is estimated that 10-20% of human carcinogenesis is linked to virus infection including papillomaviruses (HPVs). Moreover, since metastatic cancer disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients, the role of onco-viruses in cancer progression to a metastatic form is of particular interest. Recent studies reported that E5 and E6/E7 onco-proteins of high-risk HPVs could enhance cancer progression via the initiation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) event. Herein, we discuss the association between E5 as well as E6/E7 of high-risk HPV and cancer progression.

Barletta E, Ramazzotti M, Fratianni F, et al.
Hydrophilic extract from Posidonia oceanica inhibits activity and expression of gelatinases and prevents HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line invasion.
Cell Adh Migr. 2015; 9(6):422-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is an endemic Mediterranean sea-grass distributed in the infralittoral zones, where it forms meadows playing a recognized ecological role in the coastal marine habitat. Although its use as a traditional herbal remedy is poorly documented, recent literature reports interesting pharmacological activities as antidiabetic, antioxidant and vasoprotective. Differently from previous literature, this study presents a hydrophilic extraction method that recovers metabolites that may be tested in biological buffers. We showed for the first time in the highly invasive HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line that our hydrophilic extract from P. oceanica was able to strongly decrease gene and protein expression of gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and to directly inhibit in a dose-dependent manner gelatinolytic activity in vitro. Moreover, we have revealed that our extract strongly inhibited HT1080 cell migration and invasion. Biochemical analysis of the hydrophilic extract showed that catechins were the major constituents with minor contribution of gallic acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic plus a fraction of uncharacterized phenols. However, if each individual compound was tested independently, none by itself was able to induce a direct inhibition of gelatinases as strong as that observed in total extract, opening up new routes to the identification of novel compounds. These results indicate that our hydrophilic extract from P. oceanica might be a source of new pharmacological natural products for treatment or prevention of several diseases related to an altered MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression.

Suhovskih AV, Domanitskaya NV, Tsidulko AY, et al.
Tissue-specificity of heparan sulfate biosynthetic machinery in cancer.
Cell Adh Migr. 2015; 9(6):452-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are key components of cell microenvironment and fine structure of their polysaccharide HS chains plays an important role in cell-cell interactions, adhesion, migration and signaling. It is formed on non-template basis, so, structure and functional activity of HS biosynthetic machinery is crucial for correct HS biosynthesis and post-synthetic modification. To reveal cancer-related changes in transcriptional pattern of HS biosynthetic system, the expression of HS metabolism-involved genes (EXT1/2, NDST1/2, GLCE, 3OST1/HS3ST1, SULF1/2, HPSE) in human normal (fibroblasts, PNT2) and cancer (MCF7, LNCaP, PC3, DU145, H157, H647, A549, U2020, U87, HT116, KRC/Y) cell lines and breast, prostate, colon tumors was studied. Real-time RT-PCR and Western-blot analyses revealed specific transcriptional patterns and expression levels of HS biosynthetic system both in different cell lines in vitro and cancers in vivo. Balance between transcriptional activities of elongation- and post-synthetic modification- involved genes was suggested as most informative parameter for HS biosynthetic machinery characterization. Normal human fibroblasts showed elongation-oriented HS biosynthesis, while PNT2 prostate epithelial cells had modification-oriented one. However, cancer epithelial cells demonstrated common tendency to acquire fibroblast-like elongation-oriented mode of HS biosynthetic system. Surprisingly, aggressive metastatic cancer cells (U2020, DU145, KRC/Y) retained modification-oriented HS biosynthesis similar to normal PNT2 cells, possibly enabling the cells to keep like-to-normal cell surface glycosylation pattern to escape antimetastatic control. The obtained results show the cell type-specific changes of HS-biosynthetic machinery in cancer cells in vitro and tissue-specific changes in different cancers in vivo, supporting a close involvement of HS biosynthetic system in carcinogenesis.

Kobayashi H, Nobeyama Y, Nakagawa H
Tumor-suppressive effects of natural-type interferon-β through CXCL10 in melanoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 464(2):416-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Type 1 interferon is in widespread use as adjuvant therapy to inhibit melanoma progression. Considering the tumor-suppressive effects of local administration of interferon-β (IFN-β) on lymphatic metastasis, the present study was conducted to identify melanoma-suppressive molecules that are up-regulated by IFN-β treatment of lymphatic endothelial cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lymphatic endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and melanoma cells were treated with natural-type IFN-β, and melanoma cells were treated with CXCL10. Genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis was performed using lymphatic endothelial cells with or without IFN-β treatment. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed to examine CXCL10 expression. A proliferation assay was performed to examine the effects of IFN-β and CXCL10 in melanoma cells.
RESULTS: Genome-wide microarray analyses detected CXCL10 as a gene encoding a secretory protein that was up-regulated by IFN-β in lymphatic endothelial cells. IFN-β treatment significantly induced CXCL10 in dermal lymphatic endothelial cells and melanoma cells that are highly sensitive to IFN-β. CXCL10 reduced melanoma cell proliferation in IFN-β-sensitive cells as well as resistant cells. Melanoma cells in which CXCL10 was knocked down were sensitive to IFN-β. CXCR3-B, which encodes the CXCL10 receptor, was up-regulated in melanoma cells with high sensitivity to IFN-β and down-regulated in melanoma cells with medium to low sensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that IFN-β suppresses proliferation and metastasis from the local lymphatic system and melanoma cells via CXCL10. Down-regulation of CXCR3-B by IFN-β may be associated with resistance to IFN-β.

Seo GS, Jiang WY, Chi JH, et al.
Heme oxygenase-1 promotes tumor progression and metastasis of colorectal carcinoma cells by inhibiting antitumor immunity.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(23):19792-806 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is upregulated in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells. However, the role of HO-1 in the metastatic potential of CRC remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential of HO-1 to control the antitumor immunity of CRC. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays an important role in the immune surveillance system. Hemin-induced HO-1 expression suppressed the expression of ICAM-1 in human CRC cells. HO-1 regulated ICAM-1 expression via tristetraprolin, an mRNA-binding protein, at the posttranscriptional level in CRC cells. The upregulated HO-1 expression in CRC cells markedly decreased the adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocytes (PBMLs) to CRC cells and PBML-mediated cytotoxicity against CRC cells. Production of CXCL10, an effector T cell-recruiting chemokine, was significantly reduced by the increased HO-1 expression. The expression of the CXCL10 receptor, CXCR3, decreased significantly in PBMLs that adhered to CRC cells. HO-1 expression correlated negatively, although nonsignificantly, with ICAM-1 and CXCL10 expression in xenograft tumors. Taken together, our data suggest that HO-1 expression is functionally linked to the mediation of tumor progression and metastasis of CRC cells by inhibiting antitumor immunity.

Ejaeidi AA, Craft BS, Puneky LV, et al.
Hormone receptor-independent CXCL10 production is associated with the regulation of cellular factors linked to breast cancer progression and metastasis.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2015; 99(1):163-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer (BC) is a major health problem for women around the world. Although advances in the field of molecular therapy have been achieved, the successful therapeutic management of BC, particularly metastatic disease, remains a challenge for patients and clinicians. One of the areas of current investigation is the circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which have a determinant role in the development of distant metastasis. At the present, many of the available treatment strategies for metastatic disease are of limited benefit. However, the elucidation of the mechanisms of tumor progression and metastasis may help to identify key molecules/components that may function as therapeutic targets in the future. In the present study, the functional analysis of CTCs revealed their ability to grow and proliferate to form colonies. Immunofluorescence staining of the CTCs' colonies exhibits elevated expression of cell growth and survival associated proteins such as, survivin, ERK and Akt1. More importantly, the functional screening of the chemokine profile in BC patients' sera revealed an HR-independent elevation of the chemokine CXCL10 when compared to healthy controls. The analysis of chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL11 demonstrated an HR-dependent production pattern. The levels of both CXCL9 and CXCL11 were markedly high in HR+ patients' sera when compared to HR- patients and healthy controls. The functional analysis of HR+ and HR- BC derived cell lines when cultivated in media supplemented with patients' sera demonstrated the alteration of tumor progression and metastasis related proteins. We noted the induction of survivin, β-catenin, MKP-1, pERK, CXCR4 and MMP-1 both at the protein and mRNA levels. The induction of those proteins was in keeping with patients' sera induced cell proliferation as measured by the MTT assay. In conclusion, our data emphasizes the role of chemokines, especially CXCL10, in BC progression and metastasis via the induction of signaling pathways, which mainly involve survivin, β-catenin, MKP-1 and MMP-1.

Yue C, Shen S, Deng J, et al.
STAT3 in CD8+ T Cells Inhibits Their Tumor Accumulation by Downregulating CXCR3/CXCL10 Axis.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2015; 3(8):864-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
One of the obstacles for cancer immunotherapy is the inefficiency of CD8(+) T-cell recruitment to tumors. STAT3 has been shown to suppress CD8(+) T-cell antitumor functions in various cancer models, in part by restricting accumulation of CD8(+) T cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism by which STAT3 in CD8(+) T cells inhibits their accumulation in tumors remains to be defined. Here, we show that STAT3 signaling in CD8(+) T cells inhibits chemokine CXCL10 production by tumor-associated myeloid cells by reducing IFNγ expression by T cells. We further demonstrate that ablating STAT3 in T cells allows expression of CXCR3, the receptor of CXCL10, on CD8(+) T cells, resulting in efficient accumulation of CD8(+) T cells at tumor sites. Blocking IFNγ or CXCR3 impairs the accumulation of STAT3-deficient CD8(+) T cells in tumor and their antitumor effects. Together, our study reveals a negative regulation by STAT3 signaling in T cells on cross-talk between myeloid cells and T cells through IFNγ/CXCR3/CXCL10, which is important for CD8(+) T cells homing to tumors. Our results thus provide new insights applicable to cancer immunotherapy and adoptive T-cell strategies.

Li N, Qin J, Lan L, et al.
PTEN inhibits macrophage polarization from M1 to M2 through CCL2 and VEGF-A reduction and NHERF-1 synergism.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(2):297-306 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PTEN has been studied in several tumor models as a tumor suppressor. In this study, we explored the role of PTEN in the inhibition state of polarized M2 subtype of macrophage in tumor microenvironment (TME) and the underlying mechanisms. To elucidate the potential effect in TME, RAW 264.7 macrophages and 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells were co-cultured to reconstruct tumor microenvironment. After PTEN was down-regulated with shRNA, the expression of CCL2 and VEGF-A, which are definited to promote the formation of M2 macrophages, have a dramatically increase on the level of both gene and protein in co-cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages. And at the same time, NHERF-1 (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulating factor-1), another tumor suppressor has a similar tendency to PTEN. Q-PCR and WB results suggested that PTEN and NHERF-1 were consistent with one another no matter at mRNA or protein level when exposed to the same stimulus. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence techniques confirmed that PTEN and NHERF-1 were coprecipitated, and NHERF-1 protein expression was properly reduced with rCCL2 effect. In addition, cell immunofluorescence images revealed a profound transferance, in co-cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages, an up-regulation of NHERF-1 could promote the PTEN marked expression on the cell membrane, and this form for the interaction was not negligible. These observations illustrate PTEN with a certain synergy of NHERF-1, as well as down-regulation of CCL2 suppressing M2 macrophage transformation pathway. The results suggest that the activation of PTEN and NHERF-1 may impede the evolution of macrophages beyond the M1 into M2 phenotype in tumor microenvironment.

Chung BM, Arutyunov A, Ilagan E, et al.
Regulation of C-X-C chemokine gene expression by keratin 17 and hnRNP K in skin tumor keratinocytes.
J Cell Biol. 2015; 208(5):613-27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High levels of the intermediate filament keratin 17 (K17) correlate with a poor prognosis for several types of epithelial tumors. However, the causal relationship and underlying mechanisms remain undefined. A recent study suggested that K17 promotes skin tumorigenesis by fostering a specific type of inflammation. We report here that K17 interacts with the RNA-binding protein hnRNP K, which has also been implicated in cancer. K17 is required for the cytoplasmic localization of hnRNP K and for its role in regulating the expression of multiple pro-inflammatory mRNAs. Among these are the CXCR3 ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, which together form a signaling axis with an established role in tumorigenesis. The K17-hnRNP K partnership is regulated by the ser/thr kinase RSK and required for CXCR3-dependent tumor cell growth and invasion. These findings functionally integrate K17, hnRNP K, and gene expression along with RSK and CXCR3 signaling in a keratinocyte-autonomous axis and provide a potential basis for their implication in tumorigenesis.

Zsiros E, Duttagupta P, Dangaj D, et al.
The Ovarian Cancer Chemokine Landscape Is Conducive to Homing of Vaccine-Primed and CD3/CD28-Costimulated T Cells Prepared for Adoptive Therapy.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(12):2840-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Chemokines are implicated in T-cell trafficking. We mapped the chemokine landscape in advanced stage ovarian cancer and characterized the expression of cognate receptors in autologous dendritic cell (DC)-vaccine primed T cells in the context of cell-based immunotherapy.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The expression of all known human chemokines in patients with primary ovarian cancer was analyzed on two independent microarray datasets and validated on tissue microarray. Peripheral blood T cells from five HLA-A2 patients with recurrent ovarian cancer, who previously received autologous tumor DC vaccine, underwent CD3/CD28 costimulation and expansion ex vivo. Tumor-specific T cells were identified by HER2/neu pentamer staining and were evaluated for the expression and functionality of chemokine receptors important for homing to ovarian cancer.
RESULTS: The chemokine landscape of ovarian cancer is heterogeneous with high expression of known lymphocyte-recruiting chemokines (CCL2, CCL4, and CCL5) in tumors with intraepithelial T cells, whereas CXCL10, CXCL12, and CXCL16 are expressed quasi-universally, including in tumors lacking tumor-infiltrating T cells. DC-vaccine primed T cells were found to express the cognate receptors for the above chemokines. Ex vivo CD3/CD28 costimulation and expansion of vaccine-primed Tcells upregulated CXCR3 and CXCR4, and enhanced their migration toward universally expressed chemokines in ovarian cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: DC-primed tumor-specific T cells are armed with the appropriate receptors to migrate toward universal ovarian cancer chemokines, and these receptors are further upregulated by ex vivo CD3/CD28 costimulation, which render T cells more fit for migrating toward these chemokines. Clin Cancer Res; 21(12); 2840-50. ©2015 AACR.

Zumwalt TJ, Arnold M, Goel A, Boland CR
Active secretion of CXCL10 and CCL5 from colorectal cancer microenvironments associates with GranzymeB+ CD8+ T-cell infiltration.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(5):2981-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transcriptional expression of CXCR3 and CCR5 cognate chemokines correlate with CD8+ T-cell infiltration and prolonged survival in colorectal cancer (CRC). These findings were derived mainly from paraffin embedded tissues; thus little is known about the secretion pattern of CD8+ T-cell targeting chemokines from CRCs. Therefore, we developed and introduced a novel platform that assesses the immune mediators that are secreted from live excised tissues. Transcriptional profiling and unsupervised hierarchical clustering of 43 CRCs based on expression of genes that represent the adaptive immune response were used to predict tumors that are strong secretors of T-cell targeting chemokines. Secretion of these mediators were corroborated using flow cytometric analysis of T-cell lineage markers: CD4, CD8, IFN-γ, and GzmB. We demonstrate that stronger secretion of CXCL10 (CXCR3 ligand) and CCL5 (CCR5 ligand) and infiltration of GzmB+CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) and IFN-γ+CD4+ helper T-cells can be predicted by transcriptional profiling, and that CRCs with stronger T-cell immunity were proportionally skewed towards early TNM stages and lacked distant organ metastasis. Our study represents the first functional analysis of secreted immune mediators from CRCs beyond immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR, and observed active physiological interactions between the tumor cells and the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment.

Spenlé C, Gasser I, Saupe F, et al.
Spatial organization of the tenascin-C microenvironment in experimental and human cancer.
Cell Adh Migr. 2015; 9(1-2):4-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The extracellular matrix (ECM) molecule tenascin-C (TNC) promotes tumor progression. This has recently been demonstrated in the stochastic murine RIP1-Tag2 insulinoma model, engineered to either express TNC abundantly or to be devoid of TNC. However, our knowledge about organization of the TNC microenvironment is scant. Here we determined the spatial distribution of TNC together with other ECM molecules in murine RIP1-Tag2 insulinoma and human cancer tissue (insulinoma and colorectal carcinoma). We found that TNC is organized in matrix tracks together with other ECM molecules of the AngioMatrix signature, a previously described gene expression profile that characterizes the angiogenic switch. Moreover, stromal cells including endothelial cells, fibroblasts and leukocytes were enriched in the TNC tracks. Thus, TNC tracks may provide niches for stromal cells and regulate their behavior. Given similarities of TNC rich niches for stromal cells in human insulinoma and colon cancer, we propose that the RIP1-Tag2 model may be useful for providing insights into the contribution of the tumor stroma specific ECM as promoter of cancer progression.

Li Y, Reader JC, Ma X, et al.
Divergent roles of CXCR3 isoforms in promoting cancer stem-like cell survival and metastasis.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 149(2):403-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is growing evidence that several chemokine receptors including CXCR3 contribute to metastasis of breast and other cancers, however, in order to target CXCR3 effectively, it is critical to understand the relative contribution of each CXCR3 isoform. Furthermore, the possible contribution of either major CXCR3 isoform (CXCR3-A, CXCR3-B) to cancer stem cell behavior has not been reported. We employed primary invasive ductal carcinomas, a panel of breast cell lines, and a xenograft model of metastatic breast cancer to examine the role of CXCR3 isoforms in the behavior of breast cancer stem-like cells and the contribution of each isoform to metastasis. In primary human breast cancer specimens as well as established breast cancer cell lines, CXCR3-A is more highly expressed than CXCR3-B. Conversely, immortalized normal MCF10A cells express more CXCR3-B relative to CXCR3-A. Overexpression of CXCR3-B in MDA-MB-231 basal-like cells inhibits CXCR3 ligand-stimulated proliferation, which is accompanied by reduced ligand-mediated activation of ERK1/2 and p38 kinases. Likewise, metastatic capacity is reduced in vivo by higher levels of CXCR3-B, and migratory and invasive properties are inhibited in vitro; conversely, silencing of CXCR3-B enhances lung colonization. In contrast to the anti-metastatic and anti-proliferative roles of CXCR3-B in the non-stem cell population, this isoform supports a cancer stem-like cell phenotype. CXCR3-B is markedly elevated in mammosphere-forming parental cells and overexpressing CXCR3-B further enhances mammosphere-forming potential as well as growth in soft agar; stem-like behavior is inhibited in MDA-MB-231shCXCR3-B cells. Targeting of both CXCR3 isoforms may be important to block the stem cell-promoting actions of CXCR3-B, while inhibiting the pro-proliferative and metastasis-promoting functions of CXCR3-A.

Shao H, Kirkwood JM, Wells A
Tenascin-C Signaling in melanoma.
Cell Adh Migr. 2015; 9(1-2):125-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tenascin-C (TNC), a multifunctional matricellular glyco-protein, is highly expressed in the majority of melanoma cell lines and has been implicated in the progression of melanoma. A growing body of evidence has implicated the role of TNC in the process of invasion and metastasis for melanoma. However, the mechanism and individual signaling pathways by which TNC drives melanoma progression have not been illuminated. Herein we provide perspectives from the investigation of TNC in other settings that may hint at the mechanistic role of TNC in this disease.

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