CRP

Gene Summary

Gene:CRP; C-reactive protein, pentraxin-related
Aliases: PTX1
Location:1q23.2
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the pentaxin family. It is involved in several host defense related functions based on its ability to recognize foreign pathogens and damaged cells of the host and to initiate their elimination by interacting with humoral and cellular effector systems in the blood. Consequently, the level of this protein in plasma increases greatly during acute phase response to tissue injury, infection, or other inflammatory stimuli. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-reactive protein
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: CRP (cancer-related)

Waddell N, Pajic M, Patch AM, et al.
Whole genomes redefine the mutational landscape of pancreatic cancer.
Nature. 2015; 518(7540):495-501 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most lethal of malignancies and a major health burden. We performed whole-genome sequencing and copy number variation (CNV) analysis of 100 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Chromosomal rearrangements leading to gene disruption were prevalent, affecting genes known to be important in pancreatic cancer (TP53, SMAD4, CDKN2A, ARID1A and ROBO2) and new candidate drivers of pancreatic carcinogenesis (KDM6A and PREX2). Patterns of structural variation (variation in chromosomal structure) classified PDACs into 4 subtypes with potential clinical utility: the subtypes were termed stable, locally rearranged, scattered and unstable. A significant proportion harboured focal amplifications, many of which contained druggable oncogenes (ERBB2, MET, FGFR1, CDK6, PIK3R3 and PIK3CA), but at low individual patient prevalence. Genomic instability co-segregated with inactivation of DNA maintenance genes (BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2) and a mutational signature of DNA damage repair deficiency. Of 8 patients who received platinum therapy, 4 of 5 individuals with these measures of defective DNA maintenance responded.

Bansal P, Ghalaut VS, Sharma TK, et al.
Status of leptin in MBCR-ABL p210 positive chronic myeloid leukemia patients before and after imatinib therapy: a conflicting scenario.
Clin Lab. 2014; 60(11):1845-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), a myeoloproliferative disorder, is characterized by the presence of the fusion gene BCR-ABL in hematopoietic cells. Leptin, considered a link between cancer and obesity, has been reported to be actively involved in hemopoiesis and pathophysiology of CML. There are few and conflicting reports about the status of serum leptin levels and recently alteration in leptin has been reported due to imatinib mesylate.
METHODS: Leptin and CRP were estimated in 30 (male: 20; female: 10) newly diagnosed and confirmed MBCR- ABL p210 positive CML patients before and after 3 months of therapy by commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Leptin levels were compared with 30 (male: 20; female: 10) age matched healthy controls accounting for the differences due BMI and gender.
RESULTS: Leptin/BMI ratio was significantly raised in both male and female chronic phase patients as compared to controls (p < 0.001, p = 0.048) and accelerated phase patients as compared to controls (males, p < 0.001; females, p < 0.001). The normal gender difference and dependence on BMI was lost in patients. In patients, who failed to achieve hematological baseline, leptin/BMI was higher only in male patients (p = 0.012). Leptin/BMI also correlat- ed with TLC and blast percentage (TLC, R2 = 0.412, p = 0.001; Blast %, R2 = 0.408, p < 0.001). There was no correlation between leptin and CRP levels. Levels decreased significantly after complete hematological remission in both males and females (p = 0.001, p = 0.028). Levels after 3 months of imatinib therapy were significantly higher than controls in all patients not in remission (males, p < 0.001; females, p = 0.018) but only in male patients in re- mission (p = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: Leptin levels were increased in CML patients. The findings suggest a possible role of leptin in patho- genesis of CML or disease progression independent of inflammatory state or reactionary rise. Imatinib itself may increase leptin levels, and, as leptin plays an active role in the pathophysiology of CML, this conflicting scenario needs further investigation. Alterations in leptin need to be investigated cautiously accounting for confounding and differences due to BMI and gender.

Yu Z, Chen XZ, Cui LH, et al.
Prediction of lung cancer based on serum biomarkers by gene expression programming methods.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(21):9367-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
In diagnosis of lung cancer, rapid distinction between small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors is very important. Serum markers, including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), neurone specific enolase (NSE) and Cyfra21-1, are reported to reflect lung cancer characteristics. In this study classification of lung tumors was made based on biomarkers (measured in 120 NSCLC and 60 SCLC patients) by setting up optimal biomarker joint models with a powerful computerized tool - gene expression programming (GEP). GEP is a learning algorithm that combines the advantages of genetic programming (GP) and genetic algorithms (GA). It specifically focuses on relationships between variables in sets of data and then builds models to explain these relationships, and has been successfully used in formula finding and function mining. As a basis for defining a GEP environment for SCLC and NSCLC prediction, three explicit predictive models were constructed. CEA and NSE are frequently- used lung cancer markers in clinical trials, CRP, LDH and Cyfra21-1 have significant meaning in lung cancer, basis on CEA and NSE we set up three GEP models-GEP 1(CEA, NSE, Cyfra21-1), GEP2 (CEA, NSE, LDH), GEP3 (CEA, NSE, CRP). The best classification result of GEP gained when CEA, NSE and Cyfra21-1 were combined: 128 of 135 subjects in the training set and 40 of 45 subjects in the test set were classified correctly, the accuracy rate is 94.8% in training set; on collection of samples for testing, the accuracy rate is 88.9%. With GEP2, the accuracy was significantly decreased by 1.5% and 6.6% in training set and test set, in GEP3 was 0.82% and 4.45% respectively. Serum Cyfra21-1 is a useful and sensitive serum biomarker in discriminating between NSCLC and SCLC. GEP modeling is a promising and excellent tool in diagnosis of lung cancer.

Messai Y, Noman MZ, Hasmim M, et al.
ITPR1 protects renal cancer cells against natural killer cells by inducing autophagy.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(23):6820-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCC) frequently display inactivation of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene leading to increased level of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF). In this study, we investigated the potential role of HIF2α in regulating RCC susceptibility to natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing. We demonstrated that the RCC cell line 786-0 with mutated VHL was resistant to NK-mediated lysis as compared with the VHL-corrected cell line (WT7). This resistance was found to require HIF2α stabilization. On the basis of global gene expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found ITPR1 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1) as a direct novel target of HIF2α and that targeting ITPR1 significantly increased susceptibility of 786-0 cells to NK-mediated lysis. Mechanistically, HIF2α in 786-0 cells lead to overexpression of ITPR1, which subsequently regulated the NK-mediated killing through the activation of autophagy in target cells by NK-derived signal. Interestingly, both ITPR1 and Beclin-1 silencing in 786-0 cells inhibited NK-induced autophagy and subsequently increased granzyme B activity in target cells. Finally, in vivo ITPR1 targeting significantly enhanced the NK-mediated tumor regression. Our data provide insight into the link between HIF2α, the ITPR1-related pathway, and natural immunity and strongly suggest a role for the HIF2α/ITPR1 axis in regulating RCC cell survival.

Brandwein JM, Kassis J, Leber B, et al.
Phase II study of targeted therapy with temozolomide in acute myeloid leukaemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients pre-screened for low O(6) -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase expression.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 167(5):664-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resistance to temozolomide is largely mediated by the DNA repair enzyme O(6) -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). We conducted a prospective multicentre study of patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who were not candidates for intensive therapy. Patient selection was based on MGMT expression by Western blot. Patients with MGMT:ACTB (β-actin) ratio <0·2 were eligible to receive temozolomide 200 mg/m(2) /d ×7 d. Patients achieving a complete response (CR) could receive up to 12 monthly cycles of temozolomide ×5/28 d. Of 166 patients screened, 81 (49%) demonstrated low MGMT expression; 45 of these were treated with temozolomide. The overall response rate was 53%; 36% achieved complete clearance of blasts, with 27% achieving a CR/CR with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp). Factors associated with a trend toward a higher response rate included MDS, methylated MGMT promoter and standard cytogenetic risk group. Induction and post-remission cycles were well-tolerated and most patients were treated on an outpatient basis. Patient who achieved CR/CRp had a superior overall survival compared to partial or non-responders. In conclusion, targeted therapy based on pre-selection for low MGMT expression was associated with a higher response rate to temozolomide compared to previous reports of unselected patients.

Nimptsch K, Aleksandrova K, Boeing H, et al.
Association of CRP genetic variants with blood concentrations of C-reactive protein and colorectal cancer risk.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(5):1181-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
High blood concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with elevated risk of colorectal cancer in several prospective studies including the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), but it is unknown whether these observations reflect a causal relationship. We aimed to investigate whether CRP genetic variants associated with lifelong higher CRP concentrations translate into higher colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a prospective nested case-control study within EPIC including 727 cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2003 and 727 matched controls selected according to an incidence-density sampling protocol. Baseline CRP concentrations were measured in plasma samples by a high sensitivity assay. Tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene (rs1205, rs1800947, rs1130864, rs2808630, rs3093077) were identified via HapMap. The causal effect of CRP on colorectal cancer risk was examined in a Mendelian Randomization approach utilizing multiple CRP genetic variants as instrumental variables. The SNPs rs1205, rs1800947, rs1130864 and rs3093077 were significantly associated with CRP concentrations and were incorporated in a CRP allele score which was associated with 13% higher CRP concentrations per allele count (95% confidence interval 8-19%). Using the CRP-score as instrumental variable, genetically twofold higher CRP concentrations were associated with higher risk of colorectal cancer (odds ratio 1.74, 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.85). Similar observations were made using alternative definitions of instrumental variables. Our findings give support to the hypothesis that elevated circulating CRP may play a direct role in the etiology of colorectal cancer.

Peng Q, Ren S, Lao X, et al.
C-reactive protein genetic polymorphisms increase susceptibility to HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma in a Chinese population.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(10):10169-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic inflammation has been implicated in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The C-reactive protein (CRP) genetic polymorphisms affected serum CRP concentrations and elevation of CRP has been considered as the hallmark of acute and chronic inflammation. In this study, we investigated the association between CRP genetic polymorphisms and HBV-related HCC risk in a Chinese population. Two polymorphisms in the CRP gene (rs3093059 and rs2794521) were examined in 192 HBV-related HCC patients, 277 non-HCC patients with HBV infection, and 192 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. DNA direct sequencing was performed to validate the results of genotyping. We found that there were significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of the CRP gene rs3093059 polymorphism between the HBV-related HCC patients and the non-HCC patients with HBV infection. The rs3093059 TC genotype was associated with a significant increased HCC risk as compared with the TT genotype (odds ratio (OR) = 1.98, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.32-2.95, P = 0.001). The rs3093059 C allele was correlated with a significant increased HCC risk as compared with the T allele (OR = 1.65, 95 % CI 1.16-2.30, P = 0.005). Furthermore, the rs3093059 TC combined with CC genotypes were found to correlate with a significant increased HCC risk compared with the TT genotype in dominant model (OR = 1.92, 95 % CI 1.29-2.82, P = 0.001). However, we did not find any significant effect of CRP rs2794521 polymorphism on HCC risk in this population. In haplotype analysis between HBV-related HCC patients and non-HCC patients with HBV infection, the TC haplotype was found correlated with a significant increased HCC risk (OR = 1.750, 95 % CI 1.234-2.480, P = 0.001). The results suggested that the CRP rs3093059 polymorphism may contribute to increased HCC risk in HBV-infected patients in the Chinese population. Further large and well-designed studies in diverse ethnic populations are needed to confirm our results.

Fujimura T, Takahashi S, Urano T, et al.
Expression of androgen and estrogen signaling components and stem cell markers to predict cancer progression and cancer-specific survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(17):4625-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Genes of androgen and estrogen signaling cells and stem cell-like cells play crucial roles in prostate cancer. This study aimed to predict clinical failure by identifying these prostate cancer-related genes.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We developed models to predict clinical failure using biopsy samples from a training set of 46 and an independent validation set of 30 patients with treatment-naïve prostate cancer with bone metastasis. Cancerous and stromal tissues were separately collected by laser-captured microdissection. We analyzed the association between clinical failure and mRNA expression of the following genes androgen receptor (AR) and its related genes (APP, FOX family, TRIM 36, Oct1, and ACSL 3), stem cell-like molecules (Klf4, c-Myc, Oct 3/4, and Sox2), estrogen receptor (ER), Her2, PSA, and CRP.
RESULTS: Logistic analyses to predict prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 1.0 in both sets for Sox2, Her2, and CRP expression in cancer cells, AR and ERα expression in stromal cells, and clinical parameters. We identified 10 prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival (CSS): Oct1, TRIM36, Sox2, and c-Myc expression in cancer cells; AR, Klf4, and ERα expression in stromal cells; and PSA, Gleason score, and extent of disease. On the basis of these factors, patients were divided into favorable-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups according to the number of factors present. Five-year CSS rates for the 3 groups were 90%, 32%, and 12% in the training set and 75%, 48%, and 0% in the validation set, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Expression levels of androgen- and estrogen signaling components and stem cell markers are powerful prognostic tools.

Bour T, Yang X, Li W, et al.
Differential effects of antofine N-oxide on solid tumor and leukemia cells.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2014; 14(10):1315-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have studied the anti-cancer activities of antofine N-oxide isolated and purified from the medicinal plant Cynanchum vincetoxicum. Antofine N-oxide displayed a strong inhibitory effect on several solid tumor cell lines (glioblastoma, breast carcinoma and lung carcinoma) and on a T-cell leukemia cell line. Remarkably, its cytotoxic effect was considerably weaker in non-cancer cells. Antofine N-oxide was found to inhibit proliferation of the solid tumor cells whereas it caused apoptotic cell death in the leukemia cells. A microarray analysis after a short treatment revealed that the number of differentially expressed genes was considerably higher in solid tumor than in leukemia cells. Up-regulated genes in the three solid tumor cell lines include genes related to TNFα signaling, of which TNFα was among the most significantly induced. A functional analysis revealed that TNFR1 signaling was most likely activated in the solid tumor cells. The increased mRNA levels of several genes of this pathway (namely TNFα, TNFAIP3 and BIRC3) were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR after different treatment durations. Finally a slight inhibition of NFκB-mediated transcription was observed in the same cells. Together our results suggest that inhibition of cell proliferation in solid tumor cells essentially occurs through TNFα signaling whereas this pathway is not activated in leukemia cells. Apoptotic cell death in the latter is induced by a distinct yet unknown pathway.

Alokail MS, Al-Daghri NM, Mohammed AK, et al.
Increased TNF α, IL-6 and ErbB2 mRNA expression in peripheral blood leukocytes from breast cancer patients.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(8):38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Obesity has been associated with increased incidence and mortality of breast cancer. The precise relation between obesity and breast cancer is yet to be determined, with few studies linking them with altered serum levels adipokines and inflammatory cytokines. The relevance of the expression of genes encoding for adipokines and inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral blood and their contribution to obesity and breast cancer has not been fully investigated. We aim to identify potential transcriptional biomarkers in blood samples that may assist to underpin the link between obesity and breast cancer. Therefore, have investigated whether or not the expression levels, of selected genes [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), tumor protein 53 (TP53) and erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene 2 (ErbB2)] were altered in blood samples of lean, overweight/obese and breast cancer subjects. Blood samples were obtained from 37 lean, 19 overweight/obese and 12 breast cancer patients. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to detect TNFα, IL-6, adiponectin, leptin, CRP, PTH, TP53 and ErbB2 gene transcripts. Transcript levels of TNFα were significantly higher by 1.4-fold and 2.1-fold in blood cells of overweight/obese and breast cancer patients, respectively, compared with lean control subjects. Transcript levels of IL-6 were significantly higher by 2.3-fold in blood cells from breast cancer patients compared with lean control subjects with normal body mass index, and no significant difference was found in the expression level of IL-6 transcripts between overweight/obese and lean control subjects. The ErbB2 transcript levels were significantly higher by 4.72-fold compared to lean control subjects and were also significantly higher compared to overweight/obese subjects. Breast cancer and obesity are associated with altered mRNA levels of cytokines and tumor marker in peripheral blood.

Akalay I, Tan TZ, Kumar P, et al.
Targeting WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein 2 alters human breast cancer cell susceptibility to specific lysis through regulation of KLF-4 and miR-7 expression.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(17):2261-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular basis for the resistance of tumor cells to cell-mediated cytotoxicity remains poorly understood and thus poses a major challenge for cancer immunotherapy. The present study was designed to determine whether the WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein 2 (WISP2, also referred to as CCN5), a key regulator of tumor cell plasticity, interferes with tumor susceptibility to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated lysis. We found that silencing WISP2 signaling in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cells impairs CTL-mediated cell killing by a mechanism involving stem cell marker Kruppel-like factor-4 (KLF-4) induction and microRNA-7 (miR-7) downregulation. Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling using the A83-01 inhibitor in MCF7-shWISP2 cells resulted in a significant reversal of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transitioned (EMT) phenotype, the expression of KLF-4 and a partial recovery of target susceptibility to CTLs. More importantly, we showed that silencing KLF-4 was accompanied by a reduction in MCF7-shWISP2 resistance to CTLs. Using human breast cancer tissues, we demonstrated the coexpression of KLF-4 with EMT markers and TGF-β pathway signaling components. More importantly, we found that KLF-4 expression was accompanied by miR-7 inhibition, which is partly responsible for impairing CTL-mediated lysis. Thus, our data indicate that WISP2 has a role in regulating tumor cell susceptibility through EMT by inducing the TGF-β signaling pathway, KLF-4 expression and miR-7 inhibition. These studies indicate for the first time that WISP2 acts as an activator of CTL-induced killing and suggests that the loss of its function promotes evasion of immunosurveillance and the ensuing progression of the tumor.

Na GH, Kim DG, Han JH, et al.
Inflammatory markers as selection criteria of hepatocellular carcinoma in living-donor liver transplantation.
World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20(21):6594-601 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To investigate that inflammatory markers can predict accurately the prognosis of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) patients in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT).
METHODS: From October 2000 to November 2011, 224 patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation for HCC at our institution were enrolled in this study. We analyzed disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) after LT in patients with HCC and designed a new score model using pretransplant neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP).
RESULTS: The DFS and OS in patients with an NLR level ≥ 6.0 or CRP level ≥ 1.0 were significantly worse than those of patients with an NLR level < 6.0 or CRP level < 1.0 (P = 0.049, P = 0.003 for NLR and P = 0.010, P < 0.001 for CRP, respectively). Using a new score model using the pretransplant NLR and CRP, we can differentiate HCC patients beyond the Milan criteria with a good prognosis from those with a poor prognosis.
CONCLUSION: Combined with the Milan criteria, new score model using NLR and CRP represent new selection criteria for LDLT candidates with HCC, especially beyond the Milan criteria.

Bossis G, Sarry JE, Kifagi C, et al.
The ROS/SUMO axis contributes to the response of acute myeloid leukemia cells to chemotherapeutic drugs.
Cell Rep. 2014; 7(6):1815-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) are thought to induce cancer cell death through the generation of DNA double-strand breaks. Here, we report that one of their early effects is the loss of conjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein SUMO from its targets via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent inhibition of the SUMO-conjugating enzymes. Desumoylation regulates the expression of specific genes, such as the proapoptotic gene DDIT3, and helps induce apoptosis in chemosensitive AMLs. In contrast, chemotherapeutics do not activate the ROS/SUMO axis in chemoresistant cells. However, pro-oxidants or inhibition of the SUMO pathway by anacardic acid restores DDIT3 expression and apoptosis in chemoresistant cell lines and patient samples, including leukemic stem cells. Finally, inhibition of the SUMO pathway decreases tumor growth in mice xenografted with AML cells. Thus, targeting the ROS/SUMO axis might constitute a therapeutic strategy for AML patients resistant to conventional chemotherapies.

Markt SC, Rider JR, Penney KL, et al.
Genetic variation across C-reactive protein and risk of prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2014; 74(10):1034-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been hypothesized to play an important etiological role in the initiation or progression of prostate cancer. Circulating levels of the systemic inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. We investigated the role of genetic variation in CRP and prostate cancer, under the hypothesis that variants may alter risk of disease.
METHODS: We undertook a case-control study nested within the prospective Physicians' Health Study among 1,286 men with incident prostate cancer and 1,264 controls. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to capture the common genetic variation across CRP (r(2)  > 0.8). We used unconditional logistic regression to assess the association between each SNP and risk of prostate cancer. Linear regression models explored associations between each genotype and plasma CRP levels.
RESULTS: None of the CRP SNPs were associated with prostate cancer overall. Individuals with one copy of the minor allele (C) in rs1800947 had an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.8), and significantly lower mean CRP levels (P-value <0.001), however, we found no significant association with lethal disease. Mean CRP levels were significantly elevated in men with one or two copies of the minor allele in rs3093075 and rs1417939, but these were unrelated to prostate cancer risk.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that SNPs in the CRP gene are not associated with risk of overall or lethal prostate cancer. Polymorphisms in CRP rs1800947 may be associated with higher grade disease, but our results require replication in other cohorts.

Chen XL, Liao YQ, Liu JR
Genotype CC of rs1800947 in the C-reactive protein gene may increase susceptibility to colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(6):2663-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been shown to be related to circulating CRP level, risk and prognosis in cancer patients. However, accumulating evidence of rs1800947 involvement in risk of cancer is inconsistent. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to obtain a more precise relationship.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pooled odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval were assessed in 10 eligible articles with 12 studies containing 5,601 cancer cases and 8,669 cancer-free controls.
RESULTS: No significant association was observed overall and in subgroups in comparison of genotype GC vs GG (PH=0.847, OR=0.939, 95%CI=0.810-1.087), GC/CC vs GG (PH=0.941, OR=1.021, 95%CI=0.901-1.157) and allele C vs G (PH=0.933, OR=1.026, 95%CI=0.909-1.159). However, statistically significance was evident in comparison of genotype CC vs GG in cancer risk (PH=0.586, OR=2.854, 95%CI= 1.413-5.763), especially in colorectal cancer (PH=0.481, OR=4.527, 95%CI= 1.664- 12.315).
CONCLUSIONS: Genotype CC of rs1800947 in the CRP gene is strongly associated with increased cancer risk, particularly in colorectal cancer.

van Lith SA, Navis AC, Verrijp K, et al.
Glutamate as chemotactic fuel for diffuse glioma cells: are they glutamate suckers?
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1846(1):66-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diffuse gliomas comprise a group of primary brain tumors that originate from glial (precursor) cells and present as a variety of malignancy grades which have in common that they grow by diffuse infiltration. This phenotype complicates treatment enormously as it precludes curative surgery and radiotherapy. Furthermore, diffusely infiltrating glioma cells often hide behind a functional blood-brain barrier, hampering delivery of systemically administered therapeutic and diagnostic compounds to the tumor cells. The present review addresses the biological mechanisms that underlie the diffuse infiltrative phenotype, knowledge of which may improve treatment strategies for this disastrous tumor type. The invasive phenotype is specific for glioma: most other brain tumor types, both primary and metastatic, grow as delineated lesions. Differences between the genetic make-up of glioma and that of other tumor types may therefore help to unravel molecular pathways, involved in diffuse infiltrative growth. One such difference concerns mutations in the NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1 and IDH2) genes, which occur in >80% of cases of low grade glioma and secondary glioblastoma. In this review we present a novel hypothesis which links IDH1 and IDH2 mutations to glutamate metabolism, possibly explaining the specific biological behavior of diffuse glioma.

Tsuji T, Hirano T, Yamasaki H, et al.
A high sIL-2R/ferritin ratio is a useful marker for the diagnosis of lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome.
Ann Hematol. 2014; 93(5):821-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (LAHS), which is the major subtype of adult-onset secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), has a poor outcome. Although the early diagnosis and treatment of LAHS contributes to a better outcome, the lack of mass formation and the absence of distinct lymph node enlargement often delay the diagnosis of underlying lymphoma. A recent study, which statistically analyzed HLH cases in the literature, showed that the serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R)/ferritin ratio could be used as a marker to diagnosis of LAHS. To verify this finding, we retrospectively analyzed the laboratory findings of 21 patients with HLH (10 benign disease-associated HLH and 11 LAHS). No significant differences were observed in the levels of LDH or CRP levels. The mean sIL-2R levels (units per milliliter) were significantly higher in the LAHS group (4,176 vs. 13,451, p = 0.0031), and ferritin levels (nanogram per milliliter) were higher in the benign disease-associated HLH group (20,462 vs. 2,561, p = 0.0031). Consequently, the mean serum sIL-2R/ferritin ratio of patients with LAHS was markedly higher than that of patients with benign disease-associated HLH (0.66 vs. 8.56, p = 0.0004). Thus, the results of this study demonstrated that the serum sIL-2R/ferritin ratio is a very useful marker for diagnosing of LAHS, which was further supported by clinical case analysis. Further studies to clarify the pathophysiology of secondary HLH caused by various triggers are needed.

Bower JE, Greendale G, Crosswell AD, et al.
Yoga reduces inflammatory signaling in fatigued breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014; 43:20-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Yoga is a popular mind-body therapy that has demonstrated beneficial effects on psychological, behavioral, and functional outcomes. However, few studies have investigated effects on inflammatory processes. This study tested the hypothesis that an Iyengar yoga intervention specifically designed for fatigued breast cancer survivors would lead to decreases in inflammation-related gene expression and circulating markers of proinflammatory cytokine activity.
METHODS: Breast cancer survivors with persistent cancer-related fatigue were randomized to a 12-week Iyengar yoga intervention (n=16) or a 12-week health education control condition (n=15). Blood samples were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and at a 3-month follow-up for genome-wide transcriptional profiling and bioinformatic analyses. Plasma inflammatory markers and salivary cortisol were also assessed.
RESULTS: In promoter-based bioinformatics analyses, the yoga group showed reduced activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), increased activity of the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid receptor, and reduced activity of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) family transcription factors relative to controls (all ps<.05). There was also a significant intervention effect on the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type II (sTNF-RII), a marker of TNF activity; plasma levels of sTNF-RII remained stable in the yoga group, whereas levels of this marker increased in the health education group (p=.028). A similar, non-significant trend was observed for the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (p=.16). No significant changes in C reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), or diurnal cortisol measures were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: A 12-week restorative Iyengar yoga intervention reduced inflammation-related gene expression in breast cancer survivors with persistent fatigue. These findings suggest that a targeted yoga program may have beneficial effects on inflammatory activity in this patient population, with potential relevance for behavioral and physical health.

Panahi Y, Saadat A, Beiraghdar F, Sahebkar A
Adjuvant therapy with bioavailability-boosted curcuminoids suppresses systemic inflammation and improves quality of life in patients with solid tumors: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Phytother Res. 2014; 28(10):1461-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Curcuminoids are bioactive polyphenolics with potent antiinflammatory properties. Although several lines of in vitro and preclinical evidence suggest potent anticancer effects of curcuminoids, clinical findings have not been conclusive. The present randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy of curcuminoids as adjuvant therapy in cancer patients. Eighty subjects with solid tumors who were under standard chemotherapy regimens were randomly assigned to a bioavailability-boosted curcuminoids preparation (180 mg/day; n = 40) or matched placebo (n = 40) for a period of 8 weeks. Efficacy measures were changes in the health-related quality of life (QoL) score (evaluated using the University of Washington index) and serum levels of a panel of mediators implicated in systemic inflammation including interleukins 6 (IL-6) and 8 (IL-8), TNF-α, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Curcuminoid supplementation was associated with a significantly greater improvement in QoL compared with placebo (p < 0.001). Consistently, the magnitude of reductions in TNF-α (p < 0.001), TGFβ (p < 0.001), IL-6 (p = 0.061), substance P (p = 0.005), hs-CRP (p < 0.001), CGRP (p < 0.001) and MCP-1 (p < 0.001) were all significantly greater in the curcuminoids versus placebo group. In contrast, the extent of reduction in serum IL-8 was significantly greater with placebo versus curcuminoids (p = 0.012). Quality of life variations were associated with changes in serum TGFβ levels in both correlation and regression analyses. Adjuvant therapy with a bioavailable curcuminoid preparation can significantly improve QoL and suppress systemic inflammation in patients with solid tumors who are under treatment with standard chemotherapy protocols.

Van Dyck E, Nazarov PV, Muller A, et al.
Bronchial airway gene expression in smokers with lung or head and neck cancer.
Cancer Med. 2014; 3(2):322-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cigarette smoking is the major cause of cancers of the respiratory tract, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and head and neck cancer (HNC). In order to better understand carcinogenesis of the lung and upper airways, we have compared the gene expression profiles of tumor-distant, histologically normal bronchial biopsy specimens obtained from current smokers with NSCLC or HNC (SC, considered as a single group), as well as nonsmokers (NS) and smokers without cancer (SNC). RNA from a total of 97 biopsies was used for gene expression profiling (Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 array). Differentially expressed genes were used to compare NS, SNC, and SC, and functional analysis was carried out using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Smoking-related cancer of the respiratory tract was found to affect the expression of genes encoding xenobiotic biotransformation proteins, as well as proteins associated with crucial inflammation/immunity pathways and other processes that protect the airway from the chemicals in cigarette smoke or contribute to carcinogenesis. Finally, we used the prediction analysis for microarray (PAM) method to identify gene signatures of cigarette smoking and cancer, and uncovered a 15-gene signature that distinguished between SNC and SC with an accuracy of 83%. Thus, gene profiling of histologically normal bronchial biopsy specimens provided insight into cigarette-induced carcinogenesis of the respiratory tract and gene signatures of cancer in smokers.

Chmaj-Wierzchowska K, Kampioni M, Wilczak M, Opala T
Do inflammatory factors play a significant role in etiopathogenesis of endometrial cysts? Part 1.
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013; 20(4):854-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Endometriosis is an estrogen-related chronic condition which consists in the implantation and growth of endometrial cells outside the uterine cavity. It has an immune and inflammatory background, and to-date the precise etiopathogenesis of endometrial cysts has not been unequivocally defined. The objective of the study was evaluation of the indicators of the inflammatory state, including RANTES and the levels of C-reactive protein, leukocytes, fibrinogen and iron in the blood serum of patients with endometrial cysts (n=48) and benign ovarian tumours of mature teratoma type (n=38). Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test. The p values p<0.05 were considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: While comparing the results, respectively in groups, the mean levels in blood serum were as follows: RANTES 31,429.79 pg/ml (from 26,576.6-99,605.00) vs. 26,988.72 pg/ml (from 26,013.58-113,435.00) for p=0.428; CRP and WBC 2.13 vs. 1.54 mg/l; p=0.076 and 5.35 vs. 6.7; p=0.029; fibrinogen 3.12 vs. 2.57 mg%; p<0.001); iron level 87.20 vs. 78.01 ug/dl for p=0.430, and CA-125 36.50 vs. 15.08 U/ml; p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Statistically significant differences were observed in the levels of WBC, fibrynogen and CA-125 in blood serum. Therefore, the role of the inflammatory factor in the etiopathogenesis of endometrial cysts still remains unexplained, and the presented study may emerge as pioneer investigations in the area of etiology of endometriosis.

He X, Wang Y, Zhang W, et al.
Screening differential expression of serum proteins in AFP-negative HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma using iTRAQ -MALDI-MS/MS.
Neoplasma. 2014; 61(1):17-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) is serious condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Therefore is an urgent need to develop novel noninvasive techniques for early diagnosis, particularly for patients with AFP-negative [AFP(-)] HCC. In this study, iTRAQ-MALDI-MS/MS was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in AFP(-) HBV-related HCC compared with non-cancerous hepatitis B virus (HBV) and healthy controls subjects.Serum was obtained from 18 patients with AFP(-) HBV-related HCC, 18 matched patients with HBV without HCC and 18 healthy control subjects. High abundance proteins were removed from serum and the differentially expressed proteins from the three groups were screened out using iTRAQ-MALDI-MS/MS. The Gene Ontology (GO) function and the interaction networks of differentially expressed proteins were then analyzed. A total of 24 expressed differential proteins associated with AFP(-) HBV-related HCC were screened out, 15 proteins were up-regulated and 9 down-regulated. The most common molecular function of the 24 differentially expressed proteins was enzyme inhibition. Interaction network of the 24 differentially expressed proteins showed that 14 proteins (C5, KNG1, FN1, LRG1, HRG, SERPINC1, CRP, APOB, SAA1, APCS, C4BPA, CFI, CFB and GSN) were central to the functional network. The expression levels of the GSN protein were down-regulated in AFP(-) HBV-related HCC subjects compared with healthy controls and the HBV group (p<0.01), consistent with the iTRAQ results.The 14 proteins from the serum of AFP(-) HBV-related HCC appeared at the fulcrum of the functional network and were differentially expressed compare to HBV and healthy controls suggesting a possible association with HCC progression.

Kiyohara C, Horiuchi T, Takayama K, Nakanishi Y
Genetic polymorphisms involved in the inflammatory response and lung cancer risk: a case-control study in Japan.
Cytokine. 2014; 65(1):88-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Evidence is accumulating that chronic inflammation may have an important mechanism for the development and progression of lung cancer. Therefore, genetic polymorphisms in genes that involved in the inflammatory response may be associated with lung cancer risk. We evaluated the role of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFA) rs1799724, interleukin 1β (IL1B) rs16944, IL6 rs1800796, myeloperoxidase (MPO) rs2333227 and C-reactive protein (CRP) rs2794520 in a case-control study comprised of 462 lung cancer cases and 379 controls in a Japanese population. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). CRP rs2794520 (OR=1.64, 95% CI=1.19-2.26) and IL6 rs1800796 (OR=1.41, 95% CI=1.02-1.96) were associated with lung cancer risk. In addition, we assessed interactions between the polymorphisms and smoking. The polymorphisms did not significantly modify the association between smoking and lung cancer. As TNFA triggers a cytokine cascade, the modifying effect of the TNFA rs1799724 genotypes on the association of any of the remaining polymorphisms with lung cancer risk was also examined. There was a significant interaction between TNFA rs1799724 and MPO rs2333227 (Pinteraction=0.058). Future studies involving larger control and case populations will undoubtedly lead to a more thorough understanding of the role of the polymorphisms involved in the inflammation pathway in lung cancer.

Prizment AE, Folsom AR, Dreyfus J, et al.
Plasma C-reactive protein, genetic risk score, and risk of common cancers in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.
Cancer Causes Control. 2013; 24(12):2077-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Many studies, including the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort, reported a positive association between plasma C-reactive protein (CRP)-a biomarker of low-grade chronic inflammation-and colorectal cancer risk, although it is unclear whether the association is causal. Our aims were to assess the associations of a CRP genetic risk score (CRP-GRS) created from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with colorectal cancer risk, as well as examine plasma CRP and CRP-GRS in relation to common cancers in the ARIC cohort.
METHODS: Cox proportional hazards models were used to prospectively estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) of total, colorectal, lung, prostate, and breast cancers in relation to: (1) CRP-GRS among 8,657 Whites followed in 1987-2006 and (2) log-transformed plasma CRP among 7,603 Whites followed in 1996-2006. A weighted CRP-GRS was comprised of 20 CRP-related SNPs located in/near CRP, APOC1, HNF1A, LEPR, and 16 other genes that were identified in genome-wide association studies.
RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment, one standard deviation increment of the CRP-GRS was associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR 1.19; 95 % CI 1.03-1.37), but not with any other cancer. One unit of log-transformed plasma CRP was associated with the risk of total, colorectal, lung, and breast cancers: HRs (95 % CIs) were 1.08 (1.01-1.15), 1.24 (1.01-1.51), 1.29 (1.08-1.54), and 1.27 (1.07-1.51), respectively. HRs remained elevated, although lost statistical significance for all but breast cancer, after excluding subjects with <2 years of follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: The study corroborates a causative role of chronic low-grade inflammation in colorectal carcinogenesis.

Gong Z, Quan L, Yao S, et al.
Innate immunity pathways and breast cancer Risk in African American and European-American women in the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS).
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e72619 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
African American (AA) women are more likely than European American (EA) women to be diagnosed with early, aggressive breast cancer. Possible differences in innate immune pathways (e.g., inflammatory responses) have received little attention as potential mechanisms underlying this disparity. We evaluated distributions of selected genetic variants in innate immune pathways in AA and EA women, and examined their associations with breast cancer risk within the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS). In stage I of the study (864 AA and 650 EA women) we found that genotype frequencies for 35 of 42 tested SNPs (18 candidate genes) differed between AAs and EAs (corroborated by ancestry informative markers). Among premenopausal AA women, comparing variant allele carriers to non-carriers, reduced breast cancer risk was associated with CXCL5-rs425535 (OR=0.61, P=0.02), while among EA women, there were associations with TNFA-rs1799724 (OR =2.31, P =0.002) and CRP-rs1205 (OR=0.54, P=0.01). For postmenopausal women, IL1B-rs1143627 (OR=1.80, P=0.02) and IL1B-rs16944 (OR=1.85, P =0.02) were associated with risk among EA women, with significant associations for TNFA-rs1799724 limited to estrogen receptor (ER) positive cancers (OR=2.0, P =0.001). However, none of the SNPs retained significance after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing at the level of P0.0012 (0.05/42) except for TNFA-rs1799724 in ER positive cancers. In a stage II validation (1,365 AA and 1,307 EA women), we extended evaluations for four SNPs (CCL2-rs4586, CRP-rs1205, CXCL5-rs425535, and IL1RN-rs4251961), which yielded similar results. In summary, distributions of variants in genes involved in innate immune pathways were found to differ between AA and EA populations, and showed differential associations with breast cancer according to menopausal or ER status. These results suggest that immune adaptations suited to ancestral environments may differentially influence breast cancer risk among EA and AA women.

Alexandrakis MG, Roussou P, Pappa CA, et al.
Relationship between circulating BAFF serum levels with proliferating markers in patients with multiple myeloma.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:389579 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In multiple myeloma, there are many factors influencing the growth of the malignant clone in direct and indirect manners. BAFF is a growth factor for myeloma cells. The aim of the study was to measure its circulating levels in 54 pretreatment patients, along with serum levels of other proliferation markers, such as interleukins-6, -10, and -15, CRP, and beta-2 microglobulin, as well as bone marrow plasma cell infiltration and expression of Ki-67 PI, in various stages of the disease and after effective treatment in 28 of them. Serum levels of the previously mentioned factors were measured by ELISA, whereas bone marrow plasma cell infiltration and Ki-67 expression were estimated immunohistochemically. All measured parameters were higher in pretreated myeloma patients compared to healthy population and were also increasing with the progression of the disease. They all also decreased after effective therapy. Furthermore, all pretreatment values correlated to each other. BAFF seems to be an important growth factor for myeloma plasma cells. Measuring its serum levels, along with the previously mentioned cytokines, may provide important information regarding the degree of myeloma cells' proliferation. Therefore, they all could be used as markers of proliferation and disease activity.

Kondo S, Ueno H, Hosoi H, et al.
Clinical impact of pentraxin family expression on prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 109(3):739-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mediators may have decisive roles at different stages of tumour development. Mediators within the pentraxin family may be used as strong biomarkers in prognosis of advanced pancreatic carcinoma patients.
METHODS: Using pancreatic carcinoma cell lines and gene transfectant, we measured long pentraxin (PTX3) level in culture solution and carried out cellular migration assay in vitro. In vivo study of the treatment-naive patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma assigned to undergo gemcitabine therapy was prospectively conducted to measure and investigate the role of plasma PTX3, C-reactive protein (CRP), and eight inflammatory mediators by using collected clinical data.
RESULTS: Elevated PTX3 production was observed in several cell lines, and a direct relationship between migratory activity and PTX3 level was identified in vitro. High PTX3 level (117 days) was significantly less than that of patients with low PTX3 level (357 days, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis of the pancreatic carcinoma revealed a strong correlation between pentraxin family member expression and prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The relationship between PTX3 expression and the expression of other pro-inflammatory mediators indicated that PTX3 level is positively correlated with levels of CRP, interleukin-6, and macrophage-inhibitory factor.
CONCLUSION: Pentraxin family members, especially PTX3, may be used as promising biomarkers in the prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma patients.

Kraus S, Hummler S, Toriola AT, et al.
Impact of genetic polymorphisms on adenoma recurrence and toxicity in a COX2 inhibitor (celecoxib) trial: results from a pilot study.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2013; 23(8):428-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Chemoprevention trials have shown that celecoxib reduces adenoma recurrence but can cause cardiovascular toxicity. In this pilot study, we evaluated associations between genetic variation in several candidate pathways (e.g. prostaglandin synthesis) and adenoma recurrence and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal toxicities.
METHODS: Genotyping analysis was carried out on 117 Israeli colorectal adenoma patients who participated in the Prevention of Colorectal Sporadic Adenomatous Polyps trial. Reassessment followed after 3 years on celecoxib and after 2 years from termination of treatment with celecoxib. Efficacy (absence of colorectal adenomas) was measured by colonoscopy at years 1, 3, and 5. Toxicities were assessed by investigators during celecoxib treatment and by self-report post-treatment. A linkage disequilibrium-based selection algorithm (r2≥0.90, MAF≥4%) identified 255 tagSNPs in 25 analyzed candidate genes. Genotyping was performed by using Illumina GoldenGate technology.
RESULTS: Multiple genetic variants were associated with adenoma recurrence and toxicity. Genetic variability in COX1, COX2, and ALOX12/15 genes played a role in adenoma recurrence, particularly among patients on placebo. More gene variants (especially variants in PGES, CRP, SRC, and GPX3) were associated with increased risk for cardiovascular toxicity and symptoms, compared with gastrointestinal toxicity and symptoms. The increased risk for cardiovascular toxicity/symptoms associated with the SRC gene variants (rs6017996, rs6018256, rs6018257) ranged from 6.61 (95% confidence interval 1.66-26.36, P<0.01) to 10.71 (95% confidence interval 1.96-58.60, P<0.01).
CONCLUSION: Genetic polymorphisms in multiple inflammation-related genes appear to interact with celecoxib on adenoma recurrence and its attendant toxicity, particularly cardiovascular toxicity/symptoms. Larger studies validating these pharmacogenetic relationships are needed.

Huang CJ, Teng HW, Chien CC, et al.
Prognostic significance of C-reactive protein polymorphism and KRAS/BRAF in synchronous liver metastasis from colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2014; 8(6):e65117 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The liver is the most common target organ in the metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Synchronous liver metastases may confer a poorer prognosis than metachronous metastases, and genetic alterations and an inflammatory response have also been associated with a poor prognosis in cases of a liver metastasis arising from CRC. However, few studies have examined the relationship between KRAS mutations and inflammatory status in CRC, especially with respect to liver metastases.
METHODS: The effect of the activated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and another protein involved in inflammation, C-reactive protein, in liver metastases were examined. We aimed to determine the impact of the CRP-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7553007 in liver metastasis on the CRC-specific survival (CSS) of patients after colorectal liver metastasectomy.
RESULTS: We found no significant differences in genotype distributions and allele frequencies at the CRP SNP rs7553007 between CRC patients with liver metastasis and the control group. CSS rates were low in the subgroup of patients with synchronous metastasis with the A-allele (A/A and A/G) at rs7553007 or mutated KRAS/BRAF in liver metastatic specimens. Furthermore, the CRP SNP rs7553007 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.101; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.011-1.200; P = 0.027) and KRAS/BRAF mutations (HR = 2.377; 95% CI = 1.293-4.368; P = 0.005) remained predictive for the CSS of CRC patients with synchronous liver metastasis in multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Both the CRP SNP rs7553007 and KRAS/BRAF mutations were independent prognostic factors for CRC patients with synchronous liver metastasis.

Szala A, Sawicki S, Swierzko AS, et al.
Ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 in women with malignant and benign ovarian tumours.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2013; 62(8):1411-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ficolins are serum pattern recognition molecules. They have opsonic properties and are able to activate complement via the lectin pathway. This paper reports investigations concerning ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 in ovarian cancer (OC). Their serum levels, single nucleotide polymorphisms of the corresponding FCN2 and FCN3 genes and specific mRNA expression in ovarian sections were investigated in 128 patients suffering from primary OC and 197 controls operated on for reasons other than malignancies. The latter consisted of two reference groups: those with benign tumours (n = 123) and those with normal ovaries (NO) (n = 74). Serum ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 concentrations were higher among patients with malignant disease when compared with either of the reference groups. A significant correlation between ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 concentrations was found, while no correlations with CA125 antigen or CRP were observed. No differences in the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms at sites -64, -4 (promoter), +6359, or +6424 (exon 8) (FCN2 gene) nor in the frame-shift mutation 1637delC (FCN3 gene) were found between investigated groups. In contrast to serum concentrations, the expression of FCN2 gene (reported for the first time in ovarian sections) was significantly lower in women with OC in comparison with patients with NO but not with benign ovarian tumours. In case of FCN3 gene, its expression levels in OC group inversely correlated with serum ficolin-3 and were lower in comparison with controls.

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