MTHFR

Gene Summary

Gene:MTHFR; methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase
Location:1p36.22
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine. Genetic variation in this gene influences susceptibility to occlusive vascular disease, neural tube defects, colon cancer and acute leukemia, and mutations in this gene are associated with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 09 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MTHFR (cancer-related)

Zhang B, Zhang W, Yan L, Wang D
The association between MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism and ALL risk based on a meta-analysis involving 17,469 subjects.
Clin Chim Acta. 2017; 466:85-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T polymorphism is closely related to the acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) indicated by many previous epidemiologic studies. However, their conclusions were still conflicting.
METHODS: Our aim is to evaluate their associations using a more comprehensive updated meta-analysis. Electronic searches were conducted to select published studies prior to February, 2016.
RESULTS: Totally, 39 case-control studies including 6551 ALL cases and 10,918 controls were selected in current meta-analysis. The association was detected significantly between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and ALL reducing susceptibility.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism may be a promising ALL biomarker and studies to explore the protein levels of the variants and their functional role are required for the definitive conclusions.

Roberto M, Romiti A, Botticelli A, et al.
Evaluation of 5-fluorouracil degradation rate and Pharmacogenetic profiling to predict toxicity following adjuvant Capecitabine.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2017; 73(2):157-164 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: On account of the lack of predictive biomarkers of toxicity, we investigated whether polymorphisms of genes involved in fluoropyrimidine metabolism and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) degradation rate were associated with outcomes of adjuvant capecitabine in patients with early stage gastrointestinal cancers.
METHODS: Genotyping of DPYD GIVS14A, MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs were performed by pyro-sequencing technology. PCR analysis was used for genotyping TYMS-TSER. We also evaluated the 5-FU degradation rate, which determines the amount of drug consumed by PBMC in a time unit. Association of these variables with clinical outcome was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: One hundred forty-two patients with early stage colon (39%), rectal (28%), stomach (20%) and pancreatic (13%) cancer, treated with adjuvant capecitabine, were included in this retrospective analysis. Seventy and 20% of the patients suffered from at least one G1-4 and G3-4 adverse events, respectively. According to the 5-FU degradation rate, three and 13 patients were assigned as poor (<0.86 ng/mL/10(6) cells/min) and ultra-rapid (>2.1 ng/mL/10(6) cells/min) metabolizers, respectively. At a multivariate logistic regression analysis, an altered 5-FU degradation rate (values <0.86 or >2.10 ng/mL/10(6) cells/min) was associated with grade 3-4 adverse events (OR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.14-3.82, P = 0.01). No correlation was reported between toxicity and gene polymorphisms except for hand-foot syndrome that was more frequent in the MTHFR 1298CC homozygous variant genotype (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.04-3.96, P = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: 5-FU degradation rate may be regarded as possible predictive biomarker of capecitabine toxicity in early stage gastrointestinal cancer.

Zhang Y, Jia H, Wang S, Jiang D
Cumulative review and meta-analyses on the association between MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism and breast cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 83 studies with 74,019 participants.
Minerva Med. 2017; 108(1):57-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk has been extensively explored, but their results are conflicting rather than conclusive. To clarify the precise effects of MTHFR polymorphisms on the risk of breast cancer, a systemic review and most comprehensive meta-analysis of all available studies relating MTHFR rs1801133 gene polymorphism to the risk of breast cancer was conducted.
METHODS: Eligible articles were identified by search of databases including Medline (Mainly PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM), CNKI and Wanfang Medical databases. Crude ORs with 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of association.
RESULTS: Finally, a total of 83 studies with 35,029 cases and 38,990 controls were included. Overall, MTHFR rs1801133 gene polymorphism was proved to contribute to the risk of breast cancer under all genetic models (TT vs. CC: Pheterogeneity <0.001, OR=1.141, 95%CI=1.065-1.222, P <0.001; TT vs. CT: Pheterogeneity <0.001, OR=1.085, 95%CI=1.021-1.154, P=0.009; TT + CT vs. CC: Pheterogeneity <0.001, OR=1.040, 95%CI=1.020-1.061, P <0.001; TT vs. CC + CT: Pheterogeneity <0.001, OR=1.131, 95%CI=1.052-1.215, P=0.0478; T allele vs. C allele: Pheterogeneity <0.001, OR=1.040, 95%CI=1.009-1.071, P=0.010).
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that MTHFR rs1801133 gene polymorphism may the therapeutic target for breast cancer.

Ramírez-Pacheco A, Moreno-Guerrero S, Alamillo I, et al.
Mexican Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Pilot Study of the MDR1 and MTHFR Gene Polymorphisms and Their Associations with Clinical Outcomes.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2016; 20(10):597-602 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may influence the toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the importance of the transport P-glycoprotein and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in the metabolism of chemotherapeutic agents, we analyzed the MDR1 rs1045642 and MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphisms and their associations with clinical outcomes in Mexican childhood ALL patients.
METHODS: A total of 109 patients participated in this study. The clinical evaluation consisted of a physical examination and a laboratory test. Genotyping of MDR1 rs1045642 (3435 C>T) and MTHFR rs1801133 (677 C>T) was performed by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 14.0. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression.
RESULTS: Individuals who were CC homozygotes at MDR1 rs1045642 had lower risk of having methotrexate plasma concentrations >1 μM and leukopenia grade I (odds ratio [OR] = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.13-0.72 and OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.14-0.72, respectively). Patients who were CC homozygotes at MTHFR rs1801133 had a higher risk of developing mucositis (OR = 3.61; 95% CI = 1.42-9.14).
CONCLUSION: MDR1 rs1045642 and MTHFR rs1801133 should be considered as diagnostic candidates for the identification of pediatric patients with a high risk of suffering adverse events during ALL treatment.

Yang L, Wang XW, Zhu LP, et al.
Relationship between genetic polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and breast cancer chemotherapy response.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(3) [PubMed] Related Publications
Activity of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), an enzyme involved in folate metabolism, is influenced by mutations in the corresponding gene, contributing to a decrease in 5,10-MTHF. Due to such polymorphisms, individuals differ in MTHFR enzyme activity and plasma folate levels. We investigated the relationship between two common MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) and breast cancer (BC) chemotherapy response. From February 2013 to January 2016, 148 advanced BC patients at the Center Hospital of Cangzhou were enrolled and treated with six different chemotherapy regimens. Subjects were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Forty-one (27.7%), 70 (47.3%), and 37 (25.0%) patients carried the C/C, C/T, and T/T C677T genotypes, respectively; 101 (68.2%), 42 (28.4%), and 5 (3.4%) had the A/A, A/C, and C/C genotypes of A1298C, respectively. Total chemotherapy efficacy was 66.9% (99/148), with 7 (4.7%), 92 (62.2%), 36 (24.3%), and 13 (8.8%) cases showing complete response, partial response, no change, and progressive disease, respectively. Chemotherapy regimens did not differ in effectiveness (P > 0.05). Efficacy rates associated with C677T C/C, C/T, and T/T genotypes were 58.5, 58.6, and 91.9%, respectively, with T/T carriers exhibiting significantly better responses than the C/C (P < 0.05) and C/T groups (P < 0.05). Effectiveness among A1298C A/A, A/C, and C/C carriers was 70.6, 64.3, and 0.0%, respectively, but no difference was established between these genotypes in this regard (P > 0.05). The MTHFR C677T genotype may be associated with BC chemotherapy response, and could be of great value in guiding individualized treatment for this disease.

Lam SW, Guchelaar HJ, Boven E
The role of pharmacogenetics in capecitabine efficacy and toxicity.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2016; 50:9-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Capecitabine is an oral prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and approved for treatment of various malignancies. Hereditary genetic variants may affect a drug's pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics and account for differences in treatment response and adverse events among patients. In this review we present the current knowledge on genetic variants, commonly single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), tested in cohorts of cancer patients and possibly useful for prediction of capecitabine efficacy or toxicity. Capecitabine is activated to 5-FU by CES, CDA and TYMP, of which SNPs in CDA and CES2 were found to be associated with efficacy and toxicity. In addition, variants in genes of the 5-FU metabolic pathway, including TYMS, MTHFR and DPYD also influenced capecitabine efficacy and toxicity. In particular, well-known SNPs in TYMS and DPYD as well as putative DPYD SNPs had an association with clinical outcome as well as adverse events. Inconsistent findings may be attributable to factors related to ethnic differences, sample size, study design, study endpoints, dosing schedule and the use of multiple agents. Of the SNPs described in this review, dose reduction of fluoropyrimidines based on the presence of DPYD variants (*)2A (rs3918290), (*)13 (rs55886062), -2846A>T (rs67376798) and -1236G>A/HapB3 (rs56038477) has already been recommended. Other variants merit further validation to establish their definite role in explanation of interindividual differences in the outcome of capecitabine-based therapy.

Nakao H, Wakai K, Ishii N, et al.
Associations between polymorphisms in folate-metabolizing genes and pancreatic cancer risk in Japanese subjects.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2016; 16(1):83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Evidence supporting the associations between folate metabolizing gene polymorphisms and pancreatic cancer has been inconclusive. We examined their associations in a case-control study of Japanese subjects.
METHODS: Our case-control study involved 360 newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer cases and 400 frequency-matched, non-cancer control subjects. We genotyped four folate metabolizing gene polymorphisms, including two polymorphisms (rs1801133 and rs1801131) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) gene, one polymorphism (rs1801394) in the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR) gene and one polymorphism (rs1805087) in the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR) gene. Genotyping was performed using Fluidigm SNPtype assays. Unconditional logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between folate metabolizing gene variants and pancreatic cancer risk.
RESULTS: Overall we did not observe a significant association between these four genotypes and pancreatic cancer risk. For rs1801133, compared with individuals with the CC genotype of MTHFR C677T, the OR for those with the CT genotype and TT genotype was 0.87 (0.62-1.22) and 0.99 (0.65-1.51), respectively. For rs1801131, individuals with the CC genotype had approximately 1.2-fold increased risk compared with those with the AA genotype, but the association was not statistically significant. In analyses stratified by smoking and drinking status, no significant associations were noted for C677T genotypes. No significant interactions were observed with smoking and drinking with respect to pancreatic cancer risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data did not support the hypothesis that MTHFR polymorphisms or other polymorphisms in the folate metabolizing pathway are associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

Ho V, Ashbury JE, Taylor S, et al.
Genetic and epigenetic variation in the DNMT3B and MTHFR genes and colorectal adenoma risk.
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2016; 57(4):261-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polymorphisms in DNMT3B and MTHFR have been implicated in cancer etiology; however, it is increasingly clear that gene-specific DNA methylation also affects gene expression. A cross-sectional study (N = 272) investigated the main and joint effects of polymorphisms and DNA methylation in DNMT3B and MTHFR on colorectal adenoma risk. Polymorphisms examined included DNMT3B c.-6-1045G > T, and MTHFR c.665C > T and c.1286A > C. DNA methylation of 66 and 28 CpG sites in DNMT3B and MTHFR, respectively, was quantified in blood leukocytes using Sequenom EpiTYPER®. DNA methylation was conceptualized using two approaches: (1) average methylation and (2) unsupervised principal component analysis to identify variables that represented methylation around the transcription start site and the gene coding area of both genes. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with the main and joint effects of polymorphisms and DNA methylation. DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) TT versus GG/GT genotypes was associated with increased colorectal adenoma risk (OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.03-4.34). In addition, increasing DNA methylation in the gene-coding area of DNMT3B was associated with higher risk of colorectal adenomas (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.01-1.79 per SD). In joint effect analyses, synergistic effects were observed among those with both the DNMT3B TT genotype and higher DNMT3B methylation levels compared to those with GT/GG genotypes and lower methylation levels (OR = 4.19; 95% CI: 1.45-12.13 for average methylation; OR = 4.26; 95%CI: 1.31-13.87 for methylation in the transcription start site). This research provides novel evidence that genetic and epigenetic variations contribute to colorectal adenoma risk, precursor to the majority of colorectal cancer (CRC).

Carlus SJ, Sarkar S, Bansal SK, et al.
Is MTHFR 677 C>T Polymorphism Clinically Important in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)? A Case-Control Study, Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0151510 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Optimum efficiency of the folate pathway is considered essential for adequate ovarian function. 677 C>T substitution in the 5, 10-methylene tertrahydrofolatereductase (MTHFR) gene compromises activity of the MTHFR enzyme by about 50%. The significance of correlation between 677C>T substitution and PCOS remains dubious due to the low power of published studies.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed MTHFR 677 C>T site in ethnically two different PCOS case-control groups (total 261 cases and 256 controls) from India. The data analysis revealed a lack of association between this polymorphism and PCOS [OR = 1.11 (95%CI = 0.71-1.72), P = 0.66]. Group-wise analysis on the basis of ethnicity also revealed no association in any of the ethnic groups [Indo-Europeans, P = 1; Dravidians, P = 0.70]. Homocysteine levels did not differ significantly between cases (15.51 μmol/L, SD = 2.89) and controls (15.89 μmol/L, SD = 2.23). We also undertook a meta-analysis on 960 cases and 1028 controls, which suggested a significant association of the substitution with PCOS in the dominant model of analysis (OR = 1.47 (95%CI = 1.04-2.09), P = 0.032]. Trial sequential analysis corroborated findings of the traditional meta-analysis. However, we found that the conclusions of meta-analysis were strongly influenced by studies that deviated from the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. A careful investigation of each study and a trial sequential analysis suggested that 677 C>T substitution holds no clinical significance in PCOS in most of the populations.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphism does not affect PCOS risk in India. The association seen in the meta-analysis is due to an outlier study and studies showing deviation from the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium.

Lévesque N, Leclerc D, Gayden T, et al.
Murine diet/tissue and human brain tumorigenesis alter Mthfr/MTHFR 5'-end methylation.
Mamm Genome. 2016; 27(3-4):122-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polymorphisms and decreased activity of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are linked to disease, including cancer. However, epigenetic regulation has not been thoroughly studied. Our goal was to generate DNA methylation profiles of murine/human MTHFR gene regions and examine methylation in brain and liver tumors. Pyrosequencing in four murine tissues revealed minimal DNA methylation in the CpG island. Higher methylation was seen in liver or intestine in the CpG island shore 5' to the upstream translational start site or in another region 3' to the downstream start site. In the latter region, there was negative correlation between expression and methylation. Three orthologous regions were investigated in human MTHFR, as well as a fourth region between the two translation start sites. We found significantly increased methylation in three regions (not the CpG island) in pediatric astrocytomas compared with control brain, with decreased expression in tumors. Methylation in hepatic carcinomas was also increased in the three regions compared with normal liver, but the difference was significant for only one CpG. This work, the first overview of the Mthfr/MTHFR epigenetic landscape, suggests regulation through methylation in some regions, demonstrates increased methylation/decreased expression in pediatric astrocytomas, and should serve as a resource for future epigenetic studies.

Li C, Yichao J, Jiaxin L, et al.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism and risk of chronic myelogenous leukemia: a meta-analysis.
J BUON. 2015 Nov-Dec; 20(6):1534-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Reported evidence supports a role for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) in the risk of chronic myelogenous leykemia (CML). However, these reports arrived at non-conclusive and even conflicting results regarding the association between two common MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) and CML risk. Thus, a meta-analysis was carried out to clarify a more precise association between these two polymorphisms and the CML risk by updating the available publications.
METHODS: Pooled odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and stratification analysis were performed to estimate the relationship between MTHFR polymorphisms and the risk of CML under different genetic comparison models.
RESULTS: Data from the meta-analysis showed no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and CML risk. However, significant associations were found between MTHFR A1298C variants and CML risk under homozygous comparison model (CC vs AA, OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.11-2.36, p=0.01) and dominant comparison model (CC+AC vs AA, OR=1.68, 95% CI=1.17-2.43, p=0.005) in overall population; especially more obvious impacts were noticed for Asian populations in subgroup analysis for homozygous model (CC vs AA, OR=2.00, 95% CI=1.25-3.21, p=0.004) and dominant model (CC+AC vs AA, OR=2.49, 95% CI=1.42-4.36, p=0.001), but this did not apply in Caucasian populations.
CONCLUSION: The results of this meta-analysis suggested no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and CML risk, while an increased CML risk was noticed for 1298C variant carriers, especially in Asian populations but not in Caucasian populations, which suggested ethnicity differences between MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms and risk of CML.

Gutiérrez-Álvarez O, Lares-Asseff I, Galaviz-Hernández C, et al.
Involvement of MTHFR and TPMT genes in susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Mexicans.
Drug Metab Pers Ther. 2016; 31(1):41-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Folate metabolism plays an essential role in the processes of DNA synthesis and methylation. Deviations in the folate flux resulting from single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding folate-dependent enzymes may affect the susceptibility to leukemia. This case-control study aimed to assess associations among MTHFR (C677T, A1298C) and TPMT (*2, *3A) mutations as well as to evaluate the synergistic effects of combined genotypes for both genes. Therefore, these genetic variants may lead to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) susceptibility, in a Mexican population study.
METHODS: DNA samples obtained from 70 children with ALL and 152 age-matched controls (range, 1-15 years) were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to detect MTHFR C677T and A1298C and TPMT*2 and TPMT*3A genotypes.
RESULTS: The frequency of the MTHFR A1298C CC genotype was statistically significant (odds ratio [OR], 6.48; 95% 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.26-33.2; p=0.025). In addition, the combined 677CC+1298AC genotype exhibited a statistically significant result (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.06-0.82; p=0.023). No significant results were obtained from the MTHFR (C677T CT, C677T TT) or TPMT (*2, *3A) genotypes. More importantly, no association between the synergistic effects of either gene (MTHFR and/or TPMT) and susceptibility to ALL was found.
CONCLUSIONS: The MTHFR A1298C CC genotype was associated with an increased risk of developing childhood ALL. However, a decreased risk to ALL with the combination of MTHFR 677CC+1298AC genotypes was found.

Kim W, Woo HD, Lee J, et al.
Dietary folate, one-carbon metabolism-related genes, and gastric cancer risk in Korea.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016; 60(2):337-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
SCOPE: We evaluated the interactions between polymorphisms involved in one-carbon metabolism-related genes and dietary folate intake in gastric cancer risk within the Korean population through a hospital-based case-control study.
METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 542 controls and 271 cases were included. Genotype data were selected from data produced by the Affymetrix Axiom(®) Exome 319 Array. We considered seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of five genes whose SNPs are located in the coding region with a minor allele frequency > 5%: MTHFR (G1793A, A1298C, C677T), MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G, SHMT1 C1420T, and SLC19A1 G80A. Our study found that MTR A2756G was associated with a decreased gastric cancer risk. MTHFR G1793A showed a statistically significant interaction between dietary folate intake and gastric cancer.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that MTR A2756G is significantly associated with gastric cancer risk, and that MTHFR G1793A statistically interacts with dietary folate intake. Our findings indicate that gene-folate interactions may contribute to gastric cancer risk.

Naushad SM, Ramaiah MJ, Pavithrakumari M, et al.
Artificial neural network-based exploration of gene-nutrient interactions in folate and xenobiotic metabolic pathways that modulate susceptibility to breast cancer.
Gene. 2016; 580(2):159-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the current study, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based breast cancer prediction model was developed from the data of folate and xenobiotic pathway genetic polymorphisms along with the nutritional and demographic variables to investigate how micronutrients modulate susceptibility to breast cancer. The developed ANN model explained 94.2% variability in breast cancer prediction. Fixed effect models of folate (400 μg/day) and B12 (6 μg/day) showed 33.3% and 11.3% risk reduction, respectively. Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed the following interactions in responders to folate: RFC1 G80A × MTHFR C677T (primary), COMT H108L × CYP1A1 m2 (secondary), MTR A2756G (tertiary). The interactions among responders to B12 were RFC1G80A × cSHMT C1420T and CYP1A1 m2 × CYP1A1 m4. ANN simulations revealed that increased folate might restore ER and PR expression and reduce the promoter CpG island methylation of extra cellular superoxide dismutase and BRCA1. Dietary intake of folate appears to confer protection against breast cancer through its modulating effects on ER and PR expression and methylation of EC-SOD and BRCA1.

Chen PL, Li WT, Wang J, et al.
Association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms (C677T, A1298C) and genetic susceptibility to prostate cancer: a meta-analysis.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):19191-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) were shown to be related to prostate cancer risk in previous studies; however, the results are controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of previous studies and quantitatively estimated these associations. Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library Database were searched for published case-control studies evaluating the association between C677T (or A1298C) and prostate cancer risk. Pooled associations were presented as odds ratios (ORs) along with their 95% confidence intervals. Twenty-one case control studies were identified for meta-analysis that included 21,581 participants. No significant associations were found between the MTHFR polymorphisms C677T or A1298C and prostate cancer risk in our meta-analysis. However, in subgroup analyses, the C677T CT polymorphism was associated with increased prostate cancer risk in East Asians (CT vs CC+TT: OR = 1.324, P = 0.03). The A1298C CC polymorphism in MTHFR was also linked to slightly reduced prostate cancer risk in European residents (CC vs AC+AA: OR = 0.751, P = 0.004; CC vs AA: OR = 0.768, P = 0.011), whereas it was associated with a significantly increased prostate cancer risk in Asian residents (CC vs AA: OR = 1.862, P = 0.006). The C677T CT polymorphism of MTHFR may be a risk factor for prostate cancer in East Asians. The association between the MTHFR A1298C CC genotype and prostate cancer risk may vary within different populations. Large-scale well-designed studies are required to confirm these associations.

Rai V
Evaluation of the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Colorectal Cancer in Asian Populations.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(18):8093-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic and environmental factors play important roles in pathogenesis of digestive tract cancers like those in the esophagus, stomach and colorectum. Folate deficiency and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) as an important enzyme of folate and methionine metabolism are considered crucial for DNA synthesis and methylation. MTHFR variants may cause genomic hypomethylation, which may lead to the development of cancer, and MTHFR gene polymorphisms (especially C677T and A1298C) are known to influence predispositions for cancer development. Several case control association studies of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC) have been reported in different populations with contrasting results, possibly reflecting inadequate statistical power.
AIM: The present meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association between the C677T polymorphism and the risk of colorectal cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search of the PubMed, Google Scholar, Springer link and Elsevier databases was carried out for potential relevant articles. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) was calculated to assess the association of MTHFR C677T with the susceptibility to CRC. Cochran's Q statistic and the inconsistency index (I2) were used to check study heterogeneity. Egger's test and funnel plots were applied to assess publication bias. All statistical analyses were conducted by with MetaAnalyst and MIX version 1.7.
RESULTS: Thirty four case-control studies involving a total of 9,143 cases and 11,357 controls were retrieved according to the inclusion criteria. Overall, no significant association was found between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and colorectal cancer in Asian populations (for T vs. C: OR=1.03; 95% CI= 0.92-1.5; p= 0.64; for TT vs CC: OR=0.88; 95%CI= 0.74-1.04; p= 0.04; for CT vs. CC: OR = 1.02; 95%CI= 0.93-1.12; p=0.59; for TT+ CT vs. CC: OR=1.07; 95%CI= 0.94-1.22; p=0.87).
CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from the current meta-analysis indicated that the C677T polymorphism is not associated with CRC risk in Asian populations. Further investigations are needed to offer better insight into any role of this polymorphism in colorectal carcinogenesis.

Dixit R, Singh G, Pandey M, et al.
Association of Methylenetetrahydrafolate Reductase Gene Polymorphism (MTHFR) in Patients with Gallbladder Cancer.
J Gastrointest Cancer. 2016; 47(1):55-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism and plays a major role in DNA methylation. There are two popular MTHFR polymorphisms known as C677T and A1298C which are found to be involved in folate metabolism and lowering the enzyme activity, thus may be linked with cancer development. This study aims to look at the association of these polymorphisms in gallbladder cancer.
METHODS: Thirty patients each with gallbladder cancer, cholelithiasis, and normal gallbladder were genotyped for the above-given polymorphisms by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method.
RESULTS: C677T MTHFR polymorphism was not associated (χ(2) = 2.44, p = 0.85) with an increased likelihood of having gallbladder cancer. A1298C was significantly associated (χ(2) = 28.87, p < 0.001) with risk of developing gallbladder cancer. A1298C was significantly correlated with grade (r = 0.337, p < 0.001) and histopathology (r = 0.446, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: This study proposed that MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may be associated with risk of developing gallbladder cancer, and there is no association between C677T polymorphism and gallbladder cancer.

Zhang XF, Liu T, Li Y, Li S
Association between MTHFR 677C/T and 1298A/C gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):16425-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
We performed a case-control study to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene (677C/T and 1298A/C) and risk of breast cancer. This case-control study included 216 breast cancer cases and 216 controls. The MTHFR 677C/T and 1298A/C gene polymorphisms were assessed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. We observed an increased likelihood of breast cancer patients having a higher age at menarche and first live birth, and a greater family history of breast cancer, especially among first-degree relatives. In addition, individuals with the TT genotype of MTHFR 677C/T were associated with increased risk of breast cancer by logistic regression analysis; the adjusted odds ratio (95%CI) was 3.05 (1.17-8.87). In conclusion, the results of our study indicated that the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism could play a role in the development of breast cancer.

Chang W, Meng Q, Liu JH, et al.
Significant association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):15972-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
The A1298C polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene has been reported to be associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but there are conflicting results from previous studies. The present study aimed to investigate the association between this polymorphism and the risk of HCC using a meta-analysis of the published studies. Published literature from PubMed and Embase databases was systematically searched to identify relevant studies before October 2014. The Begg test was used to measure publication bias. Sensitivity analyses were performed to ensure the authenticity of the outcome. The meta-analysis results showed significant association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and HCC risk (CC vs AA: OR = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.33-0.81; CC vs AC: OR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.32-0.79; dominant model: OR = 1.94, 95%CI = 1.24-3.02; recessive model: OR = 1.00, 95%CI = 0.84-1.18). In the subgroup analysis, significant associations between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and HCC risk were found in Asians (CC vs AA: OR = 0.46, 95%CI = 0.27-0.78; CC vs AC: OR = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.24-0.71; dominant model: OR = 2.27, 95%CI = 1.33-3.86; recessive model: OR = 1.03, 95%CI = 0.86-1.24). Our results suggest that the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism might be related to increased risk of HCC in Asians. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm these conclusions.

Wang YC, Wu MT, Lin YJ, et al.
Regulation of Folate-Mediated One-Carbon Metabolism by Glycine N-Methyltransferase (GNMT) and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR).
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2015; 61 Suppl:S148-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is an important therapeutic target of human diseases. We extensively investigated how gene-nutrient interactions may modulate human cancer risk in 2 major folate metabolic genes, MTHFR and GNMT. The biochemical impacts of MTHFR and GNMT on methyl group supply, global DNA methylation, nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA damage, and partitioning of the folate dependent 1-carbon group were carefully studied. The distinct model systems used included: EB virus-transformed lymphoblasts expressing human MTHFR polymorphic genotypes; liver-derived GNMT-null cell-lines with and without GNMT overexpression; and HepG2 cells with stabilized inhibition of MTHFR using shRNA, GNMT wildtype, heterozygotous (GNMT(het)) and knockout (GNMT(nul)) mice. We discovered that the MTHFR TT genotype significantly reduces folate-dependent remethylation under folate restriction, but it assists purine synthesis when folate is adequate. The advantage of de novo purine synthesis found in the MTHFR TT genotype may account for the protective effect of MTHFR in human hematological malignancies. GNMT affects transmethylation kinetics and S-adenosylmethionine (adoMet) synthesis, and facilitates the conservation of methyl groups by limiting homocysteine remethylation fluxes. Restoring GNMT assists methylfolate-dependent reactions and ameliorates the consequences of folate depletion. GNMT expression in vivo improves folate retention and bioavailability in the liver. Loss of GNMT impairs nucleotide biosynthesis. Over-expression of GNMT enhances nucleotide biosynthesis and improves DNA integrity by reducing uracil misincorporation in DNA both in vitro and in vivo. The systematic series of studies gives new insights into the underlying mechanisms by which MTHFR and GNMT may participate in human tumor prevention.

Yang Z, Wang X, Li S
Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductasel reductase C677T polymorphisms and esophageal cancer susceptibility: A meta-analysis based on Chinese Han population.
Indian J Cancer. 2015; 52 Suppl 1:e26-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T polymorphisms and esophageal cancer susceptibility in Chinese Han population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The databases of PubMed, MEDLINE, Wanfang, and CNIK was electronic searched to find the case-control or cohort study about the relationship between MTHFR gene C677T polymorphisms and esophageal cancer susceptibility in Chinese Han population. The odds ratio (OR) was used to assess the relationship between CC, CT, and TT genotype and esophageal cancer risk. The data were pooled using Stata 11.0 software.
RESULTS: Eight articles included 1752 esophageal cancer and 2363 controls were found and included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR was 1.86 with its 95% confidence interval of 1.21-2.86 and 1.62 with its 95% confidence interval of 1.15-2.27 for TT versus CC and CT versus CC model which indicated that people with TT OR CT genotype significant increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer.
CONCLUSION: Esophageal cancer risk was significantly increased in people with TT/CT genotype of MTHFR gene.

Wang Y, Yang H, Gao H, Wang H
The association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in Chinese population.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(12):9153-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
With great interest, we read the recent article entitled "Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in Chinese population: a meta-analysis of 22 case-control studies" published online in Tumor Biology, 2014, 35: 1695-1701. This article suggests that methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with breast cancer risk in Chinese population. The result is encouraging. Nevertheless, three key issues in this meta-analysis are worth noticing.

Anders QS, Stur E, Agostini LP, et al.
MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms as predictors of radiotherapy response in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):13105-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), which regulates the release of active folate in the body, may have reduced activity. Given that folate participates in important intracellular pathways, such as nucleotide synthesis and biomolecule methylation, it seems plausible that patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) may respond differently to radiotherapy treatments, based on genetic polymor-phisms. Therefore, this study sought to understand the role of these polymorphisms in HNSCC patient radiotherapy response. Genotypes were detected by PCR-RFLP after extraction of DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Survival curves were analyzed by the Kaplan- Meier model, and significant differences were analyzed by the Wil-coxon test. Response to radiotherapy in patients with laryngeal SCC was significantly associated with the MTHFR C677T polymorphism (P = 0.030). Indeed, the presence of at least one T allele decreases the mortality rate up to 3-fold. Therefore, we propose that MTHFR C677T may represent a putative biomarker for radiotherapy prognosis in la-ryngeal SCC patients.

Kałużna E, Strauss E, Zając-Spychała O, et al.
Functional variants of gene encoding folate metabolizing enzyme and methotrexate-related toxicity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2015; 769:93-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Methotrexate (MTX) is commonly used agent in therapy of malignancies, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Based on the literature data it is known that MTX elimination and toxicity can be affected by polymorphisms in genes encoding enzymes involved in MTX metabolism. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene on MTX-induced toxicity during treatment of children with ALL. We also tried to answer the question whether simultaneous occurrence of these two polymorphisms has a clinical significance. MTHFR polymorphisms were assessed in 47 pediatric ALL patients, treated according to intensive chemotherapy for childhood ALL, ALL IC BFM 2009. Prolonged MTX elimination and higher incidence of toxicity were observed for patients with 677T-1298A haplotype. On the other hand, occurrence of 677C-1298A haplotype had protective effect on MTX clearance and toxicity, that was not observed in carriers of 677C-1298C haplotype. In patients with coexistence of studied variants 677CT/1298AC heterozygotes as well as in 677TT/1298AA homozygotes more frequently toxicity incidents were noted. The obtained results suggest that occurrence of 677T allele and coexistence of 677T and 1298C alleles may be associated with lower MTX clearance and elevated risk of adverse effects during MTX-treatment of pediatric ALL patients.

Wang XJ, Xu LH, Chen YM, et al.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism in endometrial cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 54(5):546-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a meta-analysis of case-controlled prospective or retrospective studies to assess the effect of MTHFR polymorphisms on the risk of developing endometrial cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched (up to March 2014) for prospective or retrospective case-controlled studies that investigated the association of three MTHFR polymorphisms (rs180113 [C677T], rs1801131 [A1289C], and rs2274976 [G1793A]) with endometrial cancer.
RESULTS: The patient population included subjects from three separate countries: China, Spain, and the USA. Only one study reported quantitative findings for MTHFR G1793A and, consequently, this polymorphism was not evaluated in our analysis. There were no significant associations of any MTHFR C677T or MTHFR A1298C alleles or genotypes with endometrial cancer (all p > 0.300).
CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis does not support the association of endometrial cancer with two common MTHFR polymorphisms from this patient population.

Agarwal G, Tulsyan S, Lal P, Mittal B
Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR) Analysis of Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme-Encoding Gene Polymorphisms may Predict Treatment Outcomes in Indian Breast Cancer Patients.
World J Surg. 2016; 40(7):1600-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prediction of response and toxicity of chemotherapy can help personalize the treatment and choose effective yet non-toxic treatment regimen for a breast cancer patient. Interplay of variations in various drug-metabolizing enzyme (DME)-encoding genes results in variable response and toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs. Generalized multi-analytical (GMDR) approach was used to determine the influence of the combination of variants of genes encoding phase 0 (SLC22A16); phase I (CYP450, NQO1); phase II (GSTs, MTHFR, UGT2B15); and phase III (ABCB1) DMEs along with confounding factors on the response and toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs in breast cancer patients.
METHODS: In an Indian breast cancer patient cohort (n = 234), response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 111) and grade 2-4 toxicity to chemotherapy were recorded. Patients were genotyped for 19 polymorphisms selected in four phases of DMEs by PCR or PCR-RFLP or Taqman allelic discrimination assay. Binary logistic regression and GMDR analysis was performed. Bonferroni test for multiple comparisons was applied, and p value was considered to be significant at <0.025.
RESULTS: For ABCB1 1236C>T polymorphism, CT genotype was found to be significantly associated with response to NACT in uni-variate and multi-variate analysis (p = 0.018; p = 0.013). The TT genotype of NQO1 609C>T had a significant association with (absence of) grade 2-4 toxicity in uni-variate analysis (p = 0.021), but a non-significant correlation in multi-variate analysis. In GMDR analysis, interaction of CYP3A5*3, NQO1 609C>T, and ABCB1 1236C>T polymorphisms yielded the highest testing accuracy for response to NACT (CVT = 0.62). However, for grade 2-4 toxicity, CYP2C19*2 and ABCB1 3435C>T polymorphisms yielded the best interaction model (CVT = 0.57).
CONCLUSION: This pharmacogenetic study suggests a role of higher order gene-gene interaction of DME-encoding genes, along with confounding factors, in determination of treatment outcomes and toxicity in breast cancer patients. This can be used as a potential objective tool for individualizing breast cancer chemotherapy with high efficacy and low toxicity.

Ho V, Ashbury JE, Taylor S, et al.
Gene-specific DNA methylation of DNMT3B and MTHFR and colorectal adenoma risk.
Mutat Res. 2015; 782:1-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are genes which encode enzymes critical to one-carbon metabolism. Polymorphisms in these genes have been implicated in colorectal cancer etiology; however, epigenetic modifications such as gene-specific DNA methylation also affect gene expression. DNA methylation of DNMT3B and MTHFR was quantified in blood leukocytes using Sequenom EpiTYPER® among 272 participants undergoing a screening colonoscopy. DNA methylation was quantified in 66 and 28CpG sites of DNMT3B and MTHFR respectively, and conceptualized using two approaches. First, measures representing average methylation across all CpG sites were created. Second, unsupervised principal component (PC) analysis was used to identify summary variables representing methylation around the transcription start site and in the gene-coding area for both DNMT3B and MTHFR. Logistic regression was used to compare methylation levels between participants diagnosed with colorectal adenoma(s) versus those with a normal colonoscopy via the estimation of odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the risk of colorectal adenomas. No association was observed between average DNA methylation of either DNMT3B or MTHFR and colorectal adenoma risk. For DNMT3B, increasing DNA methylation of CpG sites in the gene-coding area was associated with a higher risk of colorectal adenomas (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.01-1.79 per SD). This research provides preliminary evidence that methylation of DNMT3B may have functional significance with respect to colorectal adenomas, precursors to the vast majority of colorectal cancers.

Zhao Y, Li X, Kong X
MTHFR C677T Polymorphism is Associated with Tumor Response to Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy: A Result Based on Previous Reports.
Med Sci Monit. 2015; 21:3068-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (pRCT) followed by surgery has been widely practiced in locally advanced rectal cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and other cancers. However, the therapy also exerts some severe adverse effects and some of the patients show poor or no response. It is very important to develop biomarkers (e.g., gene polymorphisms) to identify patients who have a higher likelihood of responding to pRCT. Recently, a series of reports have investigated the association of the genetic polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genes with the tumor response to pRCT; however, the results were inconsistent and inconclusive.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching relevant studies about the association of MTHFR and EGFR polymorphisms with the tumor regression grade (TRG) in response to pRCT in databases of PubMed, EMBAS, Web of science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang database up to March 30, 2015. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of the association under 5 genetic models.
RESULTS: A total of 11 eligible articles were included in the present meta-analysis, of which 8 studies were performed in rectal cancer and 3 studies were performed in esophageal cancer. We finally included 8 included studies containing 839 cases for MTHFR C677T, 5 studies involving 634 cases for MTHFR A1298C, 3 studies containing 340 cases for EGFR G497A, and 4 studies containing 396 cases for EGFR CA repeat. The pooled analysis results indicated that MTHFR C677T might be correlated with the tumor response to pRCT under the recessive model (CC vs. CTTT) in overall analysis (OR=1.426(1.074-1.894), P=0.014), rectal cancer (OR=1.483(1.102-1.996), P=0.009), and TRG 1-2 vs. 3-5 group (OR=1.423(1.046-1.936), P=0.025), while other polymorphism including MTHFR A1298C, EGFR G497A, and EGFR CA repeat polymorphisms exerted significant association under all genetic models in overall analysis or subgroup analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: MTHFR C677T might be correlated with the tumor response to pRCT. Further well-designed, larger-scale epidemiological studies are needed to validate our results.

Montazeri Z, Theodoratou E, Nyiraneza C, et al.
Systematic meta-analyses and field synopsis of genetic association studies in colorectal adenomas.
Int J Epidemiol. 2016; 45(1):186-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Low penetrance genetic variants, primarily single nucleotide polymorphisms, have substantial influence on colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility. Most CRCs develop from colorectal adenomas (CRA). Here we report the first comprehensive field synopsis that catalogues all genetic association studies on CRA, with a parallel online database [http://www.chs.med.ed.ac.uk/CRAgene/].
METHODS: We performed a systematic review, reviewing 9750 titles, and then extracted data from 130 publications reporting on 181 polymorphisms in 74 genes. We conducted meta-analyses to derive summary effect estimates for 37 polymorphisms in 26 genes. We applied the Venice criteria and Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP) to assess the levels of the credibility of associations.
RESULTS: We considered the association with the rs6983267 variant at 8q24 as 'highly credible', reaching genome-wide statistical significance in at least one meta-analysis model. We identified 'less credible' associations (higher heterogeneity, lower statistical power, BFDP > 0.02) with a further four variants of four independent genes: MTHFR c.677C>T p.A222V (rs1801133), TP53 c.215C>G p.R72P (rs1042522), NQO1 c.559C>T p.P187S (rs1800566), and NAT1 alleles imputed as fast acetylator genotypes. For the remaining 32 variants of 22 genes for which positive associations with CRA risk have been previously reported, the meta-analyses revealed no credible evidence to support these as true associations.
CONCLUSIONS: The limited number of credible associations between low penetrance genetic variants and CRA reflects the lower volume of evidence and associated lack of statistical power to detect associations of the magnitude typically observed for genetic variants and chronic diseases. The CRA gene database provides context for CRA genetic association data and will help inform future research directions.

Liu P, Zhang M, Xie X, et al.
Polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase, dietary folate intake, and the risk of leukemia in adults.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(3):3265-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) are critical enzymes in folate metabolism. Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the associations between MTHFR/TS polymorphisms and adult leukemia risk, which may due to the lack of information on folate intake. We investigated the risks of adult leukemia with genetic polymorphisms of folate metabolic enzymes (MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and TS) and evaluated if the associations varied by dietary folate intake from a multicenter case-control study conducted in Chinese. This study comprised 442 incident adult leukemia cases and 442 outpatient controls, individually matched to cases by gender, birth quinquennium, and study site. Genotypes were determined by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Dietary folate intake was assessed by face-to-face interviews using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The MTHFR 677TT genotype conferred a significant higher risk of leukemia in males than in females and exhibited an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but a decreased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The MTHFR 1298AC genotype appeared to decrease the risks of leukemia in both genders, in AML and ALL. Stratified analysis by dietary folate intake showed the increased risks of leukemia with the MTHFR 677TT and TS 2R3R/2R2R genotypes were only significant in individuals with low folate intake. A significant interaction between TS polymorphism and dietary folate intake was observed (P = 0.03). This study suggests that dietary folate intake and gender may modify the associations between MTHFR/TS polymorphisms and adult leukemia risk.

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