Gene Summary

Gene:NFKB1; nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1
Aliases: p50, KBF1, p105, EBP-1, CVID12, NF-kB1, NFKB-p50, NFkappaB, NF-kappaB, NFKB-p105, NF-kappa-B
Summary:This gene encodes a 105 kD protein which can undergo cotranslational processing by the 26S proteasome to produce a 50 kD protein. The 105 kD protein is a Rel protein-specific transcription inhibitor and the 50 kD protein is a DNA binding subunit of the NF-kappa-B (NFKB) protein complex. NFKB is a transcription regulator that is activated by various intra- and extra-cellular stimuli such as cytokines, oxidant-free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, and bacterial or viral products. Activated NFKB translocates into the nucleus and stimulates the expression of genes involved in a wide variety of biological functions. Inappropriate activation of NFKB has been associated with a number of inflammatory diseases while persistent inhibition of NFKB leads to inappropriate immune cell development or delayed cell growth. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms, at least one of which is proteolytically processed. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Haplotypes
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Promoter Regions
  • Apoptosis
  • NFKB1
  • MicroRNAs
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Breast Cancer
  • Genotype
  • NF-kappa B p50 Subunit
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Inflammation
  • Chromosome 4
  • China
  • Species Specificity
  • Lung Cancer
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Messenger RNA
  • Transcription Factors
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Sweden
  • Polymorphism
  • NF-kappa B
  • Alleles
  • Staging
  • NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Risk Factors
  • I-kappa B Proteins
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Proto-Oncogenes
  • INDEL Mutation
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NFKB1 (cancer-related)

Zhao Y, Yang F, Li W, et al.
miR-29a suppresses MCF-7 cell growth by downregulating tumor necrosis factor receptor 1.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317692264 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 is the main receptor mediating many tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cellular events. Some studies have shown that tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 promotes tumorigenesis by activating nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway, while other studies have confirmed that tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 plays an inhibitory role in tumors growth by inducing apoptosis in breast cancer. Therefore, the function of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in breast cancer requires clarification. In this study, we first found that tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 was significantly increased in human breast cancer tissues and cell lines, and knockdown of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 by small interfering RNA inhibited cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. In addition, miR-29a was predicted as a regulator of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 by TargetScan and was shown to be inversely correlated with tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression in human breast cancer tissues and cell lines. Luciferase reporter assay further confirmed that miR-29a negatively regulated tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression by binding to the 3' untranslated region. In our functional study, miR-29a overexpression remarkably suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation, arrested the cell cycle, and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cell. Furthermore, in combination with tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 transfection, miR-29a significantly reversed the oncogenic role caused by tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in MCF-7 cell. In addition, we demonstrated that miR-29a suppressed MCF-7 cell growth by inactivating the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway and by decreasing cyclinD1 and Bcl-2/Bax protein levels. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-29a is an important regulator of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression in breast cancer and functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 to influence the growth of MCF-7 cell.

Jafarian M, Mozhgani SH, Patrad E, et al.
Evaluation of INOS, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 gene expression: A study of adult T cell leukemia malignancy associated with HTLV-1.
Arch Virol. 2017; 162(4):1009-1015 [PubMed] Related Publications
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as host factors, and proviral load as the viral parameter, in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) individuals and healthy carrier (HC(s)) groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from ATLL patients (n = 17) and HC subjects (as the control group, n = 17) were evaluated using real-time PCR to determine the levels of HTLV-1 proviral load and mRNA expression of ICAM, VCAM-1, and iNOS. ICAM-1 was significantly lower in ATLL patients than in control subjects. Although the expression of VCAM-1 was higher in ATLL individuals, there was no significant difference between the studied groups. In addition, no iNOS expression was found in ATLL patients, when compared to the HCs subjects, while ATLL patients demonstrated a higher level of proviral load when compared to the control group. Considering the importance of ICAM-1 in facilitating immune recognition of infected cells, it is posited that reduction of ICAM-1 expression is a unique strategy for circumventing appropriate immune responses that are mediated by different accessory proteins. Additionally, as the viral regulatory protein Tax and the NF-κB pathway play pivotal roles in expression of iNOS, lack of the latter in ATLL patients may be related to the level of Tax expression, disruption of the NF-κB pathway, or the occurrence of epigenetical mechanisms in the human iNOS promoter. Further studies are recommended to gain a better understanding of the interaction between host and viral factors in HTLV-1 pathogenesis and to identify a possible therapeutic target for ATLL.

Subash-Babu P, Alshammari GM, Ignacimuthu S, Alshatwi AA
Epoxy clerodane diterpene inhibits MCF-7 human breast cancer cell growth by regulating the expression of the functional apoptotic genes Cdkn2A, Rb1, mdm2 and p53.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 87:388-396 [PubMed] Related Publications
Systematic analyses of plants that are used in traditional medicine may lead to the discovery of novel cytotoxic secondary metabolites. Diterpene possesses multiple bioactivities; here, epoxy clerodane diterpene (ECD) was isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) stem and shown potential antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The antiproliferative effect of ECD on MCF-7 cells was systematically analyzed by cell and nuclear morphology, alterations in oxidative stress, and the expression of tumor suppressor and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis-related genes. We found that the IC50 value of ECD was 3.2μM at 24h and 2.4μM at 48h. We observed that the cytotoxicity of ECD was specific to MCF-7 cells, whereas ECD was nontoxic to normal Vero and V79 cells. ECD significantly triggered intracellular ROS generation even from the lower doses of 0.6 and 1.2μM; and it is relative to higher dose of 2.4μM. Further, we used 0.6μM, 1.2μM and 2.4μM as experimental doses to analyze the relative dose-dependent effects. Nuclear staining revealed that cells treated with the 2.4μM dose exhibited characteristic apoptotic morphological changes and that 46% of the cells were apoptotic and 4% were necrotic after 48h. ECD significantly increased the expression of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway-related genes after 48h; we observed significantly (p≤0.05) increased expression of CYP1A, GPX, GSK3β and TNF-α and downregulated expression of NF-κB. ECD also increased the expression of tumor suppressor genes such as Cdkn2A, Rb1 and p53. In addition, we observed that ECD treatment significantly (p≤0.001) upregulated the expression of apoptotic genes such as Bax, cas-3, cas-8, cas-9 and p21 and downregulated the expression of BCL-2, mdm2 and PCNA. In conclusion, ECD regulates the expression of Cdkn2A, p53 and mdm2 and induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

He ZJ, Zhu FY, Li SS, et al.
Inhibiting ROS-NF-κB-dependent autophagy enhanced brazilin-induced apoptosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2017; 101:55-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Autophagy modulation has been considered a potential therapeutic strategy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A previous study confirmed that brazilin might possess significant anti-carcinogenic activity. However, whether brazilin induces autophagy and its roles in cell death in HNSCC are still unclear. In this study, we have shown that brazilin induced significant apoptosis in the Cal27 HNSCC cell line but not in oral keratinocyte cell line (OKC). In addition to showing apoptosis induction, we demonstrated the brazilin-induced autophagic response in the Cal27 cells, as evidenced by the formation of GFP-LC3 puncta, and also showed the upregulation of LC3-II and Beclin-1. Moreover, pharmacologically or genetically blocking autophagy enhanced the brazilin-induced apoptosis, indicating the cytoprotective role of autophagy in brazilin-treated Cal27 cells. Moreover, brazilin activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65) nuclear translocation and increased NF-κB p65 reporter activity, which contributed to the upregulation of autophagy-related genes, including LC3-II and Beclin-1. Importantly, we found that brazilin triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in Cal27 cells. Furthermore, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, abrogated the effects of brazilin on the NF-κB p65-dependent autophagy. Taken together, our results demonstrated that brazilin increased the NF-κB p65-dependent autophagy through the promotion of ROS signalling pathways in HNSCC. These data also suggest that a strategy of blocking ROS-NF-κB p65-dependent autophagy to enhance the activity of brazilin warrants further attention for the treatment of HNSCC.

Li L, Wang S, Zheng F, et al.
Chinese herbal medicine Fuzheng Kang-Ai decoction sensitized the effect of gefitinib on inhibition of human lung cancer cells through inactivating PI3-K/Akt -mediated suppressing MUC1 expression.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2016; 194:918-929 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) Fuzheng Kang-Ai (FZKA for short) decoction has been used as adjuvant treatment strategies in lung cancer patients for decades. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic potential especially in sensitizing the effect of EGFR-TKI gefitinib has not been well elucidated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability was detected by MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry. Western blot were used to examine phosphorylation and protein levels of Akt, p65, p50 and MUC1. The mRNA level of MUC1 was measured by qRT-PCR. Transient transfection experiments were used to overexpression of Akt, p65 and MUC1. Tumor xenograft and bioluminescent imaging experiments were carried out to confirm the in vitro findings.
RESULTS: Cell viability was inhibited by FZKA treatment and showed more significant when treated with FZKA and gefitinib in combine in lung cancer cells. FZKA induced the cell arrest at G0/G1 phase. Mechanistically, we showed that the phosphorylation of Akt, protein expressions of p65 and MUC1 were suppressed by FZKA and even more responses were observed in the FZKA and gefitinib combining. Overexpressed Akt overcame the effect of FZKA on p65 protein, and exogenously expressed p65 resisted the inhibitory effect of MUC1 protein expression by FZKA. On the contrary, while overexpressed MUC1 had no effect on p65 expression, it feedback increased phosphorylation of Akt, and more importantly, reversed the cell growth inhibition affected by FZKA. In line with the above, our results confirmed the synergistic effects of FZKA and gefitinib combination on tumor growth, the phosphorylation of Akt, and protein expression of p65 and MUC1 in vivo.
CONCLUSION: This study shows that FZKA decoction inhibits the growth of NSCLC cells through Akt-mediated inhibition of p65, followed by reducing the expression of MUC1. More importantly, there is a synergistic effect of FZKA decoction and gefitinib combination with greater suppression. The positive feedback regulatory loop of MUC1 to Akt signaling pathway further added the important role of MUC1 in mediating the overall responses of FZKA decoction in this process. The in vitro and in vivo study provides an additional and a novel mechanism by which the FZKA decoction enhances the growth inhibition of gefitinib in gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cells.

Paschke L, Jopek K, Szyszka M, et al.
ZFP91: A Noncanonical NF-κB Signaling Pathway Regulator with Oncogenic Properties Is Overexpressed in Prostate Cancer.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:6963582 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Novel molecular targets are being searched to aid in prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy. Recently, ZFP91 zinc finger protein has been found to be upregulated in prostate cancer cell lines. It is a potentially important oncogenic protein; however only limited data regarding its biological function and expression patterns are available. To date, ZFP91 has been shown to be a key factor in activation of noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathway as well as to be involved in HIF-1α signaling in cancer cells. The present study aimed to characterize ZFP91 expression in prostate cancer specimens. Furthermore, since our earlier reports showed discrepancies between ZFP91 mRNA and protein levels, we studied this interrelationship in LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines using siRNA mediated knockdown. QPCR analysis revealed marked upregulation of ZFP91 mRNA in the majority of prostate cancer specimens. Transfection of prostate cancer cells with ZFP91 siRNA resulted in a 10-fold decrease in mRNA levels. On a protein level, however, no inhibitory effect was observed over the time of the cell culture. We conclude that ZFP91 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and that potential accumulation of the ZFP91 protein in studied cells may be of importance in prostate cancer biology.

Yu W, Honisch S, Schmidt S, et al.
Chorein Sensitive Orai1 Expression and Store Operated Ca2+ Entry in Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 40(5):1141-1152 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chorein, a protein encoded by VPS13A (vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 13A), is defective in chorea acanthocytosis, a rare disease characterized by acanthocytosis of red blood cells and neuronal cell death with progressive hyperkinetic movement disorder, cognitive dysfunction, behavioral abnormalities and chronic hyperkalemia. Chorein is highly expressed in ZF rhabdomyosarcoma cells and counteracts apoptosis of those cells. Chorein is effective in part by interacting with and fostering stimulation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-p85-subunit. PI3K dependent signaling includes the serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1. The kinase activates NFκB with subsequent up-regulation of the Ca2+ channel subunit Orai1, which accomplishes store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Orai1 and SOCE have been shown to confer survival of tumor cells. The present study thus explored whether chorein impacts on Orai1 expression and SOCE.
METHODS: In rhabdomyosarcoma cells chorein, Orai1, NFκB and SGK1 transcript levels were quantified by RT-PCR, Orai1 protein abundance by Western blotting, FACS analysis and confocal laser microscopy, [Ca2+]i utilizing Fura-2 fluorescence, and SOCE from the increase of [Ca2+]i following store depletion with extracellular Ca2+ removal and inhibition of the sarcoendoplasmatic reticular Ca2+ ATPase with thapsigargin.
RESULTS: The mRNA coding for chorein was most abundant in drug resistant, poorly differentiated human ZF rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Chorein silencing significantly decreased Orai1 transcript levels and Orai1 protein expression, as well as SGK1 and NFκB transcript levels. SOCE in ZF rhabdomyosarcoma cells was significantly blunted by chorein silencing, Orai1 inhibitor 2-APB (50 µM), SGK1 inhibitor EMD638683 (50 µM, 10 h) and NFκB inhibitor wogonin (50 µM, 24 h).
CONCLUSION: Chorein is a stimulator of Orai1 expression and thus of store operated Ca2+ entry. The effect may involve SGK1 and NFκB.

Rothschild DE, Zhang Y, Diao N, et al.
Enhanced Mucosal Defense and Reduced Tumor Burden in Mice with the Compromised Negative Regulator IRAK-M.
EBioMedicine. 2017; 15:36-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant inflammation is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer. IRAK-M is a critical negative regulator of TLR signaling and overzealous inflammation. Here we utilize data from human studies and Irak-m(-/-) mice to elucidate the role of IRAK-M in the modulation of gastrointestinal immune system homeostasis. In human patients, IRAK-M expression is up-regulated during IBD and colorectal cancer. Further functional studies in mice revealed that Irak-m(-/-) animals are protected against colitis and colitis associated tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, our data revealed that the gastrointestinal immune system of Irak-m(-/-) mice is highly efficient at eliminating microbial translocation following epithelial barrier damage. This attenuation of pathogenesis is associated with expanded areas of gastrointestinal associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), increased neutrophil migration, and enhanced T-cell recruitment. Further evaluation of Irak-m(-/-) mice revealed a splice variant that robustly activates NF-κB signaling. Together, these data identify IRAK-M as a potential target for future therapeutic intervention.

Ganai SA
Plant-derived flavone Apigenin: The small-molecule with promising activity against therapeutically resistant prostate cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 85:47-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in men in the United States. Mounting evidences suggest that in the pathophysiology of prostate cancer epigenetic modifications play a considerable role. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have strong crosstalk with prostate cancer progression as they regulate various genes meant for tumour suppression. HDACs are emerging as striking molecular targets for anticancer drugs and therapy as their aberrant expression has been implicated in several cancers. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), the small molecules interfering HDACs are the propitious chemotherapeutic agents as they tune the altered acetylation homeostasis for attenuating disease signalling. More than 20 HDACi have entered into the clinical trials and 4 have crossed the journey by gaining FDA approval for treating distinct haematological malignancies including multiple myeloma. Despite the therapeutic benefits, the synthetic HDACi cause detrimental side effects like atrial fibrillation, raising concerns regarding their applicability. Taking these facts into consideration the current article focused on plant-derived HDAC inhibitor Apigenin and its marvelous role in prostate cancer therapy. Moreover, the article sheds light on Apigenin induced apoptosis in various prostate cancer models. The defined inhibitor provokes apoptotic signaling in these models by multiple mechanisms like restraining HDACs, declining the levels of antiapoptotic proteins. Importantly, Apigenin hampers NF-κB signalling and down-modulates its regulated gene products for bringing therapeutic effect. Furthermore, Apigenin shows synergistic effect in combinatorial therapy and induces apoptosis even in prostate cancer models resistant to conventional therapeutic regimens.

Pectasides D, Kotoula V, Papaxoinis G, et al.
Expression Patterns of Growth and Survival Genes with Prognostic Implications in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(12):6347-6356 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mRNA expression pattern of growth- and survival-related genes and assess their prognostic significance in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 98 patients were included in this retrospective translational research study and were evaluated for Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutational status, and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1), AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 (AKT2), AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 (AKT3), cyclin D1 (CCND1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), hepatocellular growth factor receptor (MET), avian myelomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC), nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 (NFKb1), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (FRAP1) genes mRNA expression. Among these patients, 73 received first-line gemcitabine combined with erlotinib (N=57) or gefitinib (N=16).
RESULTS: KRAS mutation did not correlate with mRNA gene expression. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering according to mRNA gene expression successfully distinguished four prognostically distinct groups of tumors. Overexpression of all genes was associated with best prognosis, while suppression or heterogeneous expression patterns of the examined genes were associated with expression patterns of growth- and survival-related genes, classifying pancreatic tumors into distinct groups with possibly different outcomes.

Singh PR, Priya ES, Balakrishnan S, et al.
Nimbolide inhibits androgen independent prostate cancer cells survival and proliferation by modulating multiple pro-survival signaling pathways.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1623-1634 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most prominent cancer in men, experiencing a relapse in disease often express high serum TNF-α levels. It has been correlated with increased cell survival and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Previous studies reported that nimbolide, a terpenoid derived from the leaves and flowers of neem tree inhibits cancer growth through selective modulation of cell signaling pathways linked to inflammation, survival, proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis.
METHODS: The present study aimed to examine the effect of nimbolide at 1 and 2μM concentrations on TNF-α/TNFR1 mediated signaling molecules involved in cell survival and proliferation in PC-3 cell line via NF-κB and MAPK pathways by real time PCR and western blot. Protein and compound interaction were performed by Molecular docking analysis.
RESULTS: Our results indicate that nimbolide treatment suppressed expression of TNF-α, SODD, Grb2, SOS mRNA and modulated TNF-α/TNFR1 regulated NF-κB and MAPK signaling molecules in PC-3 cells. Additional molecular dynamics simulation studies confirmed the stability of nimbolide and signaling molecules binding interactions. Binding pose analysis revealed the significance of hydrogen bond interactions for effective stabilization of virtual ligand protein complexes.
CONCLUSION: Nimbolide inhibited prostate cancer cell survival and proliferation via NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

Luo Y, Tong L, Meng H, et al.
MiR-335 regulates the chemo-radioresistance of small cell lung cancer cells by targeting PARP-1.
Gene. 2017; 600:9-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of miR-335 in the regulation of chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) was investigated. miR-335 was significantly downregulated in multi-drug-resistant SCLC H69AR and H446DDP cells compared with parental cells as detected by qRT-PCR. Then, we demonstrated the negative correlation between miR-335 expression and the chemo-radiosensitivity of SCLC cells, including cell proliferation, cell clonality and cell apoptosis. In addition, miR-335 overexpression inhibited cell migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, whereas inhibition of miR-335 promoted cell migration and tumor growth. The underlying mechanism was further studied. Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1) was identified as a direct target gene of miR-335 in SCLC by bioinformatics analysis and validated via luciferase reporter assay. Overexpression of miR-335 decreased the expression of PARP-1 mRNA and protein, and NF-κB protein levels were correspondingly downregulated, thus regulating the chemo-radiosensitivity of SCLC. Taken together, these findings indicate that miR-335 may serve as a critical regulator of chemo-radiotherapy resistance in SCLC and a new potential therapeutic target.

Zhu YW, Yan JK, Li JJ, et al.
Knockdown of Radixin Suppresses Gastric Cancer Metastasis In Vitro by Up-Regulation of E-Cadherin via NF-κB/Snail Pathway.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 39(6):2509-2521 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Radixin has recently been shown to correlate with the metastasis of gastric cancer, but the pathogenesis is elusive. Adhesion proteins contribute to the regulation of metastasis, and thus this study sought to investigate the role of radixin in the migration, invasion and adhesion of gastric cancer cells, as well as its interaction with adhesion proteins in vitro.
METHODS: Radixin stable knockdown human gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells were constructed. Alterations in the migration, invasion and adhesion ability were examined by matrigel-coated plate and transwell assays. The expression pattern of adhesion proteins, including E-cadherin, β-catenin and claudin-1, was determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Possible involvement of NF-κB/snail pathway was also evaluated.
RESULTS: Stable knockdown of radixin significantly suppressed migration and invasion, but enhanced adhesion in SGC-7901 cells. The expression of E-cadherin was manifestly increased in radixin knockdown cells, whereas the expression of β-catenin and claudin-1 was unchanged. The nuclear exclusion of NF-κB followed by conspicuous reduction of snail expression was involved in the regulation of E-cadherin expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Radixin knockdown suppresses the metastasis of SGC-7901 cells in vitro by up-regulation of E-cadherin. The NF-κB/snail pathway contributes to the regulation of E-cadherin in response to depletion of radixin.

Yang C, Yang QO, Kong QJ, et al.
Parthenolide Induces Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Autophagic Cell Death in Human Osteosarcoma Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 40(1-2):146-154 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Osteosarcoma is a devastating tumor of bone, primarily affecting adolescents. Parthenolide, a naturally occurring small molecule that interferes with NF-κB signaling, has recently attracted considerable attention because of its pharmacological action involving anti-cancer effects. However, the mechanism of the cytotoxic effect exerted by parthenolide on tumor cells is not clearly defined today.
METHODS: In this study, the effects of parthenolide were evaluated and characterized in human osteosarcoma cancer cell. Cell viability was assessed by CCK-8. Apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V-FITC/PI Flow cytometry assay. Relative quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were used to determine the expressions of genes and proteins.
RESULTS: Our results suggest that parthenolide did not cause caspase-dependent cell death in osteosarcoma cancer cells, as indicated by the absence of significant early apoptosis as well as caspase-3 cleavage. Instead, parthenolide increased the autophagy and mitophagy, as characterized by increased PINK1 and Parkin translocation to mitochondria and enhanced autophagy proteins. The induction of autophagy by parthenolide was associated with the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuated parthenolide-induced autophagy activity.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings unveil a novel mechanism of drug action by parthenolide in osteosarcoma cancer cells and suggest a potential value of treating osteosarcoma cancer through a caspase-independent autophagic cell death by ROS activation.

Nandakumar N, Muthuraman S, Gopinath P, et al.
Synthesis of coumaperine derivatives: Their NF-κB inhibitory effect, inhibition of cell migration and their cytotoxic activity.
Eur J Med Chem. 2017; 125:1076-1087 [PubMed] Related Publications
Coumaperine (an amide alkaloid, present in white piper) and its derivatives were synthesized and investigated for their cytotoxicity against L428 and A549 cells and their NF-κB inhibitory activity. It was found that the coumaperine derivatives CP-9 and CP-38 suppress NF-κB subunits p50 and p65 in nuclear fractions by western blot and by NF-κB luciferase reporter gene assay in a dose dependent manner. Confirmation of these results was obtained by confocal microscopy. CP-9, CP-32 and CP-38 also exhibited dose dependent cell cytotoxicity in a L428 cells expressing constitutively active NF-κB and in A549 cells, with an IC50 value of 43.25 μg/ml, 0.39 μg/ml and 16.85 μg/ml respectively against L428 cells and 57.15 μg/ml, 69.1 μg/ml and 63.2 μg/ml respectively against A549 cells. In addition, the coumaperine derivatives show remarkable inhibitory activity on the cancer cell migration assay against A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells at the concentrations of 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, and 5 μg/ml of CP-9, CP-32 and CP-38 respectively. Aromatic substituents and number of olefinic double bond in coumaperine derivatives found to influence the inhibitory activity. In luciferase reporter gene assay, di-olefin conjugated coumaperine derivatives, CP-38, CP-32 and PIP exhibited higher inhibitory activity than their corresponding tri-olefin conjugated coumaperine derivatives, CP-102, CP-146 and PIP-155 respectively. CP-32 with a stronger electron donating group (-N(CH3)2) showed better inhibitory activity in luciferase reporter gene assay and in cell proliferation of L428 cells. Simple coumaperine derivative (CP-9, with no substituent) effectively inhibited A549 cells proliferation and migration than the other coumaperine derivatives. CP-9 and CP-38 diminish significantly the NF-κB subunits (p50 and p65) of L428 cells in nuclear fractions at the dosage of 10 μg/ml and 30 μg/ml respectively. Which clearly shows that CP-9 and CP-38 inactivate the NF-κB pathway in vitro.

Xia W, Tian H, Cai X, et al.
Inhibition of SUMO-specific protease 1 induces apoptosis of astroglioma cells by regulating NF-κB/Akt pathways.
Gene. 2016; 595(2):175-179 [PubMed] Related Publications
SUMO-specific protease 1 (SENP1) is an important regulation protease in the protein desumoylation, which was shown to have a prooncogenicrole in many types of cancer. However, the mechanism of action for SENP1 in astrocytoma is not yet clear. Astrocytoma is the most frequent one among various neurogliomas, of which a subtype known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant brain glioma and seriously influences the life quality of the patients. In this study, the expression of SENP1 was detected in 28 cases of various grades of astrocytoma and 6 cases of normal human tissues. The results showed that the expression of SENP1 was positively correlated with the malignant grades. Besides, the NF-κB and Akt signaling pathways in GBM tissues were activated. Cytological experiments indicated that knock-down of endogenous SENP1 promoted cell apoptosis. Further research confirmed that downexpression of SENP1 could inhibit the phosphorylation of IκBα and Akt, and also the expression of its downstream regulation factors Bcl-xL and cyclinD1. These results delineate a key role for SENP1 in astrocytoma development, suggesting it may be a potential new therapeutic target inastrocytoma.

Chen Y, Wang X, Duan C, et al.
Loss of TAB3 expression by shRNA exhibits suppressive bioactivity and increased chemical sensitivity of ovarian cancer cell lines via the NF-κB pathway.
Cell Prolif. 2016; 49(6):657-668 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of death among gynaecologic malignancies. Despite many years of research, it still remains sparing in reliable diagnostic markers and methods for early detection and screening. Transforming growth factor β-activated protein kinase 1 (TAK1)-binding protein 3 (TAB3) was initially characterized as an adapter protein essential for TAK1 activation in response to IL-1β or TNFα, however, the physiological role of TAB3 in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis is still not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated the effects of TAB3 on ovarian cancer cell lines. Expressions of TAB3 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) were found to be gradually increased in EOC tissues and cell lines, by western blot analysis and qRT-PCR. Distribution of TAB3 was further analysed by immunohistochemistry. In vitro, knockdown of TAB3 expression in HO8910 or SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells significantly inhibited bioactivity of ovarian cancer cells, including proliferation and cell-cycle distribution, and promoted chemical sensitivity to cisplatin and paclitaxel treatment via inhibiting NF-κB pathways. In conclusion, our study strongly suggests a novel function of TAB3 as an oncogene that could be used as a biomarker for ovarian cancer. It provides a new insight into the potential mechanism for therapeutic targeting, in chemotherapy resistance, common in ovarian cancer.

Chen W, Hill H, Christie A, et al.
Targeting renal cell carcinoma with a HIF-2 antagonist.
Nature. 2016; 539(7627):112-117 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/05/2017 Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor gene (VHL). Because no other gene is mutated as frequently in ccRCC and VHL mutations are truncal, VHL inactivation is regarded as the governing event. VHL loss activates the HIF-2 transcription factor, and constitutive HIF-2 activity restores tumorigenesis in VHL-reconstituted ccRCC cells. HIF-2 has been implicated in angiogenesis and multiple other processes, but angiogenesis is the main target of drugs such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib. HIF-2 has been regarded as undruggable. Here we use a tumourgraft/patient-derived xenograft platform to evaluate PT2399, a selective HIF-2 antagonist that was identified using a structure-based design approach. PT2399 dissociated HIF-2 (an obligatory heterodimer of HIF-2α-HIF-1β) in human ccRCC cells and suppressed tumorigenesis in 56% (10 out of 18) of such lines. PT2399 had greater activity than sunitinib, was active in sunitinib-progressing tumours, and was better tolerated. Unexpectedly, some VHL-mutant ccRCCs were resistant to PT2399. Resistance occurred despite HIF-2 dissociation in tumours and evidence of Hif-2 inhibition in the mouse, as determined by suppression of circulating erythropoietin, a HIF-2 target and possible pharmacodynamic marker. We identified a HIF-2-dependent gene signature in sensitive tumours. Gene expression was largely unaffected by PT2399 in resistant tumours, illustrating the specificity of the drug. Sensitive tumours exhibited a distinguishing gene expression signature and generally higher levels of HIF-2α. Prolonged PT2399 treatment led to resistance. We identified binding site and second site suppressor mutations in HIF-2α and HIF-1β, respectively. Both mutations preserved HIF-2 dimers despite treatment with PT2399. Finally, an extensively pretreated patient whose tumour had given rise to a sensitive tumourgraft showed disease control for more than 11 months when treated with a close analogue of PT2399, PT2385. We validate HIF-2 as a target in ccRCC, show that some ccRCCs are HIF-2 independent, and set the stage for biomarker-driven clinical trials.

Kaneda MM, Messer KS, Ralainirina N, et al.
PI3Kγ is a molecular switch that controls immune suppression.
Nature. 2016; 539(7629):437-442 [PubMed] Related Publications
Macrophages play critical, but opposite, roles in acute and chronic inflammation and cancer. In response to pathogens or injury, inflammatory macrophages express cytokines that stimulate cytotoxic T cells, whereas macrophages in neoplastic and parasitic diseases express anti-inflammatory cytokines that induce immune suppression and may promote resistance to T cell checkpoint inhibitors. Here we show that macrophage PI 3-kinase γ controls a critical switch between immune stimulation and suppression during inflammation and cancer. PI3Kγ signalling through Akt and mTor inhibits NFκB activation while stimulating C/EBPβ activation, thereby inducing a transcriptional program that promotes immune suppression during inflammation and tumour growth. By contrast, selective inactivation of macrophage PI3Kγ stimulates and prolongs NFκB activation and inhibits C/EBPβ activation, thus promoting an immunostimulatory transcriptional program that restores CD8(+) T cell activation and cytotoxicity. PI3Kγ synergizes with checkpoint inhibitor therapy to promote tumour regression and increased survival in mouse models of cancer. In addition, PI3Kγ-directed, anti-inflammatory gene expression can predict survival probability in cancer patients. Our work thus demonstrates that therapeutic targeting of intracellular signalling pathways that regulate the switch between macrophage polarization states can control immune suppression in cancer and other disorders.

Panday A, Inda ME, Bagam P, et al.
Transcription Factor NF-κB: An Update on Intervention Strategies.
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2016; 64(6):463-483 [PubMed] Related Publications
The nuclear factor (NF)-κB family of transcription factors are ubiquitous and pleiotropic molecules that regulate the expression of more than 150 genes involved in a broad range of processes including inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The chronic activation or dysregulation of NF-κB signaling is the central cause of pathogenesis in many disease conditions and, therefore, NF-κB is a major focus of therapeutic intervention. Because of this, understanding the relationship between NF-κB and the induction of various downstream signaling molecules is imperative. In this review, we provide an updated synopsis of the role of NF-κB in DNA repair and in various ailments including cardiovascular diseases, HIV infection, asthma, herpes simplex virus infection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. Furthermore, we also discuss the specific targets for selective inhibitors and future therapeutic strategies.

Hsia TC, Yu CC, Hsiao YT, et al.
Cantharidin Impairs Cell Migration and Invasion of Human Lung Cancer NCI-H460 Cells via UPA and MAPK Signaling Pathways.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(11):5989-5997 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cantharidin (CTD), a component of natural mylabris (Mylabris phalerata Pallas), has been shown to have biological activities and induce cell death in many human cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CTD on cell migration and invasion of NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells. Cell viability was examined and results indicated that CTD decreased the percentage of viable cells in dose-dependent manners. CTD inhibited cell migration and invasion in dose-dependent manners. Gelatin zymography analysis was used to measure the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2/-9) and the results indicated that CTD inhibited the enzymatic activities of MMP-2/-9 of NCI-H460 cells. Western blotting was used to examine the protein expression of NCI-H460 cells after incubation with CTD and the results showed that CTD decreased the expression of MMP-2/-9, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Ras homolog gene family, member A (Rho A), phospho-protein kinase B (AKT) (Thr308)(p-AKT(308)), phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (p-ERK1/2), phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (p-p38), phospho c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (p-JNK1/2), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and urokinase plasminogen activator (UPA). Furthermore, confocal laser microscopy was used to confirm that CTD suppressed the expression of NF-κB p65, but did not significantly affect protein kinase C (PKC) translocation in NCI-H460 cells. Based on those observations, we suggest that CTD may be used as a novel anticancer metastasis agent for lung cancer in the future.

Ohtsuka M, Ling H, Ivan C, et al.
H19 Noncoding RNA, an Independent Prognostic Factor, Regulates Essential Rb-E2F and CDK8-β-Catenin Signaling in Colorectal Cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 13:113-124 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/05/2017 Related Publications
The clinical significance of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely unexplored. Here, we analyzed a large panel of lncRNA candidates with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) CRC dataset, and identified H19 as the most significant lncRNA associated with CRC patient survival. We further validated such association in two independent CRC cohorts. H19 silencing blocked G1-S transition, reduced cell proliferation, and inhibited cell migration. We profiled gene expression changes to gain mechanism insight of H19 function. Transcriptome data analysis revealed not only previously identified mechanisms such as Let-7 regulation by H19, but also RB1-E2F1 function and β-catenin activity as essential upstream regulators mediating H19 function. Our experimental data showed that H19 affects phosphorylation of RB1 protein by regulating gene expression of CDK4 and CCND1. We further demonstrated that reduced CDK8 expression underlies changes of β-catenin activity, and identified that H19 interacts with macroH2A, an essential regulator of CDK8 gene transcription. However, the relevance of H19-macroH2A interaction in CDK8 regulation remains to be experimentally determined. We further explored the clinical relevance of above mechanisms in clinical samples, and showed that combined analysis of H19 with its targets improved prognostic value of H19 in CRC.

Lohani N, Rajeswari MR
Dichotomous Life of DNA Binding High Mobility Group Box1 Protein in Human Health and Disease.
Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2016; 17(8):762-775 [PubMed] Related Publications
The High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is an extremely versatile, highly conserved nuclear protein, with its unique intracellular and extracellular functions mediated by its relatively simple domain structure. Within the nucleus, HMGB1 binds to DNA minor groove in a nonspecific manner and causes bends in the double helix thus helps in recruiting a number of DNA binding protein and transcription factors, to facilitate transcription of various genes. HMGB1 also helps in DNA repair, chromatin remodeling, V (D) J recombination, and assembly of nucleosome on the chromatin. On contrary, under pathological conditions HMGB1 displays inflammatory response by interaction with specific cell surface receptors like RAGE, TLR-4, TLR9, and TLR2 and activates NF-kB downstream signaling pathways. The upregulation of HMGB1 is directly associated with the pathogenesis of cancer, sepsis, ischemia, hemorrhagic shock, anorexia, rheumatic disease, periodontal disease etc. Therefore, HMGB1 has been considered as a promising target in the treatment of various human diseases. The interest in HMGB1 is evident and reflected in the exponential increase in the recent publications, and therefore there is a need for an update on the understanding of the role of HMGB1 in pathogenesis and its potential application of HMGB1 as a therapeutic target in a number of human diseases.

Eiro N, Fernandez-Gomez J, Sacristán R, et al.
Stromal factors involved in human prostate cancer development, progression and castration resistance.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(2):351-359 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To detect new predictive markers from the prostate cancer tissue, to study the expression by cultured cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) of stromal factors implicated in prostate carcinogenesis, and to compare their expressions in localized, metastatic, castration-sensitive (CSCP), castration-resistant prostate tumors (CRCP) as well as in fibroblasts from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genomic expression of 20 stroma-derived factors, including the androgen receptor (AR), growth factors (FGF2, FGF7, FGF10, HGF, TGFβ, PDGFB), protein implicated in invasion (MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-11), inflammation (IL-6, IL-17, STAT-3 and NFκB), stroma/epithelium interaction (CDH11, FAP, CXCL12 and CXCL14) and chaperones (HPA1A and HSF1), was evaluated in cultured fibroblasts both from BHP and prostate carcinomas (PCa). After isolation and culture of fibroblasts by biopsy specimens, RNA was isolated and genomic studies performed.
RESULTS: Finally, 5 BPH and 37 PCa specimens were selected: clinically localized (19), metastatic (5), CSCP (7) and CRPC (6). Interleukin-17 receptor (IL-17RB) was highly expressed in CAFs compared with fibroblasts from BPH. However, metalloproteinase-2 and chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14) were expressed at higher levels by fibroblasts from BPH. The fibroblastic growth factor-7 was highly expressed by CAFs from localized tumors, but metalloproteinase-11 in metastatic tumors. MMP-11, androgen receptor (AR) and heat-shock-70kda-protein-1A (HSPA1A) expressions were significantly higher in CAFs from CRPC.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate a CAFs heterogeneity among prostate carcinomas with regard to some molecular profile expressions that may be relevant in tumor development (IL-17RB), progression (MMP-11) and castration resistance (AR, MMP-11 and HSPA1A).

Yin L, Liu S, Li C, et al.
CYLD downregulates Livin and synergistically improves gemcitabine chemosensitivity and decreases migratory/invasive potential in bladder cancer: the effect is autophagy-associated.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12731-12742 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although GC (gemcitabine and cisplatin) chemotherapy remains an effective method for treating bladder cancer (BCa), chemoresistance is a major obstacle in chemotherapy. In this study, we determined whether gemcitabine resistance correlates with migratory/invasive potential in BCa and whether this relationship is regulated by the cylindromatosis (CYLD)-Livin module. First, we independently investigated the correlation of CYLD/Livin and gemcitabine resistance with the potential for tumor migration and invasiveness. Second, we found that co-transfected CYLD and Livin dramatically improved sensitivity to gemcitabine chemotherapy and decreased migration/invasion potential. Next, we determined that CYLD may regulate Livin by the NF-κB-dependent pathway. We also found that CYLD overexpression and Livin knockdown might improve gemcitabine chemosensitivity by decreasing autophagy and increasing apoptosis in BCa cells. Finally, the effects of CYLD-Livin on tumor growth in vivo were evaluated. Our study demonstrates that CYLD-Livin might represent a potential therapeutic for chemoresistant BCa.

Yan L, Zhan C, Wang S, et al.
Genetic analysis of radiation-specific biomarkers in sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12001-12009 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the gene expression profiles of radiation-sensitive (RS) and radiation-resistant (RR) sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) and to identify prognostic markers for the radiation reaction of SNSCC. We first examined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in RS and RR SNSCC tissues by analyzing clinical samples with GeneChip Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 (HTA 2.0).To understand the functional significance of the molecular changes, we examined the DEGs with Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analyses to identify the core genes. The expression of several core genes (CCND2, COL5A2, GADD45B, and THBS2) was confirmed with reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in a larger series of tissues. We identified 208 DEGs, of which 76 were upregulated and 132 downregulated in the RS tissues relative to the RR tissues. The DEGs were mainly involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, the NF-kappaB signaling pathway, the cell adhesion molecule signaling pathway, and the extracellular matrix-receptor interaction signaling pathway. RT-qPCR confirmed that the CCND2, COL5A2, GADD45B, and THBS2 genes were significantly differentially expressed in the RS and RR tissues, consistent with the GeneChip data. These results extend our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the sensitivity of SNSCC to radiation. The DEGs are involved in the differential response to radiation therapy and the dysregulated core genes identified in this study can be used to predict radiation sensitivity in SNSCC.

Shin SY, Kim CG, Jung YJ, et al.
Euphorbia humifusa Willd exerts inhibition of breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis through inhibition of TNFα-induced MMP-9 expression.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016; 16(1):413 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy in women worldwide. Euphorbia humifusa Willd (EuH) is a plant that is widely used as a traditional medicine. However, no systemic studies on the anti-cancer effects of EuH have been reported. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-metastatic effect of the EuH.
METHODS: Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared from EuH methanol extracts (EA/EuH). Inhibitory effect of EA/EuH on cell migration was determined using an in vitro scratch-wound healing assay. The anti-invasive activity was determined by in vitro three-dimensional spheroid culture system and in vivo syngenic experimental lung metastasis experiment. Gene expression profiles were analyzed by using RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and luciferase reporter assay systems.
RESULTS: Ethyl acetate fraction from the EuH extract (EA/EuH) inhibited the migration and invasive capabilities of highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and attenuated syngeneic lung metastasis of mouse 4 T1 breast cancer cells in vivo. Mechanistically, EA/EuH decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 mRNA expression through the inhibition of NF-κB activity in MDA-MB-231 cells.
CONCLUSION: EuH may be beneficial in the prevention of invasion and metastasis of early stage breast cancer and can be served as an anti-metastatic agent or adjuvant therapy against metastatic breast cancer.

Shah MY, Ferrajoli A, Sood AK, et al.
microRNA Therapeutics in Cancer - An Emerging Concept.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 12:34-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/05/2017 Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an evolutionarily conserved class of small, regulatory non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate protein coding gene and other non-coding transcripts expression. miRNAs have been established as master regulators of cellular processes, and they play a vital role in tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. Further, widespread deregulation of microRNAs have been reported in several cancers, with several microRNAs playing oncogenic and tumor suppressive roles. Based on these, miRNAs have emerged as promising therapeutic tools for cancer management. In this review, we have focused on the roles of miRNAs in tumorigenesis, the miRNA-based therapeutic strategies currently being evaluated for use in cancer, and the advantages and current challenges to their use in the clinic.

Holzner S, Senfter D, Stadler S, et al.
Colorectal cancer cell-derived microRNA200 modulates the resistance of adjacent blood endothelial barriers in vitro.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):3065-3071 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since cancer cells, when grown as spheroids, display drug sensitivity and radiation resistance patterns such as seen in vivo we recently established a three‑dimensional (3D) in vitro model recapitulating colorectal cancer (CRC)-triggered lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC)‑barrier breaching to study mechanisms of intra‑/extravasation. CRC metastasizes not only through lymphatics but also through blood vessels and here we extend the 3D model to the interaction of blood endothelial cells (BECs) with naïve and 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU)‑resistant CRC CCL227 cells. The 3D model enabled quantifying effects of tumour‑derived microRNA200 (miR200) miR200a, miR200b, miR200c, miR141 and miR429 regarding the induction of so-called 'circular chemorepellent‑induced defects' (CCIDs) within the BEC‑barrier, which resemble gates for tumour transmigration. For this, miR200 precursors were individually transfected and furthermore, the modulation of ZEB family expression was analysed by western blotting. miR200c, miR141 and miR429, which are contained in exosomes from naïve CCL227 cells, downregulated the expression of ZEB2, SNAI and TWIST in BECs. The exosomes of 5‑FU‑resistant CCL227‑RH cells, which are devoid of miR200, accelerated CCID formation in BEC monolayers as compared to exosomes from naïve CCL227 cells. This confirmed the reported role of ZEB2 and SNAI in CRC metastasis and highlighted the active contribution of the stroma in the metastatic process. CCL227 spheroids affected the integrity of BEC and LEC barriers alike, which was in agreement with the observation that CRC metastasizes via blood stream (into the liver) as well as via lymphatics (into lymph nodes and lungs). This further validated the CRC/LEC and CRC/BEC in vitro model to study mechanisms of CRC spreading through vascular systems. Treatment of CCL227‑RH cells with the HDAC inhibitors mocetinostat and sulforaphane reduced CCID formation to the level triggered by naïve CCL227 spheroids, however, without significantly influencing miR200 expression in CCL227-RH cells.

Li W, Wu J, Li Z, et al.
Melatonin induces cell apoptosis in Mia PaCa-2 cells via the suppression of nuclear factor-κB and activation of ERK and JNK: A novel therapeutic implication for pancreatic cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2861-2867 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland and is released into the blood. In the last several years, some studies have shown that melatonin has anticancer properties; however, the mechanisms behind the antitumour traits are unclear, especially in pancreatic cancer. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the antitumour effects of melatonin on the human pancreatic carcinoma cell line MIA PaCa‑2 and explored its biological mechanisms. MIA PaCa‑2 cells were treated with melatonin, and we used a CCK‑8 assay to evaluate the cell viability. We also used flow cytometry to observe cell apoptosis and western blot analysis to assess the protein expression. Our study found that melatonin inhibited cell viability, suppressed colony formation and reduced cell migration and invasion and induced cell apoptosis in MIA PaCa‑2 cells. Our results showed that melatonin treatment inhibited NF‑κB p65 activation. Moreover, melatonin treatment activated the mitogen‑activated protein kinase pathways (c‑jun N‑terminal kinase and extracellular‑regulated kinase 1/2), which increased Bax protein expression and caspase‑3 cleavage and decreased Bcl‑2 protein expression. These new developments demonstrate that melatonin plays a potential role in anticancer treatment and may act as an effective therapeutic agent in the future.

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