Gene Summary

Gene:FCGR2B; Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIb
Aliases: CD32, FCG2, CD32B, FCGR2, IGFR2, FCGR2C, FcRII-c
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a low affinity receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulin gamma complexes. The encoded protein is involved in the phagocytosis of immune complexes and in the regulation of antibody production by B-cells. Variations in this gene may increase susceptibilty to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-b
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (8)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Monocytes
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Base Sequence
  • Retroviridae
  • drug, Rituximab (Mabthera)
  • Syk Kinase
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cytogenetic Analysis
  • Genotype
  • MicroRNAs
  • Immunotherapy
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Insertional Mutagenesis
  • Chromosome Inversion
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived
  • Chromosome 1
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Receptors, IgG
  • Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Translocation
  • Herpesvirus 8, Human
  • Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Receptor, erbB-2
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Follicular Lymphoma
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Zika Virus Infection
  • FISH
  • Transcriptome
  • Antibodies, Neoplasm
  • CD Antigens
  • Terpenes
  • Genotyping Techniques
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2
  • Virus Latency
  • Leukaemia
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FCGR2B (cancer-related)

Arthur SE, Jiang A, Grande BM, et al.
Genome-wide discovery of somatic regulatory variants in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):4001 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive cancer originating from mature B-cells. Prognosis is strongly associated with molecular subgroup, although the driver mutations that distinguish the two main subgroups remain poorly defined. Through an integrative analysis of whole genomes, exomes, and transcriptomes, we have uncovered genes and non-coding loci that are commonly mutated in DLBCL. Our analysis has identified novel cis-regulatory sites, and implicates recurrent mutations in the 3' UTR of NFKBIZ as a novel mechanism of oncogene deregulation and NF-κB pathway activation in the activated B-cell (ABC) subgroup. Small amplifications associated with over-expression of FCGR2B (the Fcγ receptor protein IIB), primarily in the germinal centre B-cell (GCB) subgroup, correlate with poor patient outcomes suggestive of a novel oncogene. These results expand the list of subgroup driver mutations that may facilitate implementation of improved diagnostic assays and could offer new avenues for the development of targeted therapeutics.

Sahin A, Sanchez C, Bullain S, et al.
Development of third generation anti-EGFRvIII chimeric T cells and EGFRvIII-expressing artificial antigen presenting cells for adoptive cell therapy for glioma.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0199414 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and deadly form of adult brain cancer. Despite of many attempts to identify potential therapies for this disease, including promising cancer immunotherapy approaches, it remains incurable. To address the need of improved persistence, expansion, and optimal antitumor activity of T-cells in the glioma milieu, we have developed an EGFRvIII-specific third generation (G3-EGFRvIII) chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that expresses both co-stimulatory factors CD28 and OX40 (MR1-CD8TM-CD28-OX40-CD3ζ). To enhance ex vivo target specific activation and optimize T-cell culturing conditions, we generated artificial antigen presenting cell lines (aAPC) expressing the extracellular and transmembrane domain of EGFRvIII (EGFRVIIIΔ654) with costimulatory molecules including CD32, CD80 and 4-1BBL (EGFRVIIIΔ654 aAPC and CD32-80-137L-EGFRVIIIΔ654 aAPC). We demonstrate that the highest cell growth was achieved when G3-EGFRvIII CAR T-cells were cocultured with both co-stimulatory aAPCs and with exposure to EGFRvIII (CD32-80-137L-EGFRVIIIΔ654 aAPCs) in culturing periods of three to six weeks. G3-EGFRvIII CAR T-cells showed an increased level of IFN-γ when cocultured with CD32-80-137L-EGFRVIIIΔ654 aAPCs. Evaluation of G3-EGFRvIII CAR T-cells in an orthotropic human glioma xenograft model demonstrated a prolonged survival of G3-EGFRvIII CAR treated mice compared to control mice. Importantly, we observed survival of G3-EGFRvIII CAR T-cells within the tumor as long as 90 days after implantation in low-dose and single administration, accompanied by a marked tumor stroma demolition. These findings suggest that G3-EGFRvIII CAR cocultured with CD32-80-137L-EGFRVIIIΔ654 aAPCs warrants itself as a potential anti-tumor therapy strategy for glioblastoma.

Cheng W, Ren X, Zhang C, et al.
Bioinformatic profiling identifies an immune-related risk signature for glioblastoma.
Neurology. 2016; 86(24):2226-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the local immune status and its prognostic value in glioma.
METHODS: A cohort of 297 glioma samples with whole genome microarray expression data from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database were included for discovery. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was used for validation. Principal components analysis and gene set enrichment analysis were used to explore the bioinformatic implication.
RESULTS: Distinct local immune status was identified according to histologic grade. Glioblastoma (GBM) exhibited an enhanced immune phenotype compared to lower grade glioma. We profiled the immune-related gene set and identified 8 genes (FOXO3, IL6, IL10, ZBTB16, CCL18, AIMP1, FCGR2B, and MMP9) with the greatest prognostic value in GBM. A local immune-related risk signature was developed from the genes to distinguish cases as high or low risk of unfavorable prognosis, which could be validated in TCGA database. High-risk patients conferred an enhanced intensity of local immune response compared to low-risk ones. Additionally, the signature exhibited different distribution based on molecular features. The signature had prognostic significance in the stratified cohorts and was identified as an independent prognostic factor for GBM.
CONCLUSIONS: We profiled the immune status in glioma and established a local immune signature for GBM, which could independently identify patients with a high risk of reduced survival, indicating the relationship between prognosis and local immune response.

Xu H, Guo H, Cheung IY, Cheung NK
Antitumor Efficacy of Anti-GD2 IgG1 Is Enhanced by Fc Glyco-Engineering.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2016; 4(7):631-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The affinity of therapeutic antibodies for Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) strongly influences their antitumor potency. To generate antibodies with optimal binding and immunologic efficacy, we compared the affinities of different versions of an IgG1 Fc region that had an altered peptide backbone, altered glycans, or both. To produce IgG1 with glycans that lacked α1,6-fucose, we used CHO cells that were deficient in the enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: α-3-d-mannoside-β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnT1), encoded by the MGAT1 gene. Mature N-linked glycans require this enzyme, and without it, CHO cells synthesize antibodies carrying only Man5-GlcNAc2, which were more effective in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Our engineered IgG1, hu3F8-IgG1, is specific for GD2, a neuroendocrine tumor ganglioside. Its peptide mutant is IgG1-DEL (S239D/I332E/A330L), both produced in wild-type CHO cells. When produced in GnT1-deficient CHO cells, we refer to them as IgG1n and IgG1n-DEL, respectively. Affinities for human FcγRs were measured using Biacore T-100 (on CD16 and CD32 polymorphic alleles), their immunologic properties compared for ADCC and complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) in vitro, and pharmacokinetics and antitumor effects were compared in vivo in humanized mice. IgG1n and IgG1n-DEL contained only mannose and acetylglucosamine and had preferential affinity for activating CD16s, over inhibitory CD32B, receptors. In vivo, the antitumor effects of IgG1, IgG1-DEL, and IgG1n-DEL were similar but modest, whereas IgG1n was significantly more effective (P < 0.05). Thus, IgG1n antibodies produced in GnT1-deficient CHO cells may have potential as improved anticancer therapeutics. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(7); 631-8. ©2016 AACR.

Erbe AK, Wang W, Gallenberger M, et al.
Genotyping Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Copy Number Variability of the FCGRs Expressed on NK Cells.
Methods Mol Biol. 2016; 1441:43-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Natural killer (NK) cells are one of the main effector immune cells involved in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Upon recognition of cell-bound IgG antibodies, which occurs through Fc gamma receptors (FCGRs) expressed on the cell surface of NK cells, NK cells become activated and lyse target tumor or infected cells. The FCGRs, FCGR3A and FCGR2C, expressed on the surface of NK cells have single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that result in differential activity of NK cells. In addition to SNP genetic variation within each of these genes, the FCGRs are subject to copy number variation (CNV), which leads to variable protein expression levels on the cell surface. Studies have found that FCGR genotype for FCGR3A and FCGR2C is associated with variation in the response to immunotherapy.Due to high sequence homology within FCGR3 and FCGR2 families, there are difficulties associated with genotyping these specific receptors related to cross-amplification of non-targeted FCGRs. To improve specificity for both FCGR3A and FCGR2C, Rnase-H (RH) primers were designed to amplify specifically FCGR3A (while not co-amplifying FCGR3B) and FCGR2C (while not co-amplifying FCGR2B). In addition, fluorescently labeled locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes provide additional precision for determination of the SNPs within both FCGR3A and FCGR2C. For CNV determination, separate fluorescently labeled probes for FCGR3A, and for FCGR2C, can be used with the same RH primers for each gene. These probes can be combined in the same well with control primers/probe for a known diploid gene and used to calculate the copy number of both FCGR3A and FCGR2C. Here we provide new detailed methodology that allows for the specific amplification of these FCGRs in a single PCR reaction, allowing for genotyping of both the SNPs and CNVs using real-time PCR.

Tsertsvadze T, Mitskevich N, Ghirdaladze D, Porakishvili N
Correlation of the expression of CD32 and CD180 receptors on CLL cells and MEC1 cell line.
Georgian Med News. 2015; (240):56-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) presents with clonal expansion and accumulation of CD5+CD19+CD23+ cells in peripheral lymphoid organs and tissues and in bone marrow. CLL is supposedly driven by exogenous and/or endogenous (auto)antigen(s) and there is increasing evidence that CLL cells receive microenvironmental signals which support their growth, survival and expansion in vivo. We have previously shown that powerful signals are received by CLL cells through CD180 orphan toll-like receptor. Additional accessory signals could be generated through FcγRII (CD32), since both are expressed on CLL cells as well as on control B cells. Here we studied correlation of the expression of CD32 and CD180 on CLL cells as well as on MEC1 cell line. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from CLL patients and age-matched healthy volunteers were separated, stained with appropriate antibodies to CD19, CD32 and CD180 and analysed by flow cytometry. CD32 and CD180 expression on MEC1 cells was studied at different time-points. The data was statistically analysed using the Mann-Whitney non-parametrical test. Our data indicates that expression of CD32 is significantly increased on CLL cells compared to control B cells as well as in long-term MEC1 cell culture. In contrast, CD180 expression on MEC1 cells significantly decreased throughout 0-96h of MEC1 cell culture. We have recently shown that CD180 ligation can redirect sIgM-mediated signaling from pro-survival to pro-apoptotic. This data indicates that a drop in the expression of CD180 on cycling CLL cells might lead to a weakening of this effect and enhance further survival and expansion of CLL cells in proliferative centres of lymphoid tissues. Since MEC1 cells are derived from a CLL patient with mutated IGVH genes (M-CLL) negative correlation between CD180 and CD32 expression on cycling MEC1 cells could be limited to M-CLL.

Tsertsvadze TSh, Mitskevich NG, Ghirdaladze DM, Porakishvili NZ
Aberrant expression of Fcγ-receptors and Toll like receptor CD180 on monocytes from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Georgian Med News. 2015; (239):35-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukaemia in the US and in Europe, including Georgia. Patients with CLL are susceptible to infectious diseases as a result of both, the disease progression and chemotherapy that indicates deficiency of immune responses to pathogens, including innate immunity, mediated by monocytes. Monocytes are also often recruited by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which express anti-tumour toxicity through Fcγ-receptor (FcγR)-mediated phagocytosis of opsonised leukaemic cells. In this paper we address of monocytes functional status through assessment of the patterns of expression of Fcγ receptors CD64, CD32, CD16 and CD180 receptor on monocytes from CLL patients and healthy individuals using specific mAbs and flow cytometry. Our data demonstrate that monocytes from peripheral blood of CLL patients lack expression of CD64 and CD16 as well as CD180 that would substantially undermine their ability to contribute to anti-bacterial immune responses. In addition, aberrant expression of CD64 would negatively affect the efficiency of antibody-mediated immunotherapies.

Aoki Y, Watanabe T, Saito Y, et al.
Identification of CD34+ and CD34- leukemia-initiating cells in MLL-rearranged human acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood. 2015; 125(6):967-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Translocation of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene with AF4, AF9, or ENL results in acute leukemia with both lymphoid and myeloid involvement. We characterized leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) in primary infant MLL-rearranged leukemia using a xenotransplantation model. In MLL-AF4 patients, CD34(+)CD38(+)CD19(+) and CD34(-)CD19(+) cells initiated leukemia, and in MLL-AF9 patients, CD34(-)CD19(+) cells were LICs. In MLL-ENL patients, either CD34(+) or CD34(-) cells were LICs, depending on the pattern of CD34 expression. In contrast, in patients with these MLL translocations, CD34(+)CD38(-)CD19(-)CD33(-) cells were enriched for normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with in vivo long-term multilineage hematopoietic repopulation capacity. Although LICs developed leukemic cells with clonal immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) rearrangement in vivo, CD34(+)CD38(-)CD19(-)CD33(-) cells repopulated recipient bone marrow and spleen with B cells, showing broad polyclonal IGH rearrangement and recipient thymus with CD4(+) single positive (SP), CD8(+) SP, and CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) T cells. Global gene expression profiling revealed that CD9, CD32, and CD24 were over-represented in MLL-AF4, MLL-AF9, and MLL-ENL LICs compared with normal HSCs. In patient samples, these molecules were expressed in CD34(+)CD38(+) and CD34(-) LICs but not in CD34(+)CD38(-)CD19(-)CD33(-) HSCs. Identification of LICs and LIC-specific molecules in primary human MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia may lead to improved therapeutic strategies for MLL-rearranged leukemia.

Norton N, Olson RM, Pegram M, et al.
Association studies of Fcγ receptor polymorphisms with outcome in HER2+ breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab in NCCTG (Alliance) Trial N9831.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2014; 2(10):962-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Patients with HER2+ breast cancer treated with trastuzumab and chemotherapy have superior survival compared with patients treated with chemotherapy alone. Polymorphisms within FCGR2A and FCGR3A are associated with binding affinity of natural killer cells to the IgG1 portion of trastuzumab, and a polymorphism in FCGR2B (I232T) is associated with impaired regulatory activity. The association of these polymorphisms with clinical response among trastuzumab-treated patients is equivocal, with both positive and negative associations. We performed genotyping analysis on the FCGR3A V158F, FCGR2A R131H, and FCGR2B I232T polymorphisms in 1,325 patients from the N9831 clinical trial. Patients in arm A (N = 419) received chemotherapy only. Patients in arms B (N = 469) and C (N = 437) were treated with chemotherapy and trastuzumab (sequentially in arm B and concurrently in arm C). Using log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard models, we compared disease-free survival (DFS) among genotypic groups within pooled arms B/C. We found no differences in DFS between trastuzumab-treated patients who had the FCGR3A 158 V/V and/or FCGR2A 131 H/H high-affinity genotypes and patients without those genotypes. Furthermore, there was no significant interaction between FCGR3A and FCGR2A and treatment. However, there was a difference in DFS for FCGR2B I232T, with I/I patients deriving benefit from trastuzumab (P < 0.001), compared with the T carriers who did not (P = 0.81). The interaction between FCGR2B genotype and treatment was statistically significant (P = 0.03). Our analysis did not reveal an association between FcγR high-affinity genotypes and outcomes. However, it seems that the FCGR2B inhibitory gene may be predictive of adjuvant trastuzumab benefit.

Petricevic B, Laengle J, Singer J, et al.
Trastuzumab mediates antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and phagocytosis to the same extent in both adjuvant and metastatic HER2/neu breast cancer patients.
J Transl Med. 2013; 11:307 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies (mAb), such as trastuzumab are a valuable addition to breast cancer therapy. Data obtained from neoadjuvant settings revealed that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a major mechanism of action for the mAb trastuzumab. Conflicting results still call into question whether disease progression, prolonged treatment or concomitant chemotherapy influences ADCC and related immunological phenomena.
METHODS: We analyzed the activity of ADCC and antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) positive breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab therapy either in an adjuvant (n = 13) or metastatic (n = 15) setting as well as from trastuzumab treatment-naive (t-naive) HER2/neu negative patients (n = 15). PBMCs from healthy volunteers (n = 24) were used as controls. ADCC and ADCP activity was correlated with the expression of antibody binding Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR)I (CD64), FcγRII (CD32) and FcγRIII (CD16) on CD14+ (monocytes) and CD56+ (NK) cells, as well as the expression of CD107a+ (LAMP-1) on CD56+ cells and the total amount of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ (Treg) cells. In metastatic patients, markers were correlated with progression-free survival (PFS).
RESULTS: ADCC activity was significantly down regulated in metastatic, adjuvant and t-naive patient cohorts as compared to healthy controls. Reduced ADCC activity was inversely correlated with the expression of CD107a on CD56+ cells in adjuvant patients. ADCC and ADCP activity of the patient cohorts were similar, regardless of treatment duration or additional chemotherapy. PFS in metastatic patients inversely correlated with the number of peripheral Treg cells.
CONCLUSION: The reduction of ADCC in patients as compared to healthy controls calls for adjuvant strategies, such as immune-enhancing agents, to improve the activity of trastuzumab. However, efficacy of trastuzumab-specific ADCC and ADCP appears not to be affected by treatment duration, disease progression or concomitant chemotherapy. This finding supports the application of trastuzumab at any stage of the disease.

Psathas JN, Doonan PJ, Raman P, et al.
The Myc-miR-17-92 axis amplifies B-cell receptor signaling via inhibition of ITIM proteins: a novel lymphomagenic feed-forward loop.
Blood. 2013; 122(26):4220-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The c-Myc oncoprotein regulates >15% of the human transcriptome and a limited number of microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we establish that in a human B-lymphoid cell line, Myc-repressed, but not Myc-stimulated, genes are significantly enriched for predicted binding sites of Myc-regulated miRNAs, primarily those comprising the Myc-activated miR-17~92 cluster. Notably, gene set enrichment analysis demonstrates that miR-17∼92 is a major regulator of B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway components. Many of them are immunoreceptor tyrosine inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing proteins, and ITIM proteins CD22 and FCGR2B were found to be direct targets of miR-17∼92. Consistent with the propensity of ITIM proteins to recruit phosphatases, either MYC or miR-17~92 expression was necessary to sustain phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and the B-cell linker protein (BLNK) upon ligation of the BCR. Further downstream, stimulation of the BCR response by miR-17-92 resulted in the enhanced calcium flux and elevated levels of Myc itself. Notably, inhibition of the miR-17~92 cluster in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines diminished the BCR response as measured by SYK and BLNK phosphorylation. Conversely, human DLBCLs of the BCR subtype express higher Myc and mir17hg transcript levels than other subtypes. Hence, the Myc-miR-17-92-BCR axis, frequently affected by genomic rearrangements, constitutes a novel lymphomagenic feed-forward loop.

Géraud C, Mogler C, Runge A, et al.
Endothelial transdifferentiation in hepatocellular carcinoma: loss of Stabilin-2 expression in peri-tumourous liver correlates with increased survival.
Liver Int. 2013; 33(9):1428-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumour that is characterized by extensive vascular remodelling and responsiveness to treatment with the anti-angiogenic multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. The aim was to study endothelial remodelling in HCC.
METHODS: The murine inducible albumin-SV40-large T-antigen model and two tissue microarrays (TMA) with 295 tumourous and 83 peri-tumourous samples of 296 patients with HCC were analysed for expression of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC)-specific marker proteins, stabilin-1 and stabilin-2, LYVE-1 and CD32b.
RESULTS: LSEC marker proteins were sequentially lost during HCC progression in the murine HCC model being absent from tumour nodules larger than 800 μm in diameter. Similarly, the TMA analysis of human HCCs revealed loss of all four marker proteins in the majority of tumourous tissue samples. Preservation of LYVE-1 expression showed a significant correlation with low grading (G1). In corresponding peri-tumourous liver tissue, loss of all marker proteins was seen in a minor proportion of cases (34%) while the majority of cases retained expression of at least one of the marker proteins. Loss of stabilin-2 expression in peri-tumourous liver tissue of patients with HCC was significantly less likely to occur (38%) than loss of the other marker proteins (63-95%) and it was associated with significantly longer tumour-specific (P = 0.0523) and overall (P = 0.0338) survival. Loss of stabilin-2 may enhance survival in HCC by preventing endothelial-tumour cell adhesive interactions and microvascular invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, endothelial transdifferentiation is a major pathogenic event in HCC development indicating a switch from vessel co-option/intussusceptive angiogenesis to sprouting angiogenesis.

Diamantopoulos PT, Kalotychou V, Polonyfi K, et al.
Correlation of Fc-γ RIIA polymorphisms with latent Epstein-Barr virus infection and latent membrane protein 1 expression in patients with low grade B-cell lymphomas.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2013; 54(9):2030-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fc-γ RIIA (CD32), a member of the family of Fc-γ receptors, participates in the phagocytosis of bound to antibody antigens. The effectiveness of this function varies for its several haplotypes, and it participates in the pathogenesis of viral infections, according to recent studies. The genetic locus of Fc-γ RIIA consists of two allelic genes: 131-Arg (R131) and 131-His (H131). Our aim was to correlate Fc-γ RIIA polymorphisms, by studying the prevalence of each allele using PCR-RFLPs (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms), with latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and the expression of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) in 40 patients with leukemic low grade B-cell lymphomas. R131 was found in 84.2% of EBV-positive patients, but only in 28.5% of EBV-negative patients (p = 0.001). A similar correlation was found for R131 and LMP1 expression (84.6% vs. 28.5%) (p = 0.002). Our results support the hypothesis that Fc-γ RIIA polymorphisms are a genetic risk factor for latent EBV infection and the expression of its oncogenic latency proteins.

Nguyen TH, Havari E, McLaren R, et al.
Alemtuzumab induction of intracellular signaling and apoptosis in malignant B lymphocytes.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2012; 53(4):699-709 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular changes induced by alemtuzumab following binding of CD52 on B tumor cells were investigated. Alemtuzumab alone had no detectable impact on cell signaling but cross-linking of alemtuzumab on the surface of B tumor lines with anti-human Fc antibodies induced a transient Ca(2+) flux followed by phosphorylation of several kinases involved in stress and survival pathways, and expression of associated proteins including TNF-α. Cross-linking of alemtuzumab also induced capping and caspase-dependent apoptosis of the tumor lines. When using primary cells from B-CLL patients, alemtuzumab alone was capable of inducing protein phosphorylation and apoptosis through the cross-linking of alemtuzumab by FcγRIIb receptors on B-CLL cells. Apoptosis was prevented by blocking of FcγRIIb receptors with anti-CD32 antibody. Overall, our results indicate that cross-linking of alemtuzumab on B tumor cells can occur naturally through Fc receptor interaction and leads to the activation of specific cellular pathways and induction of apoptosis.

Bhattacharya N, Diener S, Idler IS, et al.
Nurse-like cells show deregulated expression of genes involved in immunocompetence.
Br J Haematol. 2011; 154(3):349-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells convert CD14(+) cells from patients into 'nurse-like' cells (NLCs). CLL cells can also convert CD14(+) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors into cells with morphological similarities to NLCs (CD14(CLL) -cells). However it is unclear whether only CLL cells induce this conversion process. This study showed that CD14(+) PBMCs from healthy donors could also be converted into differentiated cells (CD14(B) -cells) by non-malignant B-cells. In order to identify changes specifically induced by CLL cells, we compared gene expression profiles of NLCs, CD14(CLL) -cells and CD14(B) -cells. CD14(+) cells cultured with CLL cells were more similar to NLCs than those cultured with non-malignant B-cells. The most significant changes induced by CLL cells were deregulation of the antigen presentation pathway and of genes related to immunity. NLCs had reduced levels of lysozyme activity, CD74 and HLA-DR in-vitro while expression of inhibitory FCGR2B was increased. These findings suggest an impaired immunocompetence of NLCs which, if found in-vivo, could contribute to the immunodeficiency in CLL patients.

van Royen-Kerkhof A, Walraven V, Sanders EA, et al.
Expression of CD64 (FcγRI) in skin of patients with acute GVHD.
Bone Marrow Transplant. 2011; 46(12):1566-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
GVHD remains a major problem in allo-SCT. We explored the presence of APC in skin biopsies of GVHD patients, using the IgG receptor CD64 expression as a hallmark for activated APC. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrated CD64 to be upregulated on host APC in skin biopsies of patients with acute GVHD and, less prominently, in chronic GVHD. Double staining for CD32 polymorphism revealed CD64-positive cells to be mainly of host origin. The majority of CD64-positive cells coexpressed CD68, indicating a macrophage phenotype. Given its very restricted cellular distribution, CD64 may represent an excellent target for APC-directed therapies in GVHD.

Pinheiro M, Ahlquist T, Danielsen SA, et al.
Colorectal carcinomas with microsatellite instability display a different pattern of target gene mutations according to large bowel site of origin.
BMC Cancer. 2010; 10:587 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Only a few studies have addressed the molecular pathways specifically involved in carcinogenesis of the distal colon and rectum. We aimed to identify potential differences among genetic alterations in distal colon and rectal carcinomas as compared to cancers arising elsewhere in the large bowel.
METHODS: Constitutional and tumor DNA from a test series of 37 patients with rectal and 25 patients with sigmoid carcinomas, previously analyzed for microsatellite instability (MSI), was studied for BAX, IGF2R, TGFBR2, MSH3, and MSH6 microsatellite sequence alterations, BRAF and KRAS mutations, and MLH1 promoter methylation. The findings were then compared with those of an independent validation series consisting of 36 MSI-H carcinomas with origin from each of the large bowel regions. Immunohistochemical and germline mutation analyses of the mismatch repair system were performed when appropriate.
RESULTS: In the test series, IGFR2 and BAX mutations were present in one and two out of the six distal MSI-H carcinomas, respectively, and no mutations were detected in TGFBR2, MSH3, and MSH6. We confirmed these findings in the validation series, with TGFBR2 and MSH3 microsatellite mutations occurring less frequently in MSI-H rectal and sigmoid carcinomas than in MSI-H colon carcinomas elsewhere (P = 0.00005 and P = 0.0000005, respectively, when considering all MSI-carcinomas of both series). No MLH1 promoter methylation was observed in the MSI-H rectal and sigmoid carcinomas of both series, as compared to 53% found in MSI-H carcinomas from other locations (P = 0.004). KRAS and BRAF mutational frequencies were 19% and 43% in proximal carcinomas and 25% and 17% in rectal/sigmoid carcinomas, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The mechanism and the pattern of genetic changes driving MSI-H carcinogenesis in distal colon and rectum appears to differ from that occurring elsewhere in the colon and further investigation is warranted both in patients with sporadic or hereditary disease.

Chang JS, Wiemels JL, Chokkalingam AP, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms in adaptive immunity genes and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010; 19(9):2152-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been hypothesized to have an infection- and immune-related etiology. The lack of immune priming in early childhood may result in abnormal immune responses to infections later in life and increase ALL risk.
METHODS: The current analyses examined the association between childhood ALL and 208 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of 29 adaptive immune function genes among 377 ALL cases and 448 healthy controls. Single SNPs were analyzed with a log-additive approach using logistic regression models adjusted for sex, age, Hispanic ethnicity, and race. Sliding window haplotype analyses were done with haplotypes consisting of 2 to 6 SNPs.
RESULTS: Of the 208 SNPs, only rs583911 of IL12A, which encodes a critical modulator of T-cell development, remained significant after accounting for multiple testing (odds ratio for each copy of the variant G allele, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.85; P = 2.9 x 10(-5)). This increased risk was stronger among firstborn children of all ethnicities and among non-Hispanic children with less day care attendance, consistent with the hypothesis about the role of early immune modulation in the development of childhood ALL. Haplotype analyses identified additional regions of CD28, FCGR2, GATA3, IL2RA, STAT4, and STAT6 associated with childhood ALL.
CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms of genes on the adaptive immunity pathway are associated with childhood ALL risk.
IMPACT: Results of this study support an immune-related etiology of childhood ALL. Further confirmation is required to detect functional variants in the significant genomic regions identified in this study, in particular for IL12A.

Xu L, Hausmann M, Dietmaier W, et al.
Expression of growth factor receptors and targeting of EGFR in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines.
BMC Cancer. 2010; 10:302 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a malignant neoplasm of the bile ducts or the gallbladder. Targeting of growth factor receptors showed therapeutic potential in palliative settings for many solid tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of seven growth factor receptors in CC cell lines and to assess the effect of blocking the EGFR receptor in vitro.
METHODS: Expression of EGFR (epithelial growth factor receptor), HGFR (hepatocyte growth factor receptor) IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor), IGF2R (insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor) and VEGFR1-3 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1-3) were examined in four human CC cell lines (EGI-1, HuH28, OZ and TFK-1). The effect of the anti-EGFR-antibody cetuximab on cell growth and apoptosis was studied and cell lines were examined for KRAS mutations.
RESULTS: EGFR, HGFR and IGFR1 were present in all four cell lines tested. IGFR2 expression was confirmed in EGI-1 and TFK-1. No growth-inhibitory effect was found in EGI-1 cells after incubation with cetuximab. Cetuximab dose-dependently inhibited growth in TFK-1. Increased apoptosis was only seen in TFK-1 cells at the highest cetuximab dose tested (1 mg/ml), with no dose-response-relationship at lower concentrations. In EGI-1 a heterozygous KRAS mutation was found in codon 12 (c.35G>A; p.G12D). HuH28, OZ and TFK-1 lacked KRAS mutation.
CONCLUSION: CC cell lines express a pattern of different growth receptors in vitro. Growth factor inhibitor treatment could be affected from the KRAS genotype in CC. The expression of EGFR itself does not allow prognoses on growth inhibition by cetuximab.

Jackman J, Chen Y, Huang A, et al.
Development of a two-part strategy to identify a therapeutic human bispecific antibody that inhibits IgE receptor signaling.
J Biol Chem. 2010; 285(27):20850-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The development of bispecific antibodies as therapeutic agents for human diseases has great clinical potential, but broad application has been hindered by the difficulty of identifying bispecific antibody formats that exhibit favorable pharmacokinetic properties and ease of large-scale manufacturing. Previously, the development of an antibody technology utilizing heavy chain knobs-into-holes mutations and a single common light chain enabled the small-scale generation of human full-length bispecific antibodies. Here we have extended the technology by developing a two-part bispecific antibody discovery strategy that facilitates proof-of-concept studies and clinical candidate antibody generation. Our scheme consists of the efficient small-scale generation of bispecific antibodies lacking a common light chain and the hinge disulfides for proof-of-concept studies coupled with the identification of a common light chain bispecific antibody for large-scale production with high purity and yield. We have applied this technology to generate a bispecific antibody suitable for development as a human therapeutic. This antibody directly inhibits the activation of the high affinity IgE receptor FcepsilonRI on mast cells and basophils by cross-linking FcepsilonRI with the inhibitory receptor FcgammaRIIb, an approach that has strong therapeutic potential for asthma and other allergic diseases. Our approach for producing human bispecific full-length antibodies enables the clinical application of bispecific antibodies to a validated therapeutic pathway in asthma.

Saito Y, Kitamura H, Hijikata A, et al.
Identification of therapeutic targets for quiescent, chemotherapy-resistant human leukemia stem cells.
Sci Transl Med. 2010; 2(17):17ra9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) originates from rare leukemia stem cells (LSCs). Because these chemotherapy-resistant LSCs are thought to underlie disease relapse, effective therapeutic strategies specifically targeting these cells may be beneficial. Here, we report identification of a primary human LSC gene signature and functional characterization of human LSC-specific molecules in vivo in a mouse xenotransplantation model. In 32 of 61 (53%) patients with AML, either CD32 or CD25 or both were highly expressed in LSCs. CD32- or CD25-positive LSCs could initiate AML and were cell cycle-quiescent and chemotherapy-resistant in vivo. Normal human hematopoietic stem cells depleted of CD32- and CD25-positive cells maintained long-term multilineage hematopoietic reconstitution capacity in vivo, indicating the potential safety of treatments targeting these molecules. In addition to CD32 and CD25, quiescent LSCs within the bone marrow niche also expressed the transcription factor WT1 and the kinase HCK. These molecules are also promising targets for LSC-specific therapy.

Racila E, Link BK, Weng WK, et al.
A polymorphism in the complement component C1qA correlates with prolonged response following rituximab therapy of follicular lymphoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2008; 14(20):6697-703 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Complement may play a role in the clinical response to rituximab and other monoclonal antibody-based therapies of cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the C1qA([276]) polymorphism and the clinical response to rituximab in patients with follicular lymphoma.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Genotyping for C1qA([276A/G]) was done in 133 subjects with follicular lymphoma treated with single-agent rituximab, and correlation with clinical response was done using Cox regression analysis.
RESULTS: Prolonged remission was observed among subjects that responded clinically to rituximab therapy and were carriers of the A allele compared with homozygous G subjects. Homozygous G subjects had a time to progression of 282 days, whereas A-allele carriers had a time to progression of 708 days [hazard ratio, (HR), 2.5; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.0-3.1; P = 0.02]. Among subjects who achieved complete remission, homozygous G subjects had a time to progression of 250 days, whereas A-allele carriers had a time to progression of 1,118 days (HR, 4.5; 95% CI, 4.1-4.8, P = 0.04). The difference persisted after controlling for CD32 and CD16 polymorphisms. In patients who responded to rituximab used as first-line agent, a linear trend was observed among the C1qA([276]) genotypes, with homozygous A subjects achieving complete response at a higher rate compared with heterozygous or homozygous G subjects.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that polymorphisms in the C1qA gene may affect the clinical response and duration of response to rituximab therapy of follicular lymphoma. These results could have direct implications on designing antibodies with improved efficiency and enhance our understanding of the role of complement in monoclonal antibody therapy.

Zhou P, Comenzo RL, Olshen AB, et al.
CD32B is highly expressed on clonal plasma cells from patients with systemic light-chain amyloidosis and provides a target for monoclonal antibody-based therapy.
Blood. 2008; 111(7):3403-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite advances in therapy, many patients with systemic light-chain amyloidosis (AL) die within 3 years from diagnosis. The humanized 2B6 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) is specific for the low-affinity IgG Fc receptor CD32B and effective in a human CD32B+ B-cell lymphoma murine xenograft model. Because MoAb therapy could improve outcomes in AL, we studied CD32B expression by clonal plasma cells obtained from 48 patients with AL. Transcript profiling showed that expression of CD32B was significantly higher than expression of all other Fc receptor family members. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using double-enriched CD138+ plasma cells showed uniform expression of the stable cell surface CD32B1 isoform at diagnosis and relapse, and flow cytometry showed intense CD32B cell surface staining on 99% of CD138+ plasma cells at diagnosis and relapse. These data provide a rationale for the novel therapeutic targeting of CD32B using the humanized 2B6 MoAb in patients with systemic AL-amyloidosis.

Barber N, Belov L, Christopherson RI
All-trans retinoic acid induces different immunophenotypic changes on human HL60 and NB4 myeloid leukaemias.
Leuk Res. 2008; 32(2):315-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is used to treat patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), inducing APL cells to differentiate into abnormal neutrophils. To investigate the possible relationship between the chromosome translocation t(15;17) found in APL and ATRA treatment, the human myeloid leukaemia cell lines HL60 and NB4, that are PML-RARalpha negative and positive, respectively, were treated with ATRA and immunophenotyped using a CD antibody microarray. For HL60 cells, ATRA induced major increases in descending order of CD38, CD11b, CD45RO, CD11c, CD54 and CD36 with repression of CD117 and CD44. For NB4 cells, ATRA induced major increases in descending order of CD11c, CD54, CD11a, CD11b, CD53, CD65, CD138, CD66c and T-cell receptor alpha/beta (TCRalpha/beta), with repression of CD38 and CD9. The induction of a number of these CD antigens is consistent with the known differentiation of these leukaemias to abnormal neutrophils. Approximately half of the antigens up-regulated by ATRA on NB4 cells were adhesion molecules, including CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD54, CD66c and CD138, consistent with the increased adhesiveness of leukaemia cells observed for APL patients treated with ATRA. On HL60 cells, ATRA induced expression of CD38, CD43 and CD45RO and repressed CD117, while the converse was true on NB4 cells that contain chimeric PML-RARalpha. For NB4 cells, ATRA induced some remarkable increases in CD antigens not seen for HL60: CD14 (16.6-fold), CD32 (27.8), CD53 (20.5), CD65 (139), CD66c (79.7), CD126 (15.1), and CD138 (57.6). The expression of these antigens may be regulated by PML-RARalpha in the presence of ATRA. Such CD antigens could be targets for synergistic treatment of APL with therapeutic antibodies following ATRA treatment.

Zheng X, Abroun S, Otsuyama K, et al.
Heterogeneous expression of CD32 and CD32-mediated growth suppression in human myeloma cells.
Haematologica. 2006; 91(7):920-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: An increased level of serum M-protein IgG may affect the growth or survival of myeloma cells through the Fcgamma inverted exclamation mark receptor (FcgammaR) in human myelomas. We examined the expression of FcgammaR (CD32, CD16 and CD64) and compared the effect of anti-CD32 antibody on the viability of myeloma cells to that on the viability of normal plasma cells.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Surface antigen and gene expressions were examined by flow cytometry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. We examined the effect of anti-CD32 antibody on the viability of CD19- myeloma cells (including immature and mature myeloma cells) and CD19+ normal plasma cells. In order to confirm the involvement of CD19 in the anti-CD32-mediated growth suppression, we used CD19 transfectants of myeloma, B-cell and erythroleukemia cell lines that we have already established.
RESULTS: CD32 was significantly expressed on primary myeloma cells, but immature, MPC-1- myeloma cells expressed CD32 more weakly than mature, MPC-1+ cells. Treatment with anti-CD32 antibody decreased the viability of normal plasma cells (CD38++ CD19+) more than that of myeloma cells (CD38++ CD19-); CD32-mediated growth suppression was greater in mature MPC-1+ cells than in immature MPC-1- cells. The introduction of CD19 into CD19- cell lines significantly increased the sensitivity of the cells to treatment with anti-CD32 antibody as well as addition of IgG complex; furthermore, increased phosphorylation of CD32 and SHIP was detected in CD19-transfected cell lines.
INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Myeloma cells lacking CD19 expression are less sensitive to CD32-mediated growth suppression than are CD19+ normal plasma cells.

Iwasaki M, Kuwata T, Yamazaki Y, et al.
Identification of cooperative genes for NUP98-HOXA9 in myeloid leukemogenesis using a mouse model.
Blood. 2005; 105(2):784-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
The chromosomal translocation t(7; 11)(p15;p15), observed in human myeloid leukemia, results in a NUP98 and HOXA9 gene fusion. We generated a transgenic mouse line that specifically expressed the chimeric NUP98-HOXA9 gene in the myeloid lineage. While only 20% of the transgenic mice progressed to leukemia after a latency period, myeloid progenitor cells from nonleukemic transgenic mice still exhibited increased proliferative potential. This suggested that the NUP98-HOXA9 fusion induced a preleukemic phase, and other factors were required for complete leukemogenesis. NUP98-HOXA9 expression promoted the onset of retrovirus-induced BXH2 myeloid leukemia. This phenomenon was used to identify cooperative disease genes as common integration sites (CISs). Meis1, a known HOX cofactor, was identified as a CIS with a higher integration frequency in transgenic than in wild-type BXH2 mice. By the same means we identified further 4 candidate cooperative genes, Dnalc4, Fcgr2b, Fcrl, and Con1. These genes cooperated with NUP98-HOXA9 in transforming NIH 3T3 cells. The system described here is a powerful tool to identify cooperative oncogenes and will assist in the clarification of the multistep process of carcinogenesis.

Greer WL, Lee CL, Callanan MB, et al.
Case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with t(14;18)/BCL2, t(8;14)/cMYC, and t(1;2)/FCGR2B.
Am J Hematol. 2003; 74(2):112-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The majority of follicular lymphoma and Burkitt's lymphoma are associated with reciprocal translocations involving BCL2 and cMYC, respectively. Unusual reports of aggressive lymphoma presenting with both translocations have been described as well as rare cases with a third structural alteration usually involving BCL6. The patient described here presented with aggressive high-grade lymphocytic leukemia, FAB subtype L2 (ALL-L2), and three reciprocal translocations, t(14;18)(q32;q21), t(8;14)(q24.1;q32), and t(1;2) (q22-23;p13). Despite immature morphology the leukemic blasts had a mature B-cell phenotype; they were positive for surface immunoglobulin heavy chains and negative for CD34, TdT, and CD10. Most reported dual t(14;18)/t(8;14) cases have not shown sIg and were positive for CD10. Molecular genetic analyses showed the typical rearrangements of BCL2 and cMYC as well as the FCGR2B gene on chromosome 1q23. The occurrence of a third oncogene rearrangement in association with the dual BCL2, cMYC translocations in ALL patients is very rare. To our knowledge, this is the first case where the third hit involves the FCGR2B locus. This report reiterates the poor prognosis associated with activation of cMYC together with elevated Bcl-2 expression. These data also support recent evidence that dysregulation of FCGR2B may play a role in tumor progression.

Itoyama T, Nanjungud G, Chen W, et al.
Molecular cytogenetic analysis of genomic instability at the 1q12-22 chromosomal site in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2002; 35(4):318-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Abnormalities of chromosome arm 1q have frequently been reported in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and correlated with poor outcome. Five genes mapped to this region (BCL9, MUC1, FCGR2B, IRTA1, and RTA2) have been shown to be deregulated by juxtaposition with the IG genes. However, abnormalities of the 1q21-22 region that are not involved in translocations with the IG genes have not been addressed. We performed a molecular cytogenetic analysis of 1q12-22 abnormalities in 24 B-cell NHL cases. The cases analyzed were in two groups: one, composed of 18 cases with the single break in the 1q12-22 region, and another, composed of six cases with multiple breaks in the 1q12-22 region. The involvement of heterochromatin and its vicinity was observed most frequently in the single-break cases (13 of 18 cases). In this group, the recurring partner region was 1q32, which resulted in dup(1)(q12-21q32) or trp(1)(q12q32) in 5 cases. The 6 cases with multiple breaks showed an unexpected level of instability along with complex combinations of abnormalities, especially sequential duplication and inversion, in the 1q12-22 region. The BCL9 locus was deleted by complex aberration in 2 of 6 cases. High-level amplification of the WI-16757 locus was found in 2 cases. Our studies demonstrate a high level of instability of the 1q12-22 region, possibly stemming from its chromatin organization. Chromosome arm 1q is gene-rich, and characterization of aberrations described in this study can be expected to lead to the discovery of additional functionally significant genetic changes.

Bugajska U, Georgopoulos NT, Southgate J, et al.
The effects of malignant transformation on susceptibility of human urothelial cells to CD40-mediated apoptosis.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002; 94(18):1381-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of ligands and receptors mediates immune cell survival. Some members possess a death domain, a protein motif that functions to transmit apoptotic signals, whereas others, such as CD40, do not. CD40 is expressed by both normal and malignant epithelial cells. To investigate the functional significance of this expression, we studied the effects of ligation of CD40, Fas, and TNF receptors (TNFRs) on the proliferation and survival of normal and malignant human urothelial cells and urothelial cells with disabled p53 function.
METHODS: Normal and malignant human urothelial cells were cultured with soluble TNF family agonists (CD40 ligand [CD40L], TNF-alpha, anti-Fas antibody, or cocultured with mouse fibroblasts stably transfected with plasmids that caused the cells to constitutively express CD40L or CD32; cell proliferation was estimated by an [(3)H]thymidine incorporation assay, and apoptosis was determined by Annexin V staining and by a DNA fragmentation assay. Messenger RNA levels for CD40 and potential downstream effector molecules were quantified by polymerase chain reaction-based and ribonuclease protection assays, respectively, and nuclear factor (NF) kappaB nuclear translocation was detected by immunofluorescence. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Soluble trimeric CD40L inhibited the growth of normal and malignant urothelial cells but did not induce apoptosis. Cell surface-presented CD40L induced massive apoptosis in CD40-positive transitional cell carcinoma cells but not in normal urothelial cells. Normal cells underwent CD40L-mediated apoptosis only in the presence of other TNFR agonists. An agonistic anti-CD40 antibody presented on the surface of CD32-transfected fibroblasts also induced apoptosis in transitional cell carcinoma cells and in normal urothelial cells. Apoptotic responses of tumor (but not normal) cells to soluble agonists were enhanced by blocking protein synthesis. Karyotypically normal urothelial cells with disabled p53 function underwent apoptosis during coculture with CD40L-expressing fibroblasts alone but were not additionally sensitive to additional TNFR agonists.
CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to CD40 ligation-induced apoptosis may be a novel mechanism for eliminating neoplastically transformed urothelial cells. Loss of CD40 expression may be an important adaptive mechanism for transitional cell carcinoma development and progression.

Chen W, Palanisamy N, Schmidt H, et al.
Deregulation of FCGR2B expression by 1q21 rearrangements in follicular lymphomas.
Oncogene. 2001; 20(52):7686-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of a t(1;14)(q21;q32) in a follicular lymphoma (FL) with an unusual BCL2 aberration. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and Southern blot analysis of tumor cells identified the translocation breakpoint within the 5' switch region of IGHG (Sgamma). We cloned the chimeric breakpoint region approximately 1.5 kbp downstream from the HindIII site of 5'Sgamma2 on chromosome 14q32 and identified a 360-bp novel segment with homology to the CpG island clone 11h8. Two BAC clones containing this sequence were isolated and mapped to 1q21 by FISH. BAC 342/P13 contained sequences homologous to Fcgamma receptors 2A, 3A, 2B, 3B, and a heat shock protein gene HSP70B. The translocation brought the Sgamma2 region of a productive IGH allele 20 approximately 30 kbp upstream of FCGR2B. As a result of the translocation, the b2 isoform of FCGR2B was overexpressed in the tumor. Screening of a panel of 76 B-cell lymphomas with 1q21-23 cytogenetic aberrations by Southern blot analysis using breakpoint probes identified an additional FL with a t(14;18)(q32;q21) and a breakpoint in the FCGR2B region. These results suggest that FCGR2B may be deregulated by 1q21 aberration in BCL2 rearranged FLs and possibly play a role in their progression.

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