BCL9

Gene Summary

Gene:BCL9; B-cell CLL/lymphoma 9
Aliases: LGS
Location:1q21
Summary:BCL9 is associated with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It may be a target of translocation in B-cell malignancies with abnormalities of 1q21. Its function is unknown. The overexpression of BCL9 may be of pathogenic significance in B-cell malignancies. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:B-cell CLL/lymphoma 9 protein
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BCL9 (cancer-related)

Vanacker L, Smeets D, Hoorens A, et al.
Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon: molecular pathogenesis and treatment.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(10):5517-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: We report a case of a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma developed in a colorectal adenocarcinoma with lymph node and liver metastases exclusively emanating from the neuroendocrine carcinoma component. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy and postoperatively received chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide and subsequent high-dose induction chemotherapy, followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Following this treatment, there was a complete remission. Currently, thirty months after treatment, the patient is in unmaintained complete remission. Comparative exome sequencing of germline DNA and DNA from the two separate malignant components revealed six somatic changes in cancer consensus genes. Both components shared somatic mutations in Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 9 (BCL9) and Forkhead Box P1 (FOXP1) genes. Mutation in SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 4 (SMARCA4) was only found in the neuroendocrine carcinoma component. The finding of several identical somatic mutations in both components supports a clonal relationship between the neuroendocrine carcinoma and the adenocarcinoma. We suggest that a mutation in SMARCA4 could be responsible for the transformation of the adenocarcinoma component into the neuroendocrine phenotype.

Zhao JJ, Carrasco RD
Crosstalk between microRNA30a/b/c/d/e-5p and the canonical Wnt pathway: implications for multiple myeloma therapy.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(19):5351-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Dysregulation of transcription via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway underlies the pathogenesis of a wide variety of frequent human cancers. These include epithelial carcinomas such as colorectal cancer and hematologic malignancies such as multiple myeloma. Thus, the Wnt/β-catenin in pathway potentially offers an attractive target for cancer therapy. This approach, however, has thus far proved challenging because the pathway plays a number of critical roles in physiologic homeostasis, [corrected] and because drugs that broadly target the pathway have unacceptable side effects. miRNAs function as regulators of gene expression and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma and other human cancers, offering the promise of novel therapeutic approaches if they can be applied effectively in vivo. Because BCL9 is a critical transcriptional coactivator of β-catenin that is aberrantly expressed in many human cancers but is of low abundance in normal tissues, [corrected] the Wnt/β-catenin/BCL9 complex has emerged as a promising and most likely relatively safe therapeutic target in cancers with dysregulated Wnt/β-catenin activity. This review discusses recent advances in the biology of Wnt inhibitors and the appealing possibility of a functional link between BCL9 and miRNA30a/b/c/d/e-5p that could be exploited for multiple myeloma therapy.

Zatula N, Wiese M, Bunzendahl J, et al.
The BCL9-2 proto-oncogene governs estrogen receptor alpha expression in breast tumorigenesis.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(16):6770-87 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
The majority of human breast cancers express estrogen receptor alpha (ER), which is important for therapy with anti-estrogens. Here we describe the role of BCL9-2, a proto-oncogene previously characterized as co-activator of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, for mammary tumorigenesis in mice and human. ER positive human breast cancers showed overexpression of BCL9-2 and tamoxifen treated patients with high BCL9-2 demonstrated a better survival. BCL9-2 was upregulated during puberty and pregnancy in normal mammary epithelia, but downregulated in the involuted gland. BCL9-2 overexpression in vivo delayed the mammary involution and induced alveolar hyperplasia. Moreover, aged BCL9-2 transgenic mice developed ductal-like mammary tumors with high nuclear ER expression. We found, that primary cell cultures of BCL9-2 breast tumors responded to tamoxifen treatment. Moreover, BCL9-2 regulated the expression of ER and the proliferation of human breast cancer cells independently of ß-catenin. Finally, we describe a novel mechanism, how BCL9-2 regulates ER transcription by interaction with Sp1 through the proximal ESR1 gene promoter. In summary, BCL9-2 induces ER positive breast cancers in vivo, regulates ER expression by a novel ß-catenin independent mechanism in breast cancer cells, and might predict the therapy response to tamoxifen treatment.

Zhao JJ, Lin J, Zhu D, et al.
miR-30-5p functions as a tumor suppressor and novel therapeutic tool by targeting the oncogenic Wnt/β-catenin/BCL9 pathway.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(6):1801-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Wnt/β-catenin signaling underlies the pathogenesis of a broad range of human cancers, including the deadly plasma cell cancer multiple myeloma. In this study, we report that downregulation of the tumor suppressor microRNA miR-30-5p is a frequent pathogenetic event in multiple myeloma. Evidence was developed that miR-30-5p downregulation occurs as a result of interaction between multiple myeloma cells and bone marrow stromal cells, which in turn enhances expression of BCL9, a transcriptional coactivator of the Wnt signaling pathway known to promote multiple myeloma cell proliferation, survival, migration, drug resistance, and formation of multiple myeloma cancer stem cells. The potential for clinical translation of strategies to re-express miR-30-5p as a therapeutic approach was further encouraged by the capacity of miR-30c and miR-30 mix to reduce tumor burden and metastatic potential in vivo in three murine xenograft models of human multiple myeloma without adversely affecting associated bone disease. Together, our findings offer a preclinical rationale to explore miR-30-5p delivery as an effective therapeutic strategy to eradicate multiple myeloma cells in vivo.

Li J, Chen X, Ding X, et al.
LATS2 suppresses oncogenic Wnt signaling by disrupting β-catenin/BCL9 interaction.
Cell Rep. 2013; 5(6):1650-63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Abnormal activation of Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription is associated with a variety of human cancers. Here, we report that LATS2 inhibits oncogenic Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription by disrupting the β-catenin/BCL9 interaction. LATS2 directly interacts with β-catenin and is present on Wnt target gene promoters. Mechanistically, LATS2 inhibits the interaction between BCL9 and β-catenin and subsequent recruitment of BCL9, independent of LATS2 kinase activity. LATS2 is downregulated and inversely correlated with the levels of Wnt target genes in human colorectal cancers. Moreover, nocodazole, an antimicrotubule drug, potently induces LATS2 to suppress tumor growth in vivo by targeting β-catenin/BCL9. Our results suggest that LATS2 is not only a key tumor suppressor in human cancer but may also be an important target for anticancer therapy.

Wang K, Lim HY, Shi S, et al.
Genomic landscape of copy number aberrations enables the identification of oncogenic drivers in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology. 2013; 58(2):706-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Cancer is a genetic disease with frequent somatic DNA alterations. Studying recurrent copy number aberrations (CNAs) in human cancers would enable the elucidation of disease mechanisms and the prioritization of candidate oncogenic drivers with causal roles in oncogenesis. We have comprehensively and systematically characterized CNAs and the accompanying gene expression changes in tumors and matched nontumor liver tissues from 286 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Our analysis identified 29 recurrently amplified and 22 recurrently deleted regions with a high level of copy number changes. These regions harbor established oncogenes and tumor suppressors, including CCND1 (cyclin D1), MET (hepatocyte growth factor receptor), CDKN2A (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) and CDKN2B (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B), as well as many other genes not previously reported to be involved in liver carcinogenesis. Pathway analysis of cis-acting genes in the amplification and deletion peaks implicates alterations of core cancer pathways, including cell-cycle, p53 signaling, phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, Wnt signaling, and transforming growth factor beta signaling, in a large proportion of HCC patients. We further credentialed two candidate driver genes (BCL9 and MTDH) from the recurrent focal amplification peaks and showed that they play a significant role in HCC growth and survival.
CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that characterizing the CNA landscape in HCC will facilitate the understanding of disease mechanisms and the identification of oncogenic drivers that may serve as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this devastating disease.

Hopman S, Merks J, Eussen H, et al.
Structural genome variations in individuals with childhood cancer and tumour predisposition syndromes.
Eur J Cancer. 2013; 49(9):2170-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown a high prevalence of syndromes in children with cancer. We described four patterns of co-occurring morphological abnormalities indicating new tumour predisposition syndromes. These patterns were named after their key-abnormalities: blepharophimosis (BP), epicanthal folds (EF), asymmetric lower limbs (LLA) and Sydney creases (SC) pattern. The purpose of our study was to identify structural genomic variants possibly involved in these tumour predisposition syndromes.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 49 probands (13 from BP, nine from EF, 20 from LLA and seven from SC patterns respectively) karyotyping was performed. Copy number variation (CNV) in genomic DNA of the probands was analysed to detect microdeletions/-duplications using SNP array. FISH and quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) experiments were done to validate events identified by cytogenetic and CNV analysis.
RESULTS: Cytogenetic analysis showed an inherited inversion of chromosome 15, inv(15) (q25q26) in a proband with LLA-pattern. Evaluation of the genes at the breakpoints made it unlikely that these explained the phenotype and tumour in this patient. Eleven CNV events met our inclusion criteria; three inherited CNV events involved an oncogene. A duplication involving BCL9 was identified in a proband diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma. A duplication involving PCM1 was identified in a proband diagnosed with pre-B-ALL. Both probands showed the EF-pattern of morphological abnormalities. A deletion involving TRA@ was identified in two probands from the BP-pattern diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma and pre-B-ALL respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: We report on structural genomic variants in paediatric cancer patients with newly recognised tumour predisposition syndromes. We identify three CNV events which we suggest to be susceptibility loci.

Grisham RN, Iyer G, Garg K, et al.
BRAF mutation is associated with early stage disease and improved outcome in patients with low-grade serous ovarian cancer.
Cancer. 2013; 119(3):548-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Low-grade serous (LGS) ovarian cancer is a chemoresistant disease that accounts for 10% of serous ovarian cancers. Prior studies have reported that 28% to 35% of serous borderline (SB)/LGS ovarian tumors harbor a BRAF mutation, suggesting that BRAF inhibitors may be a rational therapeutic approach for this disease. In the current study, the authors sought to determine whether BRAF or KRAS mutation status was associated with disease stage and/or histology in patients with SB and LGS ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Genetic profiles were constructed for 75 SB and LGS ovarian tumors to determine BRAF and KRAS mutation status. The incidence and identity of BRAF and KRAS mutations were defined, and the results were correlated with disease stage, response to treatment, and overall survival.
RESULTS: Of 75 samples examined, 56 tumors (75%) had SB histology, and 19 tumors (25%) had LGS histology. Fifty-seven percent of tumors harbored either a KRAS mutation (n = 17) or a BRAF mutation (a valine-to-glutamate substitution at residue 600 [V600E]; n = 26). The BRAF V600E mutation was associated significantly with early disease stage (stage I/II; P < .001) and SB histology (P = .002). KRAS mutations were not associated significantly with disease stage or histology. Of the 22 patients (29%) who required chemotherapy, 20 had tumors with wild-type KRAS/BRAF, 2 had KRAS mutant tumors, and none had tumors that harbored a BRAF mutation. All patients with BRAF tumors remained alive at a median follow-up of 3.6 years (range, 1.9-129.3 months).
CONCLUSIONS: V600E BRAF mutations were present in 35% of patients who had SB/LGS ovarian cancers. The presence of the BRAF V600E mutation in SB/LGS ovarian cancer was associated with early stage disease and improved prognosis. The authors concluded that patients with SB/LGS ovarian cancer who require systemic therapy are unlikely to have BRAF mutant tumors.

Takada K, Zhu D, Bird GH, et al.
Targeted disruption of the BCL9/β-catenin complex inhibits oncogenic Wnt signaling.
Sci Transl Med. 2012; 4(148):148ra117 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Deregulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling underlies the pathogenesis of a broad range of human cancers, yet the development of targeted therapies to disrupt the resulting aberrant transcription has proved difficult because the pathway comprises large protein interaction surfaces and regulates many homeostatic functions. Therefore, we have directed our efforts toward blocking the interaction of β-catenin with B cell lymphoma 9 (BCL9), a co-activator for β-catenin-mediated transcription that is highly expressed in tumors but not in the cells of origin. BCL9 drives β-catenin signaling through direct binding mediated by its α-helical homology domain 2. We developed a stabilized α helix of BCL9 (SAH-BCL9), which we show targets β-catenin, dissociates native β-catenin/BCL9 complexes, selectively suppresses Wnt transcription, and exhibits mechanism-based antitumor effects. SAH-BCL9 also suppresses tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis in mouse xenograft models of Colo320 colorectal carcinoma and INA-6 multiple myeloma. By inhibiting the BCL9-β-catenin interaction and selectively suppressing oncogenic Wnt transcription, SAH-BCL9 may serve as a prototype therapeutic agent for cancers driven by deregulated Wnt signaling.

Strauss LG, Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss A, Koczan D, et al.
Correlation of dynamic PET and gene array data in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
ScientificWorldJournal. 2012; 2012:721313 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The results obtained with dynamic PET (dPET) were compared to gene expression data obtained in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The primary aim was to assess the association of the dPET results and gene expression data.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: dPET was performed following the injection of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in 22 patients with GIST. All patients were examined prior to surgery for staging purpose. Compartment and noncompartment models were used for the quantitative evaluation of the dPET examinations. Gene array data were based on tumor specimen obtained by surgery after the PET examinations.
RESULTS: The data analysis revealed significant correlations for the dPET parameters and the expression of zinc finger genes (znf43, znf85, znf91, znf189). Furthermore, the transport of FDG (k1) was associated with VEGF-A. The cell cycle gene cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C was correlated with the maximum tracer uptake (SUVmax) in the tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate a dependency of the tracer kinetics on genes associated with prognosis in GIST. Furthermore, angiogenesis and cell proliferation have an impact on the tracer uptake.

Jia W, Eneh JO, Ratnaparkhe S, et al.
MicroRNA-30c-2* expressed in ovarian cancer cells suppresses growth factor-induced cellular proliferation and downregulates the oncogene BCL9.
Mol Cancer Res. 2011; 9(12):1732-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that function as master regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression with each miRNA negatively regulating hundreds of genes. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a mitogenic lipid present within the ovarian tumor microenvironment and induces LPA receptor activation and intracellular signaling cascades like ERK/MAPK, leading to enhanced cellular proliferation. Here, we show that in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells, LPA stimulation at concentrations ranging from 1 nmol/L to 20 μmol/L for 30 to 60 minutes increases miR-30c-2*, and this effect is mediated through a combination of receptors because knock down of multiple LPA receptors is required for inhibition. The epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor also increase miR-30c-2* transcript expression, suggesting a broader responsive role for miR-30c-2*. Thus, we investigated the functional role of miR-30c-2* through ectopic expression of synthetic miRNA precursors of mature miRNA or antagomir transfection and observed that microRNA-30c-2* reduces, and the antagomir enhances, cell proliferation and viability in OVCAR-3, cisplatin-insensitive SKOV-3 and chemoresistant HeyA8-MDR cells. Ectopic expression of miR-30c-2* reduces BCL9 mRNA transcript abundance and BCL9 protein. Consistent with this observation, miR-30c-2* ectopic expression also reduced BCL9 luciferase reporter gene expression. In comparison with IOSE cells, all cancer cells examined showed increased BCL9 expression, which is consistent with its role in tumor progression. Taken together, this suggest that growth factor induced proliferation mediates a neutralizing response by significantly increasing miR-30c-2* which reduces BCL9 expression and cell proliferation in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells, likely as a mechanism to regulate signal transduction downstream.

Strauss LG, Koczan D, Seiz M, et al.
Correlation of the Ga-68-bombesin analog Ga-68-BZH3 with receptors expression in gliomas as measured by quantitative dynamic positron emission tomography (dPET) and gene arrays.
Mol Imaging Biol. 2012; 14(3):376-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The kinetics of Ga-68-BZH3, a Ga-68-bombesin analog, was compared to molecular biological data obtained from gene arrays in seven patients with a recurrent glioma. The primary aim of this study was the correlation of receptor expression and tracer kinetics.
PROCEDURES: Dynamic positron emission tomography studies were performed and the data were analyzed by a volume-of-interest technique using a two-tissue compartment model as well as a non-compartment model. Gene array data were obtained from gene array analysis of tumor tissue samples.
RESULTS: The correlation analysis revealed a significant nonlinear correlation of r = 0.89 (p < 0.03) for k1 and BB(2) (gastrin-releasing peptide receptor). BB(1) and BB(3) were not significantly correlated with k1. vb and k3 were not significantly correlated with the expression data of the receptors on the p < 0.05 level.
CONCLUSIONS: The parameter k1 is correlated with the expression of BB(2) based on gene array data. The quantitative analysis of the Ga-68-BZH3 kinetics can be used to predict the receptor expression of BB(2) in gliomas based on k1 of the compartment analysis. However, this study is limited to the expression data on the mRNA level and further studies are needed to assess the correlation of gene expression on the protein level.

Brembeck FH, Wiese M, Zatula N, et al.
BCL9-2 promotes early stages of intestinal tumor progression.
Gastroenterology. 2011; 141(4):1359-70, 1370.e1-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The roles of the 2 BCL9 and 2 Pygopus genes in Wnt to β-catenin signaling are not clear in vertebrates. We examined their expression and function in normal and tumor intestinal epithelia in mice and humans.
METHODS: Specific antibodies were generated to characterize the BCL9 and Pygopus proteins in normal intestine and in colon tumors. Targets of BCL9 and Pygopus in colon cancer cells were analyzed using small interfering RNA analysis. Transgenic mice were created that overexpressed BCL9-2 in intestine; these were crossed with APCMin/+ mice to create BCL9-2;APCMin/+ mice.
RESULTS: BCL9 and Pygopus2 were expressed in all normal intestinal and colon cancer cells. BCL9-2 was detectable only in the villi, not in the crypts of normal intestine. BCL9-2 was up-regulated in adenomas and in almost all colon tumors, with a concomitant increase of Pygopus2, whereas levels of BCL9 were similar between normal and cancer cells. Transgenic overexpression of BCL9-2 in the intestine of BCL9-2; APCMin/+ mice increased formation of adenomas that progressed to invasive tumors, resulting in reduced survival time. Using small interfering RNA analysis, we found that BCL9s and Pygopus are not targets of Wnt in colon cancer cells, but Wnt signaling correlated with levels of BCL9-2. BCL9-2 regulated expression of β-catenin-dependent and -independent target genes that have been associated with early stages of intestinal tumorigenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: BCL9-2 promotes early phases of intestinal tumor progression in humans and in transgenic mice. BCL9-2 increases the expression of a subset of canonical Wnt target genes but also regulates genes that are required for early stages of tumor progression.

Strauss LG, Koczan D, Klippel S, et al.
Impact of cell-proliferation-associated gene expression on 2-deoxy-2-[(18)f]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) kinetics as measured by dynamic positron emission tomography (dPET) in colorectal tumors.
Mol Imaging Biol. 2011; 13(6):1290-300 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Glucose transporters and hexokinases determine the kinetics of 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D: -glucose (FDG). However, the genes controlling these proteins are not independent and may be modulated from other biological processes, e.g., like angiogenesis and proliferation. The impact of cell-proliferation-related genes on the FDG kinetics was assessed in colorectal tumors in this study.
METHODS: Patients with primary colorectal tumors (n = 25) were examined with positron emission tomography and FDG within 2 days prior to surgery. Tissue specimens were obtained from the colorectal tumor and the normal colon by surgery and gene expression was assessed using gene arrays.
RESULTS: Overall, an increase of the expression of proliferation associated genes was observed by a factor of 2-5.3 for the colorectal tumors as compared with the normal colon. Correlation analysis revealed an impact of cdk2 on K1, thus directing to a modulation of the FDG uptake into the cells. The correlations were generally higher for the FDG influx as compared with the standardized uptake value (SUV). The influx was mainly correlated with proliferation inhibiting genes (cyclin G2, cdk inhibitor 1 C, cdk inhibitor 2B). It was possible to predict the expression of cyclin D2 using a multiple linear regression function and the parameters of the FDG kinetics with r = 0.67. Using a group based analysis it was possible to demonstrate, that tumors with an SUV >12 are associated with a high expression of cyclin D2 in the colorectal tumors. If the gene expression data for cyclin D1, cyclin G2, cdk2, cdk6 and cdk inhibtor 2B were used, the overall FDG uptake as measured by the SUV could be predicted with r = 0.75.
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the FDG kinetics is modulated by proliferation associated genes. Especially K1, the parameter for the FDG transport into the cells, is modulated by cdk2. Tumors with a SUV exceeding 12 have usually a higher expression of cyclin D2. The parameters of the FDG kinetics can be used to predict the expression of proliferation associated genes individually.

Job B, Bernheim A, Beau-Faller M, et al.
Genomic aberrations in lung adenocarcinoma in never smokers.
PLoS One. 2010; 5(12):e15145 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer in never smokers would rank as the seventh most common cause of cancer death worldwide.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of lung adenocarcinoma in sixty never smokers and identified fourteen new minimal common regions (MCR) of gain or loss, of which five contained a single gene (MOCS2, NSUN3, KHDRBS2, SNTG1 and ST18). One larger MCR of gain contained NSD1. One focal amplification and nine gains contained FUS. NSD1 and FUS are oncogenes hitherto not known to be associated with lung cancer. FISH showed that the amplicon containing FUS was joined to the next telomeric amplicon at 16p11.2. FUS was over-expressed in 10 tumors with gain of 16p11.2 compared to 30 tumors without that gain. Other cancer genes present in aberrations included ARNT, BCL9, CDK4, CDKN2B, EGFR, ERBB2, MDM2, MDM4, MET, MYC and KRAS. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering with adjustment for false-discovery rate revealed clusters differing by the level and pattern of aberrations and displaying particular tumor characteristics. One cluster was strongly associated with gain of MYC. Another cluster was characterized by extensive losses containing tumor suppressor genes of which RB1 and WRN. Tumors in that cluster frequently harbored a central scar-like fibrosis. A third cluster was associated with gains on 7p and 7q, containing ETV1 and BRAF, and displayed the highest rate of EGFR mutations. SNP array analysis validated copy-number aberrations and revealed that RB1 and WRN were altered by recurrent copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study has uncovered new aberrations containing cancer genes. The oncogene FUS is a candidate gene in the 16p region that is frequently gained in never smokers. Multiple genetic pathways defined by gains of MYC, deletions of RB1 and WRN or gains on 7p and 7q are involved in lung adenocarcinoma in never smokers.

Otsubo K, Kanegane H, Eguchi M, et al.
ETV6-ARNT fusion in a patient with childhood T lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010; 202(1):22-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ETS variant gene 6 (ETV6) gene is located at 12p13, and is frequently involved in translocations in various human neoplasms, resulting in the expression of fusion proteins consisting of the amino-terminal part of ETV6 and unrelated transcription factors or protein tyrosine kinases. Leukemia with t(1;12)(q21;p13) was previously described in a 5-year-old boy with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML-M2) who exhibited a novel ETV6-aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) fusion protein. We herein report the case of a 2-year-old boy with T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) harboring t(1;12)(q21;p13). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a ETV6 dual-color DNA probe revealed that the split signals of the ETV6 gene in 96.7% of bone marrow cells, indicating rearrangement of the ETV6 gene. Therefore, we performed a FISH analysis with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes containing the ARNT, BCL9, and MLLT11 genes located at 1q21, and these results indicated that the ARNT gene might be involved in the t(1;12)(q21;p13). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis disclosed the existence of a ETV6-ARNT fusion gene. To our knowledge, the current report is novel in its report of the ETV6-ARNT fusion in childhood T-ALL. The ETV6-ARNT fusion is associated not only with AML but also with T-ALL.

Corbin M, de Reyniès A, Rickman DS, et al.
WNT/beta-catenin pathway activation in Wilms tumors: a unifying mechanism with multiple entries?
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2009; 48(9):816-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Based on characterization of both genomic and expression status of WT1 and CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) in a series of 60 Wilms tumor samples, combined with genome-wide expression profiling of these tumors, normal mature and fetal kidney controls, we show that WT1/beta-catenin expression was a better classifier than WT1/CTNNB1 mutations. We present molecular data supporting that the WNT pathway is involved in both tumor classes, with and without WT1/beta-catenin alterations. In the tumor class with WT1/beta-catenin alterations, we identified overexpression of 14 previously unreported WNT target genes, including TWIST1. We show that the TWIST1 protein was specifically expressed in these tumors, where staining was restricted to the stromal, nuclear beta-catenin positive, component. By comparing the state of the WNT pathway in tumors without WT1/beta-catenin alterations and fetal kidneys we provide evidence that suggests that these tumors have a heightened level of pathway activation. We characterized mutations of the WNT pathway regulator gene WTX in 16% of this tumor class. Moreover, genome-transcriptome correlation analysis allowed us to identify three other WNT pathway regulator genes that could participate in the activation of the WNT pathway: BCL9 (1p36.2), CTNNBIP1 (1p36.2), and CBY1 (22q13.1). These genes thus represent new potential important actors in WT tumorigenesis.

Fritzmann J, Morkel M, Besser D, et al.
A colorectal cancer expression profile that includes transforming growth factor beta inhibitor BAMBI predicts metastatic potential.
Gastroenterology. 2009; 137(1):165-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Much is known about the genes and mutations that cause colorectal cancer (CRC), yet only a few have been associated with CRC metastasis. We performed expression-profiling experiments to identify genetic markers of risk and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of CRC metastasis.
METHODS: We compared gene expression patterns between metastatic and nonmetastatic stage-matched human colorectal carcinomas by microarray analysis. Correlations between BAMBI and metastasis-free survival were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using an independent set of human colon carcinomas. Human colon cancer cell lines were analyzed for BAMBI regulation, cell motility, and experimental metastasis.
RESULTS: We established a signature of 115 genes that differentiated metastatic from nonmetastatic primary tumors. Among these, the transforming growth factor (TGF) beta inhibitor BAMBI was highly expressed in approximately half of metastatic primary tumors and metastases but not in nonmetastatic tumors. BAMBI is a target of canonical Wnt signaling that involves the beta-catenin coactivator BCL9-2. We observed an inverse correlation between level of BAMBI expression and metastasis-free survival time of patients. BAMBI inhibits TGF-beta signaling and increases migration in colon cancer cells. In mice, overexpression of BAMBI caused colon cancer cells to form tumors that metastasized more frequently to liver and lymph nodes than control cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: BAMBI regulates CRC metastasis by connecting the Wnt/beta-catenin and TGF-beta-signaling pathways. The metastatic expression signature we describe, along with BAMBI levels, can be used in prognosis. Developmental signaling pathways appear to act in hierarchies and cooperate in tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis.

Strauss LG, Hoffend J, Koczan D, et al.
Early effects of FOLFOX treatment of colorectal tumour in an animal model: assessment of changes in gene expression and FDG kinetics.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009; 36(8):1226-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The very early chemotherapeutic effects of the FOLFOX (fluorouracil, folinic acid, oxaliplatin) protocol were assessed in mice implanted with a human colorectal cell line. The aim of this study was to identify changes in gene expression patterns and to detect combinations of PET parameters that may be helpful in identifying treated tumours early after chemotherapy using dynamic PET studies.
METHODS: A human colorectal cell line (HCT 116) was used in nude mice. Dynamic PET studies were performed in untreated (n = 13) and treated (n = 12) animals. The data were assessed using compartmental and noncompartmental analysis. The removed tumour specimens were assessed by gene array analysis to obtain quantitative information on gene expression.
RESULTS: One chemotherapeutic treatment using the FOLFOX protocol resulted in an upregulation of 2,078 gene probes by more than 25%, while 2,254 probes were downregulated following treatment. The gene array data demonstrated primarily an enhancement of genes related to apoptosis. In particular, the apoptosis antigen 1 (APO-1), p21 and the G protein-coupled receptor 87 (G-87) were 2.6- to 3.3-fold upregulated as compared to the expression in untreated animals. There was a 100% separation of untreated and treated animals on the basis of these three genes. The SUV and the FDG kinetic parameters obtained by compartmental and noncompartmental fitting were not significantly different when individual parameters were compared between groups. However, classification analysis of the combination of the PET parameters VB, K1, k3, and influx revealed an overall accuracy of 84%. We were able to identify 91.7% (11/12) of the treated animals and 76.9% (10/13) of the untreated animals correctly using the classification analysis of PET data.
CONCLUSION: Even one chemotherapeutic treatment using FOLFOX has an impact on gene expression and significantly modulates FDG kinetics. Quantitative assessment of the tracer kinetics and the application of classification analysis to the data are promising tools to identify those tumours that demonstrate a chemotherapeutic effect very early following treatment.

Strauss LG, Koczan D, Klippel S, et al.
Impact of angiogenesis-related gene expression on the tracer kinetics of 18F-FDG in colorectal tumors.
J Nucl Med. 2008; 49(8):1238-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: 18F-FDG kinetics are primarily dependent on the expression of genes associated with glucose transporters and hexokinases but may be modulated by other genes. The dependency of 18F-FDG kinetics on angiogenesis-related gene expression was evaluated in this study.
METHODS: Patients with primary colorectal tumors (n = 25) were examined with PET and 18F-FDG within 2 days before surgery. Tissue specimens were obtained from the tumor and the normal colon during surgery, and gene expression was assessed using gene arrays.
RESULTS: Overall, 23 angiogenesis-related genes were identified with a tumor-to-normal ratio exceeding 1.50. Analysis revealed a significant correlation between k1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, r = 0.51) and between fractal dimension and angiopoietin-2 (r = 0.48). k3 was negatively correlated with VEGF-B (r = -0.46), and a positive correlation was noted for angiopoietin-like 4 gene (r = 0.42). A multiple linear regression analysis was used for the PET parameters to predict the gene expression, and a correlation coefficient of r = 0.75 was obtained for VEGF-A and of r = 0.76 for the angiopoietin-2 expression. Thus, on the basis of these multiple correlation coefficients, angiogenesis-related gene expression contributes to about 50% of the variance of the 18F-FDG kinetic data. The global 18F-FDG uptake, as measured by the standardized uptake value and influx, was not significantly correlated with angiogenesis-associated genes.
CONCLUSION: 18F-FDG kinetics are modulated by angiogenesis-related genes. The transport rate for 18F-FDG (k1) is higher in tumors with a higher expression of VEGF-A and angiopoietin-2. The regression functions for the PET parameters provide the possibility to predict the gene expression of VEGF-A and angiopoietin-2.

de la Roche M, Worm J, Bienz M
The function of BCL9 in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and colorectal cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2008; 8:199 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Most cases of colorectal cancer are initiated by hyperactivation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway due to mutations in the APC tumour suppressor, or in beta-catenin itself. A recently discovered component of this pathway is Legless, which is essential for Wnt-induced transcription during Drosophila development. Limited functional information is available for its two mammalian relatives, BCL9 and B9L/BCL9-2: like Legless, these proteins bind to beta-catenin, and RNAi-mediated depletion of B9L/BCL9-2 has revealed that this protein is required for efficient beta-catenin-mediated transcription in mammalian cell lines. No loss-of-function data are available for BCL9.
METHODS: We have used overexpression of dominant-negative forms of BCL9, and RNAi-mediated depletion, to study its function in human cell lines with elevated Wnt pathway activity, including colorectal cancer cells.
RESULTS: We found that BCL9 is required for efficient beta-catenin-mediated transcription in Wnt-stimulated HEK 293 cells, and in the SW480 colorectal cancer cell line whose Wnt pathway is active due to APC mutation. Dominant-negative mutants of BCL9 indicated that its function depends not only on its beta-catenin ligand, but also on an unknown ligand of its C-terminus. Finally, we show that BCL9 and B9L are both Wnt-inducible genes, hyperexpressed in colorectal cancer cell lines, indicating that they are part of a positive feedback loop.
CONCLUSION: BCL9 is required for efficient beta-catenin-mediated transcription in human cell lines whose Wnt pathway is active, including colorectal cancer cells, indicating its potential as a drug target in colorectal cancer.

Nancarrow DJ, Handoko HY, Smithers BM, et al.
Genome-wide copy number analysis in esophageal adenocarcinoma using high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(11):4163-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
We applied whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays to define a comprehensive genetic profile of 23 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) primary tumor biopsies based on loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and DNA copy number changes. Alterations were common, averaging 97 (range, 23-208) per tumor. LOH and gains averaged 33 (range, 3-83) and 31 (range, 11-73) per tumor, respectively. Copy neutral LOH events averaged 27 (range, 7-57) per EAC. We noted 126 homozygous deletions (HD) across the EAC panel (range, 0-11 in individual tumors). Frequent HDs within FHIT (17 of 23), WWOX (8 of 23), and DMD (6 of 23) suggest a role for common fragile sites or genomic instability in EAC etiology. HDs were also noted for known tumor suppressor genes (TSG), including CDKN2A, CDKN2B, SMAD4, and GALR1, and identified PDE4D and MGC48628 as potentially novel TSGs. All tumors showed LOH for most of chromosome 17p, suggesting that TSGs other than TP53 may be targeted. Frequent gains were noted around MYC (13 of 23), BCL9 (12 of 23), CTAGE1 (14 of 23), and ZNF217 (12 of 23). Thus, we have confirmed previous reports indicating frequent changes to FHIT, CDKN2A, TP53, and MYC in EAC and identified additional genes of interest. Meta-analysis of previous genome-wide EAC studies together with the data presented here highlighted consistent regions of gain on 8q, 18q, and 20q and multiple LOH regions on 4q, 5q, 17p, and 18q, suggesting that more than one gene may be targeted on each of these chromosome arms. The focal gains and deletions documented here are a step toward identifying the key genes involved in EAC development.

Huang XX, McCaughan GW, Shackel NA, Gorrell MD
Up-regulation of proproliferative genes and the ligand/receptor pair placental growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 in hepatitis C cirrhosis.
Liver Int. 2007; 27(7):960-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cirrhosis can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Non-diseased liver and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated cirrhosis with or without HCC were compared.
METHOD: Proliferation pathway genes, immune response genes and oncogenes were analysed by a quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunostaining.
RESULTS: Real-time RT-PCR showed up-regulation of genes in HCV cirrhosis including the proliferation-associated genes bone morphogenetic protein 3 (BMP3), placental growth factor 3 (PGF3), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and soluble VEGFR1, the oncogene FYN, and the immune response-associated genes toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and natural killer cell transcript 4 (NK4). Expressions of TLR2 and the oncogenes B-cell CLL/lymphoma 9 (BCL9) and PIM2 were decreased in HCV cirrhosis. In addition, PIM2 and TLR2 were increased in HCV cirrhosis with HCC compared with HCV cirrhosis. The ligand/receptor pair PGF and VEGFR1 was intensely expressed by the portal tract vascular endothelium. VEGFR1 was expressed in reactive biliary epithelial structures in fibrotic septum and in some stellate cells and macrophages.
CONCLUSION: PGF and VEGFR1 may have an important role in the pathogenesis of the neovascular response in cirrhosis.

Strauss LG, Pan L, Koczan D, et al.
Fusion of positron emission tomography (PET) and gene array data: a new approach for the correlative analysis of molecular biological and clinical data.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2007; 26(6):804-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
The combined assessment of data obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) and gene array techniques provide new capabilities for the interpretation of kinetic tracer studies. The correlative analysis of the data helps to detect dependencies of the kinetics of radiotracer on gene expression. Furthermore, gene expression may be predicted using regression functions if a significant correlation exists, which raises new aspects regarding the interpretation of dynamic PET examinations. The development of new radiopharmaceuticals requires the knowledge of the enhanced expression of genes, especially genes controlling receptors and cell surface proteins. The GenePET program facilitates an interactive approach together with the use of key words to identify possible targets for new radiopharmaceuticals.

Katoh M, Katoh M
WNT signaling pathway and stem cell signaling network.
Clin Cancer Res. 2007; 13(14):4042-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
WNT signals are transduced to the canonical pathway for cell fate determination, and to the noncanonical pathway for control of cell movement and tissue polarity. Canonical WNT signals are transduced through Frizzled family receptors and LRP5/LRP6 coreceptor to the beta-catenin signaling cascade. Microtubule affinity-regulating kinase (PAR-1) family kinases, casein kinase I epsilon (CKI epsilon), and FRAT are positive regulators of the canonical WNT pathway, whereas APC, AXIN1, AXIN2, CKI alpha, NKD1, NKD2, beta TRCP1, beta TRCP2, ANKRD6, Nemo-like kinase (NLK), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) are negative regulators. Nuclear complex, consisting of T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor, beta-catenin, BCL9/BCL9L, and PYGO, activates transcription of canonical WNT target genes such as FGF20, DKK1, WISP1, MYC, CCND1, and Glucagon (GCG). Noncanonical WNT signals are transduced through Frizzled family receptors and ROR2/RYK coreceptors to the Dishevelled-dependent (Rho family GTPases and c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase) or the Ca(2+)-dependent (NLK and nuclear factor of activated T cells) signaling cascades. WNT signals are context-dependently transduced to both pathways based on the expression profile of WNT, SFRP, WIF, DKK, Frizzled receptors, coreceptors, and the activity of intracellular WNT signaling regulators. Epigenetic silencing and loss-of-function mutation of negative regulators of the canonical WNT pathway occur in a variety of human cancer. WNT, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Notch, Hedgehog, and transforming growth factor beta/bone morphogenetic protein signaling network are implicated in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis by regulating self-renewal of normal stem cells as well as proliferation or differentiation of progenitor (transit-amplifying) cells. Breakage of the stem cell signaling network leads to carcinogenesis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and PPAR gamma agonists with the potential to inhibit the canonical WNT signaling pathway are candidate agents for chemoprevention. ZTM000990 and PKF118-310 are lead compounds targeted to the canonical WNT signaling cascade. Anti-WNT1 and anti-WNT2 monoclonal antibodies show in vitro effects in cancer treatment. After the optimization, derivatives of small-molecule compound and human monoclonal antibody targeted to the WNT signaling pathway could be used in cancer medicine.

Fuerer C, Homicsko K, Lukashev AN, et al.
Fusion of the BCL9 HD2 domain to E1A increases the cytopathic effect of an oncolytic adenovirus that targets colon cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2006; 6:236 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Wnt signaling pathway is activated by mutations in the APC and beta-catenin genes in many types of human cancer. beta-catenin is stabilized by these mutations and activates transcription in part by acting as a bridge between Tcf/LEF proteins and the HD2 domain of the BCL9 coactivator. We have previously described oncolytic adenoviruses with binding sites for Tcf/LEF transcription factors inserted into the early viral promoters. These viruses replicate selectively in cells with activation of the Wnt pathway. To increase the activity of these viruses we have fused the viral transactivator E1A to the BCL9 HD2 domain.
METHODS: Luciferase assays, co-immunoprecipitation and Western blotting, immunofluorescent cell staining and cytopathic effect assays were used to characterize the E1A-HD2 fusion protein and virus in vitro. Growth curves of subcutaneous SW620 colon cancer xenografts were used to characterize the virus in vivo.
RESULTS: The E1A-HD2 fusion protein binds to beta-catenin in vivo and activates a Tcf-regulated luciferase reporter better than wild-type E1A in cells with activated Wnt signaling. Expression of the E1A-HD2 protein promotes nuclear import of beta-catenin, mediated by the strong nuclear localization signal in E1A. Tcf-regulated viruses expressing the fusion protein show increased expression of viral proteins and a five-fold increase in cytopathic effect (CPE) in colorectal cancer cell lines. There was no change in viral protein expression or CPE in HeLa cells, indicating that E1A-HD2 viruses retain selectivity for cells with activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Despite increasing the cytopathic effect of the virus in vitro, fusion of the HD2 domain to E1A did not increase the burst size of the virus in vitro or the anti-tumor effect of the virus in an SW620 xenograft model in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Despite an increase in the nuclear pool of beta-catenin, the effects on viral activity in colon cancer cells were small, suggesting that factors acting downstream of beta-catenin are limiting for viral replication and toxicity in these cells. The approach of fusing E1A to a protein domain implicated in oncogenic signaling could be used to selectively increase the activity of oncolytic viruses targeting several other pathways defective in cancer.

Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss A, Georgoulias V, Eisenhut M, et al.
Quantitative assessment of SSTR2 expression in patients with non-small cell lung cancer using(68)Ga-DOTATOC PET and comparison with (18)F-FDG PET.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2006; 33(7):823-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Dynamic PET studies with(68)Ga-DOTATOC were performed in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to assess the somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) expression. Furthermore, dynamic(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies were performed in the same patients to compare the SSTR2 expression with the tumour viability.
METHODS: The study population comprised nine patients, examined with both tracers on two different days within 1 week. Standardised uptake values (SUVs) were calculated and a two-tissue compartment model was applied to the data. Furthermore, a non-compartment model based on the fractal dimension (FD) was applied to the data.
RESULTS: The DOTATOC uptake was generally lower than the FDG uptake. Moderately enhanced DOTATOC uptake was noted in seven of the nine tumours. All kinetic parameters except k (4) were lower for DOTATOC than for FDG. The mean SUV was 2.018 for DOTATOC, in comparison to 5.683 for FDG. In particular, k (3) was highly variable for DOTATOC and showed an overlap with the normal lung tissue. The fractional blood volume V (B) was relatively low for both tracers, not exceeding 0.3. The highest significant logarithmic correlation was found for the FD of the two tracers (r=0.764, p=0.017). The logarithmic correlation for SUVs was also significant (r=0.646, p=0.060), as was that forV (B) (r=0.629, p=0.069). In contrast, none of the eight metastases which were positive on FDG PET showed any DOTATOC uptake.
CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated moderate (68)Ga-DOTATOC uptake in primary NSCLC but did not provide any evidence for SSTR2 expression in metastases. This may be caused by loss of the gene expression in metastases as compared with the primary tumours.

Brembeck FH, Rosário M, Birchmeier W
Balancing cell adhesion and Wnt signaling, the key role of beta-catenin.
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006; 16(1):51-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Controlled regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation is essential for embryonic development and requires the coordinated regulation of cell-cell adhesion and gene transcription. The armadillo repeat protein beta-catenin is an important integrator of both processes. Beta-catenin acts in the Wnt signaling pathway, activating the transcription of crucial target genes responsible for cellular proliferation and differentiation. Beta-catenin also controls E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion at the plasma membrane and mediates the interplay of adherens junction molecules with the actin cytoskeleton. Both functions of beta-catenin are de-regulated in human malignancies, thereby leading both to the loss of cell-cell adhesion and to the increased transcription of Wnt target genes.

Adachi S, Jigami T, Yasui T, et al.
Role of a BCL9-related beta-catenin-binding protein, B9L, in tumorigenesis induced by aberrant activation of Wnt signaling.
Cancer Res. 2004; 64(23):8496-501 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wnt signaling plays a crucial role in a number of developmental processes and in tumorigenesis. beta-Catenin is stabilized by Wnt signaling and associates with the TCF/LEF family of transcription factors, thereby activating transcription of Wnt target genes. Constitutive activation of beta-catenin-TCF-mediated transcription resulting from mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), beta-catenin, or Axin is believed to be a critical step in tumorigenesis among divergent types of cancers. Here we show that the transactivation potential of the beta-catenin-TCF complex is enhanced by its interaction with a BCL9-like protein, B9L, in addition to BCL9. We found that B9L is required for enhanced beta-catenin-TCF-mediated transcription in colorectal tumor cells and for beta-catenin-induced transformation of RK3E cells. Furthermore, expression of B9L was aberrantly elevated in about 43% of colorectal tumors, relative to the corresponding noncancerous tissues. These results suggest that B9L plays an important role in tumorigenesis induced by aberrant activation of Wnt signaling.

Sawyer JR, Tricot G, Lukacs JL, et al.
Genomic instability in multiple myeloma: evidence for jumping segmental duplications of chromosome arm 1q.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2005; 42(1):95-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant plasma cell disorder characterized by complex karyotypes and chromosome 1 instability at the cytogenetic level. Chromosome 1 instability generally involves partial duplications, whole-arm translocations, or jumping translocations of 1q, identified by G-banding. To characterize this instability further, we performed spectral karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for satII/III (1q12), BCL9 (1q21), and IL6R (1q21) on the karyotypes of 44 patients with known 1q aberrations. In eight patients, segmental duplication of 1q12-21 and adjacent bands occurred on nonhomologous chromosomes. In five cases, the 1q first jumped to a nonhomologous chromosome, after which the 1q12-21 segment again duplicated itself 1-3 times. In three other cases, segmental duplications occurred after the 1q first jumped to a nonhomologous chromosome, where the proximal adjacent nonhomologous chromosome segment was duplicated prior to the 1q jumping or inserting itself into a new location. These cases demonstrate that satII/III DNA sequences are not only associated not only with the duplication of adjacent distal chromosome segments after translocation, but are also associated with the duplication and jumping/insertion of proximal nonhomologous chromosome segments. We have designated this type of instability as a jumping segmental duplication.

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