Gene Summary

Gene:TNFRSF1A; TNF receptor superfamily member 1A
Aliases: FPF, p55, p60, TBP1, TNF-R, TNFAR, TNFR1, p55-R, CD120a, TNFR55, TNFR60, TNF-R-I, TNF-R55
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the TNF receptor superfamily of proteins. The encoded receptor is found in membrane-bound and soluble forms that interact with membrane-bound and soluble forms, respectively, of its ligand, tumor necrosis factor alpha. Binding of membrane-bound tumor necrosis factor alpha to the membrane-bound receptor induces receptor trimerization and activation, which plays a role in cell survival, apoptosis, and inflammation. Proteolytic processing of the encoded receptor results in release of the soluble form of the receptor, which can interact with free tumor necrosis factor alpha to inhibit inflammation. Mutations in this gene underlie tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), characterized by fever, abdominal pain and other features. Mutations in this gene may also be associated with multiple sclerosis in human patients. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2016]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A
Source:NCBIAccessed: 10 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 10 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TNFRSF1A (cancer-related)

Zhao Y, Yang F, Li W, et al.
miR-29a suppresses MCF-7 cell growth by downregulating tumor necrosis factor receptor 1.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317692264 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 is the main receptor mediating many tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cellular events. Some studies have shown that tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 promotes tumorigenesis by activating nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway, while other studies have confirmed that tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 plays an inhibitory role in tumors growth by inducing apoptosis in breast cancer. Therefore, the function of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in breast cancer requires clarification. In this study, we first found that tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 was significantly increased in human breast cancer tissues and cell lines, and knockdown of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 by small interfering RNA inhibited cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. In addition, miR-29a was predicted as a regulator of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 by TargetScan and was shown to be inversely correlated with tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression in human breast cancer tissues and cell lines. Luciferase reporter assay further confirmed that miR-29a negatively regulated tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression by binding to the 3' untranslated region. In our functional study, miR-29a overexpression remarkably suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation, arrested the cell cycle, and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cell. Furthermore, in combination with tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 transfection, miR-29a significantly reversed the oncogenic role caused by tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in MCF-7 cell. In addition, we demonstrated that miR-29a suppressed MCF-7 cell growth by inactivating the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway and by decreasing cyclinD1 and Bcl-2/Bax protein levels. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-29a is an important regulator of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression in breast cancer and functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 to influence the growth of MCF-7 cell.

Singh PR, Priya ES, Balakrishnan S, et al.
Nimbolide inhibits androgen independent prostate cancer cells survival and proliferation by modulating multiple pro-survival signaling pathways.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1623-1634 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most prominent cancer in men, experiencing a relapse in disease often express high serum TNF-α levels. It has been correlated with increased cell survival and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Previous studies reported that nimbolide, a terpenoid derived from the leaves and flowers of neem tree inhibits cancer growth through selective modulation of cell signaling pathways linked to inflammation, survival, proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis.
METHODS: The present study aimed to examine the effect of nimbolide at 1 and 2μM concentrations on TNF-α/TNFR1 mediated signaling molecules involved in cell survival and proliferation in PC-3 cell line via NF-κB and MAPK pathways by real time PCR and western blot. Protein and compound interaction were performed by Molecular docking analysis.
RESULTS: Our results indicate that nimbolide treatment suppressed expression of TNF-α, SODD, Grb2, SOS mRNA and modulated TNF-α/TNFR1 regulated NF-κB and MAPK signaling molecules in PC-3 cells. Additional molecular dynamics simulation studies confirmed the stability of nimbolide and signaling molecules binding interactions. Binding pose analysis revealed the significance of hydrogen bond interactions for effective stabilization of virtual ligand protein complexes.
CONCLUSION: Nimbolide inhibited prostate cancer cell survival and proliferation via NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

Singhal P, Sharma U, Hussain S, et al.
Identification of genetic variants in TNF receptor 2 which are associated with the development of cervical carcinoma.
Biomarkers. 2016; 21(7):665-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women in India. Beside HPV, other factors present in host also put their role in the progression of cervical tumerogenesis. In present study, we screened 300 subjects to identify variations in TNFR2 gene by PCR-dHPLC method followed by direct sequencing. We identified six known and four novel variations in six different exons of TNFR2 gene. Out of these identified variations, five known variations were found to be significantly associated with the risk of cervical cancer (p < 0.0001). On construction of haplotypes, one haplotype (TTGCC) was emerged as a major protective type while two (CAAGC + CTGCC) were revealed as major risk haplotypes. In conclusion, postmenopausal women having CAAGC + CTGCC haplotypes in TNFR2 gene along with HPV infection and tobacco consumption may lead to the development of cervical cancer.

Savva CG, Totokotsopoulos S, Nicolaou KC, et al.
Selective activation of TNFR1 and NF-κB inhibition by a novel biyouyanagin analogue promotes apoptosis in acute leukemia cells.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:279 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acquired resistance towards apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer. Elimination of cells bearing activated oncogenes or stimulation of tumor suppressor mediators may provide a selection pressure to overcome resistance. KC-53 is a novel biyouyanagin analogue known to elicit strong anti-inflammatory and anti-viral activity. The current study was designed to evaluate the anticancer efficacy and molecular mechanisms of KC-53 against human cancer cells.
METHODS: Using the MTT assay we examined initially how KC-53 affects the proliferation rates of thirteen representative human cancer cell lines in comparison to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and immortalized cell lines. To decipher the key molecular events underlying its mode of action we selected the human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 and the acute lymphocytic leukemia CCRF/CEM cell lines that were found to be the most sensitive to the antiproliferative effects of KC-53.
RESULTS: KC-53 promoted rapidly and irreversibly apoptosis in both leukemia cell lines at relatively low concentrations. Apoptosis was characterized by an increase in membrane-associated TNFR1, activation of Caspase-8 and proteolytic inactivation of the death domain kinase RIP1 indicating that KC-53 induced mainly the extrinsic/death receptor apoptotic pathway. Regardless, induction of the intrinsic/mitochondrial pathway was also achieved by Caspase-8 processing of Bid, activation of Caspase-9 and increased translocation of AIF to the nucleus. FADD protein knockdown restored HL-60 and CCRF/CEM cell viability and completely blocked KC-53-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, KC-53 administration dramatically inhibited TNFα-induced serine phosphorylation on TRAF2 and on IκBα hindering therefore p65/NF-κΒ translocation to nucleus. Reduced transcriptional expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-survival p65 target genes, confirmed that the agent functionally inhibited the transcriptional activity of p65.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, the selective anticancer properties of KC-53 towards leukemic cell lines and provide a detailed understanding of the molecular events underlying its dual anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. These results provide new insights into the development of innovative and targeted therapies for the treatment of some forms of leukemia.

Stachura A, Brym P, Bojarojć-Nosowicz B, Kaczmarczyk E
Polymorphism and expression of the tumor necrosis factor receptor II gene in cows infected with the bovine leukemia virus.
Pol J Vet Sci. 2016; 19(1):125-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
A single T>C nucleotide polymorphism (rs42686850) of bovine tumor necrosis factor receptor type II gene (TNF-RII) is located within a sequence with allele-specific affinity to bind E2F transcription factors, considered pivotal in the regulation of cell cycle and cell proliferation. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of this SNP and BLV infection on the TNF-RII gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We noted that analyzed TNF-RII gene polymorphism influenced the expression of the TNF-RII gene at the mRNA level but only in BLV-positive cows. Concurrently, no statistically significant association was found between gene polymorphism and TNF-RII expression at the protein level. However, we found a significant effect of BLV infection status on the amount of TNF-RII mRNA and the percentage of PBMC expressing TNF-RII. These results show an unclear effect of considered T>C polymorphism on TNF-RII gene expression in bovine leukocytes and they suggest the involvement of BLV in modifying the TNF-RII expression in BLV-infected cows potentially implying the EBL (Enzootic Bovine Leukosis) associated pathogenesis.

Ivanova OK, Sharapova TN, Romanova EA, et al.
Apoptotic tumor cell death under the influence of the cytotoxic complex Tag7-Hsp70 is induced by interaction with the TNFR1 receptor.
Dokl Biol Sci. 2016; 466:48-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
The results of comparative analysis of interaction between the protein cytotoxic complex Tag 7-Hsp70 and the Tag 7 component of this complex with TNFR1 receptor in solution and in tumor cells are presented.

Cui H, Liu J, Li L, et al.
Analysis of differential β variable region of T cell receptor expression and NAV3/TNFRSF1B gene mutation in mycosis fungoides.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(14):17986-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the predominant expression of the variable region of T cell receptor (TRBV) and determine whether NAV3 or TNFRSF1B gene mutation involved in the pathogenesis of MF.
RESULTS: TRBV5-7 expression increased from the normal, early-stage to advanced-stage lesion in MF patient. By contrast, TRBV2 decreased with the lesion developed. We found no mutations of NAV3 or TNFRSF1B in the lesions from this study.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time PCR were used to screen differential expression of TRBV in different lesions. Mutational analyses were used to validate genetic alterations in the skin lesions.
CONCLUSIONS: The identification of TRBV gene expression differences between normal and different stages of MF lesions provide insight into promising new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. None of the reported genetic abnormalities suggests complexity of progress from a primary cytogenetic event to an advanced stage with poor prognosis in MF.

Sobo-Vujanovic A, Vujanovic L, DeLeo AB, et al.
Inhibition of Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Prevents Chemically Induced Carcinogenesis in Mice.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2016; 4(5):441-51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
TNF is a potent promoter of carcinogenesis and potentially important target for cancer prevention. TNF is produced as functionally distinct transmembrane and soluble molecules (tmTNF and sTNF, respectively), but their individual roles in carcinogenesis are unexplored. We investigated the participation of tmTNF and sTNF in chemically induced carcinogenesis in mice. We found that injection of XPro1595, a dominant-negative TNF biologic (DN-TNF) and specific antagonist of sTNF, decreased tumor incidence and growth, and prolonged survival of 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)-injected mice. Similar results were obtained following the exclusion of both TNF forms by either TNF-receptor 2-Fc fusion protein (TNFR2-Fc) treatment or TNF gene deletion. In addition, gene deletion of TNFR1, which is preferentially triggered by sTNF, was temporarily blocked, whereas gene deletion of TNFR2, which is preferentially triggered by tmTNF, enhanced MCA-induced carcinogenesis. Concomitantly with carcinogenesis induction, MCA increased circulating IL1α, accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), STAT3 phosphorylation, and immunosuppression in the spleen. In sharp contrast, DN-TNF treatment dramatically decreased IL1α and increased the essential immunoregulatory cytokines IL1β, IL12p70, and IL17 in the peripheral blood of MCA-injected mice. In addition, MDSC accumulation, STAT3 phosphorylation, and immunosuppression in MCA-injected mice were prevented by DN-TNF treatment, TNFR2-Fc treatment, and/or gene deletion of TNF or TNFR1, but not deletion of TNFR2. These findings reveal that sTNF is both an essential promoter of carcinogenesis and a pivotal regulator of MDSCs, and indicate that sTNF could be a significant target for cancer prevention and therapy. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(5); 441-51. ©2016 AACR.

Nagaishi T, Watabe T, Jose N, et al.
Epithelial Nuclear Factor-x03BA;B Activation in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis.
Digestion. 2016; 93(1):40-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prolonged inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) may lead to colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC). Previous studies had shown that nuclear factor-x03BA;B (NF-x03BA;B) activation in both macrophages and epithelia in inflamed colonic tissue is associated with CAC development. However, the mechanism by which epithelial NF-x03BA;B activation leading to CAC development had not previously been rigorously studied. We and others had observed the increased expression of the type 2 receptor for tumor necrosis factor (TNFR2/TNFRSF1b/p75) in IBD models. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is suggested to be associated with epithelial permeability via TNF signaling. Therefore, the relationship between epithelial MLCK expression and NF-x03BA;B activation via TNFR2 signaling on CAC development was investigated. Pro-tumorigenic cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 at the lamina propria were increased in the setting of colitis and further increased in tumor tissues with upregulated epithelial TNFR2 and MLCK expressions in an animal model of CAC. The upregulated MLCK expression was also observed in TNF-stimulated colonic epithelial cells in vitro in association with the upregulation of TNFR2 but not TNFR1/TNFRSF1a/p55. Gene silencing of tnfrsf1b, but not tnfrsf1a, resulted in restoration of epithelial tight junction (TJ) associated with decreased MLCK expression. The presence of anti-TNF antibody also resulted in restoration of TJ in association with suppressed MLCK expression, and interestingly, similar results including the suppressed TNFR2 and MLCK expressions were observed by inhibiting MLCK in the epithelial cells. MLCK silencing also led to suppressed TNFR2 expression, suggesting that the restored TJ leads to reduced TNFR2 signaling. Such suppression of MLCK as well as blockade of TNFR2 signaling resulted in reduced CAC development, restored TJ, and decreased pro-tumorigenic cytokines. These imply that TNF-induced NF-x03BA;B activation and MLCK expression may be a potential target for the prevention of IBD-associated carcinogenesis.

Saito Y, Nagae G, Motoi N, et al.
Prognostic significance of CpG island methylator phenotype in surgically resected small cell lung carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(3):320-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Methylation is closely involved in the development of various carcinomas. However, few datasets are available for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) due to the scarcity of fresh tumor samples. The aim of the present study is to clarify relationships between clinicopathological features and results of the comprehensive genome-wide methylation profile of SCLC. We investigated the genome-wide DNA methylation status of 28 tumor and 13 normal lung tissues, and gene expression profiling of 25 SCLC tissues. Following unsupervised hierarchical clustering and non-negative matrix factorization, gene ontology analysis was performed. Clustering of SCLC led to the important identification of a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) of the tumor, with a significantly poorer prognosis (P = 0.002). Multivariate analyses revealed that postoperative chemotherapy and non-CIMP were significantly good prognostic factors. Ontology analyses suggested that the extrinsic apoptosis pathway was suppressed, including TNFRSF1A, TNFRSF10A and TRADD in CIMP tumors. Here we revealed that CIMP was an important prognostic factor for resected SCLC. Delineation of this phenotype may also be useful for the development of novel apoptosis-related chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of the aggressive tumor.

Justice JF, Morgan RW, Beemon KL
Common Viral Integration Sites Identified in Avian Leukosis Virus-Induced B-Cell Lymphomas.
MBio. 2015; 6(6):e01863-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Avian leukosis virus (ALV) induces B-cell lymphoma and other neoplasms in chickens by integrating within or near cancer genes and perturbing their expression. Four genes--MYC, MYB, Mir-155, and TERT--have previously been identified as common integration sites in these virus-induced lymphomas and are thought to play a causal role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we employ high-throughput sequencing to identify additional genes driving tumorigenesis in ALV-induced B-cell lymphomas. In addition to the four genes implicated previously, we identify other genes as common integration sites, including TNFRSF1A, MEF2C, CTDSPL, TAB2, RUNX1, MLL5, CXorf57, and BACH2. We also analyze the genome-wide ALV integration landscape in vivo and find increased frequency of ALV integration near transcriptional start sites and within transcripts. Previous work has shown ALV prefers a weak consensus sequence for integration in cultured human cells. We confirm this consensus sequence for ALV integration in vivo in the chicken genome.
IMPORTANCE: Avian leukosis virus induces B-cell lymphomas in chickens. Earlier studies showed that ALV can induce tumors through insertional mutagenesis, and several genes have been implicated in the development of these tumors. In this study, we use high-throughput sequencing to reveal the genome-wide ALV integration landscape in ALV-induced B-cell lymphomas. We find elevated levels of ALV integration near transcription start sites and use common integration site analysis to greatly expand the number of genes implicated in the development of these tumors. Interestingly, we identify several genes targeted by viral insertions that have not been previously shown to be involved in cancer.

Khaw AK, Sameni S, Venkatesan S, et al.
Plumbagin alters telomere dynamics, induces DNA damage and cell death in human brain tumour cells.
Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2015; 793:86-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Natural plant products may possess much potential in palliative therapy and supportive strategies of current cancer treatments with lesser cytotoxicity to normal cells compared to conventional chemotherapy. In the current study, anti-cancer properties of plumbagin, a plant-derived naphthoquinone, on brain cancer cells were determined. Plumbagin treatment resulted in the induction of DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, followed by suppression of the colony forming ability of the brain tumour cells. These effects were substantiated by upregulation of PTEN, TNFRSF1A and downregulation of E2F1 genes, along with a drop in MDM2, cyclin B1, survivin and BCL2 protein expression. Plumbagin induced elevated levels of caspase-3/7 activity as well. For the first time, we show here that plumbagin inhibits telomerase in brain tumour cells and results in telomere shortening following chronic long-term treatment. This observation implies considerable cytotoxicity of plumbagin towards cancer cells with higher telomerase activity. Collectively, our findings suggest plumbagin as a potential chemotherapeutic phytochemical in brain tumour treatment modalities.

Azevedo FV, Lopes DS, Cirilo Gimenes SN, et al.
Human breast cancer cell death induced by BnSP-6, a Lys-49 PLA₂ homologue from Bothrops pauloensis venom.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2016; 82:671-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
This work shows the antitumoral effects of BnSP-6, a Lys 49 PLA2 isolated from Bothrops pauloensis venom, on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. BnSP-6 caused a dose-dependent cytotoxicity and inhibited cell adhesion. Interestingly, cytotoxic activity of BnSP-6 was significantly lower against MCF10A, a non-tumorigenic breast cell line, suggesting that this PLA2 presented a possible preference for targets in cancer cells. Analysis of cell death on MDA-MB-231 cells showed that BnSP-6 stimulated the autophagy process, as evidenced by labeling of autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, apoptosis assays showed that BnSP-6 induced both early and late apoptosis. Apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells was also confirmed by up-regulation of different genes related to the apoptosis pathway, such as TNF, TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF1A and CASP8 and decreased expression of anti-apoptotic genes (BCL2 and BCL2L). In addition, BnSP-6 caused a remarkable increase in gene expression of BRCA2 and TP53 tumor suppressors. Finally, BnSP-6 induced down-regulation of Angiopoetin 1 gene (potent pro-angiogenic factor) and inhibited adhesion and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells suggesting pharmaceutical applications of this PLA2 as an antiangiogenic and anti-metastatic agent. Taken together, our results show that the PLA2 BnSP-6 presents anticancer potential that can be exploited as prototype for the design of new therapies.

Zhu X, Zhong J, Zhao Z, et al.
Epithelial derived CTGF promotes breast tumor progression via inducing EMT and collagen I fibers deposition.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):25320-38 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Interactions among tumor cells, stromal cells, and extracellular matrix compositions are mediated through cytokines during tumor progression. Our analysis of 132 known cytokines and growth factors in published clinical breast cohorts and our 84 patient-derived xenograft models revealed that the elevated connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in tumor epithelial cells significantly correlated with poor clinical prognosis and outcomes. CTGF was able to induce tumor cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and promote stroma deposition of collagen I fibers to stimulate tumor growth and metastasis. This process was mediated through CTGF-tumor necrosis factor receptor I (TNFR1)-IκB autocrine signaling. Drug treatments targeting CTGF, TNFR1, and IκB signaling each prohibited the EMT and tumor progression.

Ungewickell A, Bhaduri A, Rios E, et al.
Genomic analysis of mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome identifies recurrent alterations in TNFR2.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(9):1056-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome comprise the majority of cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCLs), disorders notable for their clinical heterogeneity that can present in skin or peripheral blood. Effective treatment options for CTCL are limited, and the genetic basis of these T cell lymphomas remains incompletely characterized. Here we report recurrent point mutations and genomic gains of TNFRSF1B, encoding the tumor necrosis factor receptor TNFR2, in 18% of patients with mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. Expression of the recurrent TNFR2 Thr377Ile mutant in T cells leads to enhanced non-canonical NF-κB signaling that is sensitive to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Using an integrative genomic approach, we additionally discovered a recurrent CTLA4-CD28 fusion, as well as mutations in downstream signaling mediators of these receptors.

Shinar Y, Tohami T, Livneh A, et al.
Acquired familial Mediterranean fever associated with a somatic MEFV mutation in a patient with JAK2 associated post-polycythemia myelofibrosis.
Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2015; 10:86 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A study was designed to identify the source of fever in a patient with post-polycythemia myelofibrosis, associated with clonal Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation involving duplication of exon 12. The patient presented with 1-2 day long self-limited periodic episodes of high fever that became more frequent as the hematologic disease progressed.
METHODS: After ruling out other causes for recurrent fever, analysis of the pyrin encoding Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV) was carried out by Sanger sequencing in peripheral blood DNA samples obtained 4 years apart, in buccal cells, laser dissected kidney tubular cells, and FACS-sorted CD3-positive or depleted mononucleated blood cells. Hematopoeitc cells results were validated by targeted deep sequencing. A Sanger sequence based screen for pathogenic variants of the autoinflammatory genes NLRP3, TNFRSF1A and MVK was also performed.
RESULTS: A rare, c.1955G>A, p.Arg652His MEFV gene variant was identified at negligible levels in an early peripheral blood DNA sample, but affected 46 % of the MEFV alleles and was restricted to JAK2-positive, polymorphonuclear and CD3-depleted mononunuclear DNA samples obtained 4 years later, when the patient experienced fever bouts. The patient was also heterozygous for the germ line, non-pathogenic NLRP3 gene variant, p.Q705K. Upon the administration of colchicine, the gold standard treatment for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), the fever attacks subsided.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of non-transmitted, acquired FMF, associated with a JAK2 driven clonal expansion of a somatic MEFV exon 10 mutation. The non-pathogenic germ line NLRP3 p.Q705K mutation possibly played a modifier role on the disease phenotype.

Peng C, Su J, Zeng W, et al.
TNFR1 Regulates Ovarian Cancer Cell Tumorigenicity Through PIK3CB-p110Beta.
Curr Mol Med. 2015; 15(5):487-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies have shown that TNFR1 is a key factor in the tumor microenvironment that is dependent on the TNF-α-initiated cascade for tumorigenesis. In this present study, we found that TNFR1 is over-expressed in ovarian cancer, which is relevant to both clinical survival and disease free status. Knockdown of TNFR1 dramatically attenuates malignant phenotypes, including proliferation and colony growth in soft agar, as well as glycolysis in ovarian cancer cells. Unexpectedly, knocking down TNFR1 blocks EGF-induced p-AKT and p-p70S6K expression and EGF-induced cell transformation through PIK3-p110beta rather than p110alpha expression. Taken together, our data provide evidence that TNFR1 plays a critical role in ovarian cancer and show that the EGF induced signaling pathway is independent of the TNF-α triggering cascade signal. Therefore, TNFR1 may serve as a prognostic molecule in ovarian cancer.

Ma X, Li X, Lu X, et al.
Interaction between TNFR1 and TNFR2 dominates the clinicopathologic features of human hypopharyneal carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(12):9421-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs) has been associated with clinicopathologic features of some other cancers, their roles in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPSCC) have not been documented. Forty-five HPSCC specimens were analyzed for the expression of TNFR1 and TNFR2 and its relationship with clinicopathologic factors. Interaction between the two receptors and its effects on TNF-α was investigated by neutralizing TNFR1 and upregulation of TNFR2. The results indicated that, in HPSCC specimens, the expression of TNFR1 but not TNFR2 is associated with clinical staging, T stage, cervical lymph node metastasis, and histologic grade in HPSCC. In Fadu cells, when conjugating with its receptors, TNF-α mediates proliferation effects, and neutralizing TNFR1 and/or upregulating TNFR2 evokes proliferation-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing effects and potentiates cisplatin (DDP)-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. In conclusion, interaction of TNFR1 with TNFR2 determines the biological characters of HPSCC, and TNFR1 may dominate this process. Moreover, interaction between the two receptors plays important roles in determining the fates of HPSCC cells and thus may serve as a therapeutic target for developing new therapeutic strategies for HPSCC.

Maurya AK, Vinayak M
Modulation of PKC signaling and induction of apoptosis through suppression of reactive oxygen species and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1): key role of quercetin in cancer prevention.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(11):8913-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer cells are characterized by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an altered redox environment as compared to normal cells. Continuous accumulation of ROS triggers oxidative stress leading to hyper-activation of signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation, survival, and metabolic adaptation to the tumor microenvironment. Therefore, antioxidants are proposed to contribute to cancer prevention. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a crucial regulator of diverse cellular processes and contributes to cancer progression. The activation of PKC is partially dependent on ROS signaling. In the present study, cancer preventive activity of natural flavonoid quercetin is analyzed in ascite cells of Dalton's lymphoma-bearing mice. The total ROS level and activity of PKC were downregulated after quercetin treatment in lymphoma-bearing mice. Quercetin modulates the expression of almost all isozymes of classical, novel, and atypical PKC as well as downregulates the level and expression of PKCα. Further, quercetin improves apoptotic potential, as observed by the levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PARP, PKCδ, and nuclear condensation. Additionally, quercetin reduces cell survival and promotes death receptor-mediated apoptosis via differential localization of the TNFR1 level in ascite cells. The overall result suggests the cancer preventive activity of quercetin via the induction of apoptosis and modulates PKC signaling with the reduction of oxidative stress in ascite cells of lymphoma-bearing mice.

Luan Q, Jin L, Jiang CC, et al.
RIPK1 regulates survival of human melanoma cells upon endoplasmic reticulum stress through autophagy.
Autophagy. 2015; 11(7):975-94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Although RIPK1 (receptor [TNFRSF]-interacting protein kinase 1) is emerging as a critical determinant of cell fate in response to cellular stress resulting from activation of death receptors and DNA damage, its potential role in cell response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remains undefined. Here we report that RIPK1 functions as an important prosurvival mechanism in melanoma cells undergoing pharmacological ER stress induced by tunicamycin (TM) or thapsigargin (TG) through activation of autophagy. While treatment with TM or TG upregulated RIPK1 and triggered autophagy in melanoma cells, knockdown of RIPK1 inhibited autophagy and rendered the cells sensitive to killing by TM or TG, recapitulating the effect of inhibition of autophagy. Consistently, overexpression of RIPK1 enhanced induction of autophagy and conferred resistance of melanoma cells to TM- or TG-induced cell death. Activation of MAPK8/JNK1 or MAPK9/JNK2, which phosphorylated BCL2L11/BIM leading to its dissociation from BECN1/Beclin 1, was involved in TM- or TG-induced, RIPK1-mediated activation of autophagy; whereas, activation of the transcription factor HSF1 (heat shock factor protein 1) downstream of the ERN1/IRE1-XBP1 axis of the unfolded protein response was responsible for the increase in RIPK1 in melanoma cells undergoing pharmacological ER stress. Collectively, these results identify upregulation of RIPK1 as an important resistance mechanism of melanoma cells to TM- or TG-induced ER stress by protecting against cell death through activation of autophagy, and suggest that targeting the autophagy-activating mechanism of RIPK1 may be a useful strategy to enhance sensitivity of melanoma cells to therapeutic agents that induce ER stress.

Sghaier I, Zidi S, Mouelhi L, et al.
The relationship between TNF alpha gene polymorphisms (-238/-308), TNF RII VNTR (p75) and outcomes of hepatitis B virus infection in Tunisian population.
Gene. 2015; 568(2):140-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study was undertaken to investigate the association between Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection and polymorphisms of tumour necrosis factor alpha TNF-α -308 G>A, TNF-α -238 G>A and TNF RII VNTR (p75) gene promoter in a Tunisian population. Blood samples were collected from 100 Tunisian patients with HBV infection, 45 with Chronic Hepatitis (CH), 36 with Liver Cirrhosis (LC), 15 with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and 200 healthy individuals of similar ethnicity. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Genotyping of the analysed polymorphisms was performed using Amplified Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Variable Number Tandem Repeat PCR (PCR-VNTR). The variant homozygotes -308 GG were associated with 50% decreased risk of HBV chronic infection (GG vs AA+GA; p=0.010; OR=0.50; 95%CI=0.29-0.85). However, the carriers of minor allele -308 A have higher risk (1.5 times) to develop a chronic infection than other patients (p=0.027; OR=1.46; 95%CI=1.04-2.06). The minor allele of -238 polymorphism was positively associated with virus resistance and the development of chronic infection (p=0.043; OR=1.42; 95%CI =1.01 1.99). The distribution of -308, -238 and TNF RII VNTR (p75) among the three groups differed significantly. For HCC groups, there were statistically significant differences in allele distribution in -308, -238 respectively in which A allele remains a risk factor for HBV evolution to HCC (p=0.008 and p=0.026). Haplotype analysis revealed that TNF-α (-308A; -238A) was significantly associated to HBV chronic infection and moreover to disease aggravation to HCC stage. Our findings imply that variations in the genes governing the levels of constitutive and inducible TNF-α and TNF RII might be an important risk factor, which could explain the variable outcomes of HBV infection.

Lauenborg B, Christensen L, Ralfkiaer U, et al.
Malignant T cells express lymphotoxin α and drive endothelial activation in cutaneous T cell lymphoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(17):15235-49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Lymphotoxin α (LTα) plays a key role in the formation of lymphatic vasculature and secondary lymphoid structures. Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is the most common primary lymphoma of the skin and in advanced stages, malignant T cells spreads through the lymphatic to regional lymph nodes to internal organs and blood. Yet, little is known about the mechanism of the CTCL dissemination. Here, we show that CTCL cells express LTα in situ and that LTα expression is driven by aberrantly activated JAK3/STAT5 pathway. Importantly, via TNF receptor 2, LTα functions as an autocrine factor by stimulating expression of IL-6 in the malignant cells. LTα and IL-6, together with VEGF promote angiogenesis by inducing endothelial cell sprouting and tube formation. Thus, we propose that LTα plays a role in malignant angiogenesis and disease progression in CTCL and may serve as a therapeutic target in this disease.

Shukla K, Sharma AK, Ward A, et al.
MicroRNA-30c-2-3p negatively regulates NF-κB signaling and cell cycle progression through downregulation of TRADD and CCNE1 in breast cancer.
Mol Oncol. 2015; 9(6):1106-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling is frequently deregulated in a variety of cancers and is constitutively active in estrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer subtypes. These molecular subtypes of breast cancer are associated with poor overall survival. We focused on mechanisms of NF-κB regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs), which regulate eukaryotic gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In a previous genome-wide miRNA screen, we had identified miR-30c-2-3p as one of the strongest negative regulators of NF-κB signaling. Here we have uncovered the underlying molecular mechanisms and its consequences in breast cancer. In vitro results show that miR-30c-2-3p directly targets both TNFRSF1A-associated via death domain (TRADD), an adaptor protein of the TNFR/NF-κB signaling pathway, and the cell cycle protein Cyclin E1 (CCNE1). Ectopic expression of miR-30c-2-3p downregulated essential cytokines IL8, IL6, CXCL1, and reduced cell proliferation as well as invasion in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. RNA interference (RNAi) induced silencing of TRADD phenocopied the effects on invasion and cytokine expression caused by miR-30c-2-3p, while inhibition of CCNE1 phenocopied the effects on cell proliferation. We further confirmed the tumor suppressive role of this miRNA using a dataset of 781 breast tumors, where higher expression was associated with better survival in breast cancer patients. In summary we have elucidated the mechanism by which miR-30c-2-3p negatively regulates NF-κB signaling and cell cycle progression in breast cancer.

Hirano S, Quach HT, Watanabe T, et al.
Irciniastatin A, a pederin-type translation inhibitor, promotes ectodomain shedding of cell-surface tumor necrosis factor receptor 1.
J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2015; 68(6):417-20 [PubMed] Related Publications

Slattery ML, Lundgreen A, Torres-Mejia G, et al.
Diet and lifestyle factors modify immune/inflammation response genes to alter breast cancer risk and prognosis: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.
Mutat Res. 2014; 770:19-28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) and toll-like receptors (TLR) are important mediators of inflammation. We examined 10 of these genes with respect to breast cancer risk and mortality in a genetically admixed population of Hispanic/Native American (NA) (2111 cases, 2597 controls) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) (1481 cases, 1585 controls) women. Additionally, we explored if diet and lifestyle factors modified associations with these genes. Overall, these genes (collectively) were associated with breast cancer risk among women with >70% NA ancestry (P(ARTP) = 0.0008), with TLR1 rs7696175 being the primary risk contributor (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.25, 2.51). Overall, TLR1 rs7696175 (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03, 1.91; P(adj) = 0.032), TLR4 rs5030728 (HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.30, 2.95; P(adj) = 0.014), and TNFRSF1A rs4149578 (HR 2.71, 95% CI 1.28, 5.76; P(adj) = 0.029) were associated with increased breast cancer mortality. We observed several statistically significant interactions after adjustment for multiple comparisons, including interactions between our dietary oxidative balance score and CD40LG and TNFSF1A; between cigarette smoking and TLR1, TLR4, and TNF; between body mass index (BMI) among pre-menopausal women and TRAF2; and between regular use of aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and TLR3 and TRA2. In conclusion, our findings support a contributing role of certain TNF-α and TLR genes in both breast cancer risk and survival, particularly among women with higher NA ancestry. Diet and lifestyle factors appear to be important mediators of the breast cancer risk associated with these genes.

Chaves Neto AH, Pelizzaro-Rocha KJ, Fernandes MN, Ferreira-Halder CV
Antitumor activity of irradiated riboflavin on human renal carcinoma cell line 786-O.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(2):595-604 [PubMed] Related Publications
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is a precursor for coenzymes involved in energy production, biosynthesis, detoxification, and electron scavenging. Previously, we demonstrated that irradiated riboflavin (IR) has potential antitumoral effects against human leukemia cells (HL60), human prostate cancer cells (PC3), and mouse melanoma cells (B16F10) through a common mechanism that leads to apoptosis. Hence, we here investigated the effect of IR on 786-O cells, a known model cell line for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC), which is characterized by high-risk metastasis and chemotherapy resistance. IR also induced cell death in 786-O cells by apoptosis, which was not prevented by antioxidant agents. IR treatment was characterized by downregulation of Fas ligand (TNF superfamily, member 6)/Fas (TNF receptor superfamily member 6) (FasL/Fas) and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1a (TNFR1)/TNFRSF1A-associated via death domain (TRADD)/TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF) signaling pathways (the extrinsic apoptosis pathway), while the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was upregulated, as observed by an elevated Bcl-2 associated x protein/B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bax/Bcl-2) ratio, reduced cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (c-IAP1) expression, and increased expression of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). The observed cell death was caspase-dependent as proven by caspase 3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) cleavage. IR-induced cell death was also associated with downregulation of v-src sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homologue (avian)/protein serine/threonine kinase B/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (Src/AKT/ERK1/2) pathway and activation of p38 MAP kinase (p38) and Jun-amino-terminal kinase (JNK). Interestingly, IR treatment leads to inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity and reduced expression of renal cancer aggressiveness markers caveolin-1, low molecular weight phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase (LMWPTP), and kinase insert domain receptor (a type III receptor tyrosine kinase) (VEGFR-2). Together, these results show the potential of IR for treating cancer.

Mahalingam J, Lin CY, Chiang JM, et al.
CD4⁺ T cells expressing latency-associated peptide and Foxp3 are an activated subgroup of regulatory T cells enriched in patients with colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e108554 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Latency-associated peptide (LAP) - expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important for immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. In order to investigate the role of LAP in human CD4⁺Foxp3⁺ Tregs, we designed a cross-sectional study that involved 42 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The phenotypes, cytokine-release patterns, and suppressive ability of Tregs isolated from peripheral blood and tumor tissues were analyzed. We found that the population of LAP-positive CD4⁺Foxp3⁺ Tregs significantly increased in peripheral blood and cancer tissues of CRC patients as compared to that in the peripheral blood and tissues of healthy subjects. Both LAP⁺ and LAP⁻ Tregs had a similar effector/memory phenotype. However, LAP⁺ Tregs expressed more effector molecules, including tumor necrosis factor receptor II, granzyme B, perforin, Ki67, and CCR5, than their LAP⁻ negative counterparts. The in vitro immunosuppressive activity of LAP⁺ Tregs, exerted via a transforming growth factor-β-mediated mechanism, was more potent than that of LAP⁻ Tregs. Furthermore, the enrichment of LAP⁺ Treg population in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of CRC patients correlated with cancer metastases. In conclusion, we found that LAP⁺ Foxp3⁺ CD4⁺ Treg cells represented an activated subgroup of Tregs having more potent regulatory activity in CRC patients. The increased frequency of LAP⁺ Tregs in PBMCs of CRC patients suggests their potential role in controlling immune response to cancer and presents LAP as a marker of tumor-specific Tregs in CRC patients.

Ji H, Cao R, Yang Y, et al.
TNFR1 mediates TNF-α-induced tumour lymphangiogenesis and metastasis by modulating VEGF-C-VEGFR3 signalling.
Nat Commun. 2014; 5:4944 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammation and lymphangiogenesis are two cohesively coupled processes that promote tumour growth and invasion. Here we report that TNF-α markedly promotes tumour lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. The TNF-α-TNFR1 signalling pathway directly stimulates lymphatic endothelial cell activity through a VEGFR3-independent mechanism. However, VEGFR3-induced lymphatic endothelial cell tips are a prerequisite for lymphatic vessel growth in vivo, and a VEGFR3 blockade completely ablates TNF-α-induced lymphangiogenesis. Moreover, TNF-α-TNFR1-activated inflammatory macrophages produce high levels of VEGF-C to coordinately activate VEGFR3. Genetic deletion of TNFR1 (Tnfr1(-/-)) in mice or depletion of tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) virtually eliminates TNF-α-induced lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. Gain-of-function experiments show that reconstitution of Tnfr1(+/+) macrophages in Tnfr1(-/-) mice largely restores tumour lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. These findings shed mechanistic light on the intimate interplay between inflammation and lymphangiogenesis in cancer metastasis, and propose therapeutic intervention of lymphatic metastasis by targeting the TNF-α-TNFR1 pathway.

Yang YF, Jan YH, Liu YP, et al.
Squalene synthase induces tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 enrichment in lipid rafts to promote lung cancer metastasis.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014; 190(6):675-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
RATIONALE: Metabolic alterations contribute to cancer development and progression. However, the molecular mechanisms relating metabolism to cancer metastasis remain largely unknown.
OBJECTIVES: To identify a key metabolic enzyme that is aberrantly overexpressed in invasive lung cancer cells and to investigate its functional role and prognostic value in lung cancer.
METHODS: The differential expression of metabolic enzymes in noninvasive CL1-0 cells and invasive CL1-5 cells was analyzed by a gene expression microarray. The expression of target genes in clinical specimens from patients with lung cancer was examined by immunohistochemistry. Pharmacologic and gene knockdown/overexpression approaches were used to investigate the function of the target gene during invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. The association between the target gene expression and clinicopathologic parameters was further analyzed. Bioinformatic analyses were used to discover the signaling pathways involved in target gene-regulated invasion and migration.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Squalene synthase (SQS) was up-regulated in CL1-5 cells and in the tumor regions of the lung cancer specimens. Loss of function or knockdown of SQS significantly inhibited invasion/migration and metastasis in cell and animal models and vice versa. High expression of SQS was significantly associated with poor prognosis among patients with lung cancer. Mechanistically, SQS contributed to a lipid-raft-localized enrichment of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in a cholesterol-dependent manner, which resulted in the enhancement of nuclear factor-κB activation leading to matrix metallopeptidase 1 up-regulation.
CONCLUSIONS: Up-regulation of SQS promotes metastasis of lung cancer by enhancing tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 and nuclear factor-κB activation and matrix metallopeptidase 1 expression. Targeting SQS may have considerable potential as a novel therapeutic strategy to treat metastatic lung cancer.

Nakagawa H, Umemura A, Taniguchi K, et al.
ER stress cooperates with hypernutrition to trigger TNF-dependent spontaneous HCC development.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 26(3):331-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), disorders that increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To determine whether and how ER stress contributes to obesity-driven hepatic tumorigenesis we fed wild-type (WT) and MUP-uPA mice, in which hepatocyte ER stress is induced by plasminogen activator expression, with high-fat diet. Although both strains were equally insulin resistant, the MUP-uPA mice exhibited more liver damage, more immune infiltration, and increased lipogenesis and, as a result, displayed classical NASH signs and developed typical steatohepatitic HCC. Both NASH and HCC development were dependent on TNF produced by inflammatory macrophages that accumulate in the MUP-uPA liver in response to hepatocyte ER stress.

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