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TNFRSF1B; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1B (1p36.22)

Gene Summary

Gene:TNFRSF1B; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1B
Aliases: p75, TBPII, TNFBR, TNFR2, CD120b, TNFR1B, TNFR80, TNF-R75, p75TNFR, TNF-R-II
Location:1p36.22
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This protein and TNF-receptor 1 form a heterocomplex that mediates the recruitment of two anti-apoptotic proteins, c-IAP1 and c-IAP2, which possess E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. The function of IAPs in TNF-receptor signalling is unknown, however, c-IAP1 is thought to potentiate TNF-induced apoptosis by the ubiquitination and degradation of TNF-receptor-associated factor 2, which mediates anti-apoptotic signals. Knockout studies in mice also suggest a role of this protein in protecting neurons from apoptosis by stimulating antioxidative pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1B
HPRD
Source:NCBI
Updated:14 December, 2014

Gene
Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (13)

Pathways:

What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- Acetylation and Deacetylation of RelA in The Nucleus BIOCARTA
- Chaperones modulate interferon Signaling Pathway BIOCARTA
- HIV-I Nef BIOCARTA
- Keratinocyte Differentiation BIOCARTA
- NF-kB Signaling Pathway BIOCARTA
- Regulation of transcriptional activity by PML BIOCARTA
- SODD/TNFR1 Signaling Pathway BIOCARTA
- TNFR2 Signaling Pathway BIOCARTA
- Adipocytokine signaling pathway KEGG
- Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction KEGG
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (1)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Lung CancerTNFRSF1B and Lung Cancer View Publications3

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: TNFRSF1B (cancer-related)

Govindaraj C, Madondo M, Kong YY, et al.
Lenalidomide-based maintenance therapy reduces TNF receptor 2 on CD4 T cells and enhances immune effector function in acute myeloid leukemia patients.
Am J Hematol. 2014; 89(8):795-802 [PubMed] Related Publications
A major limitation to improved outcomes in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is relapse resulting from leukemic cells that persist at clinical remission. Regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are increased in AML patients, can contribute to immune evasion by residual leukemic cells. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine present at high levels within patients, can induce TNF receptor-2 (TNFR2) expression on Tregs. We hypothesized that since TNFR2 is required for Treg stabilization and TNFR2+ Tregs are potent suppressors, targeting TNFR2+ Tregs may restore the effectiveness of immune-surveillance mechanisms. In this pilot study, we report AML patients in clinical remission have substantially increased levels of TNFR2+ T cells, including TNFR2+ Tregs and impaired effector CD4 T cell function with reduced IL-2 and IFNγ production. The immunomodulatory drug, lenalidomide, and the demethylating agent, azacitidine have been moderately successful in treating AML patients, but their combined effects on TNFR2+ T cells, including Tregs are currently unknown. Our data indicates that although treatment with lenalidomide and azacitidine increased cytokine production by effector T cells in all patients, durable clinical remissions may be observed in patients with a concomitant reduction in TNFR2+ T cells and TNFR2+ Tregs. In vitro studies further demonstrated that lenalidomide can reduce TNFR2 expression and can augment effector cytokine production by T cells, which can be further enhanced by azacitidine. These results indicate that reduction of TNFR2+ T cells in AML postremission phase may result from combined azacitidine/lenalidomide therapy and may contribute to an improved clinical outcome.

Related: Azacitidine Interleukin 2 (Aldesleukin) Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Thalidomide Lenalidomide


Peng DF, Hu TL, Soutto M, et al.
Loss of glutathione peroxidase 7 promotes TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in Barrett's carcinogenesis.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(7):1620-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a classic example of inflammation-associated cancer, which develops through GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)-Barrett's esophagus (BE)-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. The incidence of EAC has been rising rapidly in the USA and Western countries during the last few decades. The functions of glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPX7), an antioxidant enzyme frequently silenced during Barrett's tumorigenesis, remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, we investigated the potential role of GPX7 in regulating nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activity in esophageal cells. Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence and luciferase reporter assay data indicated that reconstitution of GPX7 expression in CP-A (non-dysplastic BE cells) and FLO-1 (EAC cells) abrogated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity (P < 0.01) and nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 (P = 0.01). In addition, we detected a marked reduction in phosphorylation levels of components of NF-κB signaling pathway, p-p65 (S536), p-IκB-α (S32) and p-IKKα/β (S176/180), as well as significant suppression in induction of NF-κB target genes [TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1β, CXCL-1 and CXCL-2] following treatment with TNF-α in GPX7-expressing FLO-1 cells as compared with control cells. We validated these effects by knockdown of GPX7 expression in HET1A (normal esophageal squamous cells). We found that GPX7-mediated suppression of NF-κB is independent of reactive oxygen species level and GPX7 antioxidant function. Further mechanistic investigations demonstrated that GPX7 promotes protein degradation of TNF-receptor 1 (TNFR1) and TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), suggesting that GPX7 modulates critical upstream regulators of NF-κB. We concluded that the loss of GPX7 expression is a critical step in promoting the TNF-α-induced activation of proinflammatory NF-κB signaling, a major player in GERD-associated Barrett's carcinogenesis.

Related: Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer TNFRSF1A Signal Transduction TNF


Galatola M, Miele E, Strisciuglio C, et al.
Synergistic effect of interleukin-10-receptor variants in a case of early-onset ulcerative colitis.
World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19(46):8659-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
AIM: To investigated the molecular cause of very early-onset ulcerative colitis (UC) in an 18-mo-old affected child.
METHODS: We analysed the interleukin-10 (IL10) receptor genes at the DNA and RNA level in the proband and his relatives. Beta catenin and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) receptors were analysed in the proteins extracted from peripheral blood cells of the proband, his relatives and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) patients. Samples were also collected from the proband's inflamed colorectal mucosa and compared to healthy and tumour mucosa collected from a FAP patient and patients affected by sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). Finally, we examined mesalazine and azathioprine effects on primary fibroblasts stabilised from UC and FAP patients.
RESULTS: Our patient was a compound heterozygote for the IL10RB E47K polymorphism, inherited from his father, and for a novel point mutation within the IL10RA promoter (the -413G->T), inherited from his mother. Beta catenin and tumour necrosis factor α receptors-I (TNFRI) protein were both over-expressed in peripheral blood cells of the proband's relatives more than the proband. However, TNFRII was over-expressed only in the proband. Finally, both TNFα-receptors were shown to be under-expressed in the inflamed colon mucosa and colorectal cancer tissue compared to healthy colon mucosa. Consistent with this observation, mesalazine and azathioprine induced, in primary fibroblasts, IL10RB and TNFRII over-expression and TNFRI and TNFα under-expression. We suggest that β-catenin and TNFRI protein expression in peripheral blood cells could represent molecular markers of sub-clinical disease in apparently healthy relatives of patients with early-onset UC.
CONCLUSION: A synergistic effect of several variant alleles of the IL10 receptor genes, inherited in a Mendelian manner, is involved in UC onset in this young child.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Polymorphisms TNFRSF1A CTNNB1 gene


Hu X, Li B, Li X, et al.
Transmembrane TNF-α promotes suppressive activities of myeloid-derived suppressor cells via TNFR2.
J Immunol. 2014; 192(3):1320-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been reported that TNFR2 is involved in regulatory T cell induction and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) accumulation, two kinds of immunosuppressive cells contributing to tumor immune evasion. Because transmembrane TNF-α (tmTNF-α) is the primary ligand for TNFR2, we hypothesized that tmTNF-α is mainly responsible for the activation of MDSCs. Indeed, we found that tmTNF-α, rather than secretory TNF-α (sTNF-α), activated MDSCs with enhanced suppressive activities, including upregulating arginase-1 and inducible NO synthase transcription, promoting secretion of NO, reactive oxygen species, IL-10, and TGF-β, and enhancing inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation. This effect of tmTNF-α was mediated by TNFR2, as TNFR2 deficiency significantly impaired tmTNF-α-induced release of IL-10 and NO and inhibition of T cell proliferation by MDSC supernatant. Furthermore, tmTNF-α caused p38 phosphorylation and NF-κB activation, whereas inhibition of NF-κB or p38 with an inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate or SB203580 abrogated tmTNF-α-mediated increased suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by MDSCs. Consistently, our in vivo study showed that ectopic expression of uncleavable tmTNF-α mutant by 4T1 cells significantly promoted tumor progression and angiogenesis, accompanied with more accumulation of MDSCs and regulatory T cells in the tumor site, increased production of NO, IL-10, and TGF-β, as well as poor lymphocyte infiltration. In contrast, enforced expression of sTNF-α mutant by 4T1 cells that only released sTNF-α without expression of surface tmTNF-α markedly reduced MDSC accumulation and induced more lymphocyte infiltration instead, showing obvious tumor regression. Our data suggest that tmTNF-α acts as a potent activator of MDSCs via TNFR2 and reveals another novel immunosuppressive effect of this membrane molecule that promotes tumor immune escape.

Related: TNFRSF1A TNF


Chopra M, Lang I, Salzmann S, et al.
Tumor necrosis factor induces tumor promoting and anti-tumoral effects on pancreatic cancer via TNFR1.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e75737 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Multiple activities are ascribed to the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in health and disease. In particular, TNF was shown to affect carcinogenesis in multiple ways. This cytokine acts via the activation of two cell surface receptors, TNFR1, which is associated with inflammation, and TNFR2, which was shown to cause anti-inflammatory signaling. We assessed the effects of TNF and its two receptors on the progression of pancreatic cancer by in vivo bioluminescence imaging in a syngeneic orthotopic tumor mouse model with Panc02 cells. Mice deficient for TNFR1 were unable to spontaneously reject Panc02 tumors and furthermore displayed enhanced tumor progression. In contrast, a fraction of wild type (37.5%), TNF deficient (12.5%), and TNFR2 deficient mice (22.2%) were able to fully reject the tumor within two weeks. Pancreatic tumors in TNFR1 deficient mice displayed increased vascular density, enhanced infiltration of CD4(+) T cells and CD4(+) forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) but reduced numbers of CD8(+) T cells. These alterations were further accompanied by transcriptional upregulation of IL4. Thus, TNF and TNFR1 are required in pancreatic ductal carcinoma to ensure optimal CD8(+) T cell-mediated immunosurveillance and tumor rejection. Exogenous systemic administration of human TNF, however, which only interacts with murine TNFR1, accelerated tumor progression. This suggests that TNFR1 has basically the capability in the Panc02 model to trigger pro-and anti-tumoral effects but the spatiotemporal availability of TNF seems to determine finally the overall outcome.

Related: IL4 Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer TNFRSF1A TNF


Maas C, Tromp JM, van Laar J, et al.
CLL cells are resistant to smac mimetics because of an inability to form a ripoptosome complex.
Cell Death Dis. 2013; 4:e782 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
In the lymph node (LN) environment, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells display increased NF-κB activity compared with peripheral blood CLL cells, which contributes to chemoresistance. Antagonists of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAPs) can induce apoptosis in various cancer cells in a tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-dependent manner and are in preclinical development. Smac-mimetics promote degradation of cIAP1 and cIAP2, which results in TNFR-mediated apoptosis via formation of a ripoptosome complex, comprising RIPK1, Fas-associated protein with death domain, FLICE-like inhibitory protein and caspase-8. CD40 stimulation of CLL cells in vitro is used as a model to mimic the LN microenvironment and results in NF-κB activation and TNFα production. In this study, we investigated the response of CLL cells to smac-mimetics in the context of CD40 stimulation. We found that treatment with smac-mimetics results in cIAP1 and cIAP2 degradation, yet although TNFα is produced, this did not induce apoptosis. Despite the presence of all components, the ripoptosome complex did not form upon smac-mimetic treatment in CLL cells. Thus, CLL cells seem to possess aberrant upstream NF-κB regulation that prevents ripoptosome formation upon IAP degradation. Unraveling the exact molecular mechanisms of disturbed ripoptosome formation may offer novel targets for treatment in CLL.

Related: CD40 (TNFRSF5) Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) CLL - Molecular Biology TNFRSF1A Signal Transduction TNF BIRC3 gene


Lee SY, Kang HG, Yoo SS, et al.
Polymorphisms in DNA repair and apoptosis-related genes and clinical outcomes of patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with first-line paclitaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy.
Lung Cancer. 2013; 82(2):330-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was conducted to analyze a comprehensive panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in DNA repair and apoptosis pathways and determine the relationship between polymorphisms and treatment outcomes of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with first-line paclitaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy. Three hundred eighty two patients with NSCLC were enrolled. Seventy-four SNPs in 48 genes (42 SNPs in 27 DNA repair pathway genes and 32 SNPs in 21 apoptotic pathway genes) were genotyped and their associations with chemotherapy response and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Among SNPs in DNA repair genes, BRCA1 rs799917 was significantly associated with both chemotherapy response and OS. XRCC1 rs25487 exhibited a significant association with chemotherapy response and ERCC2 rs1052555 with OS. Four SNPs in apoptotic genes (TNFRSF1B rs1061624, BCL2 rs2279115, BIRC5 rs9904341, and CASP8 rs3769818) were significantly associated with OS, but not with response to chemotherapy. When the six SNPs which were associated with OS in individual analysis were combined, OS decreased as the number of bad genotypes increased (P(trend) = 2 × 10(-6)). Patients with 3, and 4-6 bad genotypes had significantly worse OS compared with those carrying 0-2 bad genotypes (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.14-2.08, P = 0.005; aHR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.55-2.85, P = 2 × 10(-6), respectively). In conclusion, these findings suggest that the six SNPs identified, particularly their combined genotypes, could be used as biomarkers predicting chemotherapy response and survival of NSCLC patients treated with first-line paclitaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy.

Related: Apoptosis Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cisplatin Lung Cancer Paclitaxel


Purdue MP, Hofmann JN, Kemp TJ, et al.
A prospective study of 67 serum immune and inflammation markers and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Blood. 2013; 122(6):951-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Although severe immune dysregulation is an established risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the importance of subclinical immunologic effects is unclear. We compared baseline serum levels of 67 immune and inflammation markers between 301 patients with NHL diagnosed 5+ years after blood collection and 301 control patients within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We observed associations with NHL for elevated B-cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1; fourth quartile vs first: odds ratio [OR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-4.2; Ptrend = 1.0 × 10(-6)), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2; OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.0-5.8; Ptrend = 1.1 × 10(-6)), and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (sVEGFR2; OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.9; Ptrend = .0005) that remained significant after Bonferroni correction, simultaneous model adjustment, and restriction to cases diagnosed 8 to 13 years after blood collection. Associations with other markers were observed, although none remained associated with NHL after adjustment for BCA-1, sTNFR2, and sVEGFR2. Our findings suggest that circulating BCA-1, sTNFR2, and sVEGFR2 are associated with NHL risk well in advance of diagnosis. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings and elucidate the underlying biologic mechanisms.

Related: Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma


Nakamura N, Goto N, Tsurumi H, et al.
Serum level of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 is associated with the outcome of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with the R-CHOP regimen.
Eur J Haematol. 2013; 91(4):322-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Serum soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2) concentration predicted the clinical outcome of patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) in our previous study. However, after rituximab (R) was introduced in clinical practice, R-CHOP replaced CHOP as the standard therapy for DLBCL.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, we re-evaluated the prognostic significance of serum sTNFR2 in 154 patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP.
RESULTS: Five-yr overall survival (5-yr OS) rates with sTNFR2 ≥20 ng/mL and <20 ng/mL were 29.2% and 83.3% (P < 0.0001), respectively, and the corresponding 5-yr progression-free survival (5-yr PFS) rates were 26.9% and 76.4% (P < 0.0001), respectively. A multivariate analysis revealed that serum sTNFR2 and complete remission (CR) were independent prognostic factors for both OS (CR: P < 0.0001, sTNFR2: P = 0.0001) and PFS (CR: P < 0.0001, sTNFR2: P = 0.0001). The prognosis of patients with poor risk groups according to the revised International Prognostic Index who also had high serum sTNFR2 was especially poor.
CONCLUSION: Serum sTNFR2 might be a powerful prognostic factor for patients with DLBCL in the rituximab era.

Related: Cyclophosphamide Doxorubicin Vincristine


Tao YF, Lu J, Du XJ, et al.
Survivin selective inhibitor YM155 induce apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 Wilms tumor cells.
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:619 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Survivin, a member of the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, functions as a key regulator of mitosis and programmed cell death. YM155, a novel molecular targeted agent, suppresses survivin, which is overexpressed in many tumor types. The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of YM155 in SK-NEP-1 cells.
METHODS: SK-NEP-1 cell growth in vitro and in vivo was assessed by MTT and nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis was used to detect apoptosis in cell culture. Then gene expression profile of tumor cells treated with YM155 was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. We then analyzed the expression data with MEV (Multi Experiment View) cluster software. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profile derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool.
RESULTS: YM155 treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V assay, cell cycle, and activation of caspase-3 demonstrates that YM155 induced apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 cells. YM155 significantly inhibited growth of SK-NEP-1 xenografts (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.45 ± 0.77 cm3; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.95 ± 0.55 cm3) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 3.70 ± 2.4 cm3) or PBS group cells (PBS: 3.78 ± 2.20 cm3, ANOVA P < 0.01). YM155 treatment decreased weight of tumors (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.05 ± 0.24 g; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.72 ± 0.17 g) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 2.06 ± 0.38 g) or PBS group cells (PBS: 2.36 ± 0.43 g, ANOVA P < 0.01). Real-time PCR array analysis showed between Test group and control group there are 32 genes significantly up-regulated and 54 genes were significantly down-regulated after YM155 treatment. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) showed cell death was the highest rated network with 65 focus molecules and the significance score of 44. The IPA analysis also groups the differentially expressed genes into biological mechanisms that are related to cell death, cellular function maintenance, cell morphology, carbohydrate metabolism and cellular growth and proliferation. Death receptor signaling (3.87E-19), TNFR1 signaling, induction of apoptosis by HIV1, apoptosis signaling and molecular mechanisms of cancer came out to be the top four most significant pathways. IPA analysis also showed top molecules up-regulated were BBC3, BIRC3, BIRC8, BNIP1, CASP7, CASP9, CD5, CDKN1A, CEBPG and COL4A3, top molecules down-regulated were ZNF443, UTP11L, TP73, TNFSF10, TNFRSF1B, TNFRSF25, TIAF1, STK17A, SST and SPP1, upstream regulator were NR3C1, TP53, dexamethasone , TNF and Akt.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that YM155 treatment resulted in apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells. YM155 had significant role and little side effect in the treatment of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors. Real-time PCR array analysis firstly showed expression profile of genes dyes-regulated after YM155 treatment. IPA analysis also represents new molecule mechanism of YM155 treatment, such as NR3C1 and dexamethasone may be new target of YM155. And our results may provide new clues of molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by YM155.

Related: Apoptosis Kidney Cancer Wilms' Tumour Wilms Tumour BIRC5


Heemann C, Kreuz M, Stoller I, et al.
Circulating levels of TNF receptor II are prognostic for patients with peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(13):3637-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (T-NHL) represent a small but heterogeneous and clinically aggressive subset of NHLs with a poor outcome. Cytokines or their receptors might be associated with the clinical outcome of these lymphomas. Therefore, we tested whether gene variations and serum levels of soluble TNF receptor (TNFR)I (sTNFRI), sTNFRII, interleukin (IL)-10, or sIL-4R are predictive for treatment response in T-NHLs.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Peripheral blood DNA from 117 patients with T-NHL treated in prospective clinical trials was subjected to genotyping analysis. Whenever possible, pretreatment sera were obtained, and circulating levels of sTNFRI, sTNFRII, IL-10, and sIL-4R were determined with a specific capture enzyme-linked immunoassay.
RESULTS: Patients characterized by TNFRI-609GG (rs4149570) showed a trend toward better event free survival [EFS; univariate: P = 0.041; multivariate: HR, 1.76; confidence interval (CI), 0.99-3.14 with P = 0.056]. A protective role of IL-10-1087A, -824T, and -597A reported in another study was not confirmed in our cohort. Patients with circulating levels of soluble TNFRII ≥2.16 ng/mL had a 2.07-fold increased relative risk for shorter overall survival (OS; univariate: P = 0.0034; multivariate: HR, 2.07; CI, 0.92-4.70 with P = 0.081) and a 2.49-fold higher risk for shorter EFS (univariate: P = 0.00068; multivariate: HR, 2.49; CI, 1.22-5.08 with P = 0.012). Elevations of circulating levels of sTNFRI, IL-10, and sIL-4R are frequent, but the clinical response in these patients is not significantly different.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a critical role for TNF-TNFR signaling for the clinical outcome of patients with peripheral T-NHLs.

Related: IL10 TNFRSF1A


Akilov OE, Wu MX, Ustyugova IV, et al.
Resistance of Sézary cells to TNF-α-induced apoptosis is mediated in part by a loss of TNFR1 and a high level of the IER3 expression.
Exp Dermatol. 2012; 21(4):287-92 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Failure to execute an apoptotic programme is one of the critical steps and a common mechanism promoting tumorogenesis. Immediate early responsive gene 3 (IER3) has been shown to be upregulated in several cancers. IER3 is a stress-induced gene, which upregulation leads to reduction in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) protecting malignant cells from apoptosis. We observed that malignant lymphocytes from patients with Sézary syndrome (SzS) were resistant to pro-apoptotic dose of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IER3 in the mechanism of such resistance. CD4+ CD26- lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of patients with SzS and healthy controls were negatively selected using CD4 and CD26 magnetic beads and analysed for expression of TNFR1, TNFR2, IER3 expression, and ROS production in response to TNF-α at an apoptotic dose. Sézary cells with a higher level of IER3 expression retained their viability to TNF-α. IER3 upregulation correlated with a decrease level of intracellular ROS and low TNFR1 expression on malignant cells. Targeting IER3 could be of interest for the development of future therapeutic strategies for patients with SzS.

Related: Apoptosis TNFRSF1A Signal Transduction TNF


Pearce KF, Lee SJ, Haagenson M, et al.
Analysis of non-HLA genomic risk factors in HLA-matched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia.
Haematologica. 2012; 97(7):1014-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is the main curative therapy for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who do not respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. It has been proposed that non-human leukocyte antigen gene polymorphisms influence outcome after hematopoietic cell transplantation and could be used alongside traditional patient-donor and transplant characteristics to create a recipient risk profile associated with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
DESIGN AND METHODS: A previous study from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation showed that the absence of recipient tumor necrosis factor receptor II, absence of donor interleukin 10 ATA/ACC and presence of donor interleukin 1 receptor antagonist allele 2 genotypes were associated with decreased survival and increased non-relapse mortality in adult patients with chronic myeloid leukemia undergoing myeloablative human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling transplantation. To explore these associations in unrelated donor transplantation, these polymorphisms were genotyped in 383 adult patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation from unrelated donors matched for 10/10 human leukocyte antigens.
RESULTS: The polymorphisms were not associated with overall survival, non-relapse mortality, relapse or acute graft-versus-host disease in the unrelated donor cohort. Comparison of the unrelated donor and human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling cohorts showed differences in survival and clinical characteristics.
CONCLUSIONS: We did not confirm that non-human leukocyte antigen polymorphisms were associated with outcomes in myeloablative unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia, possibly because of the strong association between clinical variables and outcome which masked more subtle genetic effects.

Related: IL10 Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) CML - Molecular Biology Polymorphisms


Sprowl JA, Reed K, Armstrong SR, et al.
Alterations in tumor necrosis factor signaling pathways are associated with cytotoxicity and resistance to taxanes: a study in isogenic resistant tumor cells.
Breast Cancer Res. 2012; 14(1):R2 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel are widely used in the treatment of breast, ovarian, and other cancers. Although their cytotoxicity has been attributed to cell-cycle arrest through stabilization of microtubules, the mechanisms by which tumor cells die remains unclear. Paclitaxel has been shown to induce soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha (sTNF-α) production in macrophages, but the involvement of TNF production in taxane cytotoxicity or resistance in tumor cells has not been established. Our study aimed to correlate alterations in the TNF pathway with taxane cytotoxicity and the acquisition of taxane resistance.
METHODS: MCF-7 cells or isogenic drug-resistant variants (developed by selection for surviving cells in increasing concentrations of paclitaxel or docetaxel) were assessed for sTNF-α production in the absence or presence of taxanes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for sensitivity to docetaxel or sTNF-α by using a clonogenic assay (in the absence or presence of TNFR1 or TNFR2 neutralizing antibodies). Nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity was also measured with ELISA, whereas gene-expression changes associated with docetaxel resistance in MCF-7 and A2780 cells were determined with microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR).
RESULTS: MCF-7 and A2780 cells increased production of sTNF-α in the presence of taxanes, whereas docetaxel-resistant variants of MCF-7 produced high levels of sTNF-α, although only within a particular drug-concentration threshold (between 3 and 45 nM). Increased production of sTNF-α was NF-κB dependent and correlated with decreased sensitivity to sTNF-α, decreased levels of TNFR1, and increased survival through TNFR2 and NF-κB activation. The NF-κB inhibitor SN-50 reestablished sensitivity to docetaxel in docetaxel-resistant MCF-7 cells. Gene-expression analysis of wild-type and docetaxel-resistant MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and A2780 cells identified changes in the expression of TNF-α-related genes consistent with reduced TNF-induced cytotoxicity and activation of NF-κB survival pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: We report for the first time that taxanes can promote dose-dependent sTNF-α production in tumor cells at clinically relevant concentrations, which can contribute to their cytotoxicity. Defects in the TNF cytotoxicity pathway or activation of TNF-dependent NF-κB survival genes may, in contrast, contribute to taxane resistance in tumor cells. These findings may be of strong clinical significance.

Related: Breast Cancer Ovarian Cancer Paclitaxel TNFRSF1A Signal Transduction TNF Docetaxel


Sasi SP, Yan X, Enderling H, et al.
Breaking the 'harmony' of TNF-α signaling for cancer treatment.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(37):4117-27 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) binds to two distinct receptors, TNFR1/p55 and TNFR2/p75. TNF-α is implicated in the processes of tumor growth, survival, differentiation, invasion, metastases, secretion of cytokines and pro-angiogenic factors. We have shown that TNFR2/p75 signaling promotes ischemia-induced angiogenesis via modulation of several angiogenic growth factors. We hypothesized that TNFR2/p75 may promote tumor growth and angiogenesis. Growth of mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC1) and/or mouse melanoma B16 cell was evaluated in wild type (WT), p75 knockout (KO) and double p55KO/p75KO mouse tumor xenograft models. Compared with WT and p55KO/p75KO mice, growth of tumors in p75KO mice was significantly decreased (twofold) in both LLC and B16 tumors. Tumor growth inhibition was correlated with decreases in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and capillary density, as well as bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells incorporation into the functional capillary network, and an increase in apoptotic cells in LLC xenografts. Gene array analysis of tumor tissues showed a decrease in gene expression in pathways that promote tumor angiogenesis and cell survival. Blocking p75 by short-hairpin RNA in cultured LLCs led to increases in TNF-mediated apoptosis, as well as decreases in the constitutive and TNF-mediated expression of angiogenic growth factors (VEGF, HGF, PLGF), and SDF-1α receptor CXCR4. In summary, p75 is essential for tumor angiogenesis and survival in highly vascularized murine lung tumor xenografts. Blocking p75 expression may lead to tumor regression. This may represent new and effective therapy against lung neoplasms and potentially tumors of other origin.

Related: Apoptosis Angiogenesis and Cancer TNFRSF1A TNF


Zidi IT, M'farrej SM, Bergaoui SD, et al.
Tumor necrosis factor-receptor 2 and TROY gene expression patterns in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in a Tunisian population.
Saudi Med J. 2011; 32(11):1202-3 [PubMed] Related Publications


Related: Skin Cancer


Walczak H
TNF and ubiquitin at the crossroads of gene activation, cell death, inflammation, and cancer.
Immunol Rev. 2011; 244(1):9-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is crucial for innate immunity, but deregulated TNF signaling also plays an eminent role in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer-related inflammation. The signals that mediate both the beneficial and the harmful effects of TNF are initiated when TNF binds to its receptors on the surface of target cells. TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) is ubiquitously expressed, whereas TNFR2 is mainly expressed on lymphocytes and endothelial cells. This review focuses on the molecular and physiological consequences of the interaction of TNF with TNFR1. The different outcomes of TNF signaling originate at the apical signaling complex that forms when TNF binds to TNFR1, the TNFR1 signaling complex (TNF-RSC). By integrating recently gained insight on the functional importance of the presence of different types of ubiquitination in the TNF-RSC, including linear ubiquitin linkages generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), with the equally recent elucidation of the mode in which ubiquitin-binding domains interact with specific di-ubiquitin linkages, this review develops a new concept for the way the concerted action of different ubiquitination events enables the TNF-RSC to generate its signaling output in a spatio-temporally controlled manner. Finally, it will be explained how these new findings and the emerging concept of differential ubiquitination governing the TNF-RSC may impact future research on the molecular mechanism of TNF signaling and the function of this cytokine in normal physiology, chronic inflammation, and cancer.

Related: Apoptosis Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction TNFRSF1A Signal Transduction TNF


Guan X, Liao Z, Ma H, et al.
TNFRSF1B +676 T>G polymorphism predicts survival of non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy.
BMC Cancer. 2011; 11:447 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The dysregulation of gene expression in the TNF-TNFR superfamily has been involved in various human cancers including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Furthermore, functional polymorphisms in TNF-α and TNFRSF1B genes that alter gene expression are likely to be associated with risk and clinical outcomes of cancers. However, few reported studies have investigated the association between potentially functional SNPs in both TNF-α and TNFRSF1B and prognosis of NSCLC patients treated with chemoradiotherapy.
METHODS: We genotyped five potentially functional polymorphisms of TNF-α and TNFRSF1B genes [TNF-α -308 G>A (rs1800629) and -1031 T>C (rs1799964); TNFRSF1B +676 T>G (rs1061622), -1709A>T(rs652625) and +1663A>G (rs1061624)] in 225 NSCLC patients treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate associations between these variants and NSCLC overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: We found that the TNFRSF1B +676 GG genotype was associated with a significantly better OS of NSCLC (GG vs. TT: adjusted HR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15-0.94; GG vs. GT/TT: adjusted HR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.14-0.88). Further stepwise multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the TNFRSF1B +676 GG was an independent prognosis predictor in this NSCLC cohort (GG vs. GT/TT: HR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.14-0.85), in the presence of node status (N2-3 vs. N0-1: HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.09-2.35) and tumor stage (T3-4 vs. T0-2: HR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.08-2.03).
CONCLUSIONS: Although the exact biological function for this SNP remains to be explored, our findings suggest a possible role of TNFRSF1B +676 T>G (rs1061622) in the prognosis of NSCLC. Further large and functional studies are needed to confirm our findings.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Polymorphisms TNF


Hamilton KE, Simmons JG, Ding S, et al.
Cytokine induction of tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 is mediated by STAT3 in colon cancer cells.
Mol Cancer Res. 2011; 9(12):1718-31 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
The IL-6/STAT3 and TNFα/NFκB pathways are emerging as critical mediators of inflammation-associated colon cancer. TNF receptor (TNFR) 2 expression is increased in inflammatory bowel diseases, the azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS) model of colitis-associated cancer, and by combined interleukin (IL) 6 and TNFα. The molecular mechanisms that regulate TNFR2 remain undefined. This study used colon cancer cell lines to test the hypothesis that IL-6 and TNFα induce TNFR2 via STAT3 and/or NFκB. Basal and IL-6 + TNFα-induced TNFR2 were decreased by pharmacologic STAT3 inhibition. NFκB inhibition had little effect on IL-6 + TNFα-induced TNFR2, but did inhibit induction of endogenous IL-6 and TNFR2 in cells treated with TNFα alone. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed cooperative effects of IL-6 + TNFα to induce STAT3 binding to a -1,578 STAT response element in the TNFR2 promoter but no effect on NFκB binding to consensus sites. Constitutively active STAT3 was sufficient to induce TNFR2 expression. Overexpression of SOCS3, a cytokine-inducible STAT3 inhibitor, which reduces tumorigenesis in preclinical models of colitis-associated cancer, decreased cytokine-induced TNFR2 expression and STAT3 binding to the -1,578 STAT response element. SOCS3 overexpression also decreased proliferation of colon cancer cells and dramatically decreased anchorage-independent growth of colon cancer cells, even cells overexpressing TNFR2. Collectively, these studies show that IL-6- and TNFα-induced TNFR2 expression in colon cancer cells is mediated primarily by STAT3 and provide evidence that TNFR2 may contribute to the tumor-promoting roles of STAT3.

Related: TNF


Sangaletti S, Tripodo C, Ratti C, et al.
Oncogene-driven intrinsic inflammation induces leukocyte production of tumor necrosis factor that critically contributes to mammary carcinogenesis.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(20):7764-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncogene activation promotes an intrinsic inflammatory pathway that is crucial for cancer development. Here, we have investigated the actual effect of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) on the natural history of spontaneous mammary cancer in the HER2/neuT (NeuT) transgenic mouse model. Bone marrow transplantation from TNF knockout mice into NeuT recipients significantly impaired tumor growth, indicating that the source of TNF fostering tumor development was of bone marrow origin. We show that the absence of leukocyte-derived TNF disarranged the tumor vasculature, which lacked pericyte coverage and structural integrity, leading to diffuse vascular hemorrhage and stromal necrosis. In addition, tumor-associated Tie2-expressing monocytes were reduced and cytokine expression skewed from Th2 to Th1 type. Treatment of NeuT mice with anti-TNF antibody partially phenocopied the antitumor effect of TNF-deficient bone marrow cell transplantation, providing a strong preclinical background and rationale for the introduction of TNF antagonists in the treatment of human breast cancer, including basal-like samples for which consolidated targeted therapies do not exist.

Related: TNFRSF1A TNF


Hildebrandt MA, Komaki R, Liao Z, et al.
Genetic variants in inflammation-related genes are associated with radiation-induced toxicity following treatment for non-small cell lung cancer.
PLoS One. 2010; 5(8):e12402 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is often accompanied by the development of esophagitis and pneumonitis. Identifying patients who might be at increased risk for normal tissue toxicity would help in determination of the optimal radiation dose to avoid these events. We profiled 59 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 37 inflammation-related genes in 173 NSCLC patients with stage IIIA/IIIB (dry) disease who were treated with definitive radiation or chemoradiation. For esophagitis risk, nine SNPs were associated with a 1.5- to 4-fold increase in risk, including three PTGS2 (COX2) variants: rs20417 (HR:1.93, 95% CI:1.10-3.39), rs5275 (HR:1.58, 95% CI:1.09-2.27), and rs689470 (HR:3.38, 95% CI:1.09-10.49). Significantly increased risk of pneumonitis was observed for patients with genetic variation in the proinflammatory genes IL1A, IL8, TNF, TNFRSF1B, and MIF. In contrast, NOS3:rs1799983 displayed a protective effect with a 45% reduction in pneumonitis risk (HR:0.55, 95% CI:0.31-0.96). Pneumonitis risk was also modulated by polymorphisms in anti-inflammatory genes, including genetic variation in IL13. rs20541 and rs180925 each resulted in increased risk (HR:2.95, 95% CI:1.14-7.63 and HR:3.23, 95% CI:1.03-10.18, respectively). The cumulative effect of these SNPs on risk was dose-dependent, as evidenced by a significantly increased risk of either toxicity with an increasing number of risk genotypes (P<0.001). These results suggest that genetic variations among inflammation pathway genes may modulate the development of radiation-induced toxicity and, ultimately, help in identifying patients who are at an increased likelihood for such events.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer


Kuwahara A, Yamamori M, Fujita M, et al.
TNFRSF1B A1466G genotype is predictive of clinical efficacy after treatment with a definitive 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy in Japanese patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2010; 29:100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Currently definitive 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/cisplatin (CDDP) -based chemotherapy is recognized as one of the most promising treatments for esophageal cancer. A series of studies performed found genetic polymorphisms and the plasma concentration of 5-FU to be predictive of acute severe toxicities and clinical response. Genetic polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -alpha and its surface receptors, TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B have been examined in terms of susceptibility to various cancers. In this study, genetic polymorphisms of TNFRSF1B gene were evaluated Japanese esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients treated with the definitive 5-FU/CDDP-based chemoradiotherapy and their predictive values of prognosis or severe acute toxicities were assessed.
METHODS: Forty-six patients with ESCC were treated with the definitive 5-FU/CDDP-based chemoradiotherapy, one course of which consisted of the continuous infusion of 5-FU for days 1-5 and 8-12, the infusion of CDDP on days 1 and 8, and the radiation at 2 Gy/day on days 1-5, 8-12, and 15-19, with a second course repeated after 2-week interval. Genetic polymorphisms of a TNF-alpha receptor TNFRSF1B gene were determined by a TaqMan(R) MGB probe-based polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: The genotype of TNFSR1B A1466G, but not M196R/T587G or C1493T, was found to be predictive of clinical response, i.e., a complete response or not (p = 0.040). Clinical response was predicted by tumor size (p = 0,002), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.007), distant metastasis (p = 0.001) and disease stage (p < 0.001), but TNFRSF1B A1466G genotype was independent of these factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic polymorphism of TNFRSF1B A1466G was found to be predictive response in Japanese ESCC patients with a definitive 5-FU/CDDP-based chemoradiotherapy. Further clinical investigation with a large number of patients or experiments in vitro should be performed to assess the predictive value of TNFRSF1B A1466G genotype after chemoradiotherapy.

Related: Cisplatin Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer Fluorouracil Polymorphisms


Chen X, Hamano R, Subleski JJ, et al.
Expression of costimulatory TNFR2 induces resistance of CD4+FoxP3- conventional T cells to suppression by CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells.
J Immunol. 2010; 185(1):174-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous study showed that TNFR2 is preferentially expressed by CD4(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), and expression of this receptor identified maximally suppressive Tregs. TNFR2 is also expressed by a small fraction of CD4(+)FoxP3(-) conventional T cells (Tconvs) in normal mice, and its expression is upregulated by T cell activation. This raises questions about the role of TNFR2 signaling in the function of Tconv cells. In this study, by using FoxP3/gfp knock-in mice, we showed that TNFR2 signaling did not induce FoxP3(-) CD4 cells to become suppressive. Ki-67, a marker of proliferation, was concomitantly expressed with TNFR2 by CD4 cells, independent of forkhead box P3 expression, in normal mice and Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice. TNFR2 is associated with greater suppressive functions when expressed by Tregs and is associated with greater resistance to suppression when expressed by Tconv cells. In mice bearing 4T1 breast tumor or Lewis lung carcinoma, intratumoral Tconv cells expressing elevated levels of TNFR2 acquired the capacity to resist suppression by lymph node-derived Tregs. However, they remained susceptible to inhibition by more suppressive tumor-infiltrating Tregs, which expressed higher levels of TNFR2. Our data indicate that TNFR2 also costimulates Tconv cells. However, intratumoral Tregs expressing more TNFR2 are able to overcome the greater resistance to suppression of intratumoral Tconv cells, resulting in a dominant immunosuppressive tumor environment.


Sadikovic B, Thorner P, Chilton-Macneill S, et al.
Expression analysis of genes associated with human osteosarcoma tumors shows correlation of RUNX2 overexpression with poor response to chemotherapy.
BMC Cancer. 2010; 10:202 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human osteosarcoma is the most common pediatric bone tumor. There is limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying osteosarcoma oncogenesis, and a lack of good diagnostic as well as prognostic clinical markers for this disease. Recent discoveries have highlighted a potential role of a number of genes including: RECQL4, DOCK5, SPP1, RUNX2, RB1, CDKN1A, P53, IBSP, LSAMP, MYC, TNFRSF1B, BMP2, HISTH2BE, FOS, CCNB1, and CDC5L.
METHODS: Our objective was to assess relative expression levels of these 16 genes as potential biomarkers of osteosarcoma oncogenesis and chemotherapy response in human tumors. We performed quantitative expression analysis in a panel of 22 human osteosarcoma tumors with differential response to chemotherapy, and 5 normal human osteoblasts.
RESULTS: RECQL4, SPP1, RUNX2, and IBSP were significantly overexpressed, and DOCK5, CDKN1A, RB1, P53, and LSAMP showed significant loss of expression relative to normal osteoblasts. In addition to being overexpressed in osteosarcoma tumor samples relative to normal osteoblasts, RUNX2 was the only gene of the 16 to show significant overexpression in tumors that had a poor response to chemotherapy relative to good responders.
CONCLUSION: These data underscore the loss of tumor suppressive pathways and activation of specific oncogenic mechanisms associated with osteosarcoma oncogenesis, while drawing attention to the role of RUNX2 expression as a potential biomarker of chemotherapy failure in osteosarcoma.

Related: Bone Cancers Osteosarcoma


Han W, Kang SY, Kang D, et al.
Multiplex genotyping of 1107 SNPs from 232 candidate genes identified an association between IL1A polymorphism and breast cancer risk.
Oncol Rep. 2010; 23(3):763-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We sought to identify genes and polymorphisms associated with breast cancer risk among Korean women using multiplex genotyping. The SNPs (n=1536) of 264 candidate genes were genotyped using the Illumina Golden Gate assay. These genes are involved in the pathways controlling apoptosis/anti-apoptosis, the immune and inflammatory responses, cytokines, DNA repair, cell adhesion, and cell cycle/proliferation. Breast cancer cases (n=209) were recruited from Seoul National University Hospital. Age-matched control subjects (n=209) were selected from a health examinees cohort. Gene-based and SNP-based tests were performed. The final analysis includes 117 cases and 164 controls with 1107 SNPs in 232 genes. Gene-based analyses showed that IL1A, TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF1B, ICAM, and TNFSF9 were significantly associated with breast cancer risk (p<0.01). IL1A was the most significant gene associated with breast cancer risk [p for likelihood ratio test, 1 degree of freedom (df)=6x10(-7); FDR-adjusted p-value, 1df=4x10(-4), 2df=0.0071, respectively]. Individual SNP-based analyses revealed that the rare allele of the IL1A SNP rs2856836, Ex7-592Tright curved arrow C, was strongly associated with breast cancer risk (FDR-adjusted p-value, 1df=0.0027, 2df=0.0162). This SNP was found to increase risk for breast cancer [odds ratio (OR)=2.88, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.58-5.27 for heterozygote and OR=8.17, 95% CI=2.23-29.99 for rare homozygote]. In summary, we identified a common genetic variant in IL1A strongly associated with breast cancer risk.

Related: Breast Cancer


Haybaeck J, Zeller N, Wolf MJ, et al.
A lymphotoxin-driven pathway to hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Cell. 2009; 16(4):295-308 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) cause chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by poorly understood mechanisms. We show that cytokines lymphotoxin (LT) alpha and beta and their receptor (LTbetaR) are upregulated in HBV- or HCV-induced hepatitis and HCC. Liver-specific LTalphabeta expression in mice induces liver inflammation and HCC, causally linking hepatic LT overexpression to hepatitis and HCC. Development of HCC, composed in part of A6(+) oval cells, depends on lymphocytes and IKappa B kinase beta expressed by hepatocytes but is independent of TNFR1. In vivo LTbetaR stimulation implicates hepatocytes as the major LT-responsive liver cells, and LTbetaR inhibition in LTalphabeta-transgenic mice with hepatitis suppresses HCC formation. Thus, sustained LT signaling represents a pathway involved in hepatitis-induced HCC.

Related: Liver Cancer LTA TNFRSF1A Signal Transduction TNF LTB


Li H, Li X, Gao X, Lu X
[Induction of apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor receptors 2 transgene in human laryngeal squamous cacinoma in nude mice animal model].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2009; 23(3):125-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of tumor necrosis factor receptors II (TNFR II) in vivo transgene with topical injection of TNF alpha in inducing apoptosis and cell killing of laryngeal squamous carcinoma in nude mice animal model.
METHOD: Laryngeal carcinoma implantation animal model was established on nude mice. In vivo gene transfection of TNFR II was carried out using liposome as a carrier. TNF alpha was topically injected into tumor. Goss measurement of tumor, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, tunel and transmission electron microscopy were conducted to observe the expression of TNFR II protein and the apoptosis of tumor cells, and the effects of tumor killing and growth inhibition was objectively evaluated.
RESULT: Nude mice models bearing laryngeal carcinoma was established in 94.5% animals. After in vivo gene transfection, the expression of TNFR II protein reach the highest level at 48 hours, and remain in a substantially high level within 72 hours. Immunohistochemistry showed the expression of TNFR II is mainly on the cell membrane of the transfected tumor cells. Topical injection of 2000 U TNF alpha was most efficient in inducing tumor cell apoptosis, cell inhibition and cell killing. The tumor volume, weight, and tumor/body ratio in TNFR II transfected group were (1161.333 +/- 166.555) mm3, (1.100 +/- 0.832) g and 0.044 +/- 0.332, respectively, with a corresponding high level of tumor cell apoptosis rate (38.226 +/- 13.671) %, all of which were significantly higher than that in non-transfected group. Tunel and ultrastructural observations demonstrated apoptosis-related changes in the transfected tumor cells.
CONCLUSION: Up-regulation of TNFR II expression by in vivo gene transfection on tumor cells can remarkably enhance the tumor cell killing effect of topical injection of TNF-alpha. In vivo transgene of TNFR II in combination with topical injection of TNF alpha may become a effective gene therapy method in treating laryngeal cancer.

Related: Apoptosis Cancer of the Larynx Laryngeal Cancer - Molecular Biology TNF


Martínez-García MA, Luque-Ramírez M, San-Millán JL, Escobar-Morreale HF
Body iron stores and glucose intolerance in premenopausal women: role of hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and genomic variants related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and iron metabolism.
Diabetes Care. 2009; 32(8):1525-30 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE Increased serum ferritin levels and iron stores may be involved in the development of abnormal glucose tolerance in women presenting with obesity and/or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We aimed to study the determinants of serum ferritin levels in premenopausal women among indexes of insulin resistance, adiposity, hyperandrogenism, and genotypes pertaining to inflammation, oxidative stress, and iron metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 257 premenopausal women, classified depending on the presence or absence of PCOS, obesity, and/or abnormal glucose tolerance, underwent a complete metabolic evaluation, serum ferritin, haptoglobin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements, and genotyping for proinflammatory and prooxidant variants and mutations in the HFE gene. RESULTS Serum ferritin concentrations were increased in women presenting with PCOS and/or abnormal glucose tolerance, independent of obesity. A stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis (R(2) = 0.18, P < 0.0001) retained menstrual dysfunction (beta = 0.14, P = 0.035), free testosterone (beta = 0.14, P = 0.052), insulin sensitivity index (beta = -0.12, P = 0.012), the His63Asp variant in HFE (beta = 0.16, P = 0.008), and abnormal glucose tolerance (beta = 0.15, P = 0.015) as significant predictors of the logarithm of ferritin levels, whereas CRP, haptoglobin, waist-to-hip ratio, or variants in the TNFalpha, TNFRSF1B, IL6, IL6ST, IL6Ralpha, PON1, and HFE Cys282Tyr mutation exerted no influence. CONCLUSIONS Androgen excess (partly because of hyperandrogenemia and partly because of menstrual dysfunction), insulin resistance, abnormal glucose tolerance, and the HFE His63Asp variant correlate with ferritin levels in premenopausal women.

Related: Polymorphisms


Onizawa M, Nagaishi T, Kanai T, et al.
Signaling pathway via TNF-alpha/NF-kappaB in intestinal epithelial cells may be directly involved in colitis-associated carcinogenesis.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009; 296(4):G850-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Treatment with anti-TNF-alpha MAb has been accepted as a successful maintenance therapy for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Moreover, it has been recently reported that blockade of TNF receptor (TNFR) 1 signaling in infiltrating hematopoietic cells may prevent the development of colitis-associated cancer (CAC). However, it remains unclear whether the TNF-alpha signaling in epithelial cells is involved in the development of CAC. To investigate this, we studied the effects of anti-TNF-alpha MAb in an animal model of CAC by administration of azoxymethane (AOM) followed by sequential dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) ingestion. We observed that the NF-kappaB pathway is activated in colonic epithelia from DSS-administered mice in association with upregulation of TNFR2 rather than TNFR1. Immunoblot analysis also revealed that the TNFR2 upregulation accompanied by the NF-kappaB activation is further complicated in CAC tissues induced in AOM/DSS-administered mice compared with the nontumor area. Such NF-kappaB activity in the epithelial cells is significantly suppressed by the treatment of MP6-XT22, an anti-TNF-alpha MAb. Despite inability to reduce the severity of colitis, sequential administration of MP6-XT22 reduced the numbers and size of tumors in association with the NF-kappaB inactivation. Taken together, present studies suggest that the TNFR2 signaling in intestinal epithelial cells may be directly involved in the development of CAC with persistent colitis and imply that the maintenance therapy with anti-TNF-alpha MAb may prevent the development of CAC in patients with long-standing IBD.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies TNFRSF1A Signal Transduction TNF


Wright CW, Duckett CS
The aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator alters CD30-mediated NF-kappaB-dependent transcription.
Science. 2009; 323(5911):251-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Expression and signaling of CD30, a tumor necrosis factor receptor family member, is up-regulated in numerous lymphoid-derived neoplasias, most notably anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) and Hodgkin's lymphoma. To gain insight into the mechanism of CD30 signaling, we used an affinity purification strategy that led to the identification of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) as a CD30-interacting protein that modulated the activity of the RelB subunit of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). ALCL cells that were deficient in ARNT exhibited defects in RelB recruitment to NF-kappaB-responsive promoters, whereas RelA recruitment to the same sites was potentiated, resulting in the augmented expression of these NF-kappaB-responsive genes. These findings indicate that ARNT functions in concert with RelB in a CD30-induced negative feedback mechanism.

Related: ARNT gene Signal Transduction


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