Gene Summary

Gene:CD22; CD22 molecule
Aliases: SIGLEC2, SIGLEC-2
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:B-cell receptor CD22
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CD22 (cancer-related)

Hu T, Shen J, Liu W, Zheng Z
Multiple myeloma secondary to acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(1):e14018 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) secondary to multiple myeloma (MM) is rare. Here we report a rare case of secondary ALL transformed from MM.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old woman was diagnosed as MM IgG light chain type in 2001. She achieved complete remission after 2 cycles of therapy, and received maintenance therapy with thalidomide. The patient suffered from MM relapse in September 2011. Bone marrow examination showed that the percentage of primary lymphocytes was 59%, indicating ALL-L2 (Pre-B-ALL). The patient reached complete remission after 1 cycle of chemotherapy, and has been maintained for more than 6 years.
DIAGNOSES: Immunophenotyping analysis revealed that the abnormal cell population accounted for approximately 66% which expressed HLA-DR, CD4, CD22, CD33, CD34, and cCD79a. These results indicated acute B lymphoblastic leukemia. Chromosome presented 47, XX, +5, -7, +19. Leukemia fusion gene analysis demonstrated positive EVI1 and negative IgH and TCR gene rearrangement.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient accepted 1 cycle of VDCLP chemotherapy and reached complete remission, followed with consolidation therapies with VDCLP, MA, CAG and other chemotherapy regimens.
OUTCOMES: This patient has maintained CR1 of ALL for more than 6 years.
LESSONS: Even secondary lymphoblastic leukemia has been rarely reported in patients with MM, we still need perform bone marrow examination, flow cytology, and gene tests, especially during maintenance therapy.

Ren X, Ji Y, Jiang X, Qi X
Down-regulation of siglec-2 (CD22) predicts worse overall survival from HBV-related early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a preliminary analysis from Gene Expression Omnibus.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sialic-acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (siglec) regulates cell death, anti-proliferative effects and mediates a variety of cellular activities. Little was known about the relationship between siglecs and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis. Siglec gene expression between tumor and non-tumor tissues were compared and correlated with overall survival (OS) from HCC patients in GSE14520 microarray expression profile. Siglec-1 to siglec-9 were all down-regulated in tumor tissues compared with those in non-tumor tissues in HCC patients (all

Nagant C, Casula D, Janssens A, et al.
Easy discrimination of hematogones from lymphoblasts in B-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients using CD81/CD58 expression ratio.
Int J Lab Hematol. 2018; 40(6):734-739 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The discrimination of leukemia lymphoblasts (LB) in diagnosis and follow-up of B-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) may be difficult due to the presence of hematogones (HG). The aim of this study was to compare lymphoblasts of BCP-ALL and HG for the expression of the most discriminating antigens.
METHODS: A total of 82 bone marrow samples (39 BCP-ALL and 43 patients with HG) were analyzed using MFC. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) was measured for ten markers commonly used in hematology laboratories: CD45, CD19, CD10, CD34, CD38, CD20, CD22, CD58, CD81, and CD123. Statistical comparison of the MFI between LB and HG was performed. The presence on LB of aberrant expression of myeloid and/or T-cell markers was also investigated.
RESULTS: Qualitative pattern expression of antigens showed overexpression on LB of CD58, CD22, CD34, CD10 and underexpression of CD81, CD45, CD38 when compared to HG. Expression of CD123 was positive in 34% of BCP-ALL LB and always absent on HG. Aberrant antigen expression (myeloid and/or T-cell marker) including CD123 was observed in 58% of BCP-ALL patients. The use of a MFI antigen ratio of the most discriminating markers (CD81/CD58) (analysis of variance, P < 0.005) increased the distinction of LB versus HG with a high specificity and sensitivity as demonstrated by the use of ROC curve analysis (AUC of CD81/CD58: 0.995).
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate in this study that routine use of the MFI antigen ratio (CD81/CD58) in addition to the MFC evaluation using WHO classical criteria appears to be an efficient approach to discriminate LB from HG.

Cerna K, Oppelt J, Chochola V, et al.
MicroRNA miR-34a downregulates FOXP1 during DNA damage response to limit BCR signalling in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia B cells.
Leukemia. 2019; 33(2):403-414 [PubMed] Related Publications
The variable clinical course in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) largely depends on p53 functionality and B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling propensity; however, it is unclear if there is any crosstalk between these pathways. We show that DNA damage response (DDR) activation leads to down-modulating the transcriptional factor FOXP1, which functions as a positive BCR signalling regulator and its high levels are associated with worse CLL prognosis. We identified microRNA (miRNA) miR-34a as the most prominently upregulated miRNA during DDR in CLL cells in vitro and in vivo during FCR therapy (fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab). MiR-34a induced by DDR activation and p53 stabilization potently represses FOXP1 expression by binding in its 3'-UTR. The low FOXP1 levels limit BCR signalling partially via derepressing BCR-inhibitory molecule CD22. We also show that low miR-34a levels can be used as a biomarker for worse response or shorter progression free survival in CLL patients treated with FCR chemoimmunotherapy, and shorter overall survival, irrespective of TP53 status. Additionally, we have developed a method for the absolute quantification of miR-34a copies and defined precise prognostic/predictive cutoffs. Overall, herein, we reveal for the first time that B cells limit their BCR signalling during DDR by down-modulating FOXP1 via DDR-p53/miR-34a axis.

Blatt K, Menzl I, Eisenwort G, et al.
Phenotyping and Target Expression Profiling of CD34
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(6):632-642 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Leukemic stem cells (LSCs) are an emerging target of curative anti-leukemia therapy. In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), LSCs frequently express CD34 and often lack CD38. However, little is known about markers and targets expressed in ALL LSCs. We have examined marker- and target expression profiles in CD34

Müller F, Cunningham T, Stookey S, et al.
5-Azacytidine prevents relapse and produces long-term complete remissions in leukemia xenografts treated with Moxetumomab pasudotox.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(8):E1867-E1875 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Moxetumomab pasudotox (Moxe) is a chimeric protein composed of an anti-CD22 Fv fused to a portion of

Corrente F, Bellesi S, Metafuni E, et al.
Role of flow-cytometric immunophenotyping in prediction of BCR/ABL1 gene rearrangement in adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2018; 94(3):468-476 [PubMed] Related Publications
We performed a retrospective analysis of 88 adult patients with B-ALL diagnosed in our center by a flow-cytometric assessment. Immunophenotypic expression of leukemic cells was explored by simultaneous evaluation of positivity, percentage of expressing cells and median fluorescence intensity (MFI). BCR/ABL1 fusion transcripts were assessed by RT-PCR analysis and were identified in 36 patients (40.9%). CD10 and CD34 were positive in the totality of BCR/ABL1-positive cases. Patients with gene rearrangement had a greater frequency of CD66c, CD13 and CD33 positivity compared with BCR/ABL1-negative cases. Moreover, BCR/ABL1-positive cases exhibited a greater median percentage and MFI values of CD13, CD33, CD66c, CD10, CD34 and CD25 expressions, but a lower median percentage and MFI values of CD38 and CD22 expressions than patients without gene rearrangement. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that CD10, CD38 and CD13 expressions were independent predictors for the presence of BCR/ABL1 rearrangement. Predictive probabilities of molecular occurrence based on these markers are proposed. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

Qing X, Panosyan E, Yue C, et al.
Therapy-related myeloid neoplasm in an 18-year-old boy with B-lymphoblastic leukemia.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2017; 103(3):263-266 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric malignancy. Acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome during the course of ALL is a rare entity. Some of these cases are therapy-related while the others occur due to lineage switch. The correct diagnosis relies on comparing the immunophenotypes and cytogenetic/molecular alterations of the myeloid neoplasm and the ALL. We present the clinical, pathologic and cytogenetic features of a case of an 18-year-old male with prior treatment for B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) who developed therapy-related myeloid neoplasm (t-MN) 4-5years after his initial diagnosis of B-ALL.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 13-year-old boy with no significant past medical history presented to Harbor-UCLA Medical Center (HUMC) in November 2012 with night sweats, fevers and chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, weakness, and weight loss. Peripheral blood flow cytometric analysis disclosed B-ALL. The blasts expressed CD10, CD19, CD22 (dim), CD34, CD38, HLA-DR, and TdT, and were negative for CD20, CD13, CD33, CD117, and cytoplasmic MPO. Chromosomal analysis and a supplemental fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study performed on the bone marrow aspirate showed an abnormal karyotype (47,XY,+X,del(9)(p21p21)[4]/46,XY[16]). He achieved remission after induction chemotherapy and remained in remission until March 2016 when bilateral testicular masses were noted. Biopsy of the left testicular mass showed relapsed B-ALL. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained rare TdT-positive blasts, suggestive of minimal/early involvement by B-ALL. However, there was no evidence of acute leukemia in his bone marrow at this time. He was then treated with COG protocol AALL1331 randomized to blinatumomab arm and achieved second remission. In June 2017, the patient's peripheral blood smear showed 11% circulating monoblasts. By flow cytometry, the blasts expressed CD4, CD11b, CD13, CD15, CD33, CD38, CD56, and CD64. In addition, a few TdT-positive blasts were seen in his CSF cytospin smear. Bone marrow biopsy was subsequently performed which was consistent with evolving acute myeloid leukemia. A diagnosis of myeloid neoplasm, consistent with t-MN was made. Chromosomal analysis and FISH studies performed on his bone marrow aspirate showed normal karyotype (46,XY[20]), negative FISH result for deletion 9p21 locus, and positive KMT2A (MLL) rearrangement, respectively. Despite of chemotherapy, the patient died within one month after diagnosis.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of t-MN should be suspected in patients with a history of receiving cytotoxic agents and/or irradiation. In this case study, we diagnosed t-MN with KMT2A rearrangement in a patient with history of B-ALL with 9p deletion and gain of X chromosome. Unusual features associated with this case are discussed.

Troussard X, Cornet E
Hairy cell leukemia 2018: Update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and treatment.
Am J Hematol. 2017; 92(12):1382-1390 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DISEASE OVERVIEW: Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and HCL-like disorders, including HCL variant (HCL-V) and splenic diffuse red pulp lymphoma (SDRPL), are a very heterogeneous group of mature lymphoid B-cell disorders, characterized by the identification of hairy cells, a specific genetic profile, a different clinical course and the need for appropriate treatment.
DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis of HCL is based on morphological evidence of hairy cells, an HCL immunologic score of 3 or 4 based on the CD11C, CD103, CD123, and CD25 expression, the trephine biopsy which makes it possible to specify the degree of tumoral medullary infiltration and the presence of BRAF V600E somatic mutation.
RISK STRATIFICATION: Progression of patients with HCL is based on a large splenomegaly, leukocytosis, a high number of hairy cells in the peripheral blood and the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene mutational status. VH4-34 positive HCL cases are associated with poor prognosis RISK ADAPTED THERAPY: Purine analogs (PNA) are indicated in symptomatic first line HCL patients. The use of PNA followed by rituximab represents an alternative option.
MANAGEMENT OF PROGRESSIVE OR REFRACTORY DISEASE: It is based on the use of BRAF inhibitors associated or not with MEK inhibitors, recombinant immunoconjugates targeting CD22 or BCR inhibitors.

Gökbuget N
How should we treat a patient with relapsed Ph-negative B-ALL and what novel approaches are being investigated?
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2017; 30(3):261-274 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite significant improvements in outcome of newly diagnosed B-precursor ALL, the results in relapsed or refractory adult ALL are overall poor. Large retrospective studies revealed significant differences in terms of outcome, with particularly poor response rates in early or refractory relapses, whereas late relapses usually respond very well to repeated standard induction. Particularly new immunotherapy compounds like the CD19 bispecific antibody Blinatumomab and the conjugated CD22 antibody Inotuzumab yielded promising response rates compared to standard therapies in randomised trials. Long-term survival is however still poor. The optimal use of these compounds remains to be defined. Chimeric antigen receptor T-cells are another promising treatment approach and multicenter clinical trials in adult ALL are awaited. For selected patients molecular directed therapies may have a role in relapsed ALL; standard diagnostic algorithms need to be defined. One of the major challenges is to define the role of stem cell transplantation after relapse. Whereas this procedure appears to be the only chance for cure, the mortality and relapse rate are still high and optimisation is urgently needed. Future strategies include optimised use of new compounds as part of combination regimens and the earlier treatment of upcoming relapse in the situation of persistent or recurrent minimal residual disease.

Moek KL, de Groot DJA, de Vries EGE, Fehrmann RSN
The antibody-drug conjugate target landscape across a broad range of tumour types.
Ann Oncol. 2017; 28(12):3083-3091 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), consisting of an antibody designed against a specific target at the cell membrane linked with a cytotoxic agent, are an emerging class of therapeutics. Because ADC tumour cell targets do not have to be drivers of tumour growth, ADCs are potentially relevant for a wide range of tumours currently lacking clear oncogenic drivers. Therefore, we aimed to define the landscape of ADC targets in a broad range of tumours.
Materials and methods: PubMed and were searched for ADCs that are or were evaluated in clinical trials. Gene expression profiles of 18 055 patient-derived tumour samples representing 60 tumour (sub)types and 3520 healthy tissue samples were collected from the public domain. Next, we applied Functional Genomic mRNA-profiling to predict per tumour type the overexpression rate at the protein level of ADC targets with healthy tissue samples as a reference.
Results: We identified 87 ADCs directed against 59 unique targets. A predicted overexpression rate of ≥ 10% of samples for multiple ADC targets was observed for high-incidence tumour types like breast cancer (n = 31 with n = 23 in triple negative breast cancer), colorectal cancer (n = 18), lung adenocarcinoma (n = 18), squamous cell lung cancer (n = 16) and prostate cancer (n = 5). In rare tumour types we observed, amongst others, a predicted overexpression rate of 55% of samples for CD22 and 55% for ENPP3 in adrenocortical carcinomas, 81% for CD74 and 81% for FGFR3 in osteosarcomas, and 95% for c-MET in uveal melanomas.
Conclusion: This study provides a data-driven prioritization of clinically available ADCs directed against 59 unique targets across 60 tumour (sub)types. This comprehensive ADC target landscape can guide clinicians and drug developers which ADC is of potential interest for further evaluation in which tumour (sub)type.

Remon J, Abedallaa N, Taranchon-Clermont E, et al.
CD52, CD22, CD26, EG5 and IGF-1R expression in thymic malignancies.
Lung Cancer. 2017; 108:168-172 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thymic epithelial tumours are rare cancers for which new treatment options are required. Identification of putative predictive markers is important for developing clinical trials. We studied the expression of five putative predictive biomarkers, potentially actionable by approved experimental drugs.
METHODS: CD52, CD22, CD26, EG5, and IGF-1R expression were investigated by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed surgical samples of thymic epithelial tumour patients. All samples containing 10% positive epithelial tumour cells, independent of tumour cell intensity, were considered as positive. Correlation with histological subtype was performed.
RESULTS: 106 surgical samples (89 thymomas, 12 thymic carcinoma, and 5 thymic neuroendocrine tumours) were evaluated. Overall, CD52, CD22, CD26, EG5 and IGF-1R expression was observed in 7%, 42%, 25%, 42% and 77% of samples, respectively. CD52 expression was more frequent in B2 and B3 thymoma. All TET subtypes stained for CD22, mainly AB thymoma (68%). CD26 expression also correlated with AB thymoma (68%), and A thymoma (50%) subtype, while IGFR1 was the most common marker expressed by thymic carcinoma samples (92%), followed by EG5 (60%). Only EG5 expression was significantly higher in thymic carcinomas than in thymomas (75% vs. 38%, p=0.026).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data were consistent with a previous study of IGF-1R expression. Based on their expression, activity of agents targeting CD52, CD 22, CD26 and EG5 could be further explored in TET patients.

Baraka A, Sherief LM, Kamal NM, Shorbagy SE
Detection of minimal residual disease in childhood B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia by 4-color flowcytometry.
Int J Hematol. 2017; 105(6):784-791 [PubMed] Related Publications
Monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) is currently considered the most powerful predictor of outcome in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Achievement of a negative MRD state assessed by multicolor flowcytometry (MFC) is an important predictor of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in ALL patients. We sought to determine whether panels of antibodies combination are more suitable for detection of MRD in Childhood ALL. Eighty-four (84) patients with ALL (B-lineage subtype) were enrolled in this study. Normal template for B cell precursors was established in 15 control participants using 4-four panels of monoclonal Antibodies (Mo Abs),{CD22, CD45, CD58 and CD97 in combination with CD10, CD19, CD34}. At diagnosis, CD22 exhibited the lowest incidence of expression in only 50% of all patients, while CD45, CD58, and CD97 were expressed in 80.9, 59.5 and 92.8%, respectively. Analysis of MRD was performed for each Mo Abs combination at day 0 and day 14 post-induction of chemotherapy by 4-color (FCM). The incidence of MRD was 61.9, 70.6, 60.0 and 55.1% for CD22, CD45, CD58 and CD97, respectively. In B-ALL patients, (CD10/CD19/CD34/CD45) + (CD10/CD19/CD34/CD97) represented the highest incidence of expression of leukemic cells markers with a significant correlation with blasts count, suggesting that these are more specific for MRD detection. Also FCM is relatively cost effective for detection of MRD in ALL patients and its applicability in routine leukemia lab is valuable. MRD evaluation at the end of the induction therapy (i.e. day 35 or 42 according to the different schedules) is advised. Also, Ig/T cell receptor gene rearrangements and gene fusions analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are preferred.

Zhang K, Zhang M, Zhu J, Hong W
Screening of gene mutations associated with bone metastasis in nonsmall cell lung cancer.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2016; 12(Supplement):C186-C190 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the gene mutation of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with bone metastasis using next-generation sequencing (NGS), and screen for the driver genes which are associated with bone metastasis of lung cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight clinicopathologic samples from advanced NSCLC combined with bone metastasis patients were collected. Exome sequencing was conducted within 483 tumor-associated genes using Hiseq 2000_PE75 NGS platform.
RESULTS: Three thousand six hundred and twenty gene mutations were identified, including point mutation, insertion, and deletion. Among all genes associated with lung cancer signaling pathways, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and cyclin-dependent kinase 12 (CDK12) were found to be mutated in all eight patients. The top three genes were FGFR, ataxia telangiectasia mutated, and CDK12, according to mutation frequency. In the meanwhile, hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha, adenomatous polyposis coli, and CD22 were found to be mutated in all eight patients with an over 50% mutation frequency (75%, 62.5%, and 50%, respectively), which would be the most potential genes accounting for bone metastasis in lung cancer patients.
CONCLUSION: Our findings shed light on several important signalling pathways involved in NSCLC, and suggest new potential molecular targets for treatment of NSCLC patients with bone metastasis.

Kim E, Hurtz C, Koehrer S, et al.
Ibrutinib inhibits pre-BCR
Blood. 2017; 129(9):1155-1165 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Targeting B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is a successful therapeutic strategy in mature B-cell malignancies. Precursor BCR (pre-BCR) signaling, which is critical during normal B lymphopoiesis, also plays an important role in pre-BCR

Yamamoto K, Kawamoto S, Mizutani Y, et al.
Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia with t(12;17)(p13;q21)/TAF15-ZNF384 and Other Chromosome Abnormalities.
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2016; 149(3):165-170 [PubMed] Related Publications
The t(12;17)(p13;q11∼21) translocation is a very rare but recurrent cytogenetic aberration observed predominantly in early pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with CD19+CD10-CD33+ phenotype. This translocation was shown to form a fusion gene between TAF15 at 17q12 and ZNF384 at 12p13. On the other hand, der(1;18)(q10;q10) has been detected as a rare unbalanced whole-arm translocation leading to trisomy 1q in myeloid malignancies. We describe here the first case of mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) with a t(12;17)(p13;q21)/TAF15-ZNF384, which also had der(1;18)(q10;q10) as an additional abnormality. A 74-year-old woman was diagnosed with MPAL, B/myeloid, because bone marrow blasts were positive for myeloperoxidase, CD19, and CD22. Chromosome analysis showed 46,XX, +1,der(1;18)(q10;q10),t(2;16)(q13;q13),t(12;17)(p13;q21). Expression of the TAF15-ZNF384 fusion transcript was confirmed: TAF15 exon 6 was fused in-frame to ZNF384 exon 3. This type of fusion gene has been reported in 1 acute myeloid leukemia case and 3 ALL cases. Thus, at present, it is difficult to find a specific association between the structure of the TAF15-ZNF384 fusion gene and the leukemia phenotype. The TAF15-ZNF384 fusion may occur in early common progenitor cells that could differentiate into both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages. Furthermore, der(1;18)(q10;q10) might play some role in the appearance of an additional myeloid phenotype.

Pal D, Kolluru V, Chandrasekaran B, et al.
Targeting aberrant expression of Notch-1 in ALDH
Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(3):1127-1136 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have previously reported that high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzyme activity in breast cancer cells results in breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) properties by upregualting Notch-1 and epithelial mesenchymal markers. This results in chemoresistance in breast cancer. Here, we examined the functional and clinical significance of ALDH expression by measuring the ALDH levels in breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry. There was a significantly higher ALDH expression in higher grade breast cancer tumor tissues (Grade- II and III) versus normal breast tissues. Injection of BCSC (ALDH

Jahn L, Hagedoorn RS, van der Steen DM, et al.
A CD22-reactive TCR from the T-cell allorepertoire for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia by TCR gene transfer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(44):71536-71547 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CD22 is currently evaluated as a target-antigen for the treatment of B-cell malignancies using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T-cells or monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). CAR- and mAbs-based immunotherapies have been successfully applied targeting other antigens, however, occurrence of refractory disease to these interventions urges the identification of additional strategies. Here, we identified a TCR recognizing the CD22-derived peptide RPFPPHIQL (CD22RPF) presented in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*07:02. To overcome tolerance to self-antigens such as CD22, we exploited the immunogenicity of allogeneic HLA. CD22RPF-specific T-cell clone 9D4 was isolated from a healthy HLA-B*07:02neg individual, efficiently produced cytokines upon stimulation with primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia and healthy B-cells, but did not react towards healthy hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell subsets, including dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages expressing low levels of CD22. Gene transfer of TCR-9D4 installed potent CD22-specificity onto recipient CD8+ T-cells that recognized and lysed primary B-cell leukemia. TCR-transduced T-cells spared healthy CD22neg hematopoietic cell subsets but weakly lysed CD22low-expressing DCs and macrophages. CD22-specific TCR-engineered T-cells could form an additional immunotherapeutic strategy with a complementary role to CAR- and antibody-based interventions in the treatment of B-cell malignancies. However, CD22 expression on non-B-cells may limit the attractiveness of CD22 as target-antigen in cellular immunotherapy.

Li HF, Meng WT, Jia YQ, et al.
Development-associated immunophenotypes reveal the heterogeneous and individualized early responses of adult B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(34):e4128 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) exhibits phenotypes reminiscent of normal stages of B-cell development. As demonstrated by flow cytometry, the immunophenotypes are able to determine the stages of B cell development. Multicolor flow cytometry (MFC) is more accurate at identifying cell populations. In this study, 9-color panels, including CD10, CD19, CD20, CD22, CD34, CD79a, CD179a, and IgM, which are sequentially expressed during B cell development, were designed to detect the leukemia cell subpopulations in adult B-ALL patients. In 23 patients at diagnosis, 192 heterogeneous subpopulations of leukemia cells were detected. Compared with their counterparts at diagnosis and after the 1st course of induction therapy, the responses of the subpopulations were also heterogeneous. In the CD10 population, the residual B cell subpopulations in the BCR/ABL patients were obviously reduced compared to those in the BCR/ABL patients. New subpopulations were detected in 22 of 23 patients and were primarily located in the CD34CD10 populations. Subpopulations of clonal evolution were heterogeneous after induction therapy. Our results suggest that the subpopulations in B-ALL patients should be dynamically monitored by development-associated immunophenotyping before, during, and after induction therapy and to predict the prognosis of the disease.

Aslar Oner D, Akin DF, Sipahi K, et al.
Screening of Variations in CD22 Gene in Children with B-Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2016; 20(9):552-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CD22 is expressed on the surface of B-cell lineage cells from the early progenitor stage of pro-B cell until terminal differentiation to mature B cells. It plays a role in signal transduction and as a regulator of B-cell receptor signaling in B-cell development.
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to screen exons 9-14 of the CD22 gene, which is a mutational hot spot region in B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) patients, to find possible genetic variants that could play role in the pathogenesis of pre-B ALL in Turkish children.
METHODS: This study included 109 Turkish children with pre-B ALL who were diagnosed at Losante Hospital for Children with Leukemia. Genomic DNA was extracted from both peripheral blood and bone marrow leukocytes. Gene amplification was performed with PCR, and all samples were screened for the variants by single strand conformation polymorphism. Samples showing band shifts were sequenced on an automated sequencer.
RESULTS: In our patient group a total of 9 variants were identified in the CD22 gene by sequencing: a novel variant in intron 10 (T2199G); a missense variant in exon 12; 5 intronic variants between exon 12 and intron 13; a novel intronic variant (C2424T); and a synonymous in exon 13. Thirteen of 109 children (11.9%) carried the T2199G novel intronic variant located in intron 10, and 17 of 109 children (15.6%) carried the C2424T novel intronic variant.
CONCLUSION: Novel variants in the CD22 gene in children with pre-B ALL in Turkey that are not present, in the Human Gene Mutation Database or NCBI SNP database, were found.

Saul L, Ilieva KM, Bax HJ, et al.
IgG subclass switching and clonal expansion in cutaneous melanoma and normal skin.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:29736 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
B cells participate in immune surveillance in human circulation and tissues, including tumors such as melanoma. By contrast, the role of humoral responses in cutaneous immunity is underappreciated. We report circulating skin-homing CD22+CLA+B cells in healthy volunteers and melanoma patients (n = 73) and CD22+ cells in melanoma and normal skin samples (n = 189). Normal and malignant skin featured mature IgG and CD22 mRNA, alongside mRNA for the transiently-expressed enzyme Activation-induced cytidine Deaminase (AID). Gene expression analyses of publically-available data (n = 234 GEO, n = 384 TCGA) confirmed heightened humoral responses (CD20, CD22, AID) in melanoma. Analyses of 51 melanoma-associated and 29 normal skin-derived IgG sequence repertoires revealed lower IgG1/IgGtotal representation compared with antibodies from circulating B cells. Consistent with AID, comparable somatic hypermutation frequencies and class-switching indicated affinity-matured antibodies in normal and malignant skin. A melanoma-associated antibody subset featured shorter complementarity-determining (CDR3) regions relative to those from circulating B cells. Clonal amplification in melanoma-associated antibodies and homology modeling indicated differential potential antigen recognition profiles between normal skin and melanoma sequences, suggesting distinct antibody repertoires. Evidence for IgG-expressing B cells, class switching and antibody maturation in normal and malignant skin and clonally-expanded antibodies in melanoma, support the involvement of mature B cells in cutaneous immunity.

Liu M, Zhu K, Qian X, Li W
Identification of miRNA/mRNA-Negative Regulation Pairs in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.
Med Sci Monit. 2016; 22:2215-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignancy in South-East Asia. NPC is characterized by distant metastasis and poor prognosis. The pathophysiological mechanism of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is unknown. This study aimed to identify the crucial miRNAs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and their target genes, and to discover the potential mechanism of nasopharyngeal carcinoma development. MATERIAL AND METHODS Microarray expression profiling of miRNA and mRNA from the Gene Expression Omnibus database was downloaded, and we performed a significance analysis of differential expression. An interaction network of miRNAs and target genes was constructed. The underlying function of differentially expressed genes was predicted through Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses. To validate the microarray analysis data, significantly different expression levels of miRNAs and target genes were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS We identified 27 differentially expressed miRNAs and 982 differentially expressed mRNAs between NPC and normal control tissues. 12 miRNAs and 547 mRNAs were up-regulated and 15 miRNAs and 435 mRNAs were down-regulated in NPC samples. We found a total of 1185 negative correlation pairs between miRNA and mRNA. Differentially expressed target genes were significantly enriched in pathways in cancer, cell cycle, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction signaling pathways. Significantly differentially expressed miRNAs and genes, such as hsa-miR-205, hsa-miR-18b, hsa-miR-632, hsa-miR-130a, hsa-miR-34b, PIGR, SMPD3, CD22, DTX4, and CDC6, may play essential roles in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS hsa-miR-205, hsa-miR-18b, hsa-miR-632, hsa-miR-130a, and hsa-miR-34b may be related to the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by regulating the genes involved in pathways in cancer and cell cycle signaling pathways.

Sarashina T, Iwabuchi H, Miyagawa N, et al.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for pediatric mature B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with non-L3 morphology and MLL-AF9 gene fusion: three case reports and review of the literature.
Int J Hematol. 2016; 104(1):139-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mature B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is typically associated with French-American-British (FAB)-L3 morphology and MYC gene rearrangement. However, rare cases of mature B-ALL with non-L3 morphology and MLL-AF9 fusion have been reported, and such cases are characterized by a rapid and aggressive clinical course. We here report three such cases of pediatric mature B-ALL in female patients respectively aged 15 months, 4 years, and 4 months. Bone marrow smears at diagnosis showed FAB-L1 morphology in all patients. Immunophenotypically, they were positive for cluster of differentiation (CD)10, CD19, CD20 (or CD22), Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR, and surface immunoglobulin λ. No evidence of MYC rearrangement was detected in any of the cases by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. However, MLL rearrangement was detected by FISH, and MLL-AF9 fusion was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. All patients achieved complete remission after conventional chemotherapy and subsequently underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as high-risk ALL; patient 3 for infantile ALL with MLL rearrangement and the others for ALL with MLL rearrangement and hyperleukocytosis (white blood cell count at diagnosis >50 × 10(9)/L). At the latest follow-up for each case (12-98 months post-transplantation), complete remission was maintained. Moreover, we discuss the clinical, genetic, and immunophenotypic features of this rare disease.

Guillory T, Li S, Bergsagel DJ, et al.
Hematogones With Lambda Light Chain Restriction in a 4-Year-Old Boy With Burkitt Lymphoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall.
Lab Med. 2016; 47(2):163-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hematogones are immature normal B cell precursors with a characteristic immunophenotype profile on flow cytometry that typically do not express surface immunoglobulin light chains. In this report, we describe a case in which the hematogones exhibit light chain restriction. Our patient was a 4-year-old boy with a complicated medical history involving treatment for a presumed bilateral Wilms tumor of the kidney that on later resection was diagnosed as Burkitt lymphoma. Flow cytometry analysis of his bone marrow revealed a small distinct population of cells expressing dim cluster of differentiation (CD)10, CD19, CD22, CD38, dim CD58, human leukocyte antigen-D related (HLA-DR), and dim CD45, which are characteristic of hematogones. These cells, however, demonstrated dim surface immunoglobulin lambda light-chain restriction. Molecular study results for immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light-chain gene rearrangements were negative. We present this case to raise awareness of the potential pitfalls of working up bone marrow for involvement by B cell lymphoproliferative disorder.

Ghodke K, Bibi A, Rabade N, et al.
CD19 negative precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL)-Immunophenotypic challenges in diagnosis and monitoring: A study of three cases.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2017; 92(4):315-318 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CD19 is a B-cell specific marker, expressed on all stages of B-lymphocytes including plasma cells. It is widely used in the flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) of B-cell and plasma cell malignancies. The analysis approach of FCI for the diagnosis and monitoring of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is totally based on the CD19-based primary gating strategy and it would be challenging to study B-ALL without CD19 expression. Since CD19 negative B-ALL are extremely rare, we report three cases of B-ALL with negative expression of CD19 and discussed its implication in the diagnosis, residual disease monitoring and future targeted therapy.
METHODS: Peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples from three cases suspicious of acute leukemia were studied for morphology, cytochemistry, immunophenotyping and cytogenetics. FCI was performed using a comprehensive six to eight-color multiparametric assay. The cytogenetic studies for standard recurrent genetic translocations were performed by FISH & Karyotyping.
RESULTS: The three cases studied were diagnosed as B-ALL based on the expression of CD10, CD20, CD22, CD34, and CD79a by leukemic blasts. CD19 was studied using two different clones (i.e. J3-119 & HIB-19) and found to be severely down regulated in all three cases. There were no significant differentiating features in morphology. Cytogenetic studies were negative for recurrent translocations.
CONCLUSION: We report three cases of extremely rare CD19 negative B-ALL. Lack of awareness of negative CD19 expression in B-ALL can leads to incorrect immunophenotypic diagnosis and monitoring of B-ALL, especially in laboratories using limited markers. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

Monsalvo S, Serrano C, Prieto E, et al.
Unilateral uveitis masquerade syndrome caused by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma diagnosed using multiparametric flow cytometry of the aqueous humor.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2017; 92(4):286-290 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The uveitis masquerade syndromes (UMS) are a group of ocular diseases that may mimic chronic intraocular inflammation. Many malignant entities such as non-Hodgkin's lymphomas may masquerade as uveitis. We report a case of an HIV-positive patient with masquerade syndrome presenting unilateral uveitis.
CASE REPORT: 45-year-old Caucasian man with a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The patient was diagnosed by a biopsy of an abdominal mass which showed fragments of gastric mucosa with diffuse growth of neoplastic cells. At diagnosis, the patient suffered from unilateral blurring of vision and a sudden decrease of left-eye visual acuity. A slit-lamp examination of the left eye revealed a diagnosis of anterior uveitis. The patient exhibited no signs of posterior uveitis. An anterior-chamber paracentesis was performed and analyzed by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC), showing cells CD45, CD19, CD20, CD22, and CD38 positives, and moderate expression of CD10 with kappa light chain restriction, showing a monoclonal B-cell population. The patient received CHOP-R with intrathecal methotrexate followed by consolidation high dose methotrexate obtaining a complete response which is ongoing.
CONCLUSION: Differential diagnosis between chronic uveitis and ocular lymphoma may be challenging. We advocate anterior-chamber paracentesis in cases of refractory uveitis in patients with hematologic malignancies. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

Lilienthal N, Lohmann G, Crispatzu G, et al.
A Novel Recombinant Anti-CD22 Immunokinase Delivers Proapoptotic Activity of Death-Associated Protein Kinase (DAPK) and Mediates Cytotoxicity in Neoplastic B Cells.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(5):971-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
The serine/threonine death-associated protein kinases (DAPK) provide pro-death signals in response to (oncogenic) cellular stresses. Lost DAPK expression due to (epi)genetic silencing is found in a broad spectrum of cancers. Within B-cell lymphomas, deficiency of the prototypic family member DAPK1 represents a predisposing or early tumorigenic lesion and high-frequency promoter methylation marks more aggressive diseases. On the basis of protein studies and meta-analyzed gene expression profiling data, we show here that within the low-level context of B-lymphocytic DAPK, particularly CLL cells have lost DAPK1 expression. To target this potential vulnerability, we conceptualized B-cell-specific cytotoxic reconstitution of the DAPK1 tumor suppressor in the format of an immunokinase. After rounds of selections for its most potent cytolytic moiety and optimal ligand part, a DK1KD-SGIII fusion protein containing a constitutive DAPK1 mutant, DK1KD, linked to the scFv SGIII against the B-cell-exclusive endocytic glyco-receptor CD22 was created. Its high purity and large-scale recombinant production provided a stable, selectively binding, and efficiently internalizing construct with preserved robust catalytic activity. DK1KD-SGIII specifically and efficiently killed CD22-positive cells of lymphoma lines and primary CLL samples, sparing healthy donor- or CLL patient-derived non-B cells. The mode of cell death was predominantly PARP-mediated and caspase-dependent conventional apoptosis as well as triggering of an autophagic program. The notoriously high apoptotic threshold of CLL could be overcome by DK1KD-SGIII in vitro also in cases with poor prognostic features, such as therapy resistance. The manufacturing feasibility of the novel CD22-targeting DAPK immunokinase and its selective antileukemic efficiency encourage intensified studies towards specific clinical application. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 971-84. ©2016 AACR.

Lim B, Kim C, Kim JH, et al.
Genetic alterations and their clinical implications in gastric cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis revealed by whole-exome sequencing of malignant ascites.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(7):8055-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peritoneal carcinomatosis accompanied by malignant ascites is a major cause of death of advanced gastric cancer (GC). To comprehensively characterize the underlying genomic events involved in GC peritoneal carcinomatosis, we analyzed whole-exome sequences of normal gastric tissues, primary tumors, and malignant ascites from eight GC patients. We identified a unique mutational signature biased toward C-to-A substitutions in malignant ascites. In contrast, the patients who received treatment of adjuvant chemotherapy showed a high rate of C-to-T substitutions along with hypermutation in malignant ascites. Comparative analysis revealed several candidate mutations for GC peritoneal carcinomatosis: recurrent mutations in COL4A6, INTS2, and PTPN13; mutations in druggable genes including TEP1, PRKCD, BRAF, ERBB4, PIK3CA, HDAC9, FYN, FASN, BIRC2, FLT3, ROCK1, CD22, and PIK3C2B; and mutations in metastasis-associated genes including TNFSF12, L1CAM, DIAPH3, ROCK1, TGFBR1, MYO9B, NR4A1, and RHOA. Notably, gene ontology analysis revealed the significant enrichment of mutations in the Rho-ROCK signaling pathway-associated biological processes in malignant ascites. At least four of the eight patients acquired somatic mutations in the Rho-ROCK pathway components, suggesting the possible relevance of this pathway to GC peritoneal carcinomatosis. These results provide a genome-wide molecular understanding of GC peritoneal carcinomatosis and its clinical implications, thereby facilitating the development of effective therapeutics.

Rodgers DT, Mazagova M, Hampton EN, et al.
Switch-mediated activation and retargeting of CAR-T cells for B-cell malignancies.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(4):E459-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has produced impressive results in clinical trials for B-cell malignancies. However, safety concerns related to the inability to control CAR-T cells once infused into the patient remain a significant challenge. Here we report the engineering of recombinant antibody-based bifunctional switches that consist of a tumor antigen-specific Fab molecule engrafted with a peptide neo-epitope, which is bound exclusively by a peptide-specific switchable CAR-T cell (sCAR-T). The switch redirects the activity of the bio-orthogonal sCAR-T cells through the selective formation of immunological synapses, in which the sCAR-T cell, switch, and target cell interact in a structurally defined and temporally controlled manner. Optimized switches specific for CD19 controlled the activity, tissue-homing, cytokine release, and phenotype of sCAR-T cells in a dose-titratable manner in a Nalm-6 xenograft rodent model of B-cell leukemia. The sCAR-T-cell dosing regimen could be tuned to provide efficacy comparable to the corresponding conventional CART-19, but with lower cytokine levels, thereby offering a method of mitigating cytokine release syndrome in clinical translation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this methodology is readily adaptable to targeting CD20 on cancer cells using the same sCAR-T cell, suggesting that this approach may be broadly applicable to heterogeneous and resistant tumor populations, as well as other liquid and solid tumor antigens.

He WQ, Gu JW, Li CY, et al.
The PPI network and clusters analysis in glioblastoma.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 19(24):4784-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Glioblastoma is the most aggressive tumor of the brain. To further understand its molecular mechanism, we carried out a systemic bioinformatics study of gene chips downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: LIMMA package in R language was used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between glioblastoma samples and normal controls.
RESULTS: Further, we constructed protein-protein interaction networks by mapping the DEGs into PPI data and identified network clusters in these networks. The results revealed that expression of 516 genes, which are mainly involved in phosphate metabolic process and signal transduction, were altered in glioblastoma samples. LYN, CD22 and LCP2 form a densely protein complex in the PPI network.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that LYN, CD22 and LCP2 play important roles in the occurrence and progression of glioblastoma.

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