HCL - Molecular Biology

Overview

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Phenotype
  • Valine
  • Hairy Cell Leukemia
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Young Adult
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • p53 Protein
  • Base Sequence
  • Karyotyping
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell
  • B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Messenger RNA
  • Recurrence
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Cladribine
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • FISH
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Remission Induction
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Cancer RNA
  • CD22
  • Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
  • VDJ Exons
  • Southern Blotting
  • Immunoglobulin Variable Region
  • Cancer DNA
  • Genes, Immunoglobulin
  • Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain
  • Y Chromosome
  • Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Chromosome 5
  • Reticulin
  • Gene Rearrangement
Tag cloud generated 15 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression (3)

How to use this data tableClicking on the Gene or Topic will take you to a separate more detailed page. Sort this list by clicking on a column heading e.g. 'Gene' or 'Topic'.

GeneLocationAliasesNotesTopicPapers
ITGAX 16p11.2 CD11C, SLEB6 -ITGAX and Hairy Cell Leukemia
11
CD22 19q13.1 SIGLEC2, SIGLEC-2 -CD22 and Hairy Cell Leukemia
11
TP53 17p13.1 P53, BCC7, LFS1, TRP53 -TP53 AND Hairy Cell Leukemia
3

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications

Arons E, Adams S, Venzon DJ, et al.
Class II human leucocyte antigen DRB1*11 in hairy cell leukaemia patients with and without haemolytic uraemic syndrome.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 166(5):729-38 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Frequencies of human leucocyte antigens (HLA) were determined in 287 classic hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) patients. With respect to both population (n = 287) and allele (2n = 574) frequency respectively, the most common HLA class I and II antigens expressed were HLA-A*02 (49·1% and 28·6%), HLA-B*07 (21·3% and 11·1%), HLA-C*07 (46·7 and 28·2%), HLA-DQB1*03 (62·7% and 37·3%), HLA-DRB1*11 (30·0% and 16·0%) and HLA-DRB4*01 (45·3% and 29·6%). In comparing 6-14 databases of control Caucasians to 267 Caucasian HCL patients, only HLA-DRB1*11 was consistently over-represented in HCL, 31·1% of patients vs. 17-19·9% of controls (P = 0·0055 to <0·0001) and 16·5% of alleles vs. 6·5-12·3% of control alleles (P = 0·022 to <0·0001). HLA-DRB1*11 is a known risk factor for acquired thrombotic microangiopathy. Anti-CD22 recombinant immunotoxin BL22 in HCL was associated with a 12% incidence of completely reversible grade 3-4 haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), mainly during the second or third retreatment cycle. Of 49 HCL patients receiving ≥2 cycles of BL22, 7 (14%) had HUS and HLA-DRB1*11 was expressed in 71% of 7 with HUS compared with only 21% of 42 without (P = 0·015). These data suggest that DBR1*11 may be a marker for increased susceptibility to HCL and, among HCL patients, could be a risk factor for BL22-induced HUS.

Chung SS, Kim E, Park JH, et al.
Hematopoietic stem cell origin of BRAFV600E mutations in hairy cell leukemia.
Sci Transl Med. 2014; 6(238):238ra71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by somatic BRAFV600E mutations. The malignant cell in HCL has immunophenotypic features of a mature B cell, but no normal counterpart along the continuum of developing B lymphocytes has been delineated as the cell of origin. We find that the BRAFV600E mutation is present in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in HCL patients, and that these patients exhibit marked alterations in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) frequencies. Quantitative sequencing analysis revealed a mean BRAFV600E-mutant allele frequency of 4.97% in HSCs from HCL patients. Moreover, transplantation of BRAFV600E-mutant HSCs from an HCL patient into immunodeficient mice resulted in stable engraftment of BRAFV600E-mutant human hematopoietic cells, revealing the functional self-renewal capacity of HCL HSCs. Consistent with the human genetic data, expression of BRafV600E in murine HSPCs resulted in a lethal hematopoietic disorder characterized by splenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, increased circulating soluble CD25, and increased clonogenic capacity of B lineage cells-all classic features of human HCL. In contrast, restricting expression of BRafV600E to the mature B cell compartment did not result in disease. Treatment of HCL patients with vemurafenib, an inhibitor of mutated BRAF, resulted in normalization of HSPC frequencies and increased myeloid and erythroid output from HSPCs. These findings link the pathogenesis of HCL to somatic mutations that arise in HSPCs and further suggest that chronic lymphoid malignancies may be initiated by aberrant HSCs.

Sakata-Yanagimoto M, Enami T, Yokoyama Y, Chiba S
Disease-specific mutations in mature lymphoid neoplasms: recent advances.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(6):623-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mature lymphoid neoplasms (MLN) are clinically and pathologically more complex than precursor lymphoid neoplasms. Until recently, molecular characterization of MLN was mainly based on cytogenetics/fluorescence in situ hybridization, allele copy number, and mRNA expression, approaches that yielded scanty gene mutation information. Use of massive parallel sequencing technologies has changed this outcome, and now many gene mutations have been discovered. Some of these are considerably frequent in, and substantially specific to, distinct MLN subtypes, and occur at single or several hotspots. They include the V600E BRAF mutation in hairy cell leukemia, the L265P MYD88 mutation in Waldenström macroglobulinemia, the G17V RHOA mutation in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, and the Y640F//D661Y/V/H/I//N647I STAT3 mutations in T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia. Detecting these mutations is highly valuable in diagnosing MLN subtypes. Defining these mutations also sheds light on the molecular pathogenesis of MLN, furthering development of molecular targeting therapies. In this review, we focus on the disease-specific gene mutations in MLN discovered by recent massive sequencing technologies.

Weston-Bell NJ, Forconi F, Kluin-Nelemans HC, Sahota SS
Variant B cell receptor isotype functions differ in hairy cell leukemia with mutated BRAF and IGHV genes.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e86556 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
A functional B-cell receptor (BCR) is critical for survival of normal B-cells, but whether it plays a comparable role in B-cell malignancy is as yet not fully delineated. Typical Hairy Cell Leukemia (HCL) is a rare B-cell tumor, and unique in expressing multiple surface immunoglobulin (sIg) isotypes on individual tumor cells (mult-HCL), to raise questions as to their functional relevance. Typical mult-HCL also displays a mutated BRAF V(600)E lesion. Since wild type BRAF is a primary conduit for transducing normal BCR signals, as revealed by deletion modelling studies, it is as yet not apparent if mutated BRAF alters BCR signal transduction in mult-HCL. To address these questions, we examined BCR signalling in mult-HCL cases uniformly displaying mutated BRAF and IGHV genes. Two apparent functional sets were delineated by IgD co-expression. In sIgD(+ve) mult-HCL, IgD mediated persistent Ca(2+) flux, also evident via >1 sIgH isotype, linked to increased ERK activation and BCR endocytosis. In sIgD(-ve) mult-HCL however, BCR-mediated signals and downstream effects were restricted to a single sIgH isotype, with sIgM notably dysfunctional and remaining immobilised on the cell surface. These observations reveal discordance between expression and function of individual isotypes in mult-HCL. In dual sIgL expressing cases, only a single sIgL was fully functional. We examined effects of anti-BCR stimuli on mult-HCL survival ex-vivo. Significantly, all functional non-IgD isotypes increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation but triggered apoptosis of tumor cells, in both subsets. IgD stimuli, in marked contrast retained tumor viability. Despite mutant BRAF, BCR signals augment ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but isotype dictates functional downstream outcomes. In mult-HCL, sIgD retains a potential to transduce BCR signals for tumor survival in-vivo. The BCR in mult-HCL emerges as subject to complex regulation, with apparent conflicting signalling by individual isotypes when co-expressed with sIgD. This suggests the possibility that mutant BRAF by-passes BCR constraints in mult-HCL.

Tschernitz S, Flossbach L, Bonengel M, et al.
Alternative BRAF mutations in BRAF V600E-negative hairy cell leukaemias.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 165(4):529-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
The BRAF V600E mutation in exon 15 is considered the disease-defining mutation in hairy cell leukaemia (HCL), but single HCL cases lacking this mutation have been described. In 24 HCL, as well as in 194 various mature B- and T-cell neoplasms, we extended the search for BRAF mutations to exon 11. Two V600E-negative HCL contained novel, potentially functionally relevant mutations in exon 11 (F468C and D449E), while one other HCL was BRAF wild-type in exons 2-17. All non-HCL lymphomas lacked BRAF mutations. We therefore suggest screening of BRAF V600E-negative HCL for alternative exon 11 mutations in the diagnostic setting.

Waterfall JJ, Arons E, Walker RL, et al.
High prevalence of MAP2K1 mutations in variant and IGHV4-34-expressing hairy-cell leukemias.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(1):8-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
To understand the genetic mechanisms driving variant and IGHV4-34-expressing hairy-cell leukemias, we performed whole-exome sequencing of leukemia samples from ten affected individuals, including six with matched normal samples. We identified activating mutations in the MAP2K1 gene (encoding MEK1) in 5 of these 10 samples and in 10 of 21 samples in a validation set (overall frequency of 15/31), suggesting potential new strategies for treating individuals with these diseases.

Balsat M, Cornillon J
[Molecular and therapeutic advances in Hairy cell leukemia].
Bull Cancer. 2013; 100(10):1043-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hairy cell leukemia is a rare chronic lymphoproliferative disorder. Its diagnosis remains difficult due to different variant forms and differential diagnosis that are splenic marginal zone lymphoma and b-prolymphocytic leukemia. The prognosis of this malignancy has been transformed by purine nucleoside analogs, interferon, monoclonal antibodies and recombinant immunotoxins usually used in refractory or relapsed disease. The discovery of BRAF V600E mutation has become the milestone in the disease's history since it was uniformly identified in a HCL series in 2011. This mutation, commonly identified in melanoma, involves the protooncogene BRAF, a MAP3Kinase belonging to the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway, which is the central key in several oncogenic processes. This mutation suggests disease-specific oncogene dependence. The detection of this mutation provides an additional diagnosis marker (because not found in variant forms), a best for monitoring minimal residual disease and a therapeutic target with the BRAF inhibitors in specific subgroups of patients, already tested in melanoma. This review aims to summarize the clinical and biological aspects and treatment of hairy cell leukemia and discusses the perspectives provided by the discovery of BRAF mutation in this disease.

Sári E, Nagy Z, Demeter J
[Recurrent somatic mutation in hairy cell leukemia].
Orv Hetil. 2013; 154(4):123-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hairy cell leukemia is a mature B-cell non-Hogkin lymphoma characterized by unique clinical, morphological and immunhistochemical features. Patients with hairy cell leukemia usually present with splenomegaly, progressive pancytopenia and a relative indolent clinical course. The diagnosis does not always indicate immediate treatment, as treatment depends on the clinical stage of the leukemia. Asymptomatic disease without progression requires a watchful waiting policy, while other categories usually need treatment. The treatment of choice is purine nucleoside analogues (pentostatin, cladribine) which can achieve complete remission even for decades. Interferon and monoclonal CD20 antibodies can also significantly prolong event-free survival. Unfortunately, only the latter two therapies are easily available in Hungary. Splenectomy, which was suggested as first line treatment before the era of purine nucleoside analogues, is only recommended as a last resort. Although hairy cell leukemia is a well-defined lymphoproliferative disease, sometimes it is difficult to differentiate it from other similar entities such as hairy cell leukema variant, splenic marginal zone lymphoma, small lymphocytic lymphoma etc. Making the correct diagnosis is of utmost importance because of the great difference in treatment modalities. Recently, a somatic mutation was found in all analysed hairy cell leukemia samples, but not in other splenic B-cell lymphomas. This article reviews the significance of this observation and presents the different types of methods for the detection of this mutation.

Laurini JA, Aoun P, Iqbal J, et al.
Investigation of the BRAF V600E mutation by pyrosequencing in lymphoproliferative disorders.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2012; 138(6):877-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
The presence of the BRAF c.1799T>A V600E mutation was recently described in cases of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) but not in other common lymphomas. However, many uncommon subtypes of lymphoma have not been studied. We designed a BRAF pyrosequencing assay specific for the V600E mutation, which has a sensitivity of 5% and is applicable to paraffin-embedded tissue. DNA was sequenced in 9 cases of HCL; 6 cases of variant HCL; 10 cases each of nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL), extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (ENMZL), posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), and large granular lymphocyte (LGL) proliferations; 11 cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL); and 12 cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). All (100%) cases of HCL were positive for BRAF mutations. No mutations were identified in variant HCL, NMZL, ENMZL, PTLD, PTCL, ALCL, or LGL proliferations. Among lymphoproliferative disorders, BRAF mutations are restricted to HCL.

Furmanczyk PS, Lisle AE, Caldwell RB, et al.
Langerhans cell sarcoma in a patient with hairy cell leukemia: common clonal origin indicated by identical immunoglobulin gene rearrangements.
J Cutan Pathol. 2012; 39(6):644-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histiocytic/dendritic cell sarcomas are rare tumors, a few of which have been reported in association with B-cell lymphoma/leukemia. Isolated reports have documented identical immunoglobulin gene rearrangements suggesting a common clonal origin for both the sarcoma and the B-cell neoplasm from individual patients. We report a case of a 75-year-old male with hairy cell leukemia who subsequently developed Langerhans cell sarcoma 1 year after his primary diagnosis of leukemia. The bone marrow biopsy containing hairy cell leukemia and skin biopsies of Langerhans cell sarcoma were evaluated by routine histology, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometric immunophenotyping and PCR-based gene rearrangement studies of the immunoglobulin heavy chain and kappa genes. The hairy cell leukemia showed characteristic morphologic, immunohistochemical and flow cytometric features. The Langerhans cell sarcoma showed pleomorphic cytology, a high mitotic rate and characteristic immunohistochemical staining for Langerin, S100 and CD1a. There was no evidence of B-cell differentiation or a background B-cell infiltrate based on the absence of immunoreactivity with antibodies to multiple B-cell markers. Identical immunoglobulin gene rearrangements were identified in both the hairy cell leukemia and Langerhans cell sarcoma specimens. Despite the phenotypic dissimilarity of the two neoplasms, identical immunoglobulin gene rearrangements indicate a common origin.

Hockley SL, Else M, Morilla A, et al.
The prognostic impact of clinical and molecular features in hairy cell leukaemia variant and splenic marginal zone lymphoma.
Br J Haematol. 2012; 158(3):347-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hairy cell leukaemia variant (HCL-variant) and splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) are disorders with overlapping features. We investigated the prognostic impact in these disorders of clinical and molecular features including IGH VDJ rearrangements, IGHV gene usage and TP 53 mutations. Clinical and laboratory data were collected before therapy from 35 HCL-variant and 68 SMZL cases. End-points were the need for treatment and overall survival. 97% of HCL-variant and 77% of SMZL cases required treatment (P = 0·009). Survival at 5 years was significantly worse in HCL-variant [57% (95% confidence interval 38-73%)] compared with SMZL [84% (71-91%); Hazard Ratio 2·25 (1·20-4·25), P = 0·01]. In HCL-variant, adverse prognostic factors for survival were older age (P = 0·04), anaemia (P = 0·01) and TP 53 mutations (P = 0·02). In SMZL, splenomegaly, anaemia and IGHV genes with >98% homology to the germline predicted the need for treatment; older age, anaemia and IGHV unmutated genes (100% homology) predicted shorter survival. IGHV gene usage had no impact on clinical outcome in either disease. The combination of unfavourable factors allowed patients to be stratified into risk groups with significant differences in survival. Although HCL-variant and SMZL share some features, they have different outcomes, influenced by clinical and biological factors.

Schnittger S, Bacher U, Haferlach T, et al.
Development and validation of a real-time quantification assay to detect and monitor BRAFV600E mutations in hairy cell leukemia.
Blood. 2012; 119(13):3151-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
The BRAFV600E mutation was recently detected in hairy cell leukemia (HCL) by whole exome sequencing. To make use of this new marker for diagnosis and follow-up of HCL, we developed a BRAFV600Emut-specific quantitative real-time PCR assay and validated it in 117 HCL patients and 102 non-HCL/BRAFwt patients. The cut-off level to discriminate BRAFV600E-positive/-negative cases was set at 0.023% BRAFV600E/BRAFwt. A total of 115 of 117 HCL (98.3%) demonstrated percentage BRAFV600E/BRAFwt above the cut-off (mean, 29.6 ± 41.1). The remaining 2 of 117 HCL with lower percentage BRAFV600E/BRAFwt ratios were also BRAFwt by deep-sequencing technology. Sixteen HCL-variant patients showed percentage BRAFV600E/BRAFwt values corresponding to "non-HCL." Follow-up studies in 19 HCL cases demonstrated a decrease of percentage BRAFV600E/BRAFwt during therapy. The log-reductions as determined by RT-PCR and immunophenotyping correlated significantly (P < .001). In conclusion, we confirmed BRAFmut as a useful marker in HCL, its absence in HCL variant, and developed an RT-PCR-based assay to monitor minimal residual disease in HCL.

Langabeer SE, O'Brien D, Liptrot S, et al.
Correlation of the BRAF V600E mutation in hairy cell leukaemia with morphology, cytochemistry and immunophenotype.
Int J Lab Hematol. 2012; 34(4):417-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) has distinct clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic features with no recurrent cytogenetic or molecular abnormalities reported until the recent description of the BRAF V600E mutation in patients with classical HCL. The incidence of this mutation was sought in 27 patients with either classical HCL or HCL variant by an allele-specific PCR approach and findings related to morphology, cytochemistry and immunophenotype. A high degree of correlation was noted between the presence of BRAF V600E and established diagnostic criteria in 26/27 patients with HCL/HCL variant. Detection of the BRAF V600E mutation is therefore a useful adjunct in the differential diagnosis of HCL and HCL variant and highlights the value of a multifaceted approach to the diagnosis of this malignancy.

Ewalt M, Nandula S, Phillips A, et al.
Real-time PCR-based analysis of BRAF V600E mutation in low and intermediate grade lymphomas confirms frequent occurrence in hairy cell leukaemia.
Hematol Oncol. 2012; 30(4):190-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is a rare type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), which is not known to be associated with any characteristic recurrent karyotypic abnormality. A recent study that used massively parallel whole exome sequencing identified an activating V600E mutation in BRAF, which appeared specific for HCL. Here, we confirm the specificity of BRAF V600E for HCL among low and intermediate grade B-NHL and describe a real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detecting this mutation in cases with low tumour burden. The V600E mutation does not appear to be associated with microsatellite instability, unlike the case in colorectal cancer. Thus, in conjunction with prior data, our results suggest incorporation of BRAF V600E mutation analysis in the diagnostic workup of HCL cases. Additionally, targeting the Ras-Raf-Mek-Erk-Map kinase pathway should be investigated as a potential therapeutic strategy for patients with this disease.

Xi L, Arons E, Navarro W, et al.
Both variant and IGHV4-34-expressing hairy cell leukemia lack the BRAF V600E mutation.
Blood. 2012; 119(14):3330-2 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Recently, the BRAF V600E mutation was reported in all cases of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) but not in other peripheral B-cell neoplasms. We wished to confirm these results and assess BRAF status in well-characterized cases of HCL associated with poor prognosis, including the immunophenotypically defined HCL variant (HCLv) and HCL expressing the IGHV4-34 immunoglobulin rearrangement. Fifty-three classic HCL (HCLc) and 16 HCLv cases were analyzed for BRAF, including 5 HCLc and 8 HCLv expressing IGHV4-34. BRAF was mutated in 42 (79%) HCLc, but wild-type in 11 (21%) HCLc and 16 (100%) HCLv. All 13 IGHV4-34(+) HCLs were wild-type. IGHV gene usage in the 11 HCLc BRAF wild-type cases included 5 IGHV4-34, 5 other, and 1 unknown. Our results suggest that HCLv and IGHV4-34(+) HCLs have a different pathogenesis than HCLc and that a significant minority of other HCLc are also wild-type for BRAF V600.

Blombery PA, Wong SQ, Hewitt CA, et al.
Detection of BRAF mutations in patients with hairy cell leukemia and related lymphoproliferative disorders.
Haematologica. 2012; 97(5):780-3 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Hairy cell leukemia has been shown to be strongly associated with the BRAF V600E mutation. We screened 59 unenriched archived bone marrow aspirate and peripheral blood samples from 51 patients with hairy cell leukemia using high resolution melting analysis and confirmatory Sanger sequencing. The BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 38 samples (from 36 patients). The BRAF V600E mutation was detected in all samples with disease involvement above the limit of sensitivity of the techniques used. Thirty-three of 34 samples from other hematologic malignancies were negative for BRAF mutations. A BRAF K601E mutation was detected in a patient with splenic marginal zone lymphoma. Our data support the recent finding of a disease defining point mutation in hairy cell leukemia. Furthermore, high resolution melting with confirmatory Sanger sequencing are useful methods that can be employed in routine diagnostic laboratories to detect BRAF mutations in patients with hairy cell leukemia and related lymphoproliferative disorders.

Arcaini L, Zibellini S, Boveri E, et al.
The BRAF V600E mutation in hairy cell leukemia and other mature B-cell neoplasms.
Blood. 2012; 119(1):188-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
The somatically acquired V600E mutation of the BRAF gene has been recently described as a molecular marker of hairy cell leukemia (HCL). We developed an allele-specific PCR for this mutation and studied 62 patients with HCL, 1 with HCL variant, 91 with splenic marginal zone lymphoma, 29 with Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and 57 with B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The BRAF V600E mutation was detected in all HCL cases and in only 2 of the remaining 178 patients. These 2 subjects had B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders that did not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for HCL. Despite the positive PCR finding, the mutation could not be detected by Sanger sequencing in these 2 cases, suggesting that it was associated with a small subclone. We conclude that the BRAF V600E mutation is present in all patients with HCL and that, in combination with clinical and morphologic features, represents a reliable molecular marker for this condition.

Boyd EM, Bench AJ, van 't Veer MB, et al.
High resolution melting analysis for detection of BRAF exon 15 mutations in hairy cell leukaemia and other lymphoid malignancies.
Br J Haematol. 2011; 155(5):609-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
The BRAF V600E mutation has recently been described in all cases of hairy cell leukaemia (HCL). We have developed and validated a rapid and sensitive high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) assay that detects BRAF exon 15 mutations when hairy cells are as low as 5-10% in a sample. All 48 HCL patients were positive for the BRAF V600E mutation, while 114 non-HCL cases were all V600E negative. Interestingly, we detected a novel BRAF D594N mutation in one patient with multiple myeloma. The HRMA assay offers a useful tool to aid the laboratory diagnosis of HCL.

Tiacci E, Trifonov V, Schiavoni G, et al.
BRAF mutations in hairy-cell leukemia.
N Engl J Med. 2011; 364(24):2305-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hairy-cell leukemia (HCL) is a well-defined clinicopathological entity whose underlying genetic lesion is still obscure.
METHODS: We searched for HCL-associated mutations by performing massively parallel sequencing of the whole exome of leukemic and matched normal cells purified from the peripheral blood of an index patient with HCL. Findings were validated by Sanger sequencing in 47 additional patients with HCL.
RESULTS: Whole-exome sequencing identified five missense somatic clonal mutations that were confirmed on Sanger sequencing, including a heterozygous mutation in BRAF that results in the BRAF V600E variant protein. Since BRAF V600E is oncogenic in other tumors, further analyses were focused on this genetic lesion. The same BRAF mutation was noted in all the other 47 patients with HCL who were evaluated by means of Sanger sequencing. None of the 195 patients with other peripheral B-cell lymphomas or leukemias who were evaluated carried the BRAF V600E variant, including 38 patients with splenic marginal-zone lymphomas or unclassifiable splenic lymphomas or leukemias. In immunohistologic and Western blot studies, HCL cells expressed phosphorylated MEK and ERK (the downstream targets of the BRAF kinase), indicating a constitutive activation of the RAF-MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in HCL. In vitro incubation of BRAF-mutated primary leukemic hairy cells from 5 patients with PLX-4720, a specific inhibitor of active BRAF, led to a marked decrease in phosphorylated ERK and MEK. CONCLUSIONS; The BRAF V600E mutation was present in all patients with HCL who were evaluated. This finding may have implications for the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and targeted therapy of HCL. (Funded by Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro and others.).

Arons E, Kreitman RJ
Molecular variant of hairy cell leukemia with poor prognosis.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2011; 52 Suppl 2:99-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hairy cell leukemia variant (HCLv), described 30 years ago, was reported to present with high disease burden and less often leukopenia, and later was reported to be resistant to purine analogs. Patients with HCLv were overrepresented among patients with HCL seeking relapsed/refractory trials. To compare clinical and molecular features of classic HCL (HCLc) and HCLv, 85 rearrangements expressing immunoglobulin variable heavy chain were sequenced, taken from 20 patients with HCLv and 62 with HCLc. The gene VH4-34, commonly used in autoimmune disorders, was found in eight patients (40%) with HCLv versus six (10%) with HCLc (p = 0.004). Ninety-three percent of the VH4-34 rearrangements were unmutated, defined as >98% homologous to the germline sequence. Clinical features of VH4-34+ patients that were similar to those with HCLv included higher white blood cell counts at diagnosis (p = 0.002) and lower response (p = 0.00001) and progression-free survival (p = 0.007) after first-line cladribine, and shorter overall survival from diagnosis (p < 0.0001). It was found that VH4-34 was independent from HCLv and a stronger predictor than HCLv in associating with poor prognosis. We conclude that VH4-34+ hairy cell leukemia, which only partly overlaps with HCLv, is associated with poor prognosis after single-agent cladribine. However, cases are observed which respond well to antibody therapy either alone or in combination with purine analog.

Arons E, Roth L, Sapolsky J, et al.
Evidence of canonical somatic hypermutation in hairy cell leukemia.
Blood. 2011; 117(18):4844-51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
To compare hairy cell leukemia (HCL) with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and normal B cells with respect to their B-cell receptors, somatic hypermutation (SHM) features in HCL were examined in a series of 130 immunoglobulin gene heavy chain rearrangements, including 102 from 100 classic (HCLc) and 28 from 26 variant (HCLv) patients. The frequency of unmutated rearrangements in HCLc was much lower than that in HCLv (17% vs 54%, P < .001) or historically in CLL (17% vs 46%, P < .001), but HCLv and CLL were similar (P = .45). As previously reported for CLL, evidence of canonical SHM was observed in HCLc rearrangements, including: (1) a higher ratio of replacement to silent mutations in the complementarity determining regions than in the framework regions (2.83 vs 1.41, P < .001), (2) higher transition to transversion ratio than would be expected if mutations were random (1.49 vs 0.5, P < .001), and (3) higher than expected concentration of mutations within RGYW hot spots (13.92% vs 3.33%, P < .001). HCLv met these 3 criteria of canonical SHM to a lesser extent. These data suggest that, whereas HCLc cells may recognize antigen-like CLL and normal B cells before malignant transformation, HCLv cells from some patients may originate differently, possibly without undergoing antigen recognition.

Forconi F, Cencini E, Sicuranza A, et al.
Molecular insight into the biology and clinical course of hairy cell leukemia utilizing immunoglobulin gene analysis.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2011; 52(1):15-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
The B cell receptor (BCR) is the functional distinguishing unit that defines any B cell. Immunoglobulin gene (IG) status is preserved in the neoplastic B cell clone and can provide an indicator of the maturation stage reached by the B cell prior to transformation. In hairy cell leukemia (HCL), several pieces of data from IG analysis provide clear hints regarding the cell of origin and the ongoing selective interactions of the tumor BCR with environmental stimuli. HCLs have variable levels of IG somatic mutations, and continue somatic mutations at low levels as well as IG class switching after transformation. More recent data also show the occurrence of selective events in the light chain of the BCR, suggesting a dominant role for IG status in the pathogenesis of HCL. Moreover, it has recently emerged that an unmutated status of the HCL IG can be associated with failure to respond to cladribine, genetic abnormalities indicative of poor outcome, and aggressive disease. These observations suggest that IG analysis may have biological and prognostic relevance in HCL and merits further characterization.

Sozzi E, Amato T, Sahota SS, et al.
Lack of allelic exclusion by secondary rearrangements of tumour B-cell receptor light chains in hairy cell leukaemia.
Hematol Oncol. 2011; 29(1):31-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Analyses of the tumour immunoglobulin (Ig) gene (IG) heavy (H) and light chains show heterogeneity of mutational status, but reveal common features of ongoing IGH isotype-switching with multiple IGH isotype expression and preference of IG lambda (IGL) light chain with selective use of IGLJ3. Phenotypic and immunogenetic analyses were performed in a series of 105 HCL patients to estimate prevalence of multiple IG light chain expression by the tumour cells. By phenotype, 3/105 HCL (2.9%) expressed double tumour-related Ig kappa (K) and L light chain proteins. By immunogenetic analysis, functional mutated double IGK(I) /IGK(II) , IGK(I) /IGL(I) and IGL(I) /IGL(II) transcripts were cloned and sequenced in 3/71 (4.2%) HCL. These latter three HCL expressed multiple IGH isotypes with mutated IGHVDJ rearrangements at the time of AID transcript expression. Most interestingly, the three cases had reinduced RAG1 transcript. In the double IGL expresser, single-cell analysis documented co-expression of the tumour-related IGLs in 5/6 cells (83%). In the IGK/IGL co-expresser, evidence of surface IgK/IgL isotype proteins confirmed functionality of the tumour-derived transcripts. The evidence of double light chain expression in single HCs and the new observation of RAG re-induction suggest ongoing selective influences on the BCR that may promote or maintain the HCL clone in the periphery.

Arons E, Suntum T, Stetler-Stevenson M, Kreitman RJ
VH4-34+ hairy cell leukemia, a new variant with poor prognosis despite standard therapy.
Blood. 2009; 114(21):4687-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Hairy cell leukemia variant (HCLv) presents with high disease burden, lack of typical antigens like CD25, and poor response to standard treatments like cladribine. Occasionally, patients with classic HCL respond poorly. Clinical and molecular features of HCL and HCLv has not been compared. Rearrangements expressing immunoglobulin VH chain were sequenced, including 22 from 20 patients with HCLv and 63 from 62 patients with classic HCL. Most patients were seeking relapsed/refractory trials, representing a poor-prognosis population. VH4-34, a gene commonly used in autoimmune disorders, was observed in 8 (40%) HCLv and 6 (10%) classic (P = .004) HCL patients. Compared with 71 VH4-34(-) rearrangements, 14 VH4-34(+) rearrangements were more frequently (P < .001) unmutated, defined as greater than 98% homologous to germline sequence. VH4-34(+) patients had greater white blood cell counts at diagnosis (P = .002), lower response rate (P < .001) and progression-free survival (P = .007) after initial cladribine, and shorter overall survival from diagnosis (P < .001). Response and survival were more closely related to VH4-34 status than to whether or not patients had HCLv. VH4-34(+) HCL is an important disorder that only partly overlaps with the previously described HCLv. Response to initial single-agent cladribine therapy is suboptimal; these patients should be considered for alternative approaches, including antibody-related therapy.

Nordgren A, Corcoran M, Sääf A, et al.
Characterisation of hairy cell leukaemia by tiling resolution array-based comparative genome hybridisation: a series of 13 cases and review of the literature.
Eur J Haematol. 2010; 84(1):17-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Little is known about the cytogenetic features and molecular mechanisms behind hairy cell leukaemia (HCL), despite the advances in diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, we used high-resolution genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to characterise copy number alterations (CNAs) in DNA from 13 cases of HCL. We also summarise CNAs and cytogenetic features in 109 HCL cases comprising our 13 cases and 96 cases from the literature. Genomic array-CGH revealed imbalances in two out of 13 cases in addition to previously described copy number variants (CNVs) found in healthy individuals. In one case, a 700 kb deletion of 20q11.22 was detected encompassing ten characterised genes, among them the TP53INP2, DNCL2A and ITCH genes. In the second case, trisomy 5, and a deletion of 5p15.2 encompassing a non-characterised gene AY328033 was found. Altogether only 20/81 (25%) of all cases studied by CGH or gene dose array revealed CNAs. The most common recurrent deletions and breakpoints were 14q22-32 (33%), 6q25 (16%), 2p12 (10%), 22q11 (10%), 17p11-13 (10%), 7q32-36 (9%), 18q11-13 (7%), 1q32-44 (6%), 8p22-23 (6%) and 7q11 (6%). Trisomy 5 occurred in 15%. In addition, several other recurrent breakpoints were identified. Although a number of genomic imbalances were identified in the HCL samples, the genome appeared remarkably stable.

Forconi F, Sozzi E, Cencini E, et al.
Hairy cell leukemias with unmutated IGHV genes define the minor subset refractory to single-agent cladribine and with more aggressive behavior.
Blood. 2009; 114(21):4696-702 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is generally responsive to single-agent cladribine, and only a minority of patients are refractory and with poor prognosis. HCLs generally express mutated (M) and, in a minority, unmutated (UM) IGHV. In a multicenter clinical trial in newly diagnosed HCL, we prospectively investigated clinical and molecular parameters predicting response and event-free survival after single-agent cladribine. Of 58 HCLs, 6 expressed UM-IGHV (UM-HCL) and 52 M-IGHV (M-HCL). Beneficial responses were obtained in 53 of 58 patients (91%), whereas treatment failures were observed in 5 of 58 patients (9%). Failures were associated significantly with UM-IGHV (5 of 5 failures vs 1 of 53 beneficial responses had UM-IGHV, P < .001), leukocytosis (3 of 5 vs 3 of 53, P = .006), and bulky spleen (4 of 5 vs 4 of 53, P < .001). The UM-HCL not benefiting from cladribine characteristically had bulky spleen (4 of 5, 80%), leukocytosis (3 of 5, 60%), and TP53 defects (2 of 5, 40%), and progressed rapidly after first treatment (median event-free survival, 7.5 months). Our data suggest that UM-HCLs identify the minor subgroup failing cladribine treatment and with more aggressive disease. High incidence of TP53 dysfunction indicates a potential mechanism of resistance to cladribine in the UM-HCL group. Overall, our data provide new molecular elements relevant for treatment concerns in HCL.

Forconi F, Poretti G, Kwee I, et al.
High density genome-wide DNA profiling reveals a remarkably stable profile in hairy cell leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2008; 141(5):622-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is a rare B-cell neoplasm for which the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. High-density genome-wide DNA profiling was performed with Affymetrix 250K arrays to analyse copy number (CN) changes and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 16 cases of HCL. Four of 16 cases (25%) demonstrated gross non-recurrent CN deletions. Within the affected regions, we identified genes involved in bone marrow fibrosis (FGF12) and response to treatment (TP53) in individual cases. Large regions (> 5 Mb) of LOH without any concomitant DNA CN changes were identified in 5/16 (31%) HCL and were indicative of uniparental disomy UD. The germline origin of UD was demonstrated in one case for which a matched normal sample was available. Overall analysis of LOH showed that identical loci were recurrently targeted in chromosomes 1, 2 and 6. As a whole, however, HCL showed a remarkably stable genome. This finding adds to several other features that are unique to HCL among mature B-cell tumours.

Forconi F, Sozzi E, Rossi D, et al.
Selective influences in the expressed immunoglobulin heavy and light chain gene repertoire in hairy cell leukemia.
Haematologica. 2008; 93(5):697-705 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We previously reported ongoing mutational and isotype switch events in the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain (H) locus in hairy cell leukemia. Those analyses raised questions on the incidence and type of selective influences occurring on the tumor B-cell receptor of hairy cell leukemia.
DESIGN AND METHODS: To further investigate this issue, we examined the full IGH and kappa and lambda light chains (IGkappa and IGlambda) variable and constant region transcripts expressed in a large cohort of patients with hairy cell leukemia (n=88).
RESULTS: Multiple IgH isotypes were expressed in 46/56 (82%) cases of hairy cell leukemia. Comparison of tumor with normal B-cell repertoires revealed preferential usage of IGHV3-21, IGHV3-30 and IGHV3-33 in hairy cell leukemia (p=0.001, p=0.003 and p=0.001, respectively). Light chain analysis demonstrated preferential Igl use with an inverted IGk:IGl ratio (0.7:1) and universal usage of IGLJ3. Analysis of LCDR3 junctions revealed highly homologous motifs in 40% of IGL. Parallel analysis of IGH and IGL showed selective pairing of IGHV3-21/30/33 segments to specific LCDR3-J3 subsets (p=0.008). Of 40 cases of hairy cell leukemia, 38 had mutated IGHV and/or IGK/LV, with variations in 13/13 cloned cases, while two had 100% unmutated IGHV and IGK/LV.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, biased IGV usage, preference for Iglambda with universal IGLJ3 usage and a high incidence of LCDR3 homologous motifs suggest selective influences on the B-cell receptor of hairy cell leukemia. Ongoing mutations and isotype switching suggest that influences occur on the tumor B-cell receptor at ectopic sites.

Arons E, Suntum T, Margulies I, et al.
PRAME expression in hairy cell leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2008; 32(9):1400-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
PRAME has been proposed as a useful marker for solid tumors and acute B-cell malignancies. Several studies demonstrate expression in CLL. To further examine its B-cell tumor distribution, we studied PRAME in both CLL and hairy cell leukemia (HCL). While by conventional PCR only 8% of 37 HCL and 27% of 22 CLL patients were positive, nearly all patients and normal donors expressed PRAME by real-time quantitative (TaqMan) PCR. We conclude that HCL and CLL differ in PRAME overexpression, and that basal normal expression of PRAME may limit its usefulness for following patients with minimal residual CLL or HCL.

Martín-Jiménez P, García-Sanz R, González D, et al.
Molecular characterization of complete and incomplete immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements in hairy cell leukemia.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma. 2007; 7(9):573-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We analyzed patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) to achieve a better understanding of the differentiation stage reached by HCL cells and to define the key role of the diversification of cell surface makers, especially CD25 expression.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 38 previously untreated patients with HCL to characterize their complete (VDJ(H)) and incomplete (DJ(H)) immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain (IgH) rearrangements, including somatic hypermutation pattern and gene segment use.
RESULTS: A correlation between immunophenotypic profile and molecular data was seen. All 38 cases showed monoclonal amplifications: VDJ(H) in 97%, DJ(H) in 42%, and both in 39%. Segments from the D(H)3 family were used more in complete compared with incomplete rearrangements (45% vs. 12%; P < .005). Furthermore, comparison between molecular and immunophenotypic characteristics disclosed differences in the expression of CD25 antigen; CD25(-) cases, a phenotype associated with HCL variant, showed complete homology to the germline in 3 of 5 cases (60%), whereas this characteristic was never observed in CD25(+) cases (P < .005). Moreover, V(H)4-34, V(H)1-08, and J(H)3 segments appeared in 2, 1, and 2 CD25(-) cases, respectively, whereas they were absent in all CD25(+) cases.
CONCLUSION: These results support that HCL is a heterogeneous entity including subgroups with different molecular characteristics, which reinforces the need for additional studies with a larger number of patients to clarify the real role of gene rearrangements in HCL.

Recurrent Structural Abnormalities

Selected list of common recurrent structural abnormalities

Abnormality Type Gene(s)
Trisomy 12 in Hairy Cell LeukemiaTrisomy

This is a highly selective list aiming to capture structural abnormalies which are frequesnt and/or significant in relation to diagnosis, prognosis, and/or characterising specific cancers. For a much more extensive list see the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer.

Trisomy 12 in Hairy Cell Leukemia

Vallianatou K, Brito-Babapulle V, Matutes E, et al.
p53 gene deletion and trisomy 12 in hairy cell leukemia and its variant.
Leuk Res. 1999; 23(11):1041-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The deletion or mutation of the p53 tumour suppressor gene on chromosome 17p13 is known to be associated with aggressive disease in several B-cell malignancies. The present study describes the p53 gene status in 20 cases of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and in 12 cases of its morphological variant (HCL-V) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A high incidence of p53 deletion was found in both diseases (75-100% of cases). However, a significant difference was observed between the proportion of cells with p53 deletion in HCL-V cases (mean 31%) and HCL cases (mean 12%) P value < 0.01. The observed difference correlates with the well known tendency for transformation and poor response to therapy in HCL-V and seven cases of HCL-V with greater than 22% of cells with p53 deletion showed features of disease progression and transformation. Trisomy 12 was present in 8.5% of the cells in one case of HCL-V and in 6-8% of cells in three cases of HCL.

Cuneo A, Bigoni R, Balboni M, et al.
Trisomy 12 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and hairy cell leukemia: a cytogenetic and interphase cytogenetic study.
Leuk Lymphoma. 1994; 15(1-2):167-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a chromosome 12-specific pericentromeric probe was performed in 42 patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and in 10 patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL). In all cases, a normal karyotype in more than 10 metaphase cells was obtained by conventional chromosome study. FISH documented that 6/42 patients with CLL in fact had trisomy 12 in 15-49% interphase cells. Sequential FISH studies were performed in 2 cases, showing an increase of percentage of trisomic cells over a 2-month to 4-year period. Two out of 10 patients with HCL, one of whom had morphologic features consistent with a diagnosis of HCL variant, showed 5.5 and 10% interphase nuclei with three fluorescent signals, a finding suggestive of the presence of trisomy 12. Combined immunophenotyping and FISH staining in these patients with HCL documented that trisomic cells were CD11c-positive, CD13-negative, and CD2-negative. We conclude that FISH is a sensitive technique allowing for the detection of trisomy 12 in a fraction of cytogenetically normal patients affected with CLL and HCL.

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