Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: FOXP1 (cancer-related)
BACKGROUND: FOXP1, a transcriptional regulator of lymphocyte development, is abnormally expressed in some human tumors. This study investigated FOXP1-mediated regulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in untreated primary breast cancer (BC).
METHODS: FOXP1 expression was analyzed in tissues from primary untreated breast tumors, BC cell lines and the METABRIC gene expression BC dataset. Cytokine and chemokine expression and lymphocyte migration in response to primary tumor supernatants (SN) was compared between FOXP1
FINDING: FOXP1 expression was higher in estrogen receptor positive compared to negative BC. FOXP1
INTERPRETATION: These data identify FOXP1 as an important negative regulator of immune responses in BC via its regulation of cytokine and chemokine expression. FUND: Belgian Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS 3.4513.12F) and Opération Télévie (7.4636.13F and 7.4609.15F), Fonds J.C. Heuson and Fonds Lambeau-Marteaux.
Background: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare, indolent B-cell lymphoma. Clinically, chromosome 6q deletion (6q del) including loss of the B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 gene (BLIMP-1) is reported to be associated with poor prognosis. However, it remains unclear how the underlying biological mechanism contributes to the aggressiveness of WM with 6q del.
Methods: Here, we conducted oligonucleotide microarray analysis to clarify the differences in gene expression between WM with and without 6q del. Gene ontology (GO) analysis was performed to identify the main pathways underlying differences in gene expression. Eight bone marrow formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of WM were processed for interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, and three were shown to have 6q del.
Results: GO analysis revealed significant terms including "lymphocyte activation" (corrected p value=6.68E-11), which included 31 probes. Moreover,
Conclusion: The present study suggested that the BCR signaling pathway and
Li H, Liang J, Qin F, Zhai YMiR-374b-5p-FOXP1 feedback loop regulates cell migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and chemosensitivity in ovarian cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 505(2):554-560 [PubMed
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators in tumorigenesis and progression of multiple human cancers, including ovarian cancer (OC). As a member of miRNAs family, miR-374b-5p has been reported to be a tumor suppressive gene in human cancers. In this study, the lower expression of miR-374b-5p was identified in OC tissues and cell liens using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Forkhead box protein P1 (FOXP1) can act as an oncogene in human cancers. Mechanism experiments revealed that FOXP1 is a target of miR-374b-5p. Functionally, miR-374b-5p suppressed cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in ovarian cancer. Moreover, the sensitivity of OC cells to cisplatin was markedly enhanced by miR-374b-5p. However, FOXP1 reversed However, FOXP1 reversed miR-374b-5p-mediated biological functions. Previous reports demonstrated the inhibitory effect of FOXP1 on transcription FOXP1. Thus, we further examined the effect of FOXP1 on the transcription activity of miR-374b-5p in OC cells. The results showed that FOXP1 decreased miR-374b-5p expression by inhibiting the transcription activity of miR-374b-5p. Rescue assays revealed the regulatory effect of miR-374b-5p-FOXP1 feedback loop on ovarian cancer progression. In conclusion, miR-374b-5p-FOXP1 feedback loop regulates tumor progression and chemosensitivity in ovarian cancer.
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a common indolent B-cell malignancy with a variable clinical course. An unfavorable event in its course is histological transformation to a high-grade lymphoma, typically diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Recent studies show that genetic aberrations of
Cerna K, Oppelt J, Chochola V, et al.MicroRNA miR-34a downregulates FOXP1 during DNA damage response to limit BCR signalling in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia B cells.
Leukemia. 2019; 33(2):403-414 [PubMed
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The variable clinical course in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) largely depends on p53 functionality and B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling propensity; however, it is unclear if there is any crosstalk between these pathways. We show that DNA damage response (DDR) activation leads to down-modulating the transcriptional factor FOXP1, which functions as a positive BCR signalling regulator and its high levels are associated with worse CLL prognosis. We identified microRNA (miRNA) miR-34a as the most prominently upregulated miRNA during DDR in CLL cells in vitro and in vivo during FCR therapy (fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab). MiR-34a induced by DDR activation and p53 stabilization potently represses FOXP1 expression by binding in its 3'-UTR. The low FOXP1 levels limit BCR signalling partially via derepressing BCR-inhibitory molecule CD22. We also show that low miR-34a levels can be used as a biomarker for worse response or shorter progression free survival in CLL patients treated with FCR chemoimmunotherapy, and shorter overall survival, irrespective of TP53 status. Additionally, we have developed a method for the absolute quantification of miR-34a copies and defined precise prognostic/predictive cutoffs. Overall, herein, we reveal for the first time that B cells limit their BCR signalling during DDR by down-modulating FOXP1 via DDR-p53/miR-34a axis.
Sun Y, Liu J, Chu L, et al.Long noncoding RNA SNHG12 facilitates the tumorigenesis of glioma through miR-101-3p/FOXP1 axis.
Gene. 2018; 676:315-321 [PubMed
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The increasing vital roles of long coding RNA (lncRNAs) in the glioma tumorigenesis have renewedly and roundly recognized. Nevertheless, the in-depth that lncRNAs modulate the gliomagenesis is still elusive. In this research, we focus on the functional study of lncRNA SNHG12 in the glioma pathogenesis. SNHG12 expression was enhanced and high-expressed in the glioma clinical tissue samples and cell lines, especially in the advanced clinical grade. In functional study, knockdown of SNHG12 impaired the proliferation, induced the apoptosis in vitro and, meanwhile, inhibited the tumor growth in vivo. In mechanistic study, it was found that SNHG12 harbored the complementary binding sites with miR-101-3p at 3'-UTR, acting as a miRNA 'sponge'. Furthermore, miR-101-3p also targeted the 3'-UTR of FOXP1 mRNA. The three elements construct the SNHG12/miR-101-3p/FOXP1 axis. Overall, we confirmed a functional regulatory pathway that SNHG12 and miR-101-3p regulated the expression of FOXP1 in glioma cells, forming the SNHG12/miR-101-3p/FOXP1 pathway. This finding might act as a valuable target for glioma.
Wang H, Ding Q, Wang M, et al.miR-29b inhibits the progression of multiple myeloma through downregulating FOXP1.
Hematology. 2019; 24(1):32-38 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence has suggested that miR-29b plays an antitumor effect in multiple malignancies via the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration. In the present study, we aimed to explore the underlying function and mechanism of miR-29b in multiple myeloma (MM).
METHODS: The expression of miR-29b in MM cell lines and tissues was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). CCK-8 and flow cytometry analyses were performed to assess cell proliferation, cycles and apoptosis. Bioinformatics, Dual-Luciferase reporter and qRT-PCR assays were employed to explore the possible correlation between miR-29b and FOXP1. Xenograft model was established to confirm the role of miR-29b on tumor growth in vivo.
RESULTS: miR-29b expression was markedly decreased in MM cell lines and tissues and downregulated miR-29b was closely related to International Staging System (ISS) stages. Exogenous overexpression of miR-29b inhibited the proliferation but induced MM cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. FOXP1 was identified as a direct target gene for miR-29b, and restoration of FOXP1 weakened miR-29b-induced anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis in MM cell lines. Finally, the inhibitory effects of miR-29b on the growth of MM tumors were validated in mice.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-29b recedes the progression of MM via downregulating FOXP1, which may provide a potential biological target for MM treatment.
Our previous findings showed a good therapeutic effect of the combination of suicide gene HSV-TK, nuclide 131I, and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) on hepatoma by using magnetic nanoparticles as linkers, far better than any monotherapy involved, with no adverse effects. This combination therapy might be an eligible strategy to treat hepatic cancer. However, it is not clear how the combination regimen took the therapeutic effects. In the current study, to explore the possible mechanisms of radionuclide-gene therapy combined with MFH to treat hepatoma at tissue, cellular, and molecular levels and to provide theoretical and experimental data for its clinical application, we examined the apoptosis induction of the combination therapy and investigated the expression of the proteins related to apoptosis such as survivin, livin, bcl-2, p53, and nucleus protein Ki67 involved in cell proliferation, detected VEGF, and MVD involved in angiogenesis of tumor tissues and analyzed the pathologic changes after treatment. The results showed that the combination therapy significantly induced the hepatoma cell apoptosis. The expression of survivin, VEGF, bcl-2, p53, livin, Ki67, and VEGF proteins and microvascular density (MVD) were all decreased after treatment. The therapeutic mechanisms may be involved in the downregulation of Ki67 expression leading to tumor cell proliferation repression and inhibition of survivin, bcl-2, p53, and livin protein expression inducing tumor cell apoptosis, negatively regulating VEGF protein expression, and reducing vascular endothelial cells, which results in tumor angiogenesis inhibition and microvascular density decrease and tumor cell necrosis. These findings offer another basic data support and theoretical foundation for the clinical application of the combination therapy.
Guo J, Wen N, Yang S, et al.MiR-92a regulates oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell growth by targeting FOXP1 expression.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 104:77-86 [PubMed
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Increasing evidence indicates that microRNAs dysregulation contributes to the development and progression of various human cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, little is known about the potential role of microRNA-92a (miR-92a) in OSCC. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of miR-92a expression on OSCC cell growth, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression level of miR-92a in primary tumor tissues and OSCC cell lines. The effects of miR-92a on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and tumorigenesis of OSCC cells were explored after miR-92a expression was increased or decreased in the UM1 and Tca-8113 cells, respectively. The 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of FOXP1 combined with miR-92a was analyzed with dual-luciferase reporter assays. The level of miR-92a expression was significantly up-regulated in the OSCC tissues and cell lines. The up-regulation of miR-92a expression promoted UM1 cell proliferation, cell cycle progression in vitro and tumor growth in nude mice, but its expression reduction inhibited these processes and induced apoptosis in Tca-8113 cells. Additionally, miR-92a expression was inversely correlated with FOXP1 protein expression in the OSCC tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, FOXP1 was identified as a functional downstream target of miR-92a by directly targeting the 3'-UTR of FOXP1. These findings indicate that miR-92a may act as a tumor inducer in OSCC by suppressing FOXP1 expression, and it could serve as a potential therapeutic target for OSCC treatment.
Zhang J, Chen J, Ma T, et al.Genetic variants of FOXP1 and FOXF1 are associated with the susceptibility of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in Chinese population.
J Genet. 2018; 97(1):213-218 [PubMed
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This study aimed to investigate whether the genetic variants of CRTC1, BARX1, FOXP1 and FOXF1 are associated with the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OA) in Chinese population. A total of 744 OA patients and 1138 controls were included in this study. Here we genotyped four SNPs, rs10419226 of CRTC1, rs11789015 of BARX1, rs2687201 of FOXP1 and rs3111601 of FOXF1. The chi-square test was used to compare the genotype and allele frequencies between the patients and controls. The student's t-test was used to compare FOXP1 expression in the tumour and the adjacent normal tissues. The relationship between genotypes of rs2687201 and FOXP1 expression was investigated by one-way analysis of variance test. Patients were found to have significantly higher frequency of allele A of rs2687201 and allele C of rs3111601 when compared with the controls (49.2 vs 43.4%, P = 0.0008 for rs2687201; 29.1 vs 24.0%, P = 0.0003 for rs3111601). There was a significantly higher expression level of FOXP1 in the tumour than in the adjacent normal tissue (0.0052 ± 0.0021 vs 0.0027 ± 0.0018, P < 0.001). Patients with genotype AA were found to have remarkably higher FOXP1 expression in the tumour than those with genotype CC (P = 0.01). To conclude, the varients of FOXP1 and FOXF1 genes are functionally associated with OA in Chinese population.With the identification of more susceptible loci, the combined effect of these markers may be helpful for the surveillance of OA.
Stelling A, Hashwah H, Bertram K, et al.The tumor suppressive TGF-β/SMAD1/S1PR2 signaling axis is recurrently inactivated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2018; 131(20):2235-2246 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor S1PR2 and its downstream signaling pathway are commonly silenced in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), either by mutational inactivation or through negative regulation by the oncogenic transcription factor FOXP1. In this study, we examined the upstream regulators of S1PR2 expression and have newly identified the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/TGF-βR2/SMAD1 axis as critically involved in S1PR2 transcriptional activation. Phosphorylated SMAD1 directly binds to regulatory elements in the
Recurrent chromosomal rearrangements carry prognostic significance in pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Recent genome-wide analyses identified a high-risk B-ALL subtype characterized by a diverse spectrum of genetic alterations activating kinases and cytokine receptor genes. This subtype is associated with a poor prognosis when treated with conventional chemotherapy but has demonstrated sensitivity to the relevant tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We sought to determine the frequency of kinase-activating fusions among National Cancer Institute (NCI) high-risk, Ph-negative, B-ALL patients enrolled on Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocol 05-001 and to describe their associated clinical characteristics and outcomes. Among the 105 patients screened, 16 (15%) harbored an ABL-class fusion (
Ruan L, Xie Y, Liu F, Chen XSerum miR-1181 and miR-4314 associated with ovarian cancer: MiRNA microarray data analysis for a pilot study.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2018; 222:31-38 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify serum microRNAs (miRNAs) related to ovarian cancer.
STUDY DESIGN: MiRNA profiling data (GSE79943) were generated from the Gene Expression Omnibus, including 3 serum samples from healthy individuals and 4/3/16/6 serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer stage I/II/III/IV. Differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) were identified between controls and ovarian cancer stage I/II/III/IV by using limma package (p-value <0.05 and |log
RESULTS: Between stage I/II/III/IV and control, 39/143/29/39 DEmiRNAs were identified, which were regarded as key miRNAs. Between 4 DEmiRNA sets, 15 common DEmiRNAs were identified (e.g. up-regulated hsa-miR-1181 and hsa-miR-4314). Hsa-miR-1181 participated in "Jak-STAT signaling pathway" and "miRNAs in cancer"; hsa-miR-4314 took part in cancer-related pathways. STAT3 and KRAS, known marker genes of ovarian cancer, were targeted by hsa-miR-1181 and hsa-miR-4314, respectively. Besides, FOXP1 was targeted by hsa-miR-1181; FOXP1-AS1 and FOXP1-IT1 were down-regulated in ovarian cancer. GRWD1, IP6K1, and NEGR1 were targeted by hsa-miR-4314; GRWD1, IP6K1, and NEGR1 were down-regulated in ovarian tumor.
CONCLUSION: MiR-1181 and miR-4314 might promote ovarian tumorigenesis via down-regulating FOXP1 and GRWD1/IP6K1/NEGR1, respectively. In addition, the 15 common DEmiRNAs might provide directions for ovarian cancer diagnosis.
T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is an aggressive malignancy with a median survival of the patients of less than two years. Besides characteristic chromosomal translocations, frequent mutations affect the ATM gene, JAK/STAT pathway members, and epigenetic regulators. We here performed a targeted mutation analysis for 40 genes selected from a RNA sequencing of 10 T-PLL in a collection of 28 T-PLL, and an exome analysis of five further cases. Nonsynonymous mutations were identified in 30 of the 40 genes, 18 being recurrently mutated. We identified recurrently mutated genes previously unknown to be mutated in T-PLL, which are SAMHD1, HERC1, HERC2, PRDM2, PARP10, PTPRC, and FOXP1. SAMHD1 regulates cellular deoxynucleotide levels and acts as a potential tumor suppressor in other leukemias. We observed destructive mutations in 18% of cases as well as deletions in two further cases. Taken together, we identified additional genes involved in JAK/STAT signaling (PTPRC), epigenetic regulation (PRDM2), or DNA damage repair (SAMHD1, PARP10, HERC1, and HERC2) as being recurrently mutated in T-PLL. Thus, our study considerably extends the picture of pathways involved in molecular pathogenesis of T-PLL and identifies the tumor suppressor gene SAMHD1 with ~20% of T-PLL affected by destructive lesions likely as major player in T-PLL pathogenesis.
Breast cancer progression, treatment resistance, and relapse are thought to originate from a small population of tumor cells, breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Identification of factors critical for BCSC function is therefore vital for the development of therapies. Here, we identify the arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 as a key in vitro and in vivo regulator of BCSC proliferation and self-renewal and establish FOXP1, a winged helix/forkhead transcription factor, as a critical effector of PRMT5-induced BCSC function. Mechanistically, PRMT5 recruitment to the FOXP1 promoter facilitates H3R2me2s, SET1 recruitment, H3K4me3, and gene expression. Our findings are clinically significant, as PRMT5 depletion within established tumor xenografts or treatment of patient-derived BCSCs with a pre-clinical PRMT5 inhibitor substantially reduces BCSC numbers. Together, our findings highlight the importance of PRMT5 in BCSC maintenance and suggest that small-molecule inhibitors of PRMT5 or downstream targets could be an effective strategy eliminating this cancer-causing population.
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a clinically and molecularly highly heterogeneous disease, yet prognostication relies predominantly on clinical tools. We recently demonstrated that integration of mutation status of 7 genes, including
The objective of this study was to create a bioclinical model, based on clinical and molecular predictors of event-free and overall survival for relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated on the Canadian Cancer Trials Group (CCTG) LY12 prospective study. In 91 cases, sufficient histologic material was available to create tissue microarrays and perform immunohistochemistry staining for CD10, BCL6, MUM1/IRF4, FOXP1, LMO2, BCL2, MYC, P53 and phosphoSTAT3 (pySTAT3) expression. Sixty-seven cases had material sufficient for fluorescent
A multigenic locus at 3p13-14, spanning FOXP1 to SHQ1, is commonly deleted in prostate cancer and lost broadly in a range of cancers but has unknown significance to oncogenesis or prognosis. Here, we report that FOXP1-SHQ1 deletion cooperates with PTEN loss to accelerate prostate oncogenesis and that loss of component genes correlates with prostate, breast, and head and neck cancer recurrence. We demonstrate that Foxp1-Shq1 deletion accelerates prostate tumorigenesis in mice in combination with Pten loss, consistent with the association of FOXP1-SHQ1 and PTEN loss observed in human cancers. Tumors with combined Foxp1-Shq1 and Pten deletion show increased proliferation and anaplastic dedifferentiation, as well as mTORC1 hyperactivation with reduced Akt phosphorylation. Foxp1-Shq1 deletion restores expression of AR target genes repressed in tumors with Pten loss, circumventing PI3K-mediated repression of the androgen axis. Moreover, FOXP1-SHQ1 deletion has prognostic relevance, with cancer recurrence associated with combined loss of PTEN and FOXP1-SHQ1 genes.
O'Sullivan AG, Eivers SB, Mulvaney EP, Kinsella BTRegulated expression of the TPβ isoform of the human T prostanoid receptor by the tumour suppressors FOXP1 and NKX3.1: Implications for the role of thromboxane in prostate cancer.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2017; 1863(12):3153-3169 [PubMed
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The prostanoid thromboxane (TX)A
Luo X, Yang Z, Liu X, et al.The clinicopathological significance of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(5):1010428317699129 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a highly malignant tumor with poor prognosis, and the biomarkers for the early diagnosis, targeting therapy, and prognosis are still not clinically available. This study investigated the expression of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a proteins in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumor tissues and pancreatic tissues with and without benign lesions using immunohistochemical staining. Results showed that the positive rates of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a protein expression were significantly lower in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumors compared to peritumoral tissues, benign pancreatic tissues, and normal pancreatic tissues (p < 0.01). Pancreatic tissues with negative forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a protein expression exhibited dysplasia or intraepithelial neoplasia. The positive rates of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a expression were significantly lower in cases with tumor mass >5 cm, lymph node metastasis, invasion to surrounding tissues and organs, and tumor-node-metastasis III + IV stage disease compared to cases with tumor mass ⩽5 cm (p < 0.05), no lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively), no invasion (p = 0.003 and p = 0.004, respectively), and tumor-node-metastasis I or II stage disease (p < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients with negative forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a expression survived significantly shorter than patients with positive forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a expression (p = 0.000). Cox multivariate analysis revealed that negative forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a expression was an independent poor prognosis factor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients. The area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.642 for forkhead box P1 (95% confidence interval: 0.553-0.730) and 0.655 for forkhead box O3a (95% confidence interval: 0.6568-0.742). Loss of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a protein expression is associated with carcinogenesis, progression, and poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas.
Hyperthermia has been investigated as a potential treatment for cancer. However, specificity in hyperthermia application remains a significant challenge. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) may be an alternative to surpass such a challenge, but implications of MFH at the cellular level are not well understood. Therefore, the present work focused on the examination of gene expression after MFH treatment and using such information to identify target genes that when inhibited could produce an enhanced therapeutic outcome after MFH. Genomic analyzes were performed using ovarian cancer cells exposed to MFH for 30 minutes at 43°C, which revealed that heat shock protein (HSP) genes, including
Petrakis G, Kostopoulos I, Venizelos I, et al.Expression of the activation markers Blimp1, Foxp1 and pStat3 in extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.
Histol Histopathol. 2017; 32(8):825-834 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Different studies have suggested that the expression of biomarkers related to lymphoid cell activation may provide information on the behavior of DLBCL. Most studies have concentrated on nodal or a mixture of nodal and extranodal lymphomas. The differential expression and potential clinical impact of these markers in a homogeneous group of extranodal DLBCLs are not well defined. In this study, we investigated the expression of three activation markers, Blimp1, Foxp1 and pStat3, in a cohort of 35 extranodal DLBCLs homogeneously treated with R-CHOP. Immunohistochemical stains were evaluated using an immunoreactivity score on representative paraffin sections. Blimp1 was positive in 55% (19/35), Foxp1 in 60% (21/35), and pStat3 in 69% (24/35) of our cases. We did not observe any statistical differences in the expression of these markers in GCB and non-GCB tumors or in gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal tumors. Blimp1 expression was negatively correlated with overall survival (OS) (p=0.001) in the whole series and in the non-GCB group (Muris algorithm) (p=0.002). Foxp1 positivity and pStat3 positivity had no impact on the outcome of the patients in the global cohort, but they were associated with a better survival in the non-GCB subgroup (p=0.033, p=0.044 respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that Blimp1 expression but not COO was an independent negative prognostic factor for OS (HR=17.5, 95%, CI=2.2-141.1, p=0.007). Our results suggest that these markers are differentially expressed and have different impacts on outcome in extranodal DLBCLs compared to nodal tumors, emphasizing the need to evaluate separately these and probably other markers in these subsets of tumors.
van Keimpema M, Grüneberg LJ, Schilder-Tol EJ, et al.The small FOXP1 isoform predominantly expressed in activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and full-length FOXP1 exert similar oncogenic and transcriptional activity in human B cells.
Haematologica. 2017; 102(3):573-583 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The forkhead transcription factor FOXP1 is generally regarded as an oncogene in activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Previous studies have suggested that a small isoform of FOXP1 rather than full-length FOXP1, may possess this oncogenic activity. Corroborating those studies, we herein show that activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines and primary activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells predominantly express a small FOXP1 isoform, and that the 5'-end of the
MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is liver specific and plays an important role in physiology as well as diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Downregulation of miR-122 in HCC modulates apoptosis. Similarly, the putative targets of miR-122, the forkhead box (FOX) family genes also play an important role in the regulation of apoptosis. Hence, an interplay between miR-122 and FOX family genes has been explored in this study. Initially, an augmentation of apoptosis was noticed in HepG2 cells after transfection with miR-122. Further, the predicted miR-122 targets, the FOX family genes ( FOXM1b, FOXP1, and FOXO4) were selected via in silico analysis based on their role in apoptosis. We checked the expression of all these genes at transcript level after the transfection of miR-122 and found that the relative expression of FOXP1 and FOXM1b was significantly downregulated (p < 0.005) and that of FOXO4 was upregulated (p < 0.005). Thus, the finding indicates deregulation of these FOX genes as a result of miR-122 augmentation might be involved in the modulation of apoptosis.
BACKGROUND: Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) shares pathological features with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and molecular features with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). The miR-17~92 oncogenic cluster, located at chromosome 13q31, is a region that is amplified in DLBCL.
METHODS: Here we compared the expression of each member of the miR-17~92 oncogenic cluster in samples from 40 PMBL patients versus 20 DLBCL and 20 cHL patients, and studied the target genes linked to deregulated miRNA in PMBL.
RESULTS: We found a higher level of miR-92a in PMBL than in DLBCL, but not in cHL. A combination of in silico prediction and transcriptomic analyses enabled us to identify FOXP1 as a main miR-92a target gene in PMBL, a result so far not established. This was confirmed by 3'UTR, and RNA and protein expressions in transduced cell lines. In vivo studies using the transduced cell lines in mice enabled us to demonstrate a tumor suppressor effect of miR-92a and an oncogenic effect of FOXP1.A higher expression of miR-92a and the down-regulation of FOXP1 mRNA and protein expression were also found in human samples of PMBL, while miR-92a expression was low and FOXP1 was high in DLBCL.
CONCLUSIONS: We concluded to a post-transcriptional regulation by miR-92a through FOXP1 targeting in PMBL, with a clinico-pathological relevance for better characterisation of PMBL.
Carreras J, Kikuti YY, Beà S, et al.Clinicopathological characteristics and genomic profile of primary sinonasal tract diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) reveals gain at 1q31 and RGS1 encoding protein; high RGS1 immunohistochemical expression associates with poor overall survival in DLBCL not otherwise specified (NOS).
Histopathology. 2017; 70(4):595-621 [PubMed
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AIMS: We aimed to define the clinicopathological characteristics of 29 primary sinonasal diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL
METHODS AND RESULTS: In the training set, 82% had a non-germinal center B-cell-like (Hans' Classifier) (non-GCB) phenotype and 18% were Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs (EBER)
Gascoyne DM, Banham AHThe significance of FOXP1 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2017; 58(5):1037-1051 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common subtype of mature B-cell lymphoma. While the majority of patients are cured with immunochemotherapy incorporating the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab (R-CHOP), relapsed and refractory patients still have a dismal prognosis. DLBCL subtypes including an aggressive activated B-cell-like (ABC) and a more favorable prognosis germinal center-like (GCB) DLBCL have been identified by gene expression profiling and are characterized by distinct genetic abnormalities and oncogenic pathways. This identification of novel molecular targets is now enabling clinical trials to evaluate more effective personalized approaches to DLBCL therapy. The forkhead transcription factor FOXP1 is highly expressed in the ABC-DLBCL gene signature and has been extensively studied within the context of DLBCL for more than a decade. Here, we review the significance of FOXP1 in the pathogenesis of DLBCL, summarizing data supporting its utility as a prognostic and subtyping marker, its targeting by genetic aberrations, the importance of specific isoforms, and emerging data demonstrating a functional role in lymphoma biology. FOXP1 is one of the critical transcription factors whose deregulated expression makes important contributions to DLBCL pathogenesis. Thus, FOXP1 warrants further study as a potential theranostic in ABC-DLBCL.
Combination targeted therapy is a promising cancer therapeutic strategy. Here, using PEI-Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles (PEI-MZF-NPs) as magnetic media for MFH (magnetic fluid hyperthermia) and gene transfer vector for gene-therapy, a combined therapy, pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/(131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH, for hepatoma is developed. AntiAFPMcAb (Monoclonal antibody AFP) is exploited for targeting. The plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are achieved by incorporation of pEgr1-HSV-TK and pHRE-Egr1-EGFP. Restriction enzyme digestion and PCR confirm the recombinant plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are successfully constructed. After exposure to the magnetic field, PEI-MZF-NPs/pHRE-Egr1-EGFP fluid is warmed rapidly and then the temperature is maintained at 43 °C or so, which is quite appropriate for cancer treatment. The gene expression reaches the peak when treated with 200 μCi (131)I for 24 hours, indicating that the dose of 200 μCi might be the optimal dose for irradiation and 24 h irradiation later is the best time to initiate MFH. The in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/(131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH can greatly suppress hepatic tumor cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis and necrosis and effectively inhibit the tumor growth, much better than any monotherapy does alone. Furthermore, the combination therapy has few or no adverse effects. It might be applicable as a strategy to treat hepatic cancer.
Forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) belongs to a family of winged-helix transcription factors that are involved in the processes of cellular proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, and longevity. FOXP1 can affect cell proliferation and migratory ability in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro. However, little is known about the mechanism of FOXP1 in the proliferation of HCC cells. This study aimed to further explore the function of FOXP1 on the proliferation of HCC cells as well as the relevant mechanism involved. Western blot analysis, tumor xenograft models, and flow cytometry analysis were performed to elucidate the function of FOXP1 in the regulation of cell proliferation in human HCC. We observed that silencing FOXP1 significantly suppressed the growth ability of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, knockdown of FOXP1 induced G1/S phase arrest, and the expression of total and phosphorylated Rb (active type) as well as the levels of E2F1 were markedly decreased at 24 h; however, other proteins, including cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 6 and cyclin D1 did not show noticeable changes. In conclusion, downregulation of FOXP1 inhibits cell proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma by inducing G1/S phase cell cycle arrest, and the decrease in phosphorylated Rb is the main contributor to this G1/S phase arrest.