Gene Summary

Gene:SMAD1; SMAD family member 1
Aliases: BSP1, JV41, BSP-1, JV4-1, MADH1, MADR1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SMAD, a family of proteins similar to the gene products of the Drosophila gene 'mothers against decapentaplegic' (Mad) and the C. elegans gene Sma. SMAD proteins are signal transducers and transcriptional modulators that mediate multiple signaling pathways. This protein mediates the signals of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in a range of biological activities including cell growth, apoptosis, morphogenesis, development and immune responses. In response to BMP ligands, this protein can be phosphorylated and activated by the BMP receptor kinase. The phosphorylated form of this protein forms a complex with SMAD4, which is important for its function in the transcription regulation. This protein is a target for SMAD-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases, such as SMURF1 and SMURF2, and undergoes ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (45)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (3)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Smad1 Protein
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cell Movement
  • Smad8 Protein
  • siRNA
  • Signal Transduction
  • SMAD4
  • Chromosome 4
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Apoptosis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Gene Expression
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4
  • Prostate Cancer
  • RNA Interference
  • Vimentin
  • Xenopus Proteins
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Phosphorylation
  • p53 Protein
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Western Blotting
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Disease Progression
  • Uniparental Disomy
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
  • Validation Studies as Topic
  • Trans-Activators
  • Cell Differentiation
  • SMAD2
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Smad Proteins
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • src-Family Kinases
  • Smad5 Protein
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SMAD1 (cancer-related)

Wang S, Li GX, Tan CC, et al.
FOXF2 reprograms breast cancer cells into bone metastasis seeds.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2707 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bone metastases occur in most advanced breast cancer patients and cause serious skeletal-related complications. The mechanisms by which bone metastasis seeds develop in primary tumors and specifically colonize the bone remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that forkhead box F2 (FOXF2) functions as a master transcription factor for reprogramming cancer cells into an osteomimetic phenotype by pleiotropic transactivation of the BMP4/SMAD1 signaling pathway and bone-related genes that are expressed at early stages of bone differentiation. The epithelial-to-osteomimicry transition regulated by FOXF2 confers a tendency on cancer cells to metastasize to bone which leads to osteolytic bone lesions. The BMP antagonist Noggin significantly inhibits FOXF2-driven osteolytic bone metastasis of breast cancer cells. Thus, targeting the FOXF2-BMP/SMAD axis might be a promising therapeutic strategy to manage bone metastasis. The role of FOXF2 in transactivating bone-related genes implies a biological function of FOXF2 in regulating bone development and remodeling.

Zhao X, Sun Q, Dou C, et al.
BMP4 inhibits glioblastoma invasion by promoting E-cadherin and claudin expression.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2019; 24:1060-1070 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a brain tumor that deeply infiltrates adjacent tissues and causes significant mortality. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that derive the invasion of brain tissue by GBM might help the treatment of this cancer. To this end, we examined the impact of BMP4 on invasion of GBM. In this study, Human GBM samples, GBM cells and human orthotopic GBM-xenografted animal model, quantitative PCR, immunostaining, immunoblotting, Scratch wound and transwell assays were used to detect the effect and the mechanism of BMP4 in GBM cells. BMP4 expression was found to positively correlate with E-cadherin and claudin expression in human GBM samples. Elevation or suppression of BMP4 expression resulted in a respective increase or decrease in E-cadherin and claudin levels, both

Nokin MJ, Bellier J, Durieux F, et al.
Methylglyoxal, a glycolysis metabolite, triggers metastasis through MEK/ERK/SMAD1 pathway activation in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2019; 21(1):11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Elevated aerobic glycolysis rate is a biochemical alteration associated with malignant transformation and cancer progression. This metabolic shift unavoidably generates methylglyoxal (MG), a potent inducer of dicarbonyl stress through the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We have previously shown that the silencing of glyoxalase 1 (GLO1), the main MG detoxifying enzyme, generates endogenous dicarbonyl stress resulting in enhanced growth and metastasis in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms through which MG stress promotes metastasis development remain to be unveiled.
METHODS: In this study, we used RNA sequencing analysis to investigate gene-expression profiling of GLO1-depleted breast cancer cells and we validated the regulated expression of selected genes of interest by RT-qPCR. Using in vitro and in vivo assays, we demonstrated the acquisition of a pro-metastatic phenotype related to dicarbonyl stress in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and MCF7 breast cancer cellular models. Hyperactivation of MEK/ERK/SMAD1 pathway was evidenced using western blotting upon endogenous MG stress and exogenous MG treatment conditions. MEK and SMAD1 regulation of MG pro-metastatic signature genes in breast cancer cells was demonstrated by RT-qPCR.
RESULTS: High-throughput transcriptome profiling of GLO1-depleted breast cancer cells highlighted a pro-metastatic signature that establishes novel connections between MG dicarbonyl stress, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling by neoplastic cells and enhanced cell migration. Mechanistically, we showed that these metastasis-related processes are functionally linked to MEK/ERK/SMAD1 cascade activation in breast cancer cells. We showed that sustained MEK/ERK activation in GLO1-depleted cells notably occurred through the down-regulation of the expression of dual specificity phosphatases in MG-stressed breast cancer cells. The use of carnosine and aminoguanidine, two potent MG scavengers, reversed MG stress effects in in vitro and in vivo experimental settings.
CONCLUSIONS: These results uncover for the first time the key role of MG dicarbonyl stress in the induction of ECM remodeling and the activation of migratory signaling pathways, both in favor of enhanced metastatic dissemination of breast cancer cells. Importantly, the efficient inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling using MG scavengers further emphasizes the need to investigate their therapeutic potential across different malignancies.

Nagel S, MacLeod RAF, Meyer C, et al.
NKL homeobox gene activities in B-cell development and lymphomas.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0205537 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Homeobox genes encode transcription factors which regulate basic processes in development and cell differentiation. Several members of the NKL subclass are deregulated in T-cell progenitors and support leukemogenesis. We have recently described particular expression patterns of nine NKL homeobox genes in early hematopoiesis and T-cell development. Here, we screened NKL homeobox gene activities in normal B-cell development and extended the NKL-code to include this lymphoid lineage. Analysis of public expression profiling datasets revealed that HHEX and NKX6-3 were the only members differentially active in naïve B-cells, germinal center B-cells, plasma cells and memory B-cells. Subsequent examination of different types of B-cell malignancies showed both aberrant overexpression of NKL-code members and ectopic activation of subclass members physiologically silent in lymphopoiesis including BARX2, DLX1, EMX2, NKX2-1, NKX2-2 and NKX3-2. Based on these findings we performed detailed studies of the B-cell specific NKL homeobox gene NKX6-3 which showed enhanced activity in patient subsets of follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and in three DLBCL cell lines to serve as in vitro models. While excluding genomic and chromosomal rearrangements at the locus of NKX6-3 (8p11) promoter studies demonstrated that B-cell factors MYB and PAX5 activated NKX6-3 transcription. Furthermore, aberrant BMP7/SMAD1-signalling and deregulated expression of chromatin complex components AUTS2 and PCGF5 promoted NKX6-3 activation. Finally, NKL homeobox genes HHEX, HLX, MSX1 and NKX6-3 were expressed in B-cell progenitors and generated a regulatory gene network in cell lines which we propose may provide physiological support for NKL-code formation in early B-cell development. Together, we identified an NKL-code in B-cell development whose violation may deregulate differentiation and promote malignant transformation.

Liu RX, Ma Y, Hu XL, et al.
Anticancer effects of oridonin on colon cancer are mediated via BMP7/p38 MAPK/p53 signaling.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(5):2091-2101 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colon cancer is a prevalent malignancy affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Oridonin (ORI) is a promising chemotherapeutic drug used in the treatment of colon cancer. In this study, we examined the anticancer activity of ORI against colon cancer and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cell counting kit-8, flow cytometric and western blot analyses were conducted to analyze the growth inhibitory effects of ORI on SW620 cells; we employed BMP7 and p53 recombinant adenovirus to detect the influence of ORI on the p38 MAPK signal pathway; PT-qPCR, cell immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of BMP7, p38 and p-p38, p53 and p-p53. A xenograft tumor model and histological evaluation were introduced to detect the effects of ORI and BMP7 in SW620 cells in vivo. ORI inhibited the proliferation of SW620 cells and induced apoptosis. ORI also increased the total and phosphorylated levels of p53. The overexpression of p53 was found to enhance the anti-proliferative effects of ORI on the SW620 cells, while the inhibition of p53 partially reversed these effects. ORI increased the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) in the SW620 cells. The overexpression of BMP7 also enhanced the antiproliferative effects of ORI on the SW620 cells and reduced the growth rate of tumors in mice. BMP7-induced immunosuppression markedly decreased the anti-proliferative effects of ORI. ORI was not found to exert any substantial effect on the phosphorylation levels of Smad1/5/8, although it increased the level of p-p38 significantly. The inhibition of p38 significantly attenuated the ORI-induced increase in the levels of p-p53. The overexpression of BMP7 enhanced the promoting effects of ORI on the p-p53 and p-p38 levels, while BMP7-induced immunosuppression reduced the effects of ORI on p-p38 and p-p53. On the whole, the findings of this study suggest that ORI may be a promising agent for use in the treatment of colon cancer, and the anticancer effects of ORI may be partially mediated through the BMP7/p38 MAPK/p53 signaling pathway.

Eikesdal HP, Becker LM, Teng Y, et al.
BMP7 Signaling in
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(10):1568-1578 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Deregulated transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling is a common feature of many epithelial cancers. Deletion of

Chen J, Li C, Zhan R, Yin Y
SPG6 supports development of acute myeloid leukemia by regulating BMPR2-Smad-Bcl-2/Bcl-xl signaling.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 501(1):220-225 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia affecting adults. To effectively treat AML, new molecular targets and therapeutic approaches must be identified. In silico analysis of several available databases of AML patients showed that the expression of Spastic Paraplegia 6 Protein (SPG6) significantly inversely correlates with the overall survival of AML patients. To determine whether SPG6 supports AML development, we employed an shRNA-encoding lentivirus system to inhibit SPG6 expression in human AML cells including NB4 and MV4-11 cells. Knockdown expression of SPG6 resulted in decreased cell growth and elevated apoptosis of these leukemia cells. Notably, the SPG6 deficiency resulted in higher BMPR2 expression indicating that BMPR2 signaling contributes to AML pathogenesis. Furthermore, SPG6 deficiency promoted phosphorylation of Smad1/5/9 and decreased transcription of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. Our study suggests that SPG6 contributes to AML pathogenesis, and suggests that inhibition of SPG6 may be novel strategy for treating human AML.

Stelling A, Hashwah H, Bertram K, et al.
The tumor suppressive TGF-β/SMAD1/S1PR2 signaling axis is recurrently inactivated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2018; 131(20):2235-2246 [PubMed] Related Publications
The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor S1PR2 and its downstream signaling pathway are commonly silenced in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), either by mutational inactivation or through negative regulation by the oncogenic transcription factor FOXP1. In this study, we examined the upstream regulators of S1PR2 expression and have newly identified the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/TGF-βR2/SMAD1 axis as critically involved in S1PR2 transcriptional activation. Phosphorylated SMAD1 directly binds to regulatory elements in the

Matveeva A, Kovalevska L, Kholodnyuk I, et al.
The TGF-beta - SMAD pathway is inactivated in cronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.
Exp Oncol. 2017; 39(4):286-290 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To study the status of the tumor growth factor beta (TGFB) pathway in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells and to uncover molecular details underlying CLL cell genesis.
OBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on peripheral blood samples of patients with CLL using the following methods: RNA isolation, analysis of expression of transcription factors using RT2 profiler assay, bioinformatics analysis of publicly available data bases on expression.
RESULTS: We have shown that the TGFB - SMAD canonical pathway is not active in CLL cells. SMAD-responsive genes, such as BCL2L1 (BCL-XL), CCND2 (Cyclin D2), and MYC, are down-regulated in CLL cells compared with peripheral blood B cells of healthy donors.
CONCLUSIONS: The TGFB-mediated signaling is not active in CLL cells due to low (or absent) expression of SMAD1, -4, -5, -9, and ATF-3. Expression and phosphorylation status of SMAD2 and -3 should be further elucidated in the future studies.

Peng YG, Zhang L
Baohuoside-I suppresses cell proliferation and migration by up-regulating miR-144 in melanoma.
Pharm Biol. 2018; 56(1):43-50 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
CONTEXT: Baohuoside-I was reported to induce apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer and inhibit the growth of multiple myeloma cells. The antitumour potential of baohuoside-I has not been demonstrated in melanoma yet.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential antitumour activity of baohuoside-I against melanoma and elucidate its underlying molecular mechanism.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. The malignant invasion capacity was measured with trans-well assay. The relative expression change of microRNAs was profiled with microarray. TargetScan was utilized for prediction of target gene of miR-144. Regulatory effect of miR-144 on SMAD1 was determined by dual luciferase reporter assay. Endogenous SMAD1 protein in response to ectopic expression of miR-144 was determined by immunoblotting. Xenograft mice were employed to evaluate antitumour potential of baohuoside-I (25 mg/kg by tail intravenous injection every two days) in vivo.
RESULTS: Baohuoside-I significantly inhibited proliferation (45 ± 4% reduction in M14 and 35 ± 3% reduction in MV3 at 24 h) and migration (70 ± 4% reduction in M14 and 72 ± 3% reduction in MV3) in melanoma cells. Mechanistically, baohuoside-I up-regulated miR-144 expression levels (3 ± 0.2-fold). Silence of miR-144 reversed the inhibition of baohuoside-I in melanoma. We have identified that SMAD1 was the novel target of miR-144. Moreover, baohuoside-I suppressed melanoma in vivo (52 ± 8% reduction in xenograft tumour size at day 20).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested significant antitumour potential of baohuoside-I against melanoma both in vitro and in vivo, which warrants further laboratory investigation and clinical trial.

Goto M, Osada S, Imagawa M, Nishizuka M
FAD104, a regulator of adipogenesis, is a novel suppressor of TGF-β-mediated EMT in cervical cancer cells.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):16365 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological process in which epithelial cells translate into a mesenchymal phenotype with invasive capacities, contributing to tumour progression, metastasis, and the acquisition of chemotherapy resistance. To identify new therapeutic targets for cancers, it is important to clarify the molecular mechanism of induction of EMT. We have previously reported that fad104, a positive regulator of adipocyte differentiation, suppressed the invasion and metastasis of melanoma and breast cancer cells. In this study, we showed that FAD104 functions as a novel suppressor of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-mediated EMT in cervical cancer cells. Expression of FAD104 is upregulated during TGF-β-mediated EMT in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Reduction of fad104 expression enhanced TGF-β-mediated EMT and migration in HeLa cells. Conversely, overexpression of FAD104 suppressed TGF-β-induced EMT. In addition, we showed that FAD104 negatively regulated phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 but positively regulated phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 via treatment with TGF-β. These findings demonstrate that FAD104 is a novel suppressor of TGF-β signalling and represses TGF-β-mediated EMT in cervical cancer cells.

Shinohara N, Maeda S, Yahiro Y, et al.
TGF-β signalling and PEG10 are mutually exclusive and inhibitory in chondrosarcoma cells.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):13494 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Histological distinction between enchondroma and chondrosarcoma is difficult because of a lack of definitive biomarkers. Here, we found highly active transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling in human chondrosarcomas compared with enchondromas by immunohistochemistry of phosphorylated SMAD3 and SMAD1/5. In contrast, the chondrogenic master regulator SOX9 was dramatically down-regulated in grade 1 chondrosarcoma. Paternally expressed gene 10 (PEG10) was identified by microarray analysis as a gene overexpressed in chondrosarcoma SW1353 and Hs 819.T cells compared with C28/I2 normal chondrocytes, while TGF-β1 treatment, mimicking higher grade tumour conditions, suppressed PEG10 expression. Enchondroma samples exhibited stronger expression of PEG10 compared with chondrosarcomas, suggesting a negative association of PEG10 with malignant cartilage tumours. In chondrosarcoma cell lines, application of the TGF-β signalling inhibitor, SB431542, increased the protein level of PEG10. Reporter assays revealed that PEG10 repressed TGF-β and BMP signalling, which are both SMAD pathways, whereas PEG10 knockdown increased the level of phosphorylated SMAD3 and SMAD1/5/9. Our results indicate that mutually exclusive expression of PEG10 and phosphorylated SMADs in combination with differentially expressed SOX9 is an index to distinguish between enchondroma and chondrosarcoma, while PEG10 and TGF-β signalling are mutually inhibitory in chondrosarcoma cells.

Cui X, Jing X, Wu X, et al.
Abnormal expression levels of BMP15/Smad1 are associated with granulosa cell apoptosis in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(6):8231-8236 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects reproductive dysfunction and metabolism in women of childbearing age. An increasing number of studies have suggested that the bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) signalling pathway serves an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS; however, the full mechanism remains unknown. The present study revealed that intrinsic follicular dysplasia may be associated with regulation disorders of ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis. Compared with the control group, body mass index, luteinising hormone and testosterone levels were significantly increased (P<0.05). The percentage of S phase cells was significantly higher, cells in G2/M phase cells was significantly lower, and cells undergoing apoptosis was significantly higher in the PCOS group compared with the control group (P<0.05). The expression levels of B‑cell lymphoma 2 was significantly decreased in granulosa cells of PCOS group, whereas the expression of caspase‑3 was higher than the control group (P<0.05). The rate of apoptosis of granulosa cells was measured by a terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick‑end labelling assay. The relative mRNA expression levels of BMP receptor 2 and SMAD1 were significantly decreased in granulosa cells in the PCOS group compared with the control (P<0.05). In addition, the expression of BMP15 in follicular fluid and Smad1 in granulosa cells was significantly decreased in the PCOS group compared with the control (P<0.05). The data suggested that the BMP15/Smad1 signalling pathway may be involved in granulosa cell apoptosis, and may be a target for clinical treatment for PCOS.

Chiou J, Su CY, Jan YH, et al.
Decrease of FSTL1-BMP4-Smad signaling predicts poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma but not in squamous cell carcinoma.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):9830 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Follistatin-related protein 1 (FSTL1) plays a critical role in lung development through regulating BMP4-p-Smad1/5/8-Smad4 pathway. Regarding that many developmental pathways in embryogenesis are dysregulated in cancer, we aim to unravel the role of FSTL1-BMP4-Smad pathway in lung cancer. Our results showed low FSTL1 immunoexpression was significantly correlated with poor prognosis while patients with low BMP4 or low Smad4 immunoexpression showed a trend toward poor prognosis. When stratified by different histological types, low FSTL1, BMP4, and Smad4 expression retained their trends in predicting poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) but not in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Low FSTL1, BMP4, and Smad4 expression were more frequently observed in LUAD patients with smoking history. To determine smoking effect on FSTL1, normal cell BEAS2B and lung cancer cell lines was treated with nicotine and the results showed nicotine increased the proliferation of these cells. Interestingly, FSTL1 attenuated nicotine-induced BEAS2B and lung cancer cell line proliferation. Altogether, low FSTL1, BMP4, and Smad4 expression significantly correlated with poor prognosis in LUAD but not in SCC. Frequent decrease of FSTL1 expression in smokers LUAD further indicates its importance and therapeutic potential for lung cancer patients with specific subtypes. FSTL1 may prevent nicotine-induced lung cancer cell proliferation.

Nishio K, Ozawa Y, Ito H, et al.
Functional expression of BMP7 receptors in oral epithelial cells. Interleukin-17F production in response to BMP7.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2017; 37(5):515-521 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. Recently, BMP7 has been demonstrated to be produced by salivary glands and contribute to embryonic branching in mice. The BMP7 in saliva is thought to be delivered to the oral cavity and is expected to contact with stratified squamous epithelial cells which line the surface of oral mucosa. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of BMP7 on oral epithelial cells.
METHODS: The expression of BMP receptors was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). OSCCs were stimulated with human recombinant BMP7 (hrBMP7) and the phosphorylation status of Smad1/5/8 was examined by western blotting. For microarray analysis, Ca9-22 cells were stimulated with 100 ng/mL of hrBMP7 and total RNA was extracted and subjected to real-time PCR. The 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of IL-17 F gene was cloned to pGL4-basic vector and used for luciferase assay. Ca9-22 cells were pre-incubated with DM3189, a specific inhibitor of Smad1/5/8, for inhibition assay.
RESULTS: All isoforms of type I and type II BMP receptors were expressed in both Ca9-22 and HSC3 cells and BMP7 stimulation resulted in the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in both cell lines. The microarray analysis revealed the induction of interleukin-17 F (IL-17 F), netrin G2 (NTNG2) and hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1). Luciferase assay using the 5'-UTR of the IL-17 F gene revealed transcriptional regulation. Induced IL-17 F production was further confirmed at the protein level by ELISA. Smad1/5/8 inhibitor pretreatment decreased IL-17 F expression levels in the cells.

Lin DPL, Carnagarin R, Dharmarajan A, Dass CR
Transdifferentiation of myoblasts into osteoblasts - possible use for bone therapy.
J Pharm Pharmacol. 2017; 69(12):1661-1671 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Transdifferentiation is defined as the conversion of one cell type to another and is an ever-expanding field with a growing number of cells found to be capable of such a process. To date, the fact remains that there are limited treatment options for fracture healing, osteoporosis and bone repair post-destruction by bone tumours. Hence, this review focuses on the transdifferentiation of myoblast to osteoblast as a means to further understand the transdifferentiation process and to investigate a potential therapeutic option if successful.
KEY FINDINGS: The potent osteoinductive effects of the bone morphogenetic protein-2 are largely implicated in the transdifferentiation of myoblast to osteoblast. Bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced activation of the Smad1 protein ultimately results in JunB synthesis, the first transcriptional step in myoblast dedifferentiation. The upregulation of the activating protein-1 binding activity triggers the transcription of the runt-related transcription factor 2 gene, a transcription factor that plays a major role in osteoblast differentiation.
SUMMARY: This potential transdifferentiation treatment may be utilised for dental implants, fracture healing, osteoporosis and bone repair post-destruction by bone tumours.

Kwon YC, Sasaki R, Meyer K, Ray R
Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Modulates Endoglin (CD105) Signaling Pathway for Liver Pathogenesis.
J Virol. 2017; 91(21) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Endoglin is part of the TGF-β receptor complex and has a crucial role in fibrogenesis and angiogenesis. It is also an important protein for tumor growth, survival, and cancer cell metastasis. In a previous study, we have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) state and cancer stem-like cell (CSC) properties in human hepatocytes. Our array data suggested that endoglin (CD105) mRNA is significantly upregulated in HCV-associated CSCs. In this study, we have observed increased endoglin expression on the cell surface of an HCV core-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line or immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) and activation of its downstream signaling molecules. The status of phospho-SMAD1/5 and the expression of inhibitor of DNA binding protein 1 (ID1) were upregulated in HCV-infected cells or viral core gene-transfected cells. Additionally, we observed upregulation of endoglin/ID1 mRNA expression in chronic HCV patient liver biopsy samples. CSC generation by HCV core protein was dependent on the endoglin signaling pathway using activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) Fc blocking peptide and endoglin small interfering RNA (siRNA). Further, follow-up from

Zhang W, Zhuang Y, Zhang Y, et al.
Uev1A facilitates osteosarcoma differentiation by promoting Smurf1-mediated Smad1 ubiquitination and degradation.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(8):e2974 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Malignant bone tumor osteosarcoma (OS) displays high metastasis incidence and poor prognosis. Its stem cell properties could serve to explain tumor recurrence and resistance to conventional treatments. In this study, we identified UEV1A as a novel suppressor of OS. Elevated UEV1A diminishes stem cell properties of OS cells and drives them to terminal differentiation. Importantly, UEV1A-overexpressed OS cells delay proliferation and are more sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents than control cells. Uev1A appears to be involved in the BMP signaling pathway in which it collaborates with a ubiquitin E3 ligase Smurf1 to promote Smad1 degradation in a Ubc13-independent manner. Indeed, Smad1 is identified as a dominant downstream effector of Uev1A, which unravels the mechanism underlying Uev1A-orchestrated tumor suppression in OS. The above findings identify UEV1A as a potential OS tumor suppression gene, and shed lights to future OS diagnosis and treatment.

Souza TM, van den Beucken T, Kleinjans JCS, Jennen DGJ
Inferring transcription factor activity from microarray data reveals novel targets for toxicological investigations.
Toxicology. 2017; 389:101-107 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcription factors (TFs) are important modulators of the inducible portion of the transcriptome, and therefore relevant in the context of exposure to exogenous compounds. Current approaches to predict the activity of TFs in biological systems are usually restricted to a few entities at a time due to low-throughput techniques targeting a limited fraction of annotated human TFs. Therefore, high-throughput alternatives may help to identify new targets of mechanistic and predictive value in toxicological investigations. In this study, we inferred the activity multiple TFs using publicly available microarray data from primary human hepatocytes exposed to hundreds of chemicals and evaluated these molecular profiles using multiple correspondence analysis. Our results demonstrate that the lowest dose and latest exposure time (24h) in a subset of chemicals generates a signature indicative of carcinogenicity possibly due to DNA-damaging properties. Furthermore, profiles from the earliest exposure time (2h) and highest dose creates clusters of chemicals implicated in the development of diverse forms of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Both approaches yielded a number of TFs with similar activity across groups of chemicals, including TFs known in toxicological responses such as AhR, NFE2L2 (Nrf2), NF-κB and PPARG. FOXM1, IRF1 and E2F4 were some of the TFs identified that may be relevant in genotoxic carcinogenesis. SMADs (SMAD1, SMAD2, SMAD5) and KLF5 were identified as some of potentially new TFs whose inferred activities were linked to acute and progressive outcomes in DILI. In conclusion this study offers a novel mechanistic approach targeting TF activity during chemical exposure.

Shenoy N, Bhagat T, Nieves E, et al.
Upregulation of TET activity with ascorbic acid induces epigenetic modulation of lymphoma cells.
Blood Cancer J. 2017; 7(7):e587 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The Ten Eleven Translocation (TET) enzymes have been found to be mutated in both diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) and peripheral T-cell (PTCL) lymphomas resulting in DNA hypermethylation. Recent studies in embryonal stem cells showed that ascorbic acid (AA) is a cofactor for TET with a binding site at the catalytic domain, and enhances TET activity. We hypothesized that AA could potentially enhance TET activity in lymphoma cells to cause DNA demethylation, reactivate expression of tumor suppressor genes and enhance chemosensitivity. We demonstrate in vitro that AA treatment of DLBCL and PTCL cells using AA concentrations achievable intravenously increased TET activity leading to DNA demethylation. This epigenetic effect is independent of hydrogen peroxide. AA treatment increased the expression of SMAD1, a tumor suppressor gene known to be suppressed by methylation, and increased chemosensitivity of lymphoma cells. Twenty-nine percent (10/34) of unselected lymphoma patients had plasma AA levels that were deficient suggesting an additional clinical mechanism of TET hypofunction. These data indicate that AA has the potential to modify TET function in lymphoma and enhance chemosensitivity. In addition, the AA deficiency seen in some patients may further impair TET function and contribute to resistance. Clinical trials testing intravenous AA with chemotherapy are warranted.

Liu RX, Ren WY, Ma Y, et al.
BMP7 mediates the anticancer effect of honokiol by upregulating p53 in HCT116 cells.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(3):907-917 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death. Hence, there is a great need to explore new efficacious drugs for the treatment of CRC. Honokiol (HNK), a natural product extracted from magnolia bark, processes various biological activities, including anticancer. In this study, we introduced cell viability assay, western blotting, real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining to determine the anticancer effect of HNK, and the possible mechanism underlying this biological process. We found that HNK can inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis in HCT116 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. HNK activates p53 in HCT116 and other colon cancer cells. Exogenous p53 potentiates the anticancer of HNK, while p53 inhibitor decreases this effect of HNK. Moreover, HNK upregulates the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) in colon cancer cells; Exogenous BMP7 enhances the anticancer activity of HNK and BMP7 specific antibody reduces this effect of HNK. For mechanism, we found that HNK cannot increase the level of Smad1/5/8; Exogenous BMP7 potentiates the HNK-induced activation of p53. On the contrary, BMP7 specific antibody inhibits the HNK-induced activation of p53 in colon cancer cells and partly decreases the total level of p53. Our findings suggested that HNK may be a promising anticancer drug for CRC; activation of p53 plays an important role in the anticancer activity of HNK, which may be initialized partly by the HNK-induced upregulation of BMP7.

Raja E, Komuro A, Tanabe R, et al.
Bone morphogenetic protein signaling mediated by ALK-2 and DLX2 regulates apoptosis in glioma-initiating cells.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(35):4963-4974 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling exerts antitumor activities in glioblastoma; however, its precise mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that the BMP type I receptor ALK-2 (encoded by the ACVR1 gene) has crucial roles in apoptosis induction of patient-derived glioma-initiating cells (GICs), TGS-01 and TGS-04. We also characterized a BMP target gene, Distal-less homeobox 2 (DLX2), and found that DLX2 promoted apoptosis and neural differentiation of GICs. The tumor-suppressive effects of ALK-2 and DLX2 were further confirmed in a mouse orthotopic transplantation model. Interestingly, valproic acid (VPA), an anti-epileptic compound, induced BMP2, BMP4, ACVR1 and DLX2 mRNA expression with a concomitant increase in phosphorylation of Smad1/5. Consistently, we showed that treatment with VPA induced apoptosis of GICs, whereas silencing of ALK-2 or DLX2 expression partially suppressed it. Our study thus reveals BMP-mediated inhibitory mechanisms for glioblastoma, which explains, at least in part, the therapeutic effects of VPA.

Sinha S, Mundy C, Bechtold T, et al.
Unsuspected osteochondroma-like outgrowths in the cranial base of Hereditary Multiple Exostoses patients and modeling and treatment with a BMP antagonist in mice.
PLoS Genet. 2017; 13(4):e1006742 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME) is a rare pediatric disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding the heparan sulfate (HS)-synthesizing enzymes EXT1 or EXT2. HME is characterized by formation of cartilaginous outgrowths-called osteochondromas- next to the growth plates of many axial and appendicular skeletal elements. Surprisingly, it is not known whether such tumors also form in endochondral elements of the craniofacial skeleton. Here, we carried out a retrospective analysis of cervical spine MRI and CT scans from 50 consecutive HME patients that included cranial skeletal images. Interestingly, nearly half of the patients displayed moderate defects or osteochondroma-like outgrowths in the cranial base and specifically in the clivus. In good correlation, osteochondromas developed in the cranial base of mutant Ext1f/f;Col2-CreER or Ext1f/f;Aggrecan-CreER mouse models of HME along the synchondrosis growth plates. Osteochondroma formation was preceded by phenotypic alteration of cells at the chondro-perichondrial boundary and was accompanied by ectopic expression of major cartilage matrix genes -collagen 2 and collagen X- within the growing ectopic masses. Because chondrogenesis requires bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, we asked whether osteochondroma formation could be blocked by a BMP signaling antagonist. Systemic administration with LDN-193189 effectively inhibited osteochondroma growth in conditional Ext1-mutant mice. In vitro studies with mouse embryo chondrogenic cells clarified the mechanisms of LDN-193189 action that turned out to include decreases in canonical BMP signaling pSMAD1/5/8 effectors but interestingly, concurrent increases in such anti-chondrogenic mechanisms as pERK1/2 and Chordin, Fgf9 and Fgf18 expression. Our study is the first to reveal that the cranial base can be affected in patients with HME and that osteochondroma formation is amenable to therapeutic drug intervention.

Seystahl K, Papachristodoulou A, Burghardt I, et al.
Biological Role and Therapeutic Targeting of TGF-β
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017; 16(6):1177-1186 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β contributes to the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma by promoting invasiveness and angiogenesis and creating an immunosuppressive microenvironment. So far, TGF-β

Hirschhorn T, Levi-Hofman M, Danziger O, et al.
Differential molecular regulation of processing and membrane expression of Type-I BMP receptors: implications for signaling.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2017; 74(14):2645-2662 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Type-I bone morphogenetic protein receptors (BMPRs), BMPR1A and BMPR1B, present the highest sequence homology among BMPRs, suggestive of functional similitude. However, sequence elements within their extracellular domain, such as signal sequence or N-glycosylation motifs, may result in differential regulation of biosynthetic processing and trafficking and in alterations to receptor function. We show that (i) BMPR1A and the ubiquitous isoform of BMPR1B differed in mode of translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum; and (ii) BMPR1A was N-glycosylated while BMPR1B was not, resulting in greater efficiency of processing and plasma membrane expression of BMPR1A. We further demonstrated the importance of BMPR1A expression and glycosylation in ES-2 ovarian cancer cells, where (i) CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of BMPR1A abrogated BMP2-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and reduced proliferation of ES-2 cells and (ii) inhibition of N-glycosylation by site-directed mutagenesis, or by tunicamycin or 2-deoxy-D-glucose treatments, reduced biosynthetic processing and plasma membrane expression of BMPR1A and BMP2-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation.

Witkowska M, Majchrzak A, Cebula-Obrzut B, et al.
The distribution and potential prognostic value of SMAD protein expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(3):1010428317694551 [PubMed] Related Publications
The SMAD proteins are responsible for transducing signals from activated transforming growth factor-beta. This is the first study assessing the expression of SMAD-1/8, SMAD-2/3, SMAD-4, and SMAD-7 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with regard to their clinical significance and potential prognostic value. Overexpression of SMAD-1/8 was observed in 160 chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients compared to 42 healthy volunteers (p = 0.023) and was associated with a more progressive course of the disease (p = 0.016). Moreover, the high expression of SMAD-1/8 correlated with other, well-established prognostic factors, including clinical stage (p = 0.010) and lymphocyte doubling time (p = 0.021). The expression of SMAD-4 was lower in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients compared with the control group (p = 0.003). Importantly, lower SMAD-4 levels correlated with longer progression-free survival (p = 0.009), progressive course of the disease (p = 0.002), advanced clinical stage (p = 0.0004), elevated beta-2-microglobulin and lactate dehydrogenase levels (p < 0.05), shorter lymphocyte doubling time (p = 0.009), and CD38 antigen expression (p = 0.039). In addition, lower SMAD-4 expression correlated with lower apoptotic index (p = 0.0007) and lower expression of receptors for vascular endothelial growth factors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. A significant association was found between the low expression of inhibitory protein SMAD-7 and both zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70-negative cells (p = 0.04) and lower apoptotic index (p = 0.004). No differences were observed in SMAD-2/3 expression. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a significant correlation between greater SMAD-1/8 and lower SMAD-4 expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, as well as more progressive outcome and poor prognosis. These data provide supporting evidence that the expression of SMAD proteins plays an important role in disease development and may be considered as a novel, biologic prognostic factor in this disease.

Chou CK, Chang YT, Korinek M, et al.
The Regulations of Deubiquitinase USP15 and Its Pathophysiological Mechanisms in Diseases.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(3) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Deubiquitinases (DUBs) play a critical role in ubiquitin-directed signaling by catalytically removing the ubiquitin from substrate proteins. Ubiquitin-specific protease 15 (USP15), a member of the largest subfamily of cysteine protease DUBs, contains two conservative cysteine (Cys) and histidine (His) boxes. USP15 harbors two zinc-binding motifs that are essential for recognition of poly-ubiquitin chains. USP15 is grouped into the same category with USP4 and USP11 due to high degree of homology in an N-terminal region consisting of domains present in ubiquitin-specific proteases (DUSP) domain and ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain. USP15 cooperates with COP9 signalosome complex (CSN) to maintain the stability of cullin-ring ligase (CRL) adaptor proteins by removing the conjugated ubiquitin chains from RBX1 subunit of CRL. USP15 is also implicated in the stabilization of the human papillomavirus type 16 E6 oncoprotein, adenomatous polyposis coli, and IκBα. Recently, reports have suggested that USP15 acts as a key regulator of TGF-β receptor-signaling pathways by deubiquitinating the TGF-β receptor itself and its downstream transducers receptor-regulated SMADs (R-SMADs), including SMAD1, SMAD2, and SMAD3, thus activating the TGF-β target genes. Although the importance of USP15 in pathologic processes remains ambiguous so far, in this review, we endeavor to summarize the literature regarding the relationship of the deubiquitinating action of USP15 with the proteins involved in the regulation of Parkinson's disease, virus infection, and cancer-related signaling networks.

Qi Z, Li Y, Zhao B, et al.
BMP restricts stemness of intestinal Lgr5
Nat Commun. 2017; 8:13824 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The intestinal epithelium possesses a remarkable self-renewal ability, which is mediated by actively proliferating Lgr5

Chiba T, Ishisaki A, Kyakumoto S, et al.
Transforming growth factor-β1 suppresses bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition in HSC-4 human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells via Smad1/5/9 pathway suppression.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(2):713-720 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common cancer in the oral cavity. We previously demonstrated that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (hOSCC) cells; however, it remains to be clarified whether the TGF-β superfamily member bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) affects this process in hOSCC cells. Here, we examined the independent and collective effects of TGF-β1 and BMP-2 on EMT and mesenchymal‑epithelial transition (MET) in a panel of four hOSCC cell lines. Notably, we found that HSC-4 cells were the most responsive to BMP-2 stimulation, which resulted in the upregulation of Smad1/5/9 target genes such as the MET inducers ID1 and cytokeratin 9 (CK9). Furthermore, BMP-2 downregulated the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin and the EMT inducer Snail, but upregulated epithelial CK9 expression, indicating that BMP-2 prefers to induce MET rather than EMT. Moreover, TGF-β1 dampened BMP-2-induced epithelial gene expression by inhibiting Smad1/5/9 expression and phosphorylation. Functional analysis revealed that TGF-β1 and BMP-2 significantly enhanced HSC-4 cell migration and proliferation, respectively. Collectively, these data suggest that TGF-β positively regulates hOSCC invasion in the primary tumor, whereas BMP-2 facilitates cancer cell colonization at secondary metastatic sites. Thus, the invasive and metastatic characteristics of hOSCC appear to be reciprocally regulated by BMP and TGF-β.

Hu M, Cui F, Liu F, et al.
BMP signaling pathways affect differently migration and invasion of esophageal squamous cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 50(1):193-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are broadly involved in normal embryo development and abnormal pathological process such as cancer. The complexity and diversity of BMPs and their signaling pathways impose quite different or even conflicting effects on clinical traits of tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether different BMPs, including BMP2, BMP4, BMP6 and BMP7, influence esophageal squamous cancer cell (ESCC) growth, invasion and metastasis. BMP6 and type I receptor ALK2 and type II receptor BMPRII, ActRIIA and ActRIIB were expressed in all ESCC cell lines. In addition, adenovirus-mediated BMP overexpression did not affect ECA-109 cell growth. BMP6/7 overexpression increased ECA-109 cell invasion and metastasis, activated SMAD1/5/8 signal pathway and induced downstream gene ID1 expression. While BMP2/4 overexpression reduced ECA-109 cell invasion and metastasis and obviously promoted ERK1/2, P-38 and JNK activation with weak SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. When BMP6/7 favorite type I receptor ALK2 or type II receptor BMPRII was interfered with by dominant-negative mutation, BMP6/7-induced invasion and metastasis augmentation disappeared. Further investigation on clinical ESCC samples and non-tumorous adjacent tissue found that tumors with triple-positive BMP6, ALK2 and BMPRII had deeper growth than tumors with only BMP6 expression. These results suggested that different BMPs distinctly affected esophageal squamous cancer cell invasion and metastasis by employing different signal pathways.

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