Gene Summary

Gene:FLT1; fms related tyrosine kinase 1
Aliases: FLT, FLT-1, VEGFR1, VEGFR-1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) family. VEGFR family members are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) which contain an extracellular ligand-binding region with seven immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, a transmembrane segment, and a tyrosine kinase (TK) domain within the cytoplasmic domain. This protein binds to VEGFR-A, VEGFR-B and placental growth factor and plays an important role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Expression of this receptor is found in vascular endothelial cells, placental trophoblast cells and peripheral blood monocytes. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Isoforms include a full-length transmembrane receptor isoform and shortened, soluble isoforms. The soluble isoforms are associated with the onset of pre-eclampsia.[provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (46)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (4)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FLT1 (cancer-related)

Zang W, Bian H, Huang X, et al.
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(6):2739-2747 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the vascular normalization effect of traditional Chinese medicine Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Curcuma wenyujin (CW) on tumor-derived endothelial cells (TECs).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: TECs were isolated from the xenografted HCC cell line HepG2 expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP). The effect of AM and CW on TECs proliferation was measured using the CCK8 assay. The vascular normalization potential of AM and CW was assessed using a tube formation assay. Immunocytochemistry was performed to assess the effect of AM and CW on the expression of angiogenic maker CD34 and hypoxia-inducible factor HIF1a.
RESULTS: The isolated TECs and endothelioma (EOMA) cells did not differ with regard to the expression levels of endothelial markers CD34, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β. All AM, CW, AM+CW and Nintedanib (Nin) showed a dose-dependent increasing inhibition effect on either TECs or EOMA cells. AM, CW and AM+CW significantly reduced HIF1a expression, increased CD34 expression and enhanced endothelial network formation in TECs or EOMA cells compared to the control.
CONCLUSION: AM and CW promoted vascular normalization in tumor-derived endothelial cells of HCC, through increased expression of CD34 and reduced expression of HIF1a.

Liang W, Zheng Y, Zhang J, Sun X
Multiscale modeling reveals angiogenesis-induced drug resistance in brain tumors and predicts a synergistic drug combination targeting EGFR and VEGFR pathways.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2019; 20(Suppl 7):203 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Experimental studies have demonstrated that both the extracellular vasculature or microenvironment and intracellular molecular network (e.g., epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway) are important for brain tumor growth. Additionally, some drugs have been developed to inhibit EGFR signaling pathways. However, how angiogenesis affects the response of tumor cells to drug treatment has rarely been mechanistically studied. Therefore, a multiscale model is required to investigate such complex biological systems that contain interactions and feedback among multiple levels.
RESULTS: In this study, we developed a single cell-based multiscale spatiotemporal model to simulate vascular tumor growth and the drug response based on the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) signaling pathway, the EGFR signaling pathway and the cell cycle as well as several microenvironmental factors that determine cell fate switches in a temporal and spatial context. By incorporating the EGFRI treatment effect, the model showed an interesting phenomenon in which the survival rate of tumor cells decreased in the early stage but rebounded in a later stage, revealing the emergence of drug resistance. Moreover, we revealed the critical role of angiogenesis in acquired drug resistance, since inhibiting blood vessel growth using a VEGFR inhibitor prevented the recovery of the survival rate of tumor cells in the later stage. We further investigated the optimal timing of combining VEGFR inhibition with EGFR inhibition and predicted that the drug combination targeting both the EGFR pathway and VEGFR pathway has a synergistic effect. The experimental data validated the prediction of drug synergy, confirming the effectiveness of our model. In addition, the combination of EGFR and VEGFR genes showed clinical relevance in glioma patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The developed multiscale model revealed angiogenesis-induced drug resistance mechanisms of brain tumors to EGFRI treatment and predicted a synergistic drug combination targeting both EGFR and VEGFR pathways with optimal combination timing. This study explored the mechanistic and functional mechanisms of the angiogenesis underlying tumor growth and drug resistance, which advances our understanding of novel mechanisms of drug resistance and provides implications for designing more effective cancer therapies.

Kim SS, Eun JW, Cho HJ, et al.
Effect of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and its Receptor Gene Polymorphisms on the Survival of Patients With Hepatitis B Virus-associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(4):2217-2226 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor play a critical role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FGF1, FGF2, FGF receptor (FGFR)-2, Flt-1, and c-MET genes in 245 HCC patients and 483 chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers without HCC.
RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with the FGF2 rs308447 TT genotype had shorter overall survival than patients with the CC or CT genotype (p=0.016) and that FGF2 rs308379 A allele carriers had shorter overall survival than patients with the TT genotype (p=0.020).
CONCLUSION: Multivariate Cox proportional analysis revealed that the FGF2 rs308379 A allele (hazard ratio(HR)=1.663, p=0.004) and advanced tumor stage (HR=3.430, p<0.001) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with HCC.

Wang S, Yu ZH, Chai KQ
Identification of EGFR as a Novel Key Gene in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC) through Bioinformatics Analysis and Meta-Analysis.
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:6480865 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) was the most aggressive histological type of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and accounted for 70-80% of cases of all RCC. The aim of this study was to identify the potential biomarker in ccRCC and explore their underlying mechanisms. Four profile datasets were downloaded from the GEO database to identify DEGs. GO and KEGG analysis of DEGs were performed by DAVID. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed to predict hub genes. The hub gene expression within ccRCC across multiple datasets and the overall survival analysis were investigated utilizing the Oncomine Platform and UALCAN dataset, separately. A meta-analysis was performed to explore the relationship between the hub genes: EGFR and ccRCC. 127 DEGs (55 upregulated genes and 72 downregulated genes) were identified from four profile datasets. Integrating the result from PPI network, Oncomine Platform, and survival analysis, EGFR, FLT1, and EDN1 were screened as key factors in the prognosis of ccRCC. GO and KEGG analysis revealed that 127 DEGs were mainly enriched in 21 terms and 4 pathways. The meta-analysis showed that there was a significant difference of EGFR expression between ccRCC tissues and normal tissues, and the expression of EGFR in patients with metastasis was higher. This study identified 3 importance genes (EGFR, FLT1, and EDN1) in ccRCC, and EGFR may be a potential prognostic biomarker and novel therapeutic target for ccRCC, especially patients with metastasis.

Li J, Guo L, Chai L, Ai Z
Comprehensive Analysis of Driver Genes in Personal Genomes of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 18:1533033819830966 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To characterize personal driver genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma independent of somatic mutation frequencies.
METHODS: Personal cancer driver genes were predicted by Integrated CAncer GEnome Score in 417 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma using 26 786 somatic mutations from The Cancer Genome Atlas, followed by an integrated investigation on personal driver genes.
RESULTS: A total of 233 personal driver genes were determined by Integrated CAncer GEnome Score. The coexpression network analysis found 5 coexpressed modules. The blue module was significantly negatively correlated with all 5 clinical features, including cancer stage, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, age, and survival status (death). CTNNB1, TGFBR2, KDR, FLT1, and INSR were the hub genes in the blue module. The expression of 79 personal driver genes was significantly associated with clinical outcomes of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: The set of personal driver genes sheds insights into the tumorigenesis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and paves the way for developing personalized medicine for clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Zhang L, Luo B, Dang YW, et al.
The clinical significance of endothelin receptor type B in hepatocellular carcinoma and its potential molecular mechanism.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2019; 107:141-157 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical significance and potential molecular mechanism of endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect EDNRB protein expression level in 67 HCC paraffin embedded tissues and adjacent tissues. Correlations between EDNRB expression level and clinicopathologic parameters were analyzed in our study. The expression level and clinical significance of EDNRB in HCC were also evaluated from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics was employed to analyze the EDNRB related genes, and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis and Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network were conducted for those EDNRB related genes.
RESULTS: Lower expression level of EDNRB in HCC was verified by immunohistochemistry than adjacent tissues (P < 0.0001). The expression level of EDNRB in HCC tissues was lower than normal control liver tissues based on TCGA and GEO data (standard mean difference [SMD] = -1.48, 95% [confidence interval] CI: -1.63-(-1.33), P
CONCLUSION: Our study provides novel findings and insights on the molecular pathogenesis of HCC from EDNRB view.

Nakada S, Sasagawa Y, Tachibana O, et al.
The clinicopathological analysis of receptor tyrosine kinases in meningiomas: the expression of VEGFR-2 in meningioma was associated with a higher WHO grade and shorter progression-free survival.
Brain Tumor Pathol. 2019; 36(1):7-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
WHO grade II/III meningiomas recur frequently and there is currently no established molecular target therapy for meningioma. No previous studies have revealed the association between receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and the recurrence of meningiomas. This study aims to elucidate the association between RTKs and the clinicopathological characteristics and recurrence of meningioma. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of RTKs (VEGFR-1/2/3, PDGFR-alpha/beta and c-Kit) in 81 meningiomas (WHO grade I, n = 64, WHO grade II/III, n = 17) in 74 patients. Immunohistochemistry revealed that 29 WHO grade I (45%), 10 WHO grade II (77%), and 4 WHO grade III (100%) tumors were VEGFR-2-positive, and that the VEGFR-2 expression was significantly correlated with the WHO grade. In univariate analyses to investigate the clinicopathological factors associated with recurrence, Simpson grade IV/V resection, a larger tumor size, a high VEGFR-2 expression level, WHO grade II/III, a high Ki-67 expression level, and the non-expression of PgR were identified as significant factors. Furthermore, patients with VEGFR-2-positive meningiomas showed significantly shorter progression-free survival. In the multivariate analysis, WHO grade II/III and the location were significantly associated with recurrence. In conclusion, our study suggests that VEGFR-2 inhibitors might be one of the best candidates for molecular therapy against recurrent meningiomas.

Panossian A, Seo EJ, Efferth T
Novel molecular mechanisms for the adaptogenic effects of herbal extracts on isolated brain cells using systems biology.
Phytomedicine. 2018; 50:257-284 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Adaptogens are natural compounds or plant extracts that increase adaptability and survival of organisms under stress. Adaptogens stimulate cellular and organismal defense systems by activating intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways and expression of stress-activated proteins and neuropeptides. The effects adaptogens on mediators of adaptive stress response and longevity signaling pathways have been reported, but their stress-protective mechanisms are still not fully understood.
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to identify key molecular mechanisms of adaptogenic plants traditionally used to treat stress and aging-related disorders, i.e., Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Withania somnifera, Rhaponticum carthamoides, and Bryonia alba.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of adaptogens, we conducted RNA sequencing to profile gene expression alterations in T98G neuroglia cells upon treatment of adaptogens and analyzed the relevance of deregulated genes to adaptive stress-response signaling pathways using in silico pathway analysis software.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: At least 88 of the 3516 genes regulated by adaptogens were closely associated with adaptive stress response and adaptive stress-response signaling pathways (ASRSPs), including neuronal signaling related to corticotropin-releasing hormone, cAMP-mediated, protein kinase A, and CREB; pathways related to signaling involving CXCR4, melatonin, nitric oxide synthase, GP6, Gαs, MAPK, neuroinflammation, neuropathic pain, opioids, renin-angiotensin, AMPK, calcium, and synapses; and pathways associated with dendritic cell maturation and G-coupled protein receptor-mediated nutrient sensing in enteroendocrine cells. All samples tested showed significant effects on the expression of genes encoding neurohormones CRH, GNRH, UCN, G-protein-coupled and other transmembrane receptors TLR9, PRLR, CHRNE, GP1BA, PLXNA4, a ligand-dependent nuclear receptor RORA, transmembrane channels, transcription regulators FOS, FOXO6, SCX, STAT5A, ZFPM2, ZNF396, ZNF467, protein kinases MAPK10, MAPK13, MERTK, FLT1, PRKCH, ROS1, TTN), phosphatases PTPRD, PTPRR, peptidases, metabolic enzymes, a chaperone (HSPA6), and other proteins, all of which modulate numerous life processes, playing key roles in several canonical pathways involved in defense response and regulation of homeostasis in organisms. It is for the first time we report that the molecular mechanism of actions of melatonin and plant adaptogens are alike, all adaptogens tested activated the melatonin signaling pathway by acting through two G-protein-coupled membrane receptors MT1 and MT2 and upregulation of the ligand-specific nuclear receptor RORA, which plays a role in intellectual disability, neurological disorders, retinopathy, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cancer, which are common in aging. Furthermore, melatonin activated adaptive signaling pathways and upregulated expression of UCN, GNRH1, TLR9, GP1BA, PLXNA4, CHRM4, GPR19, VIPR2, RORA, STAT5A, ZFPM2, ZNF396, FLT1, MAPK10, MERTK, PRKCH, and TTN, which were commonly regulated by all adaptogens tested. We conclude that melatonin is an adaptation hormone playing an important role in regulation of homeostasis. Adaptogens presumably worked as eustressors ("stress-vaccines") to activate the cellular adaptive system by inducing the expression of ASRSPs, which then reciprocally protected cells from damage caused by distress. Functional investigation by interactive pathways analysis demonstrated that adaptogens activated ASRSPs associated with stress-induced and aging-related disorders such as chronic inflammation, cardiovascular health, neurodegenerative cognitive impairment, metabolic disorders, and cancer.
CONCLUSION: This study has elucidated the genome-wide effects of several adaptogenic herbal extracts in brain cells culture. These data highlight the consistent activation of ASRSPs by adaptogens in T98G neuroglia cells. The extracts affected many genes playing key roles in modulation of adaptive homeostasis, indicating their ability to modify gene expression to prevent stress-induced and aging-related disorders. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive look at the molecular mechanisms by which adaptogens exerts stress-protective effects.

Tanabe A, Kobayashi D, Maeda K, et al.
Angiogenesis-related gene expression profile in clinical cases of canine cancer.
Vet Med Sci. 2019; 5(1):19-29 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic signalling is tightly regulated in normal tissues to maintain the functions of the vasculature. In contrast, the overproduction of angiogenic factors and enhanced angiogenesis are frequently observed in several types of tumours. Although there have been many reports on the correlation between tumour progression and angiogenesis in humans, little is known about tumour angiogenesis in canines. Hence, we attempted to clarify whether angiogenesis contributes to tumour progression in canines as well as humans. In this study, we investigated the expression of several angiogenesis-related genes, including CD34, VEGF-A, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, Ang-1, Ang-2, Tie1, and Tie2, in 66 canine tumour tissues and in the normal tissues surrounding the tumours by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Our comparative analysis between canine tumour tissues and normal tissues revealed that several angiogenesis-related genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF-receptor genes, were significantly upregulated in canine tumour tissues when compared to the normal tissues. We also found that the angiopoietin (Ang)-1/Ang-2 gene expression ratio was lower in canine tumour tissues than in the normal tissues, suggesting less association between vascular endothelial cells and perivascular cells in the canine tumour tissues. Taken together, our results suggest that several angiogenesis-related genes may contribute to the malignant progression of canine tumours via tumour angiogenesis.

Jiao W, Zhang J, Wei Y, et al.
MiR-139-5p regulates VEGFR and downstream signaling pathways to inhibit the development of esophageal cancer.
Dig Liver Dis. 2019; 51(1):149-156 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MiR-139-5p plays a significant role in tumorigenesis, metastasis and recurrence, suggesting that it may potentially be used as a promising biomarker for esophageal cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. This study aimed to investigate the role and the mechanism of miRNA-139-5p in esophageal cancer.
METHODS: This study included 11 patients from an area with a high incidence of esophageal cancer. The expression levels of miRNA-139-5p in esophageal cancer tissues and para-carcinoma tissues of 11 patients were measured. We examined the expression of miR-139-5p in serum obtained from 92 consecutive patients from Cixian, which is a region in Hebei Province with a high rate of histologically confirmed esophageal cancer. The expression of miR-139-5p in esophageal cancer cell lines was detected. In the KYSE150 cell line with the lowest expression level of miR-139-5p, we transfected a plasmid to upregulate the expression level and examined the role of miR-139-5p in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma proliferation, migration and invasion. We conducted a gene profiling study using miR-139-5p cell lines to detect the expression of significant genes related to tumor progression, including cyclinD1, E-cadherin and VEGFR-1. We then constructed luciferase reporters containing miR-139-5p, which contained wild-type (WT) or mutated-type (Mut) VEGFR-1 binding sites to investigate the target.
RESULTS: MiRNA-139-5p expression levels in esophageal cancer tissues from 11 patients were significantly higher than those in para-carcinoma tissues. MiR-139-5p expression in the serum of 92 patients with esophageal cancer was associated with gender (P = 0.039) and TNM stage (P = 0.015). Factors that were not correlated with miR-139-5p expression were age (P = 0.293), smoking history (P = 0.397), length of tumor (P = 0.309), width of tumor (P = 0.296), depth of tumor (P = 0.724), lymphoma metastasis (P = 0.531) and postoperative therapy (P = 0.884). MiR-139-5p (P = 0.013) correlated significantly with observed survival rates. The lymphoma metastasis (P = 0.005) and TNM stage (P = 0.000) were significantly associated with observed survival rates. However, no significant relationships were found between the miR-139-5p and patient characteristics including gender, age, smoking history, tumor size and postoperative therapy. In the KYSE150 cell line, the expression level of miR-139-5p was the lowest. We transfected a plasmid to upregulate the expression level and found that the cell proliferation, metastasis and invasion abilities decreased. Upregulation of miR-139-5p inhibited the expression of Cyclin D1 and VEGFR-1 and increased the expression of E-cadherin. For further confirmation, we constructed luciferase reporters containing miR-139-5p, which contained wild-type (WT) or mutated-type (Mut) VEGFR-1 binding sites for target investigation. The results show that the corresponding VEGFR-1-Mut construct no longer suppressed miR-139-5p.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-139-5p may be a novel therapeutic target and prognostic biomarker of esophageal cancer.

Tran HV, Kiemer AK, Helms V
Copy Number Alterations in Tumor Genomes Deleting Antineoplastic Drug Targets Partially Compensated by Complementary Amplifications.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2018 Sep-Oct; 15(5):365-378 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Genomic DNA copy number alterations (CNAs) are frequent in tumors and have been catalogued by The Cancer Genome Atlas project. Emergence of chemoresistance frequently renders drug therapies ineffective.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed how CNAs recurrently found in the genomes of TCGA patients of thirty-one tumor types affect protein targets of antineoplastic (AN) agents.
RESULTS: CNA deletions more frequently affected the targets of AN agents than CNA amplifications. Interestingly, in seven tumors we observed signs of compensatory CNAs. For example, in glioblastoma multiforme, two target genes (FLT1, FLT3) of the experimental drug sorafenib were recurrently deleted, whereas another target (KDR) of sorafenib was recurrently amplified. In renal clear cell carcinoma, the target FLT1 of pazopanib, sunitinib, sorafenib, and axitinib was recurrently deleted, whereas FLT4 bound by the same drugs, was recurrently amplified.
CONCLUSION: Deletions of AN target proteins can be compensated by amplification of alternative targets.

Sarwar M, Syed Khaja AS, Aleskandarany M, et al.
The role of PIP5K1α/pAKT and targeted inhibition of growth of subtypes of breast cancer using PIP5K1α inhibitor.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(3):375-389 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite recent improvement in adjuvant therapies, triple-negative, and ER

Koltai Z, Szabó B, Jakus J, Vajdovich P
Tyrosine kinase expression analyses in canine mammary gland tumours - A pilot study.
Acta Vet Hung. 2018; 66(2):294-308 [PubMed] Related Publications
Messenger RNA levels of oncogenic tyrosine kinases were determined in canine mammary tumours using real-time RT-PCR. The following tyrosine kinases and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) were examined in malignant and healthy mammary tissues of 13 dogs: VEGFR1, VEGFR2, EGFR, ErbB2, PDGFR1, c-KIT and c-MET. Expression levels of all these factors were significantly higher in tumour samples than in normal mammary tissues taken from the same animal. Higher grading was associated with higher VEGFR1 levels. Grade III tumours showed significantly higher VEGF, c-MET and c-KIT mRNA expression, while Grade I tumours with lower malignancy showed significantly higher PDGFR1 and EGFR expression than tumours classified as Grade II or III. The increased presence of VEGF, VEGFR1, c-KIT and c-MET is a negative prognostic factor as these signal transduction molecules contribute to increased tumour malignancy. The presented data provide evidence, for the first time, for the existence of a complex overexpression and dysregulation of VEGF and several oncogenic tyrosine kinases such as VEGR1, PDGFR1, c-KIT and c-MET in canine mammary tumours. Therefore, canine mammary tumours may be potential targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.

Okugawa Y, Toiyama Y, Ichikawa T, et al.
Colony-stimulating factor-1 and colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor co-expression is associated with disease progression in gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(2):737-749 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colony‑stimulating‑factor‑1 (CSF‑1) is a hematopoietic growth factor that exerts its effects through the c‑fms/CSF‑1 receptor (CSF‑1R). The CSF‑1/CSF‑1R axis is thought to be involved in the development of several types of cancer. This study aimed to clarify the clinical and biological significance of the CSF‑1/CSF‑1R axis in gastric cancer (GC). For this purpose, we evaluated CSF‑1 and CSF‑1R expression in GC tissues from 148 patients by RT‑qPCR and immunohistochemistry. The biological roles of the CSF‑1/CSF‑1R axis were investigated by measuring the cell proliferation and migration, and anoikis resistance in a human GC cell line following treatment with recombinant human CSF‑1 and/or CSF‑1R inhibitor. The results revealed that an elevated expression of CSF‑1 or CSF‑1R significantly correlated with disease progression and with a poor overall survival (OS, P=0.037 and 0.016, respectively) and disease‑free survival (DFS, P<0.001 and <0.001, respectively) of patients with GC. Furthermore, a high co‑expression of CSF‑1 and CSF‑1R was an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.02‑1.88; P=0.038) and DFS (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.21‑2.67; P=0.004), and an independent risk factor for lymph node and peritoneal metastasis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an intense CSF‑1/CSF‑1R expression in the cytoplasm of cancer cells in primary GC tissues. CSF‑1 or CSF‑1R expression positively correlated with vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) or Fms related tyrosine kinase 1 (FLT1) expression in GC tissues. Treatment with recombinant human CSF‑1 promoted proliferation, migration and anoikis resistance in a GC cell line. These effects were generally blocked by CSF‑1R inhibition. On the whole, the findings of this study indicate that the CSF‑1/CSF‑1R axis may be a clinically useful prognostic and predictive biomarker for lymph node and peritoneal metastasis and a potential therapeutic target in GC.

Xu S, Bai J, Zhuan Z, et al.
EBV‑LMP1 is involved in vasculogenic mimicry formation via VEGFA/VEGFR1 signaling in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(1):377-384 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (EBV‑LMP1) is an oncoviral protein that plays an important role in oncogenic transformation in EBV‑associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Our previous studies demonstrated that LMP1 increased VEGFA expression and upregulated angiogenesis in NPC. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a mechanism by which tumor cells can obtain nutrients to survive, and VM has been observed in numerous types of tumors. However, the occurrence and significance of VM in NPC and the relationship between LMP1 and VM have not yet been evaluated. In the present study, we observed that it was almost impossible for LMP1-negative NPC cells to form tubular structures, whereas LMP1-positive NPC cells were able to form tubular structures. Moreover, VEGFA was found to be involved in VM formation in LMP1-positive NPC cells. Knockdown of LMP1 or VEGFR1 distinctly disrupted tubular structures, whereas inhibition of VEGFR2 did not affect the process, indicating that VEGFR1 not VEGFR2 signaling was involved in LMP1-mediated VM formation. Furthermore, the data of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and CD34/PAS double staining in a tumor tissue array showed that LMP1 was positively correlated with VEGFR1 and VM. Meanwhile, after analyzing the clinicopathological features, we found that VM formation was associated with a poor prognosis in NPC patients. These results suggest that VM formation is increased by EBV‑LMP1 via VEGF/VEGFR1 signaling and provide additional information to clarify the role of EBV‑LMP1 in NPC pathophysiology.

Zhu L, Xie J, Liu Z, et al.
Pigment epithelium-derived factor/vascular endothelial growth factor ratio plays a crucial role in the spontaneous regression of infant hemangioma and in the therapeutic effect of propranolol.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(6):1981-1994 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Infantile hemangioma (IH) is a benign tumor that is formed by aberrant angiogenesis and that undergoes spontaneous regression over time. Propranolol, the first-line therapy for IH, inhibits angiogenesis by downregulating activation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, which is hyperactivated in IH. However, this treatment is reportedly ineffective for 10% of tumors, and 19% of patients relapse after propranolol treatment. Both pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors regulate angiogenesis, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is the most effective endogenous anti-angiogenic factor. PEDF/VEGF ratio controls many angiogenic processes, but its role in IH and the relationship between this ratio and propranolol remain unknown. Results of the present study showed that the PEDF/VEGF ratio increased during the involuting phase of IH compared with the proliferating phase. Similarly, in hemangioma-derived endothelial cells (HemEC), which were isolated with magnetic beads, increasing the PEDF/VEGF ratio inhibited proliferation, migration, and tube formation and promoted apoptosis. Mechanistically, the VEGF receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) and PEDF receptor (laminin receptor, LR) were highly expressed in both IH tissues and HemEC, and PEDF inhibited HemEC function by binding to LR. Interestingly, we found that propranolol increased the PEDF/VEGF ratio but did so by lowering VEGF expression rather than by upregulating PEDF as expected. Furthermore, the combination of PEDF and propranolol had a more suppressive effect on HemEC. Consequently, our results suggested that the PEDF/VEGF ratio played a pivotal role in the spontaneous regression of IH and that the combination of PEDF and propranolol might be a promising treatment strategy for propranolol-resistant IH.

Hanna DL, Loupakis F, Yang D, et al.
Prognostic Value of ACVRL1 Expression in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Receiving First-line Chemotherapy With Bevacizumab: Results From the Triplet Plus Bevacizumab (TRIBE) Study.
Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2018; 17(3):e471-e488 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: No biomarkers exist to predict benefit from antiangiogenic therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. ACVRL1 (activin receptor like-protein 1) encodes for ALK1, a member of the transforming growth factor-β receptor family, which directs pathologic angiogenesis. We examined the intratumoral expression of ACVRL1 and other angiogenesis pathway-related genes to identify molecular markers in the TRIBE study.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 503 randomized patients, 228 had sufficient tissue for analysis. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens were examined for expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, ACVRL1, EphB4, and EGFL7 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A maximal χ
RESULTS: High ACVRL1 expression was associated with superior OS in both treatment arms (FOLFOXIRI [5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, irinotecan]-bevacizumab, 32.7 vs. 13.5 months, hazard ratio [HR], 0.38, P = .023; FOLFIRI [5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan]-bevacizumab, 35.1 vs. 22.0 months, HR, 0.36, P = .006) and prolonged PFS (11.7 vs. 5.9 months, multivariate HR, 0.17; P = .001) for patients receiving FOLFOXIRI-bevacizumab on univariate and multivariate analyses. In recursive partitioning analysis, ACVRL1 was the strongest discriminator of the response rate, PFS, and OS in patients receiving FOLFOXIRI-bevacizumab and of OS in patients receiving FOLFIRI-bevacizumab. In silico validation revealed significant associations between ACVRL1 expression, disease recurrence, and 1-year survival (P < .05) among all colorectal cancer stages.
CONCLUSION: ACVRL1 expression could serve as a prognostic biomarker in metastatic colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and bevacizumab and warrants further evaluation in prospective studies.

Wu F, Wu S, Gou X
Identification of biomarkers and potential molecular mechanisms of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(2):242-252 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common type of renal cancer in adults. The aim of this study is to identify the biomarkers and potential molecular mechanisms of ccRCC. Three gene expression profiles and two miRNA expression profiles were downloaded from GEO database. A total of 330 up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 545 down-regulated DEGs, 26 up-regulated differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and 11 down-regulated DEMs were identified by GEO2R. The gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed by KOBAS software. The results showed that GO terms of the up-regulated DEGs were mostly enriched in response to stimulus at BP level, cell periphery at CC level and binding at MF level, while the GO terms of down-regulated DEGs were enriched in single-organism process at BP level, extracellular exosome at CC level and catalytic activity at MF level. As for KEGG pathways, HIF-1 signaling pathway, focal adhesion, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and metabolic pathways were significantly enriched. Then, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and miRNA-gene network were constructed and analyzed by Cytoscape. A total of eight DEGs were identified as biomarkers, including VEGFA, PPARA, CCND1, FLT1, CXCL12, FN1, DCN and ERBB4. Expression validation and survival analysis were performed by GEPIA and OncoLnc, respectively. Four biomarkers were verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in 786-O cell line and HK-2 cell line. All four genes had the same expression trend as predicted. Our study provides a series of biomarkers and molecular mechanisms for the deeper research of ccRCC.

Ferrari SM, Bocci G, Di Desidero T, et al.
Lenvatinib exhibits antineoplastic activity in anaplastic thyroid cancer in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(5):2225-2234 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lenvatinib is an oral, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of VEGFR1-VEGFR3, FGFR1-FGFR4, PDGFRα, RET and v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT) signaling networks involved in tumor angiogenesis. We have evaluated the antitumor activity of lenvatinib in primary anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cells, in the human cell line 8305C (undifferentiated thyroid cancer) and in an ATC-cell line (AF). The AF cell line was obtained from the primary ATC cultures and was the one that grew over 50 passages. The effect of lenvatinib (1 and 100 nM; and 1, 10, 25 and 50 µM) was investigated in primary ATC, 8305C and AF cells as well as in AF cells in CD nu/nu mice. Lenvatinib significantly reduced ATC cell proliferation (P<0.01, ANOVA) and increased the percentage of apoptotic ATC cells (P<0.001, ANOVA). Furthermore, lenvatinib inhibited migration (P<0.01) and invasion (P<0.001) in ATC. In addition, lenvatinib inhibited EGFR, AKT and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and downregulated cyclin D1 in the ATC cells. Lenvatinib also significantly inhibited 8305C and AF cell proliferation, increasing apoptosis. AF cells were subcutaneously injected into CD nu/nu mice and tumor masses were observed 20 days later. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by lenvatinib (25 mg/kg/day), as well as the expression of VEGF-A and microvessel density in the AF tumor tissues. In conclusion, the antitumor and antiangiogenic activities of lenvatinib may be promising for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer, and may consist a basis for future clinical therapeutic applications.

Zhang L, Lv Z, Xu J, et al.
MicroRNA-134 inhibits osteosarcoma angiogenesis and proliferation by targeting the VEGFA/VEGFR1 pathway.
FEBS J. 2018; 285(7):1359-1371 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) signaling is crucial for angiogenesis and progression of osteosarcoma (OS). However, the regulation of the VEGF/VEGFR1 expression is still unclear in OS. Here, we show lower levels of miRNA-134 (miR-134) in OS tissues and cells. Induction of miR-134 overexpression significantly reduced the proliferation of Saos-2 cells and their secretion of pro-angiogenic factors, but increased the frequency of apoptotic Saos-2 cells. Treatment with conditioned medium from the cells transfected with miR-134 reduced the tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which was abrogated by a combination of VEGF and conditioned medium. Furthermore, miR-134 significantly inhibited the growth of implanted OS tumors in vivo and attenuated the VEGFA and VEGFR1 expression and angiogenesis in the tumors. In addition, higher levels of VEGFA and VEGFR1 were detected and miR-134 inhibited the expression of VEGFA and VEGFR1 in Saos-2 cells and OS tumors. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the 3'-UTR of VEGFA and VEGFR1 contained the motif for miR-134 binding. Co-transfection with the luciferase reporter containing the wild-type, but not the mutant, of the 3'-UTR of VEGFA or VEGFR1 together with miR-134 decreased the luciferase activity in Saos-2 cells. Finally, miR-134 dramatically inhibited AKT activation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in Saos-2 cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that miR-134 is a potential tumor suppressor by targeting VEGFA/VEGFR1 signaling to attenuate the progression and angiogenesis in OS. Therefore, miR-134 may be a novel biomarker for the prognosis of OS and a target for the design of new therapies for OS.

Wang Q, Xu B, Du J, et al.
MicroRNA-139-5p/Flt1/Wnt/β-catenin regulatory crosstalk modulates the progression of glioma.
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 41(4):2139-2149 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1), the receptor of VEGF/PIGF, is associated with cancer angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Although the high expression of Flt1 in glioma is identified, its regulatory mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that miR‑139‑5p inhibits Flt1 expression mediated by binding its 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) to regulate the progression of human glioma. We found miR‑139‑5p was downregulated in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues whereas a converse expression level of Flt1 was observed. Additionally we proved that miR‑139‑5p directly integrated with the 3'UTR of Flt1 via luciferase activity assay and cells transfected with miR‑139‑5p characterized with a low expression of Flt1 in mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, we validated that miR‑139‑5p enforced its biological modulation via targeting Flt1 through rescue experiments. miR‑139‑5p suppressed and Flt1 stimulated the malignant activities of glioma cells. We demonstrated that miR‑139‑5p inhibited the Flt1-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in glioma cells. Conclusively, our study indicated that miR‑139‑5p can counteract the malignant phenotypes of glioma cells by the inhibitory effect of the Flt1-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

Guillem V, Calabuig M, Brunet S, et al.
Bone marrow VEGFC expression is associated with multilineage dysplasia and several prognostic markers in adult acute myeloid leukemia, but not with survival.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2018; 59(10):2383-2393 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) stimulates leukemia cell proliferation and survival, and promotes angiogenesis. We studied VEGFC expression in bone marrow samples from 353 adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and its relationship with several clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular variables. We also studied the expression of 84 genes involved in VEGF signaling in 24 patients. We found that VEGFC expression was higher in AML patients with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC) than in patients with non-AML-MRC. We also found an association between VEGFC expression and the patient cytogenetic risk group, with those with a worse prognosis having higher VEGFC expression levels. No correlation was observed between VEGFC expression and survival or complete remission. VEGFC expression strongly correlated with expression of the VEGF receptors FLT1, KDR, and NRP1. Thus, in this series, VEGFC expression was increased in AML-MRC and in subgroups with a poorer prognosis, but has no impact on survival.

Riera P, Virgili AC, Salazar J, et al.
Genetic variants in the VEGF pathway as prognostic factors in stages II and III colon cancer.
Pharmacogenomics J. 2018; 18(4):556-564 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene polymorphisms in the prognosis of colon cancer prognosis remains unclear. We evaluated the influence of 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 12 genes in the VEGF pathway on the prognosis of 347 patients with stage II-III colon cancer. We found that rs9513070 (VEGFR1) and rs1137282 (KRAS) were associated with overall survival in stage II colon cancer patients (p = 0.025 and p = 0.001, respectively). When primary tumor location was considered, rs9513070 was also associated with relapse-free and overall survival (p = 0.033 and p = 0.031, respectively) in left colon cancer patients. Additionally, rs35251833 in the ITGAV gene correlated with relapse-free survival (p = 0.032). This study provides evidence that germline polymorphisms in VEGFR1, KRAS and ITGAV genes are associated with prognosis in stages II-III colon cancer patients. As stage and tumor location are correlated with prognosis, future genetic studies should stratify colon cancer patients according to these parameters.

Hilberg F, Tontsch-Grunt U, Baum A, et al.
Triple Angiokinase Inhibitor Nintedanib Directly Inhibits Tumor Cell Growth and Induces Tumor Shrinkage via Blocking Oncogenic Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2018; 364(3):494-503 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
The triple-angiokinase inhibitor nintedanib is an orally available, potent, and selective inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis by blocking the tyrosine kinase activities of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 1-3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-

Oliveira RC, Ivanovic RF, Leite KRM, et al.
Expression of micro-RNAs and genes related to angiogenesis in ccRCC and associations with tumor characteristics.
BMC Urol. 2017; 17(1):113 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the third most common urological cancer in adults. Our aim is to evaluate genes and miRNAs expression profiles involved with angiogenesis and tumor characteristics in ccRCC.
METHODS: The expression levels of miRNAs miR-99a, 99b, 100; 199a; 106a; 106b; 29a; 29b; 29c; 126; 200a, 200b and their respective target genes: mTOR, HIF1-α, VHL, PDGF, VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were analyzed using qRT-PCR in tumor tissue samples from 56 patients with ccRCC. Five samples of benign renal tissue were utilized as control. The expression levels of miRNAs and genes were related to tumor size, Fuhrman nuclear grade and microvascular invasion.
RESULTS: miR99a was overexpressed in most samples and its target gene mTOR was underexpressed, this also occurs for miRNAs 106a, 106b, and their target gene VHL. An increase in miR-200b was correlated with high-risk tumors (p = 0.01) while miR-126 overexpression was associated with Fuhrman's low grade (p = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that in ccRCC there are changes in miRNAs expression affecting gene expression that could be important in determining the aggressiveness of this lethal neoplasia.

Beuselinck B, Verbiest A, Couchy G, et al.
Pro-angiogenic gene expression is associated with better outcome on sunitinib in metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.
Acta Oncol. 2018; 57(4):498-508 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) are characterized by hyper-vascularization and can respond to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors such as sunitinib. We aimed to study the predictive value of the expression of genes in the hypoxia induced factor (HIF) - vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) - VEGFR-pro-angiogenic pathway in metastatic ccRCC (m-ccRCC) patients treated with sunitinib and the correlation between the expression of these genes and the molecular ccrcc-classification, the expression of genes involved in the immune-suppressive microenvironment and Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) - and Polybromo-1 (PBRM1) - mutational status.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: m-ccRCC patients treated with sunitinib as first-line targeted therapy were included. Gene expression was studied in the primary nephrectomy sample by qRT-PCR, VHL- and PBRM1-mutational status by sequencing. Response rate by RECIST, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were study endpoints.
RESULTS: One hundred and four patients were included. On multivariate-analysis, HIF2A-, platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB)-, VEGFC-, VEGFR1- and VEGFR2-expression were correlated with PFS and HIF1A-, HIF2A-, VEGFR1- and VEGFR2-expression with OS. VEGFR2-expression showed the strongest association with outcome, being significantly correlated with all outcome parameters. HIF2A, VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 were highly expressed in the transcriptomic ccrcc2-subtype of tumors, known to be highly sensitive to sunitinib. In the total tumor series, there was no correlation nor inverse correlation between the expression of genes involved in angiogenesis and in the immune-suppressive microenvironment. In tumors with a bi-allelic PBRM1-inactivation, HIF2A-, VEGFA-, VEGFR1- and VEGFR2-expression were higher, compared to tumors with one or two functional PBRM1-alleles.
CONCLUSIONS: Intratumoral expression of genes involved in the HIF-VEGF-VEGFR-pro-angiogenic pathway, especially VEGFR2, is associated with favorable outcome on sunitinib in m-ccRCCs. Several genes involved in this pathway are upregulated in the molecular ccrcc2-subgroup, which usually responds well to sunitinib.

Laviv Y, Wang JL, Anderson MP, Kasper EM
Accelerated growth of hemangioblastoma in pregnancy: the role of proangiogenic factors and upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in a non-oxygen-dependent pathway.
Neurosurg Rev. 2019; 42(2):209-226 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hemangioblastomas (HBs) are benign, highly vascular tumors, often characterized by loss of function of the von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) gene. They are the most common central nervous system tumor observed in vHL syndrome. Loss of function of the vHL gene creates a "pseudo-hypoxic" state, causing overactivation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-related pathways. In some cases, HBs can rapidly increase in size during pregnancy to then present acutely, which most frequently occurs after the 20th gestational week. These changes in size usually occur from enlargement of the cystic component of the HB. Due to their preferred location in the posterior fossa near critical structures as well as along the spinal cord, such cases can present with severe neurological deficits, requiring urgent surgical intervention in a multidisciplinary setting. However, the reasons for this acute flare-up during pregnancy remain poorly understood, as are the reasons why this occurs in only a subset of tumors. Unveiling the etiology for this clinical scenario can affect the treatment of HBs, as it will contribute to the understanding of the pathophysiology of such a transformation from a quiescent lesion to a symptomatic one, not only in the setting of pregnancy. Identifying the correct triggers and the conditions initiating and mediating this switch will enable us to develop preventive medications which should allow us to keep the tumor in its quiescent phase. In this pathophysiological review, we investigate the association between HB growth and pregnancy based on an analysis > 40 such published cases. We suggest that the proangiogenic state of pregnancy is the leading etiology for this striking association, and to support the argument, we discuss its potential impact on HIF overexpression in a non-hypoxic manner through activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway by proangiogenic factors. Specifically, we discuss the involvement of placental growth factor (PlGF) and its receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1) in various pathologic processes that can lead to the formation and growth of peritumoral edema and cysts, which are the primary causes for the development of any symptoms in HB. Both PlGF and VEGFR-1 are expressed at increased levels during pregnancy, and both have been reported as part of various pathological processes, including angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. The unique feature that both do essentially not show any significant negative impact on regular physiological processes makes them attractive therapeutic targets since very little side effects are expected. Further research into the effects of anti-PlGF or anti-VEGFR-1 therapy in HB is therefore recommended.

Jiang Q, Yang M, Qu Z, et al.
Resveratrol enhances anticancer effects of paclitaxel in HepG2 human liver cancer cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):477 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this in vitro study was to measure the enhanced anticancer effects of Res (resveratrol) on PA (paclitaxel) in HepG2 human liver cancer cells.
METHODS: The MTT (thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide), flow cytometry, qPCR (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and western blot assay were used for cells growth inhibitory effects, cells apoptosis (DNA content of sub-G1), mRNA and protein expressions, respectively.
RESULTS: The 10 μg/mL of Res had no growth inhibitory effect on Nthy-ori 3-1 normal cells or HepG2 cancer cells meanwhile the 5 or 10 μg/mL of PA also had no growth inhibitory effect on Nthy-ori 3-1 normal cells. Where as PA-L (5 μg/mL) and PA-H (10 μg/mL) had the growth inhibitory effects in HepG2 cancer cells, and Res increase these growth inhibitory effects. By flow cytometry experiment, after Res (5 μg/mL) + PA-H (10 μg/mL) treatment, the HepG2 cells showed the most apoptosis in cells as compared to other treatments groups, and after additionally treated with Res, both the apoptosis cells of two concentrations PA were raised. As PA raised it also raised the mRNA and protein expressions of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax (Bcl-2 assaciated X protein), p53, p21, IκB-α (inhibitor of NF-κB alpha), Fas (factor associated suicide), FasL (factor associated suicide ligand), TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1), TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2) and decrease Bcl-2 (B cell leukemia 2), Bcl-xL (B cell leukemia extra large), HIAP-1 (cIAP-1, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1), HIAP-2 (cIAP-2, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2), NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B), COX-2 (cyclooxygenase 2), iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), MMP-2 (metalloproteinase 2), MMP-9 (metalloproteinase 9), EGF (epidermal growth factor), EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), Fit-1 (VEGFR-1, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1). Meanwhile, the 5 μg/mL of Res could enhance these mRNA expressions changes as compared to the control cells.
CONCLUSION: From these results, we can conclude that Res could raise the anticancer effects of PA in HepG2 cells, Res could be used as a good sensitizing agent for PA.

Dalton HJ, Pradeep S, McGuire M, et al.
Macrophages Facilitate Resistance to Anti-VEGF Therapy by Altered VEGFR Expression.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(22):7034-7046 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications

Li G, Miao F, Zhu J, Chen Y
Anti‑angiogenesis gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma via systemic injection of mesenchymal stem cells engineered to secrete soluble Flt‑1.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(5):5799-5806 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Anti‑angiogenesis gene therapy has attracted interest as a potential treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Studies have indicated that soluble fms‑like tyrosine kinase‑1 (sFlt‑1) may suppress angiogenesis by sequestering free vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or by forming inactive heterodimers with VEGF receptor‑2. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used as prospective delivery vehicles for therapeutic agents, owing to their ability to migrate towards tumor sites. In the present study, a subcutaneous HCC mouse model was used to assess the anti‑angiogenesis effects of lentivirus‑transfected MSCs engineered to secrete sFlt‑1 (LV‑sFlt‑1‑MSCs). LV‑sFlt‑1‑MSCs effectively secreted sFlt‑1, which inhibited tube formation in vitro. MSCs labeled with green fluorescence protein primarily migrated to tumor sites in vivo. An immunohistochemical assay indicated that microvessel density was reduced in mice treated with LV‑sFlt‑1‑MSCs, compared with the control group treated with PBS. Additionally, LV‑sFlt‑1‑MSCs inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival in an HCC mouse model via systemic injection. Overall, the present study was designed to investigate the potential of LV‑sFlt‑1‑MSCs for anti‑angiogenesis gene therapy in HCC.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. FLT1, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/FLT1.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999