Research IndicatorsGraph generated 14 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 14 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: BMPR1A (cancer-related)
Hamartomatous polyps (HPs) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are rare compared to other types of GI polyps, yet they are the most common type of polyp in children. The symptoms are usually rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, obstipation, anaemia, and/or small bowel obstruction. The polyps are typically removed concurrently with endoscopy when located in the colon, rectum, or stomach, whereas polyps in the small bowel are removed during push-enteroscopy, device-assisted enteroscopy, or by surgery. HPs can be classified as juvenile polyps or Peutz-Jeghers polyps based on their histopathological appearance. Patients with one or a few juvenile polyps are usually not offered clinical follow-up as the polyp(s) are considered not to harbour any malignant potential. Nevertheless, it is important to note that juvenile polyps and HPs are also found in patients with hereditary hamartomatous polyposis syndromes (HPS). Patients with HPS have an increased risk of cancer, recurrences of polyps, and extraintestinal complications. The syndromes are important to diagnose, as patients should be offered surveillance from childhood or early adolescence. The syndromes include juvenile polyposis syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and the PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome. Currently, the HPS diagnoses are based on clinical criteria and are often assisted with genetic testing as candidate genes have been described for each syndrome. This thesis is based on six scientific papers. The overall aim of the studies was to expand the knowledge on clinical course and molecular genetics in patients with HPs and HPS, and to investigate research participants' attitude towards the results of extensive genetic testing. Paper I: In the first paper we investigated the occurrence, anatomic distribution, and other demographics of juvenile polyps in the colon and rectum in Denmark in 1995-2014. Based on the Danish Pathology Data Bank we found that 1772 patients had 2108 JPs examined in the period, and we calculated the incidence of juvenile polyps to be between 1:45,000 and 1:65,000. The majority of patients with juvenile polyps were adults and 1% fulfilled to diagnostic criteria of JPS. The majority of patients had a single juvenile polyp. Paper II: In this paper we conducted a review of the HPS based on the current literature. Paper III: We investigated the hypothesis that patients with one or few HPs may have a HPS based on genetic screening. We de-signed a panel of 26 genes associated with HPS and used targeted next generation sequencing in 77 patients with mainly one juvenile polyp. We detected several germ line variants, among them three in ENG, two in BMPR1A, one in PTEN, and one in SMAD4. Although some of the detected variants have been reported previously none could be classified as definitely pathogenic or likely pathogenic according to our variant classification scheme and thus we concluded that genetic screening of patients with one or few JPs are not indicated. Paper IV: In Paper IV we investigated one of the ethical aspects of next generation sequencing: the issue whether research participants in NGS studies should be offered the possibility of not re-ceiving information on incidental genetic findings (the "opting out possibility"). We conducted semi-structures interviews in 127 research participants, and found that the majority (61%) wanted information on all incidentals findings, while 36% wanted information on actionable incidental findings. Only 3% did not want information on incidental findings at all. Paper V: In this paper we wanted to gather information on all Danish patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome in order to investigate the phenotype and genotype. Through Danish registers we detected 43 patients of which 14 had deceased. We calculated the prevalence of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome to be approximately one in 195,000 individuals. The median age at diagnosis was 29 years with obstruction of the small bowel as the most frequent presenting symptom. We noted 18 cancer occurrences in the population in both the GI tract and at extraintestinal sites, demonstrating that these patients are predisposed to cancer at various anatomical sites. The study also underlined the wide phenotypic expression of the syndrome. Paper VI: In the last paper we identified patients with juvenile polyposis syndrome, who carry a SMAD4 mutation, and described their genotype and phenotype. We especially investigated whether these patients have symptoms of both juvenile polyposis syndrome and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. We identified 14 Danish patients. Most of these had symptoms of both conditions and one had aortic root dilatation. Thus, this group of patients requires a multidisciplinary follow-up program.
The MIS pathway is a potential therapeutic target in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): signaling requires both type II (T2R) and type I receptors (T1R), and results in growth inhibition. MISR2 is expressed in EOC, but the prevalence and relative contributions of candidate T1R remain unknown. We sought to: a) determine expression of T1R in EOC; b) assess impact of T1R expression with clinical outcomes; c) verify MIS-dependent Smad signaling and growth inhibition in primary EOC cell cultures. Tissue microarrays (TMA) were developed for analysis of T1Rs (ALK2/3/6) and MISR2 expression. Primary cell cultures were initiated from ascites harvested at surgery which were used to characterize response to MIS. TMA's from 311 primary cancers demonstrated the most common receptor combinations were: MISR2+/ALK2+3+6+ (36%); MISR2+/ALK2+3+6- (34%); MISR2-/ALK2+3+6- (18%); and MISR2-/ALK2+3+6+ (6.8%). No differences in overall survival (OS) were noted between combinations. The ALK6 receptor was least often expressed T1R and was associated with lower OS in early stage disease only (p =0.03). Most primary cell cultures expressed MISR2 (14/22 (63.6%)): 95% of these express ALK 2 and ALK3, whereas 54.5% expressed ALK6. MIS-dependent Smad phosphorylation was seen in the majority of cultures (75%). Treatment with MIS led to reduced cell viability at an average of 71% (range: 57-87%) in primary cultures. MIS signaling is dependent upon the presence of both MISR2 and specific T1R. In the majority of EOC, the T1R required for MIS-dependent signaling are present and such cells demonstrate appropriate response to MIS.
AIM: To investigate the driver gene mutations associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Taiwanese population.
METHODS: In this study, 103 patients with CRC were evaluated. The samples consisted of 66 men and 37 women with a median age of 59 years and an age range of 26-86 years. We used high-resolution melting analysis (HRM) and direct DNA sequencing to characterize the mutations in 13 driver genes of CRC-related pathways. The HRM assays were conducted using the LightCycler® 480 Instrument provided with the software LightCycler® 480 Gene Scanning Software Version 1.5. We also compared the clinicopathological data of CRC patients with the driver gene mutation status.
RESULTS: Of the 103 patients evaluated, 73.79% had mutations in one of the 13 driver genes. We discovered 18 novel mutations in APC, MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, SMAD4 and TP53 that have not been previously reported. Additionally, we found 16 de novo mutations in APC, BMPR1A, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH and PMS2 in cancerous tissues previously reported in the dbSNP database; however, these mutations could not be detected in peripheral blood cells. The APC mutation correlates with lymph node metastasis (34.69% vs 12.96%, P = 0.009) and cancer stage (34.78% vs 14.04%, P = 0.013). No association was observed between other driver gene mutations and clinicopathological features. Furthermore, having two or more driver gene mutations correlates with the degree of lymph node metastasis (42.86% vs 24.07%, P = 0.043).
CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm the importance of 13 CRC-related pathway driver genes in the development of CRC in Taiwanese patients.
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are secreted cytokines/growth factors belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) family. BMP ligands have been shown to be overexpressed in human breast cancers. Normal and cancerous breast tissue display active BMP signaling as indicated by phosphorylated Smads 1, 5 and 9. We combined mice expressing the MMTV.PyMT oncogene with mice having conditional knockout (cKO) of BMP receptor type 1a (BMPR1a) using whey acidic protein (WAP)-Cre and found this deletion resulted in delayed tumor onset and significantly extended survival. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that cKO tumors co-expressed Keratin 5 and mesenchymal cell markers such as Vimentin. This indicates that epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT)-like transitions occurred in cKO tumors. We performed microarray analysis on these tumors and found changes that support EMT-like changes. We established primary tumor cell lines and found that BMPR1a cKO had slower growth in vitro and in vivo upon implantation. cKO tumor cells had reduced migration in vitro. We analyzed human databases from TCGA and survival data from microarrays to confirm BMPR1a tumor promoting functions, and found that high BMPR1a gene expression correlates with decreased survival regardless of molecular breast cancer subtype. In conclusion, the data indicate that BMP signaling through BMPR1a functions as a tumor promoter.
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFβ) family of secreted cytokines/growth factors is an important regulator of cancer. BMP ligands have been shown to play both tumor suppressive and promoting roles in human cancers. We have found that BMP ligands are amplified in human ovarian cancers and that BMP receptor expression correlates with poor progression-free-survival (PFS). Furthermore, active BMP signaling has been observed in human ovarian cancer tissue. We also determined that ovarian cancer cell lines have active BMP signaling in a cell autonomous fashion. Inhibition of BMP signaling with a small molecule receptor kinase antagonist is effective at reducing ovarian tumor sphere growth. Furthermore, BMP inhibition can enhance sensitivity to Cisplatin treatment and regulates gene expression involved in platinum resistance in ovarian cancer. Overall, these studies suggest targeting the BMP pathway as a novel source to enhance chemo-sensitivity in ovarian cancer.
Blatter RH, Plasilova M, Wenzel F, et al.Somatic alterations in juvenile polyps from BMPR1A and SMAD4 mutation carriers.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(9):575-82 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder predisposing to gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyps and cancer with a pathogenic SMAD4 or BMPR1A germline mutation (1st-hit) being identified in about 40-50% of patients. Little is known, however, about the occurrence and nature of somatic alterations (2nd-hit) in SMAD4-/BMPR1A-related juvenile polyps. In this study, we screened 25 polyps from three patients carrying either a pathogenic SMAD4 (c.1244-1247delACAG) or BMPR1A (c.583C>T; p.Gln195*) germline mutation for somatic alterations. The SMAD4-related polyps were also analyzed for SMAD4 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Despite comprehensive screening for loss of heterozygosity (LOH), mutations in the coding sequence, chromosomal rearrangements, and promoter methylation, no somatic alterations could be identified in 14 SMAD4-related polyps. SMAD4 protein expression, however, was lost in 8 (57%) of 14 juvenile polyps with 6 showing concomitant loss in both, the epithelial and stromal, compartments. In the BMPR1A-related polyps, five out of nine (56%) displayed LOH. Further analysis of selected polyps revealed that LOH was gene copy number neutral and had occurred in the epithelial compartment. The heterogeneity of genetic mutations and protein expression levels indicates that different modes of gene inactivation can be operational in SMAD4- and BMPR1A-related polyp formation. Our observation, that about half of BMPR1A-related polyps displayed LOH, predominantly in the epithelial compartment, is compatible with BMPR1A acting as a tumour suppressor gene. Still, it remains to be determined whether juvenile polyp development generally requires loss of BMPR1A expression or, as observed in some SMAD4-related polyps, can occur despite normal protein expression.
A small minority of colorectal cancers (CRCs) (≤5%) are caused by a single, inherited faulty gene. These diseases, the Mendelian colorectal cancer (CRC) syndromes, have been central to our understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis in general. Most of the approximately 13 high-penetrance genes that predispose to CRC primarily predispose to colorectal polyps, and each gene is associated with a specific type of polyp, whether conventional adenomas (APC, MUTYH, POLE, POLD1, NTHL1), juvenile polyps (SMAD4, BMPR1A), Peutz-Jeghers hamartomas (LKB1/STK11) and mixed polyps of serrated and juvenile types (GREM1). Lynch syndrome (MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, PMS2), by contrast, is associated primarily with cancer risk. Major functional pathways are consistently inactivated in the Mendelian CRC syndromes: certain types of DNA repair (proofreading of DNA replication errors, mismatch repair and base excision repair) and signalling (bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Wnt signalling and mTOR). The inheritance of the CRC syndromes also varies: most are dominant but some of the DNA repair deficiencies are recessive. Some of the Mendelian CRC genes are especially important because they play a role through somatic inactivation in sporadic CRC (APC, MLH1, SMAD4, POLE). Additional Mendelian CRC genes may remain to be discovered and searches for these genes are ongoing, especially in patients with multiple adenomas and hyperplastic polyps.
Soer E, de Vos Tot Nederveen Cappel WH, Ligtenberg MJ, et al.Massive gastric polyposis associated with a germline SMAD4 gene mutation.
Fam Cancer. 2015; 14(4):569-73 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of multiple hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract. Polyps are most common in the colorectum (98% of patients) and the stomach (14%). Causative mutations for JPS have been identified in two genes to date, SMAD4 and BMPR1A. SMAD4 mutations are associated with a higher incidence of gastric polyposis. In this case report, we describe two patients with massive gastric polyposis associated with a SMAD4 mutation. Both presented with anaemia and both had colonic polyps. Initial endoscopic findings revealed giant rugal folds suggestive of Ménétrier disease. However, as other possible gastropathies could not be differentiated on the basis of histology, a definitive diagnosis of JPS required additional mutation analysis. In patients with polyposis predominant in or limited to the stomach, establishing a diagnosis based solely on the pathological features of polyps can be challenging due to difficulties in differentiating JPS from other hypertrophic gastropathies. Mutation analysis should be considered early in the diagnostic process in cases of suspected juvenile polyposis, thus facilitating rapid diagnosis and adequate follow-up.
Alimi A, Weeth-Feinstein LA, Stettner A, et al.Overlap of Juvenile polyposis syndrome and Cowden syndrome due to de novo chromosome 10 deletion involving BMPR1A and PTEN: implications for treatment and surveillance.
Am J Med Genet A. 2015; 167(6):1305-8 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We describe a patient with a severe juvenile polyposis phenotype, due to a de novo deletion of chromosome 10q22.3-q24.1. He was initially diagnosed with Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) at age four after presenting with hematochezia due to multiple colonic juvenile polyps. He then re-presented at 23 years with recurrent hematochezia from juvenile polyps in his ileoanal pouch. He is one of the earliest reported cases of JPS associated with a large deletion of chromosome 10. Since his initial diagnosis of JPS further studies have confirmed an association between JPS and mutations in BMPR1A in chromosome band 10q23.2, which is in close proximity to PTEN. Mutations in PTEN cause Cowden syndrome (CS) and other PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes. Due to the chromosome 10 deletion involving contiguous portions of BMPR1A and PTEN in our patient, he may be at risk for CS associated cancers and features, in addition to the polyps associated with JPS. This case presents new challenges in developing appropriate surveillance algorithms to account for the risks associated with each syndrome and highlights the importance of longitudinal follow-up and transitional care between pediatric and adult gastroenterology for patients with hereditary polyposis syndromes.
Chubb D, Broderick P, Frampton M, et al.Genetic diagnosis of high-penetrance susceptibility for colorectal cancer (CRC) is achievable for a high proportion of familial CRC by exome sequencing.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(5):426-32 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Knowledge of the contribution of high-penetrance susceptibility to familial colorectal cancer (CRC) is relevant to the counseling, treatment, and surveillance of CRC patients and families.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: To quantify the impact of germline mutation to familial CRC, we sequenced the mismatch repair genes (MMR) APC, MUTYH, and SMAD4/BMPR1A in 626 early-onset familial CRC cases ascertained through a population-based United Kingdom national registry. In addition, we evaluated the contribution of mutations in the exonuclease domain (exodom) of POLE and POLD1 genes that have recently been reported to confer CRC risk.
RESULTS: Overall mutations (pathogenic, likely pathogenic) in MMR genes make the highest contribution to familial CRC (10.9%). Mutations in the other established CRC genes account for 3.3% of cases. POLE/POLD1 exodom mutations were identified in three patients with family histories consistent with dominant transmission of CRC. Collectively, mutations in the known genes account for 14.2% of familial CRC (89 of 626 cases; 95% CI = 11.5, 17.2).
CONCLUSION: A genetic diagnosis is feasible in a high proportion of familial CRC. Mainstreaming such analysis in clinical practice should enable the medical management of patients and their families to be optimized. Findings suggest CRC screening of POLE and POLD1 mutation carriers should be comparable to that afforded to those at risk of HNPCC. Although the risk of CRC associated with unexplained familial CRC is in general moderate, in some families the risk is substantive and likely to be the consequence of unidentified genes, as exemplified by POLE and POLD1. Our findings have utility in the design of genetic analyses to identify such novel CRC risk genes.
Aytac E, Sulu B, Heald B, et al.Genotype-defined cancer risk in juvenile polyposis syndrome.
Br J Surg. 2015; 102(1):114-8 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in SMAD4 and BMPR1A disrupt the transforming growth factor β signal transduction pathway, and are associated with juvenile polyposis syndrome. The effect of genotype on the pattern of disease in this syndrome is unknown. This study evaluated the differential impact of SMAD4 and BMPR1A gene mutations on cancer risk and oncological phenotype in patients with juvenile polyposis syndrome.
METHODS: Patients with juvenile polyposis syndrome and germline SMAD4 or BMPR1A mutations were identified from a prospectively maintained institutional registry. Medical records were reviewed and the clinical patterns of disease were analysed.
RESULTS: Thirty-five patients had germline mutations in either BMPR1A (8 patients) or SMAD4 (27). Median follow-up was 11 years. Colonic phenotype was similar between patients with SMAD4 and BMPR1A mutations, whereas SMAD4 mutations were associated with larger polyp numbers (number of patients with 50 or more gastric polyps: 14 versus 0 respectively). The numbers of patients with rectal polyps was comparable between BMPR1A and SMAD4 mutation carriers (5 versus 17). No patient was diagnosed with cancer in the BMPR1A group, whereas four men with a SMAD4 mutation developed gastrointestinal (3) or extraintestinal (1) cancer. The gastrointestinal cancer risk in patients with juvenile polyposis syndrome and a SMAD4 mutation was 11 per cent (3 of 27).
CONCLUSION: The SMAD4 genotype is associated with a more aggressive upper gastrointestinal malignancy risk in juvenile polyposis syndrome.
Kotoula V, Bobos M, Vassilakopoulou M, et al.Intact or broken-apart RNA: an alternative concept for ALK fusion screening in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2015; 23(1):60-70 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) break-apart fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is currently used in diagnostics for the selection of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to receive crizotinib. We evaluated ALK status in NSCLC with a novel ALK mRNA test based on the break-apart FISH concept, which we called break-apart transcript (BAT) test. ALK5' and ALK3' transcript patterns were established with qPCR for ALK-expressing controls including fusion-negative neuroblastomas, as well as fusion-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas and NSCLC. The BAT test was evaluated on 271 RNA samples from routinely processed paraffin NSCLC tissues. Test results were compared with ALK FISH (n=121), immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis (n=86), and automated quantitative analysis (AQUA, n=83). On the basis of the nonoverlapping ALK BAT patterns in ALK-expressing controls (P<0.0001), 8/174 adenocarcinomas (4.6%) among 259 informative NSCLC were predicted as fusion positive. Overall concordance for paired method results was high (94.1% to 98.8%) but mainly concerned negative prediction because of the limited availability of positive-matched cases. Tumors with 100% cytoplasmic IHC staining of any intensity (n=3) were positive for AQUA, FISH, and BAT test; tumors with lower IHC positivity and different staining patterns were AQUA-negative. Upon multiple reevaluations, ALK gene status was considered as originally misinterpreted by FISH in 3/121 cases (2.5%). Tumors with >4 ALK gene copies were associated with longer overall survival upon first-line chemotherapy. In conclusion, application of the ALK BAT test on routinely processed NSCLC tissues yields the same fusion partner independent information as ALK break-apart FISH but is more robust and cost-effective. The BAT concept may be considered for the development of further drug-predictive translocation tests.
Yamaguchi J, Nagayama S, Chino A, et al.Identification of coding exon 3 duplication in the BMPR1A gene in a patient with juvenile polyposis syndrome.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2014; 44(10):1004-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by multiple juvenile polyps arising in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancers, specifically colon cancer. BMPR1A and SMAD4 germline mutations have been found in patients with juvenile polyposis syndrome. We identified a BMPR1A mutation, which involves a duplication of coding exon 3 (c.230+452_333+441dup1995), on multiple ligation dependent probe amplification in a patient with juvenile polyposis syndrome. The mutation causes a frameshift, producing a truncated protein (p.D112NfsX2). Therefore, the mutation is believed to be pathogenic. We also identified a duplication breakpoint in which Alu sequences are located. These results suggest that the duplication event resulted from recombination between Alu sequences. To our knowledge, partial duplication in the BMPR1A gene has not been reported previously. This is the first case report to document coding exon 3 duplication in the BMPR1A gene in a patient with juvenile polyposis syndrome.
Baboolal TG, Boxall SA, Churchman SM, et al.Intrinsic multipotential mesenchymal stromal cell activity in gelatinous Heberden's nodes in osteoarthritis at clinical presentation.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2014; 16(3):R119 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Gelatinous Heberden's nodes (HNs), also termed synovial cysts, are a common form of generalized osteoarthritis (OA). We sought to determine whether HN cases at clinical presentation contained multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) and to explore whether such cells were more closely related to bone marrow (BM) or synovial fluid (SF) MSCs by transcriptional analysis.
METHODS: At clinical presentation, gelatinous material was extracted/extruded from the distal phalangeal joint of OA patients with HNs. From this, plastic adherent cells were culture-expanded for phenotypic and functional characterization and comparison with BM- and SF-MSCs. Mesenchymal related gene expression was studied by using a custom-designed TaqMan Low Density Array to determine transcriptional similarities between different MSC groups and skin fibroblasts.
RESULTS: In all cases, HN material produced MSC-like colonies. Adherent cultures displayed an MSC phenotype (CD29(+), CD44(+), CD73(+), CD81(+), and CD90(+) and CD14(-) CD19(-), CD31(-), CD34(-), CD45(-), and HLADR(-)) and exhibited osteogenic, chondrogenic lineage differentiation but weak adipogenesis. Gene cluster analysis showed that HN-MSCs were more closely related to SF- than normal or OA BM-MSCs with significantly higher expression of synovium-related gene markers such as bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1A (BMPR1A), protein/leucine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP), secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4), and tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6 (TNFAIP6) (P <0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Gelatinous HNs derived from hand OA at clinical presentation contain a population of MSCs that share transcriptional similarities with SF-derived MSCs. Their aberrant entrapment within the synovial cysts may impact on their normal role in joint homeostasis.
Guo M, Jiang Z, Zhang X, et al.miR-656 inhibits glioma tumorigenesis through repression of BMPR1A.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(8):1698-706 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a member of the transforming growth factor-β family, plays critical roles in cell differentiation, modeling and regeneration processes in several tissues. BMP-2 is also closely associated with various malignant tumors. microRNAs negatively and posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression and function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Herein, we report that miR-656 expression was significantly downregulated in glioma cell lines and tissues. We identified and confirmed that BMP receptor, type 1A (BMPR1A) is a direct target of miR-656. The expression of BMPR1A was negatively correlated with that of miR-656 in human glioma tissues. We further demonstrated that miR-656 suppressed glioma cell proliferation, neurosphere formation, migration and invasion with or without exogenous BMP-2. Engineered knockdown of BMPR1A diminished the antiproliferation effect of miR-656 in vitro. Moreover, the canonical BMP/Smad and non-canonical BMP/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were inhibited by miR-656 overexpression. Several cancer-related signaling molecules, including cyclin B, cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, p21 and p27, were also involved in miR-656 function in glioma cells. The tumor-suppressing function of miR-656 was validated using an in vivo intracranial xenograft mouse model. Notably, ectopic expression of miR-656 markedly reduced tumor size and prolonged the survival of mice treated with or without BMP-2. These results elucidate the function of miR-656 in glioma progression and suggest a promising application for glioma treatment.
Immunotherapy is becoming an increasingly attractive therapeutic alternative for conventional cancer therapy. In recent years Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cells (T(R)) were identified as the major obstacle to effective cancer immunotherapy. The abundance of these cells in peripheral blood is increased in patients with multiple types of cancer and their prevalence among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes correlated with poor clinical prognosis. In contrast, removal or inactivation of T(R) cells led to enhanced anti-tumor immune response and better efficacy of cancer vaccines. This study reports that Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor 1α (BMPR1α, Alk-3) is expressed by activated effector CD4(+) and T(R) cells and modulates functions of both cell types. Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMPs) belong to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family of cytokines that also include TGFβ and activins. BMPs play crucial roles in embryonic development, tissue differentiation and homeostasis, and development of cancer. It was demonstrated that BMPs and activins synergize with TGFβ to regulate thymic T-cell development, maintain T(R) cells, and control peripheral tolerance. Inactivation of BMPR1α in T-cells results in impaired thymic and peripheral generation of T(R) cells. BMPR1α-deficient activated T-cells produced a higher level of interferon (IFN)-γ than BMPR1α-sufficient T-cells. Moreover, transplanted B16 melanoma tumors grew smaller in mice lacking expression of BMPR1α in T-cells and tumors had few infiltrating TR cells and a higher proportion of CD8(+) T-cells than wild-type mice.
Familial juvenile polyposis (FJP) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disorder that is characterized by the development of multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of cancer. Recently, germline mutations, including mutations in the SMAD4, BMPR1A, PTEN and, possibly, ENG genes, have been found in patients with juvenile polyps. We herein report a family with juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) with a novel germline mutation in the SMAD4 gene. A 21-year-old man presented with rectal bleeding and was found to have multiple polyps in his stomach, small bowel, and colon. His mother had a history of gastrectomy for multiple gastric polyps with anemia and a history of colectomy for colon cancer. A review of the histology of the polyps revealed juvenile polyps in both patients. Subsequently, mutation screening in DNA samples from the patients revealed a germline mutation in the SMAD4 gene. The pair had a novel mutation in exon 10 (stop codon at tyrosine 413). To our knowledge, this mutation has not been previously described. Careful family history collection and genetic screening in JPS patients are needed to identify FJP, and regular surveillance is recommended.
Garulli C, Kalogris C, Pietrella L, et al.Dorsomorphin reverses the mesenchymal phenotype of breast cancer initiating cells by inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein signaling.
Cell Signal. 2014; 26(2):352-62 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Increasing evidence supports the theory that tumor growth, homeostasis, and recurrence are dependent on a small subset of cells with stem cell properties, redefined cancer initiating cells (CICs) or cancer stem cells. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are involved in cell-fate specification during embryogenesis, in the maintenance of developmental potency in adult stem cells and may contribute to sustain CIC populations in breast carcinoma. Using the mouse A17 cell model previously related to mesenchymal cancer stem cells and displaying properties of CICs, we investigated the role of BMPs in the control of breast cancer cell plasticity. We showed that an autocrine activation of BMP signaling is crucial for the maintenance of mesenchymal stem cell phenotype and tumorigenic potential of A17 cells. Pharmacological inhibition of BMP signaling cascade by Dorsomorphin resulted in the acquisition of epithelial-like traits by A17 cells, including expression of Citokeratin-18 and E-cadherin, through downregulation of Snail and Slug transcriptional factors and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) expression, and in the loss of their stem-features and self-renewal ability. This phenotypic switch compromised A17 cell motility, invasiveness and in vitro tumor growth. These results reveal that BMPs are key molecules at the crossroad between stemness and cancer.
BACKGROUND: The expression of SMAD4, the central component of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling pathways, is lost in 50% of pancreatic cancers and is associated with a poor survival. Although the TGF-β pathway has been extensively studied and characterised in pancreatic cancer, there is very limited data on BMP signalling, a well-known tumour-suppressor pathway. BMP signalling can be lost not only at the level of SMAD4 but also at the level of BMP receptors (BMPRs), as has been described in colorectal cancer.
METHODS: We performed immunohistochemical analysis of the expression levels of BMP signalling components in pancreatic cancer and correlated these with survival. We also manipulated the activity of BMP signalling in vitro.
RESULTS: Reduced expression of BMPRIA is associated with a significantly worse survival, primarily in a subset of SMAD4-positive cancers. In vitro inactivation of SMAD4-dependent BMP signalling increases proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, whereas inactivation of BMP signalling in SMAD4-negative cells does not change the proliferation and invasion or leads to an opposite effect.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that BMPRIA expression is a good prognostic marker and that the BMP pathway is a potential target for future therapeutic interventions in pancreatic cancer.
We show that activation of Wnt/β-catenin and attenuation of Bmp signals, by combined gain- and loss-of-function mutations of β-catenin and Bmpr1a, respectively, results in rapidly growing, aggressive squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in the salivary glands of mice. Tumours contain transplantable and hyperproliferative tumour propagating cells, which can be enriched by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Single mutations stimulate stem cells, but tumours are not formed. We show that β-catenin, CBP and Mll promote self-renewal and H3K4 tri-methylation in tumour propagating cells. Blocking β-catenin-CBP interaction with the small molecule ICG-001 and small-interfering RNAs against β-catenin, CBP or Mll abrogate hyperproliferation and H3K4 tri-methylation, and induce differentiation of cultured tumour propagating cells into acini-like structures. ICG-001 decreases H3K4me3 at promoters of stem cell-associated genes in vitro and reduces tumour growth in vivo. Remarkably, high Wnt/β-catenin and low Bmp signalling also characterize human salivary gland SCC and head and neck SCC in general. Our work defines mechanisms by which β-catenin signals remodel chromatin and control induction and maintenance of tumour propagating cells. Further, it supports new strategies for the therapy of solid tumours.
Juvenile polyps are relatively common findings in children, while juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a rare hereditary syndrome entailing an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Mutations in BMPR1A or SMAD4 are found in roughly half of patients diagnosed with JPS. Mutations in PTEN gene are also found in patients with juvenile polyps and in Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome and Cowden syndrome. Several previous reports have described microdeletions in chromosome 10q23 encompassing both PTEN and BMPR1A causing aggressive polyposis and malignancy in childhood. These reports have also described extra-intestinal findings in most cases including cardiac anomalies, developmental delay and macrocephaly. In this report we describe a boy with a 5.75 Mb deletion of chromosome 10q23 and a 1.03 Mb deletion within chromosome band 1p31.3 who displayed aggressive juvenile polyposis and multiple extra-intestinal anomalies including macrocephaly, developmental delay, short stature, hypothyroidism, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect and hypospadias. He required colectomy at six years of age, and early colectomy was a common outcome in other children with similar deletions. Due to the aggressive polyposis and reports of dysplasia and even malignancy at a young age, we propose aggressive gastrointestinal surveillance in children with 10q23 microdeletions encompassing the BMPR1A and PTEN genes to include both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts, and also include a flowchart for an effective genetic testing strategy in children with juvenile polyposis.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are highly conserved morphogens that are essential for normal development. BMP-2 is highly expressed in the majority of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) but not in normal lung tissue or benign lung tumors. The effects of the BMP signaling cascade on the growth and survival of cancer cells is poorly understood. We show that BMP signaling is basally active in lung cancer cell lines, which can be effectively inhibited with selective antagonists of the BMP type I receptors. Lung cancer cell lines express alk2, alk3, and alk6 and inhibition of a single BMP receptor was not sufficient to decrease signaling. Inhibition of more than one type I receptor was required to decrease BMP signaling in lung cancer cell lines. BMP receptor antagonists and silencing of BMP type I receptors with siRNA induced cell death, inhibited cell growth, and caused a significant decrease in the expression of inhibitor of differentiation (Id1, Id2, and Id3) family members, which are known to regulate cell growth and survival in many types of cancers. BMP receptor antagonists also decreased clonogenic cell growth. Knockdown of Id3 significantly decreased cell growth and induced cell death of lung cancer cells. H1299 cells stably overexpressing Id3 were resistant to growth suppression and induction of cell death induced by the BMP antagonist DMH2. These studies suggest that BMP signaling promotes cell growth and survival of lung cancer cells, which is mediated through its regulation of Id family members. Selective antagonists of the BMP type I receptors represents a potential means to pharmacologically treat NSCLC and other carcinomas with an activated BMP signaling cascade.
Tanskanen T, Gylfe AE, Katainen R, et al.Exome sequencing in diagnostic evaluation of colorectal cancer predisposition in young patients.
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2013; 48(6):672-8 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC), defined here as age of onset less than 40 years, develops frequently in genetically predisposed individuals. Next-generation sequencing is an increasingly available option in the diagnostic workup of suspected hereditary susceptibility, but little is known about the practical feasibility and additional diagnostic yield of the technology in this patient group.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 38 young CRC patients derived from a set of 1514 CRC cases. All 38 tumors had been tested in our laboratory for microsatellite instability (MSI), and Sanger sequencing had been used to screen for MLH1 and MSH2 mutations in MSI cases. Also, gastrointestinal polyposis had been diagnosed clinically and molecularly. Family histories were acquired from national registries. If inherited syndromes had not been diagnosed in routine diagnostic efforts (n = 23), normal tissue DNA was analyzed for mutations in a comprehensive set of high-penetrance genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, APC, MUTYH, SMAD4, BMPR1A, LKB1/STK11, and PTEN) by exome sequencing.
RESULTS: CRC predisposition syndromes were confirmed in 42% (16/38) of early-onset CRC patients. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer was diagnosed in 12 (32%) patients, familial adenomatous polyposis in three (7.9%), and juvenile polyposis in one (2.6%) patient. Exome sequencing revealed one additional MLH1 mutation. Over half of the patients had advanced cancers (Dukes C or D, 61%, 23/38). The majority of nonsyndromic patients had unaffected first-degree relatives and microsatellite-stable tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Microsatellite instability positivity or gastrointestinal polyposis characterized all patients with unambiguous highly penetrant germline mutations. In our series, exome sequencing produced little added value in diagnosing the underlying predisposition conditions.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrointestinal polyposis is a common clinical problem, yet there is no consensus on how to best manage patients with moderate-load polyposis. Identifying genetic features of this disorder could improve management and especially surveillance of these patients. We sought to determine the prevalence of hamartomatous polyposis-associated mutations in the susceptibility genes PTEN, BMPR1A, SMAD4, ENG, and STK11 in individuals with ≥5 gastrointestinal polyps, including at least 1 hamartomatous or hyperplastic/serrated polyp.
METHODS: We performed a prospective, referral-based study of 603 patients (median age: 51 years; range, 2-89 years) enrolled from June 2006 through January 2012. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral lymphocytes and analyzed for specific mutations and large rearrangements in PTEN, BMPR1A, SMAD4, and STK11, as well as mutations in ENG. Recursive partitioning analysis was used to determine cutoffs for continuous variables. The prevalence of mutations was compared using Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine univariate and multivariate risk factors.
RESULTS: Of 603 patients, 119 (20%) had a personal history of colorectal cancer and most (n = 461 [76%]) had <30 polyps. Seventy-seven patients (13%) were found to have polyposis-associated mutations, including 11 in ENG (1.8%), 13 in PTEN (2.2%), 13 in STK11 (2.2%), 20 in BMPR1A (3.3%), and 21 in SMAD4 (3.5%). Univariate clinical predictors for risk of having these mutations included age at presentation younger than 40 years (19% vs 10%; P = .008), a polyp burden of ≥30 (19% vs 11%; P = .014), and male sex (16% vs 10%; P = .03). Patients who had ≥1 ganglioneuroma (29% vs 2%; P < .001) or presented with polyps of ≥3 histologic types (20% vs 2%; P = .003) were more likely to have germline mutations in PTEN.
CONCLUSIONS: Age younger than 40 years, male sex, and specific polyp histologies are significantly associated with risk of germline mutations in hamartomatous-polyposis associated genes. These associations could guide clinical decision making and further investigations.
Oliveira PH, Cunha C, Almeida S, et al.Juvenile polyposis of infancy in a child with deletion of BMPR1A and PTEN genes: surgical approach.
J Pediatr Surg. 2013; 48(1):e33-7 [PubMed
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Juvenile polyposis of infancy is the most severe and life-threatening form of juvenile polyposis. This disease typically presents in the first two years of life with gastrointestinal bleeding, diarrhea, inanition, and exudative enteropathy. In very few reports concerning this entity, a large deletion in the long arm of chromosome 10 (10q23), encompassing the PTEN and BMPR1A genes, was found. The authors report a case of delayed diagnosis of juvenile polyposis of infancy at 6 years of age. A 3.34 Mb long de novo deletion was identified at 10q23.1q23.31, encompassing the PTEN and BMPR1A genes. The disease course was severe with diarrhea, abdominal pain, inanition, refractory anemia, rectal bleeding, hypoalbuminemia, and exudative enteropathy. A sub-total colectomy, combined with intraoperative endoscopic removal of ileal and rectal stump polyps, was required for palliative disease control.
Khalaf M, Morera J, Bourret A, et al.BMP system expression in GCs from polycystic ovary syndrome women and the in vitro effects of BMP4, BMP6, and BMP7 on GC steroidogenesis.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2013; 168(3):437-44 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors involved in the folliculogenesis. Alteration in their expression may compromise the reproductive process in disease such as the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study investigated the expression and role of granulosa cell (GC) BMP from normal cycling and PCOS women.
METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective study was performed in GCs obtained from 14 patients undergoing IVF: i) six women with normal ovulatory cycles and tubal or male infertility and ii) eight women with PCOS. BMP2, BMP4, BMP5, BMP6, BMP7, and BMP8A and their receptors BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and BMPR2 were identified by RT-PCR in GCs from normally cycling and PCOS women. BMP4, BMP6, and BMP7 expressions were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Quantitative transcript analysis showed the predominant expression of BMP6. In GCs from PCOS women, an overexpression of BMP6 (P<0.01) and BMPR1A mRNA (P<0.05) was observed. GC culture experiments demonstrated that basal estradiol (E₂) production was threefold higher but FSH-induced E₂ increment was twofold lower in PCOS compared with controls. In PCOS, BMP6 and BMP7 exerted a stimulatory effect on basal E₂ production while BMP4 and BMP6 inhibited FSH-induced E₂ production. FSH receptor and aromatase expression were not different between both groups.
CONCLUSION: The BMP system is expressed in human GCs from normal cycling and PCOS women. The BMP may be involved in reproductive abnormalities found in PCOS.
We describe a case of recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism, manifested as 3 metachronous parathyroid adenomata, in a 50 year-old woman who also had Hashimoto hypothyroidism, gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), cysts in liver and kidneys, 5 intestinal polyps (one of these a villous adenoma), diverticulitis and telangiectasia of lips. She did not have medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Genetic analysis of the CDC73 gene [for Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT)], MEN1 for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type1, CDKN1B for MEN4, SDHB and SDHD for Paraganglioma/Pheochromocytoma susceptibility, VHL for von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome, BMPR1A and SMAD4 for Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome (JPS) (sequencing and MLPA), karyotype and array CGH (44 K) were all normal. She was found to be homozygous for a synonomous germline variant in exon 14 (p. Ser836Ser) of the RET oncogene. This RET variant is of unclear clinical significance, and has been previously reported both in normal individuals and in individuals with MTC. It is unlikely that homozygosity for the RET variant has been casual in the multiple pathologies that our patient has developed.
Slattery ML, John EM, Torres-Mejia G, et al.Genetic variation in bone morphogenetic proteins and breast cancer risk in hispanic and non-hispanic white women: The breast cancer health disparities study.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 132(12):2928-39 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are thought to be important in breast cancer promotion and progression. We evaluated genetic variation in BMP-related genes and breast cancer risk among Hispanic (2,111 cases, 2,597 controls) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) (1,481 cases, 1,586 controls) women who participated in the 4-Corner's Breast Cancer Study, the Mexico Breast Cancer Study and the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study. BMP genes and their receptors evaluated include ACVR1, AVCR2A, ACVR2B, ACVRL1, BMP1, BMP2, BMP4, BMP6, BMP7, BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, MSTN and GDF10. Additionally, 104 ancestral informative markers were assessed to discriminate between European and native American ancestry. The importance of estrogen on BMP-related associations was suggested through unique associations by menopausal status and estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor status of tumors. After adjustment for multiple comparisons ACVR1 (8 SNPs) was modestly associated with ER+PR+ tumors [odds ratios (ORs) between 1.18 and 1.39 padj < 0.05]. ACVR1 (3 SNPs) and BMP4 (3 SNPs) were associated with ER+PR- tumors (ORs 0.59-2.07; padj < 0.05). BMPR2 was associated with ER-PR+ tumors (OR 4.20; 95% CI 1.62, 10.91; padj < 0.05) as was GDF10 (2 SNPs; ORs 3.62 and 3.85; padj < 0.05). After adjustment for multiple comparisons several SNPs remained associated with ER-PR- tumors (padj < 0.05) including ACVR1 BMP4 and GDF10 (ORs between 0.53 and 2.12). Differences in association also were observed by percentage of native ancestry and menopausal status. Results support the hypothesis that genetic variation in BMPs is associated with breast cancer in this admixed population.
Hiljadnikova Bajro M, Sukarova-Angelovska E, Adélaïde J, et al.A new case with 10q23 interstitial deletion encompassing both PTEN and BMPR1A narrows the genetic region deleted in juvenile polyposis syndrome.
J Appl Genet. 2013; 54(1):43-7 [PubMed
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We report on a patient with a contiguous interstitial germline deletion of chromosome 10q23, encompassing BMPR1A and PTEN, with clinical manifestations of juvenile polyposis and minor symptoms of Cowden syndrome (CS) and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS). The patient presented dysmorphic features as well as developmental delay at the age of 5 months. Multiple polyps along all parts of the colon were diagnosed at the age of 3 years, following an episode of a severe abdominal pain and intestinal bleeding. The high-resolution comparative genomic hybridisation revealed a 3.7-Mb deletion within the 10q23 chromosomal region: 86,329,859-90,035,024. The genotyping with four polymorphic microsatellite markers confirmed a de novo 10q deletion on the allele with a paternal origin, encompassing both PTEN and BMPR1A genes. The karyotype analysis additionally identified a balanced translocation involving chromosomes 5q and 7q, and an inversion at chromosome 2, i.e. 46,XY,t(5;7)(q13.3-q36), inv(2)(p25q34). Although many genetic defects were detected, it is most likely that the 10q23 deletion is primarily the cause for the serious phenotypic manifestations. The current clinical findings and deletion of BMPR1A indicate a diagnosis of severe juvenile polyposis, but the existing macrocephaly and PTEN deletion also point to either CS or BRRS, which cannot be ruled out at the moment because of their clinical manifestation later in life and the de novo character of the deletion. The deletion detected in our patient narrows the genetic region deleted in all reported cases with juvenile polyposis by 0.04 Mb from the telomeric side, mapping it to the region chr10:88.5-90.03Mb (GRCh37/hg19), with an overall length of 1.53 Mb.
Gastric cancer is a global public health concern, ranking as the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality, with a 5-year survival of only 20%. Approximately 10% of gastric cancers appear to have a familial predisposition, and about half of these can be attributed to hereditary germline mutations. We review the genetic syndromes and current standards for genetic counseling, testing, and medical management for screening and treatment of gastric cancer. Recently, germline mutations in the E-cadherin/CDH1 gene have been identified in families with an autosomal dominant inherited predisposition to gastric cancer of the diffuse type. The cumulative lifetime risk of developing gastric cancer in CDH1 mutation carriers is up to 80%, and women from these families also have an increased risk for developing lobular breast cancer. Prophylactic gastrectomies are recommended in unaffected CDH1 mutation carriers, because screening endoscopic examinations and blind biopsies have proven inadequate for surveillance. In addition to this syndrome, gastric cancer risk is elevated in Lynch syndrome associated with germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes and microsatellite instability, in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome due to germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, in familial adenomatous polyposis caused by germline APC mutations, in Li-Fraumeni syndrome due to germline p53 mutations, in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome associated with germline STK11 mutations, and in juvenile polyposis syndrome associated with germline mutations in the SMAD4 and BMPR1A genes. Guidelines for genetic testing, counseling, and management of individuals with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer are suggested. A raised awareness among the physician and genetic counseling communities regarding these syndromes may allow for increased detection and prevention of gastric cancers in these high-risk individuals.