Gene Summary

Gene:POLD1; DNA polymerase delta 1, catalytic subunit
Aliases: CDC2, MDPL, POLD, CRCS10
Summary:This gene encodes the 125-kDa catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase delta. DNA polymerase delta possesses both polymerase and 3' to 5' exonuclease activity and plays a critical role in DNA replication and repair. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA polymerase delta catalytic subunit
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: POLD1 (cancer-related)

Dai L, Wang G, Pan W
Andrographolide Inhibits Proliferation and Metastasis of SGC7901 Gastric Cancer Cells.
Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017:6242103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To explore the mechanisms by which andrographolide inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation and metastasis, we employed the gastric cell line SGC7901 to investigate the anticancer effects of andrographolide. The cell survival ratio, cell migration and invasion, cell cycle, apoptosis, and matrix metalloproteinase activity were assessed. Moreover, western blotting and real-time PCR were used to examine the protein expression levels and the mRNA expression levels, respectively. The survival ratio of cells decreased with an increasing concentration of andrographolide in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent results were also obtained using an apoptosis assay, as detected by flow cytometry. The cell cycle was blocked at the G2/M2 phase by andrographolide treatment, and the proportion of cells arrested at G1/M was enhanced as the dose increased. Similarly, wound healing and Transwell assays showed reduced migration and invasion of the gastric cancer cells at various concentrations of andrographolide. Andrographolide can inhibit cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, block the cell cycle, and promote apoptosis in SGC7901 cells. The mechanisms may include upregulated expression of Timp-1/2, cyclin B1, p-Cdc2, Bax, and Bik and downregulated expression of MMP-2/9 and antiapoptosis protein Bcl-2.

Zhang H, Zhong J, Bian Z, et al.
Long non-coding RNA CCAT1 promotes human retinoblastoma SO-RB50 and Y79 cells through negative regulation of miR-218-5p.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 87:683-691 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulatory role and potential mechanism of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) in human retinoblastoma (RB).
METHODS: The lncRNA profile in RB tissues were analyzed by microarray and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). One of the identified lncRNAs (LncRNA CCAT1) was selected for further experiments. SO-RB50 and Y79 cells were transfected with negative control, siRNA targeting lncRNA CCAT1 (si-CCAT1) and si-CCAT1+miR218-5p inhibitor, respectively. lncRNA CCAT1 expression was measured by qRT-PCR. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were detected by CCK8, wound scratching, and transwell assay, respectively. Apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were assessed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis- (cle-caspase-3, cle-caspase-9, Bax and Bcl-2) and cell cycle-related protein expression (cyclin B1, CDC2 and p-CDC2 (Thr161)) were analyzed by Western blot.
RESULTS: lncRNA CCAT1 expression in SO-RB50 and Y79 cells was significantly inhibited after si-CCAT1 transfection (P<0.01). Both RB cells exhibited significantly reduced proliferation, migration and invasion abilities, but markedly increased apoptosis at 48h after si-CCAT1 transfection (P<0.05 or 0.01). RB cells in si-CCAT1+miR218-5p inhibitor group had significantly higher proliferation, migration and invasion, but notably lower apoptosis compared with si-CCAT1 group at 24 and 48h after transfection (all P<0.05 or 0.01). si-CCAT1 significantly increased the expression of cle-caspase-3, cle-caspase-9, Bax, but decreased Bcl-2 expression (P<0.01). The proportion of G2/M SO-RB50 and Y79 cells in siCCAT1 group was significantly increased compared with negative control group (P<0.01). LncRNA CCAT1 interference significantly reduced the expression of cyclin B1, CDC2 and p-CDC2 (Thr161) (P<0.01).
CONCLUSION: LncRNA CCAT1 promotes the proliferation migration and invasion, and reduces cell apoptosis of SO-RB50 and Y79 cells, probably through negative modulation of miR-218-5p. Our study suggested lncRNA CCAT1 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for RB.

Hass HG, Vogel U, Scheurlen M, Jobst J
Gene-expression Analysis Identifies Specific Patterns of Dysregulated Molecular Pathways and Genetic Subgroups of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(10):5087-5095 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma comprises of a group of heterogeneous tumors of different etiologies. The multistep process of liver carcinogenesis involves various genetic and phenotypic alterations. The molecular pathways and driver mutations involved are still under investigation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA micorarray technology was used to identify differentially expressed genes between human hepatocarcinoma and non-tumorous liver tissues to establish a unique specific gene-expression profile independent of the underlying liver disease. The validity of this global gene-expression profile was tested for its robustness against biopsies from other liver entities (cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic liver) by diagnosing HCC in blinded samples.
RESULTS: Most of the consistently and strongly overexpressed genes were related to cell-cycle regulation and DNA replication [27 genes, e.g. cyclin B1, karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2), cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDC2)], G-protein depending signaling [e.g. Rac GTPase activating protein 1 (RACGAP1), Rab GTPase YPT1 homolog (RAB1), and ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 (ARL2)] and extracellular matrix re-modelling or cytoskeleton structure [22 genes, e.g. serine proteinase inhibitor 1 kazal-type (SPINK1), osteopontin (OPN), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), collagen type 1 alpha2 (COL1A2), integrin alpha6 (ITGA6), and metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12)]. Furthermore, significantly differentially expressed genes (e.g. calcium-binding proteins, G-proteins, oncofetal proteins) in relation to tumor differentiation were detected using gene-expression analysis.
CONCLUSION: It is suggested that these significantly dysregulated genes are highly specific and potentially utilizable as prognostic markers and may lead to a better understanding of human hepatocarcinogenesis.

Mohammadi A, Mansoori B, Aghapour M, et al.
The Urtica dioica extract enhances sensitivity of paclitaxel drug to MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 83:835-842 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Due to the chemo resistant nature of cancer cells and adverse effects of current therapies, researchers are looking for the most efficient therapeutic approach which has the lowest side effects and the highest toxicity on cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the synergic effect of Urtica dioica extract in combination with paclitaxel on cell death and invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cell line.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine the cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica extract with paclitaxel, MTT assay was performed. The scratch test was exploited to assess the effects of Urtica dioica, Paclitaxel alone and combination on migration of cancer cells. The expression levels of snail-1, ZEB1, ZEB2, twist, Cdc2, cyclin B1 and Wee1 genes were quantified using qRT-PCR and western blot performed for snail-1expression. The effects of plant extract, Paclitaxel alone and combination on different phases of cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometry.
RESULTS: Results of MTT assay showed that Urtica dioica significantly destroyed cancer cells. Interestingly, Concurrent use of Urtica dioica extract with paclitaxel resulted in decreased IC50 dose of paclitaxel. Moreover, findings of scratch assay exhibited the inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica, Paclitaxel alone and combination on migration of MDA-MB-468 cell line. Our findings also demonstrated that the extract substantially decreased the Snail-1 and related gene expression. Ultimately, Cell cycle arrest occurred at G2/M phase post-treatment by deregulating Cdc2 and wee1.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the dichloromethane extract of Urtica dioica inhibit cell growth and migration. Also, Urtica dioica extract substantially increased sensitivity of breast cancer cells to paclitaxel. Therefore, it can be used as a potential candidate for treatment of breast cancer with paclitaxel.

Choi HE, Shin JS, Leem DG, et al.
6-(3,4-Dihydro-1H-isoquinoline-2-yl)-N-(6-methoxypyridine-2-yl) nicotinamide-26 (DIMN-26) decreases cell proliferation by induction of apoptosis and downregulation of androgen receptor signaling in human prostate cancer cells.
Chem Biol Interact. 2016; 260:196-207 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previously, we reported that 6-(3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)-N-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl) nicotinamide (DIMN) analogues inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells as an anti-androgenic compound. In the present study, we evaluated cytotoxic effects of these DIMN derivatives and found that DIMN-26 most potently inhibited the proliferation of the LNCap-LN3 androgen-dependent and DU145 androgen-independent prostate cancer cells through induction of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis. The G2/M phase arrest was found due to increases in the activation of cdc2 (also known as cyclin-dependent kinase 1, CDK1)/cyclin B1 complex. DIMN-26 also induced apoptosis in LNCap-LN3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In addition, DIMN-26 caused the dephosphorylation and mitochondrial accumulation of Bad protein and induced the loss of mitochondria membrane potential, consequently releasing cytochrome c into the cytosol of the cell. Furthermore, overexpression of AKT protein significantly reduced DIMN-26-induced PARP-1 cleavage and p-Bad decrease and cdc2 activation. In addition, DIMN-26 inhibited the 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced cell growth and proliferation and nuclear translocation and transcriptional activities of androgen receptor (AR) in LNCap-LN3 prostate cancer cells. Consistent with these findings, DIMN-26 significantly inhibited the DHT-induced expression of AR-response genes (ARGs), such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), AR, β2-microglobulin (B2M), selenoprotein P (SEPP1), and ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) in LNCap-LN3 prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest that DIMN-26 plays a therapeutic role not only in induction of G2/M arrest and apoptosis but also in suppression of androgen receptor signaling in androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.

Nicolas E, Golemis EA, Arora S
POLD1: Central mediator of DNA replication and repair, and implication in cancer and other pathologies.
Gene. 2016; 590(1):128-41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2017 Related Publications
The evolutionarily conserved human polymerase delta (POLD1) gene encodes the large p125 subunit which provides the essential catalytic activities of polymerase δ (Polδ), mediated by 5'-3' DNA polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease moieties. POLD1 associates with three smaller subunits (POLD2, POLD3, POLD4), which together with Replication Factor C and Proliferating Nuclear Cell Antigen constitute the polymerase holoenzyme. Polδ function is essential for replication, with a primary role as the replicase for the lagging strand. Polδ also has an important proofreading ability conferred by the exonuclease activity, which is critical for ensuring replicative fidelity, but also serves to repair DNA lesions arising as a result of exposure to mutagens. Polδ has been shown to be important for multiple forms of DNA repair, including nucleotide excision repair, double strand break repair, base excision repair, and mismatch repair. A growing number of studies in the past decade have linked germline and sporadic mutations in POLD1 and the other subunits of Polδ with human pathologies. Mutations in Polδ in mice and humans lead to genomic instability, mutator phenotype and tumorigenesis. The advent of genome sequencing techniques has identified damaging mutations in the proofreading domain of POLD1 as the underlying cause of some inherited cancers, and suggested that mutations in POLD1 may influence therapeutic management. In addition, mutations in POLD1 have been identified in the developmental disorders of mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features and lipodystrophy and atypical Werner syndrome, while changes in expression or activity of POLD1 have been linked to senescence and aging. Intriguingly, some recent evidence suggests that POLD1 function may also be altered in diabetes. We provide an overview of critical Polδ activities in the context of these pathologic conditions.

Yi X, Li Y, Zai H, et al.
KLF8 knockdown triggered growth inhibition and induced cell phase arrest in human pancreatic cancer cells.
Gene. 2016; 585(1):22-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 8 (KLF8) plays an important role in tumor development and growth, but its role in pancreatic cancer (PC) is not clear.
METHODS: KLF8 expression in human PC cell lines and tumor tissues was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. The effects of lentivirus mediated knockdown of KLF8 on proliferation and growth in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells were examined.
RESULTS: KLF8 was overexpressed in 5 pancreatic cancer cell lines and in samples from patients with PC. In Panc-1 cells, KLF8 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, tumorigenicity, and induced G2/M phase arrest. KLF8 knockdown suppressed PC tumor growth in nude mice model. Western blot analysis showed that KLF8 knockdown in Panc-1 cells down-regulated the expression of CDK1/CDC2, cyclin B1, and cyclin D1 and up-regulated the expression of p21, and p27.
CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of KLF8 may contribute to the progression of pancreatic cancer, and downregulation of KLF8 expression by lentivirus-delivered shRNA is a novel therapeutic approach for PC.

Wang M, Zhou A, An T, et al.
N-Hydroxyphthalimide exhibits antitumor activity by suppressing mTOR signaling pathway in BT-20 and LoVo cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: N-Hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI), an important chemical raw material, was found to have potent and selective anti-proliferative effect on human breast carcinoma BT-20 cells, human colon adenocarcinoma LoVo and HT-29 cells during our screening for anticancer compounds. The purpose of this study is to assess the antitumor efficacy of NHPI in vitro and in vivo and to explore the underlying antitumor mechanism.
METHODS: Cell cytotoxicity of NHPI was evaluated using MTS assay and cell morphological analysis. After NHPI treatment, cell cycle, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential were analyzed using flow cytometer. The subcellular localization of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) was analyzed by immunofluorescence assay. The antitumor efficacy of NHPI in vivo was tested in BT-20 xenografts. The underlying antitumor mechanisms of NHPI in vitro and in vivo were investigated with western blot analysis in NHPI-treated cancer cells and tumor tissues. Statistical significance was determined using Student's t-test.
RESULTS: In vitro, NHPI selectively inhibited the proliferation and induced G2/M phase arrest in BT-20 and LoVo cells, which was attributed to the inhibition of cyclin B1 and cdc2 expressions. Furthermore, NHPI induced apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway. Of note, NHPI effectively inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling, and overcame the feedback activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) caused by mTORC1 inhibition in BT-20 and LoVo cells. In vivo, NHPI inhibited tumor growth and suppressed mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling in BT-20 xenografts with no obvious toxicity.
CONCLUSIONS: We found for the first time that NHPI displayed antitumor activity which is associated with the inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that NHPI may be developed as a promising candidate for cancer therapeutics by targeting mTOR signaling pathway and as such warrants further exploration.

Chang Q, Chandrashekhar M, Ketela T, et al.
Cytokinetic effects of Wee1 disruption in pancreatic cancer.
Cell Cycle. 2016; 15(4):593-604 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2017 Related Publications
The Wee1 kinase, which is activated in response to DNA damage, regulates exit from G2 through inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1/Cdc2, and is an attractive drug target. However, recent work has highlighted effects of Cdk2 phosphorylation by Wee1 on movement through S-phase, suggesting the potential to sensitize to S-phase specific agents by Wee1 inhibitors. In this paper we applied multiparametric flow cytometry to patient-derived pancreatic cancer xenograft tumor cells to study the cell cycle perturbations of Wee1 disruption via the small molecule inhibitor MK-1775, and genetic knockdown. We find that in vitro treatment with MK-1775, and to a lesser degree, Wee1 RNA transcript knockdown, results in the striking appearance of S-phase cells prematurely entering into mitosis. This effect was not seen in vivo in any of the models tested. Here, although we noted an increase of S-phase cells expressing the damage response marker γH2AX, treatment with MK-1775 did not significantly sensitize cells to the cytidine analog gemcitabine. Treatment with MK-1775 did result in a transient but large increase in cells expressing the mitotic marker phosphorylated H3S10 that reached a peak 4 hours after treatment. This suggests a role for Wee1 regulating the progression of genomically unstable cancer cells through G2 in the absence of extrinsically-applied DNA damage. A single dose of 8Gy ionizing radiation resulted in the time-dependent accumulation of Cyclin A2 positive/phosphorylated H3S10 negative cells at the 4N position, which was abrogated by treatment with MK-1775. Consistent with these findings, a genome-scale pooled RNA interference screen revealed that toxic doses of MK-1775 are suppressed by CDK2 or Cyclin A2 knockdown. These findings support G2 exit as the more significant effect of Wee1 inhibition in pancreatic cancers.

Zhao Y, Hou J, Mi P, et al.
Exo70 is transcriptionally up-regulated by hepatic nuclear factor 4α and contributes to cell cycle control in hepatoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(8):9150-62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2017 Related Publications
Exo70, a member of the exocyst complex, is involved in cell exocytosis, migration, invasion and autophagy. However, the expression regulation and function of Exo70 in hepatocellular carcinoma are still poorly understood. In this study, we found Exo70 expression in human hepatoma cells was greatly reduced after knocking down hepatic nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), the most important and abundant transcription factor in liver. This regulation occurred at the transcriptional level but not post-translational level. HNF4α transactivated Exo70 promoter through directly binding to the HNF4α-response element in this promoter. Cell cycle analysis further revealed that down-regulation of HNF4α and Exo70 was essential to berberine-stimulated G2/M cell cycle arrest in hepatoma cells. Moreover, knocking down either Exo70 or HNF4α induced G2/M phase arrest of hepatoma cells. Exo70 acted downstream of HNF4α to stimulate G2/M transition via increasing Cdc2 expression. Together, our results identify Exo70 as a novel transcriptional target of HNF4α to promote cell cycle progression in hepatoma, thus provide a basis for the development of therapeutic strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Chen X, Luo J, Meng L, et al.
Dracorhodin perchlorate induces the apoptosis of glioma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(4):2364-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dracorhodin perchlorate (Dp), a synthetic analogue of the antimicrobial anthocyanin red pigment, has recently been shown to induce apoptotic cell death in various types of cancer cells. Yet, the inhibitory effect of Dp on human glioma cells remains uninvestigated. Therefore, in the present study, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry were used to detect cell viability and cell cycle progression in glioma U87MG and T98G cells, respectively. Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide double staining and JC-1 staining were separately applied to determine cellular apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential damage in the cells. The expression levels of associated proteins involved in cell cycle progression and apoptosis were measured by western blotting. The activities of caspase‑9/-3 were determined by Caspase-Glo-9/3 assay. The results indicated that Dp treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and blocked cell cycle progression at the G1/S phase in the U87MG and T98G cells via the upregulation of p53 and p21 protein expression, and simultaneous downregulation of Cdc25A, Cdc2 and P-Cdc2 protein expression. Additionally, Dp treatment led to the loss of cellular mitochondrial membrane potential, and the release of cytochrome c, and strongly induced the occurence of apoptosis. Increased expression levels of Bim and Bax protein and the downregulated expression of Bcl-2 protein were observed. Caspase-9/-3 were activated and their activities were elevated after Dp treatment. These findings indicate that Dp inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in glioma cells, and is a possible candidate for glioma treatment.

Zhao S, Chen X, Wan M, et al.
Tectonic 1 Is a Key Regulator of Cell Proliferation in Pancreatic Cancer.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2016; 31(1):7-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is notoriously becoming one of the most devastating human cancers leading to death. However, clinical challenges still remain in diagnosis and treatment of this ticklish cancer. In the present study, the authors identified a new gene, Tectonic 1 (TCTN1), as a key regulator of cell proliferation in pancreatic cancer. Lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was employed to knock down endogenous TCTN1 expression in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Knockdown of TCTN1 expression potently inhibited cell viability and proliferation, as determined by MTT and colony formation assays. Western blotting analysis also showed that knockdown of TCTN1 suppressed the expression of cdc2, while it induced that of p21 and p27. Flow cytometry analysis showed that depletion of TCTN1 in PANC-1 cells led to cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase as well as apoptosis. Besides, depletion of TCTN1 led to the increase of Bax and cleavage of PARP-1, but the decrease of bcl2 by western blotting. The data indicate that TCTN1 is indispensable for pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, which provides a novel alternative to targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer and deserves further investigation.

Berrak Ö, Akkoç Y, Arısan ED, et al.
The inhibition of PI3K and NFκB promoted curcumin-induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M via altering polyamine metabolism in Bcl-2 overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 77:150-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bcl-2 protein has been contributed with number of genes which are involved in oncogenesis. Among the many targets of Bcl-2, NFκB have potential role in induction of cell cycle arrest. Curcumin has potential therapeutic effects against breast cancer through multiple signaling pathways. In this study, we investigated the role of curcumin in induction of cell cycle arrest via regulating of NFκB and polyamine biosynthesis in wt and Bcl-2+ MCF-7 cells. To examine the effect of curcumin on cell cycle regulatory proteins, PI3K/Akt, NFκB pathways and polyamine catabolism, we performed immunoblotting assay. In addition, cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry. The results indicated that curcumin induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase by downregulation of cyclin B1 and Cdc2 and inhibited colony formation in MCF-7wt cells. However, Bcl-2 overexpression prevented the inhibition of cell cycle associated proteins after curcumin treatment. The combination of LY294002, PI3K inhibitor, and curcumin induced cell cycle arrest by decreasing CDK4, CDK2 and cyclin E2 in Bcl-2+ MCF-7 cells. Moreover, LY294002 further inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt in Bcl-2+ MCF-7 cells. Curcumin could suppress the nuclear transport of NFκB through decreasing the interaction of P-IκB-NFκB. The combination of wedelolactone, NFκB inhibitor, and curcumin acted different on SSAT expression in wt MCF-7 and Bcl-2+ MCF-7 cells. NFκB inhibition increased the SSAT after curcumin treatment in Bcl-2 overexpressed MCF-7 cells. Inhibition of NFκB activity as well as suppression of ROS generation with NAC resulted in the partial relief of cells from G2/M checkpoint after curcumin treatment in wt MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, the potential role of curcumin in induction of cell cycle arrest is related with NFκB-regulated polyamine biosynthesis.

Spier I, Kerick M, Drichel D, et al.
Exome sequencing identifies potential novel candidate genes in patients with unexplained colorectal adenomatous polyposis.
Fam Cancer. 2016; 15(2):281-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
In up to 30% of patients with colorectal adenomatous polyposis, no germline mutation in the known genes APC, causing familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH, causing MUTYH-associated polyposis, and POLE or POLD1, causing Polymerase-Proofreading-associated polyposis can be identified, although a hereditary etiology is likely. To uncover new causative genes, exome sequencing was performed using DNA from leukocytes and a total of 12 colorectal adenomas from seven unrelated patients with unexplained sporadic adenomatous polyposis. For data analysis and variant filtering, an established bioinformatics pipeline including in-house tools was applied. Variants were filtered for rare truncating point mutations and copy-number variants assuming a dominant, recessive, or tumor suppressor model of inheritance. Subsequently, targeted sequence analysis of the most promising candidate genes was performed in a validation cohort of 191 unrelated patients. All relevant variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. The analysis of exome sequencing data resulted in the identification of rare loss-of-function germline mutations in three promising candidate genes (DSC2, PIEZO1, ZSWIM7). In the validation cohort, further variants predicted to be pathogenic were identified in DSC2 and PIEZO1. According to the somatic mutation spectra, the adenomas in this patient cohort follow the classical pathways of colorectal tumorigenesis. The present study identified three candidate genes which might represent rare causes for a predisposition to colorectal adenoma formation. Especially PIEZO1 (FAM38A) and ZSWIM7 (SWS1) warrant further exploration. To evaluate the clinical relevance of these genes, investigation of larger patient cohorts and functional studies are required.

Zhang W, Liu R, Tang C, et al.
PFTK1 regulates cell proliferation, migration and invasion in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2016; 85:405-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
PFTK1, also named Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 14 (CDK14), is a member of the cell division cycle 2 (CDC2)-related protein kinase family. It is a serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the role of PFTK1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development. The expression of PFTK1 was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry staining, both of which demonstrated that PFTK1 was overexpressed in EOC tissues and cells. Statistical analysis showed the expression of PFTK1 was associated with multiple clinicopathological factors, including tumor grade, FIGO stage, lymph node metastatis, Ki-67 expression and predicted a poor prognosis of EOC patients. With in vitro studies we found that PFTK1 expression was decreased in serum-starved ovarian cancer cells, and progressively increased after serum-re-feeding. Knocking PFTK1 down by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Taken together, our study suggested that PFTK1 played an important role in ovarian cancer development.

Black JC, Zhang H, Kim J, et al.
Regulation of Transient Site-specific Copy Gain by MicroRNA.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(10):4862-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2017 Related Publications
Intra-tumor copy number heterogeneity is commonly observed in cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to heterogeneity remain poorly understood. Up-regulation of the histone demethylase KDM4A promotes transient site-specific copy gain (TSSG) in cells; therefore, uncovering how KDM4A levels are controlled is important for understanding the regulation of copy number heterogeneity. Here, we demonstrate that KDM4A is regulated by hsa-mir-23a-3p, hsa-mir-23b-3p, and hsa-mir-137. Altering expression of these microRNAs (miRNAs) regulates KDM4A-dependent TSSG. miRNA inhibition promoted copy gains and increased expression of the drug-resistant oncogene CKS1B, which was further substantiated in primary breast tumors. Consistent with increased CKS1B expression, miRNA inhibition reduced breast cancer cell sensitivity to cisplatin. Our data identify these miRNAs as regulators of TSSG and copy gains of a drug resistance gene.

Hocke S, Guo Y, Job A, et al.
A synthetic lethal screen identifies ATR-inhibition as a novel therapeutic approach for POLD1-deficient cancers.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(6):7080-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2017 Related Publications
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinase ATR represents a central checkpoint regulator and mediator of DNA-repair. Its inhibition selectively eliminates certain subsets of cancer cells in various tumor types, but the underlying genetic determinants remain enigmatic. Here, we applied a synthetic lethal screen directed against 288 DNA-repair genes using the well-defined ATR knock-in model of DLD1 colorectal cancer cells to identify potential DNA-repair defects mediating these effects. We identified a set of DNA-repair proteins, whose knockdown selectively killed ATR-deficient cancer cells. From this set, we further investigated the profound synthetic lethal interaction between ATR and POLD1. ATR-dependent POLD1 knockdown-induced cell killing was reproducible pharmacologically in POLD1-depleted DLD1 cells and a panel of other colorectal cancer cell lines by using chemical inhibitors of ATR or its major effector kinase CHK1. Mechanistically, POLD1 depletion in ATR-deficient cells caused caspase-dependent apoptosis without preceding cell cycle arrest and increased DNA-damage along with impaired DNA-repair. Our data could have clinical implications regarding tumor genotype-based cancer therapy, as inactivating POLD1 mutations have recently been identified in small subsets of colorectal and endometrial cancers. POLD1 deficiency might thus represent a predictive marker for treatment response towards ATR- or CHK1-inhibitors that are currently tested in clinical trials.

Wong A, Kuick CH, Wong WL, et al.
Mutation spectrum of POLE and POLD1 mutations in South East Asian women presenting with grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinomas.
Gynecol Oncol. 2016; 141(1):113-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Somatic POLE mutations have been found in a subset of endometrioid ECs particularly in FIGO grade 3 tumors while POLD1 mutations are reportedly rare in ECs. While it has been suggested that POLE mutation confers good prognosis, the data remains conflicting. Our study aims to determine the mutation spectrum of somatic and germline POLE and POLD1 gene mutations in South East Asian (SEA) women with FIGO grade 3 endometrioid ECs.
METHODS: Forty-seven patients diagnosed with FIGO grade 3 endometrioid EC, diagnosed between 2009 and 2013 were included. Next generation sequencing (NGS) using formalin fixed embedded (FFPE) tissue was utilized to sequence tumor and matched normal tissue. Tumors were also assessed for other clinicopathologic and microsatellite status phenotype. Survival curves for pathogenic somatic POLE mutated and wild-type tumors were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS: Pathogenic POLE (somatic or germline) and POLD1 (germline) mutations were detected in 29.7% (14/47) and 4.3% (2/47) patients, respectively. Three pathogenic germline mutations; one POLE and two POLD1 mutations were novel. Pathogenic germline and somatic POLE and POLD1 mutations were associated with 100% recurrence free survival. In contrast, among the wild-type POLE and POLD1 patients, 25% (8/32) had recurrence with 15.6% (5/32) subsequently dying of the disease. Somatic POLE-mutated tumors were more commonly associated with microsatellite stable (MSS) ECs (83% vs 49%; p=0.04) and peritumoral lymphocytic infiltration (75% vs 42%; p=0.05). All tumors with tumoral infiltrating lymphocytes exhibited peritumoral lymphocytic infiltrate but not vice versa.
CONCLUSION: Mutations in POLE and POLD1 in SEA women with grade 3 endometrioid ECs are associated with improved recurrence free survival. Notably, germline mutations in either POLE/POLD1 were seen in 8.5% of patients who will require appropriate genetic counseling regarding risk of developing colorectal carcinoma and on the need for additional surveillance for colonic changes. MSS and peritumoral lymphocytic infiltration may be useful histological features for distinguishing POLE mutated grade 3 endometrioid ECs.

Li Y, Yang Z, Li W, et al.
TOPK promotes lung cancer resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors by phosphorylating and activating c-Jun.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(6):6748-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2017 Related Publications
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have shown promising clinical efficacy in non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, resistance is frequently observed in malignant cells, operating through a mechanism that remains largely unknown. The present study shows that T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) is upregulated in NSCLC and excessively activated in TKI-refractory cells. TOPK dictates the responsiveness of lung cancers to the EGFR-targeted TKI gefitinib through the transcription factor AP-1 component c-Jun. TOPK binds directly to and phosphorylates c-Jun, which consequently activates the transcription of AP-1 target genes, including CCND1 and CDC2. TOPK silencing sensitizes EGFR-TKI-resistant lung cancer cells to gefitinib and increases gefitinib efficacy in preclinical lung adenocarcinoma xenograft models. These findings represent a novel mechanism of lung cancer resistance to TKIs and suggest that TOPK may have value both as a predictive biomarker and as a therapeutic target: TOPK-targeted therapy may synergize with EGFR-targeted therapy in lung cancers.

Kralovicova J, Knut M, Cross NC, Vorechovsky I
Exon-centric regulation of ATM expression is population-dependent and amenable to antisense modification by pseudoexon targeting.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:18741 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2017 Related Publications
ATM is an important cancer susceptibility gene that encodes a critical apical kinase of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway. We show that a key nonsense-mediated RNA decay switch exon (NSE) in ATM is repressed by U2AF, PUF60 and hnRNPA1. The NSE activation was haplotype-specific and was most promoted by cytosine at rs609621 in the NSE 3' splice-site (3'ss), which is predominant in high cancer risk populations. NSE levels were deregulated in leukemias and were influenced by the identity of U2AF35 residue 34. We also identify splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) that exploit competition of adjacent pseudoexons to modulate NSE levels. The U2AF-regulated exon usage in the ATM signalling pathway was centred on the MRN/ATM-CHEK2-CDC25-cdc2/cyclin-B axis and preferentially involved transcripts implicated in cancer-associated gene fusions and chromosomal translocations. These results reveal important links between 3'ss control and ATM-dependent responses to double-strand DNA breaks, demonstrate functional plasticity of intronic variants and illustrate versatility of intronic SSOs that target pseudo-3'ss to modify gene expression.

Qu Z, Zou X, Zhang X, et al.
Chelidonine induces mitotic slippage and apoptotic-like death in SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(2):1336-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chelidonine on mitotic slippage and apoptotic-like death in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells. The MTT assay was performed to detect the antiproliferative effect of chelidonine. Following treatment with chelidonine (10 µmol/l), the ultrastructure changes in SGC-7901, MCF-7 and HepG2 cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The effects of chelidonine on G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells were determined by flow cytometry. Indirect immunofluorescence assay and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were used to detect the phosphorylation level of histone H3 (Ser10) and microtubule formation was detected using LSCM following immunofluorescent labeling. Subsequent to treatment with chelidonine (10 µmol/l), expression levels of mitotic slippage-associated proteins, including BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase B (BubR1), cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and cyclin B1, and apoptosis-associated protein, caspase-3 were examined by western blotting at 24, 48 and 72 h. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of chelidonine was 23.13 µmol/l over 48 h and chelidonine induced G2/M phase arrest of cells. The phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10 was significantly increased following treatment with chelidonine for 24 h, indicating that chelidonine arrested the SGC-7901 cells in the M phase. Chelidonine inhibited microtubule polymerization, destroyed microtubule structures and induced cell cycle arrest in the M phase. Giant cells were observed with multiple micronuclei of varying sizes, which indicated that following a prolonged arrest in the M phase, the cells underwent mitotic catastrophe. Western blotting demonstrated that the protein expression levels of BubR1, cyclin B1 and Cdk1 decreased significantly between 48 and 72 h. Low expression levels of BubR1 and inactivation of the cyclin B1-Cdk1 complex results in the cells being arrested at mitosis and leads to mitotic slippage. In addition, apoptotic morphological changes in multinucleated cells were observed, the apoptosis rates increased gradually with administration of chelidonine in a time-dependent manner and the protein levels of caspase-3 increased significantly between 24 and 72 h. Thus, chelidonine induces mitotic slippage, and apoptotic-like death occurs in SGC-7901 cells undergoing mitotic catastrophe. Gastric cancer is a common malignancy, and ranks second in overall cancer-associated mortalities worldwide. The present study demonstrated that chelidonine induces M phase arrest and mitotic slippage of SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells via downregulating the expression of BubR1, Cdk1 and cyclin B1 proteins. With the prolongation of chelidonine treatment, the giant cells with multiple micronuclei underwent mitotic slippage and were maintained in the G1 phase and did not survive. A number of multinucleated cells underwent apoptosis via a caspase-dependent signaling pathway. The current study proposes that chelidonine induces mitotic slippage and apoptotic-like death of SGC-7901 cells.

Toledo CM, Ding Y, Hoellerbauer P, et al.
Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 Screens Reveal Loss of Redundancy between PKMYT1 and WEE1 in Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells.
Cell Rep. 2015; 13(11):2425-39 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2017 Related Publications
To identify therapeutic targets for glioblastoma (GBM), we performed genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout (KO) screens in patient-derived GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) and human neural stem/progenitors (NSCs), non-neoplastic stem cell controls, for genes required for their in vitro growth. Surprisingly, the vast majority GSC-lethal hits were found outside of molecular networks commonly altered in GBM and GSCs (e.g., oncogenic drivers). In vitro and in vivo validation of GSC-specific targets revealed several strong hits, including the wee1-like kinase, PKMYT1/Myt1. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that PKMYT1 acts redundantly with WEE1 to inhibit cyclin B-CDK1 activity via CDK1-Y15 phosphorylation and to promote timely completion of mitosis in NSCs. However, in GSCs, this redundancy is lost, most likely as a result of oncogenic signaling, causing GBM-specific lethality.

Zhang B, Leng C, Wu C, et al.
Smad4 sensitizes colorectal cancer to 5-fluorouracil through cell cycle arrest by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/CDC2/survivin cascade.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(3):1807-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), a cell cycle-specific antimetabolite, is one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents for colorectal cancer (CRC). Yet, resistance to 5-FU-based chemotherapy is still an obstacle to the treatment of this malignancy. Mutation or loss of Smad4 in CRC is pivotal for chemoresistance. However, the mechanism by which Smad4 regulates the chemosensitivity of CRC remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of Smad4 in the chemosensitivity of CRC to 5-FU, and whether Smad4-regulated cell cycle arrest is involved in 5-FU chemoresistance. We used Smad4-expressing CT26 and Smad4-null SW620 cell lines as experimental models, by knockdown or transgenic overexpression. Cells or tumors were treated with 5-FU to determine chemosensitivity by cell growth, tumorigenicity assay and a mouse model. Cell cycle distribution was examined with flow cytometric analysis, and cell cycle-related proteins were examined by western blotting. Smad4 deficiency in CT26 and SW620 cells induced chemoresistance to 5-FU both in vitro and in vivo. Smad4 deficiency attenuated G1 or G2 cell cycle arrest by activating the PI3K/Akt/CDC2/survivin pathway. The PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, reversed the activation of the Akt/CDC2/survivin cascade in the Smad4-deficient cells, while it had little effect on cells with high Smad4 expression. In conclusion, we discovered a novel mechanism mediated by Smad4 to trigger 5-FU chemosensitivity through cell cycle arrest by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/CDC2/survivin cascade. The present study also implies that LY294002 has potential therapeutic value to reverse the chemosensitivity of CRC with low Smad4 expression.

Spier I, Drichel D, Kerick M, et al.
Low-level APC mutational mosaicism is the underlying cause in a substantial fraction of unexplained colorectal adenomatous polyposis cases.
J Med Genet. 2016; 53(3):172-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In 30-50% of patients with colorectal adenomatous polyposis, no germline mutation in the known genes APC, causing familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH, causing MUTYH-associated polyposis, or POLE or POLD1, causing polymerase-proofreading-associated polyposis can be identified, although a hereditary aetiology is likely. This study aimed to explore the impact of APC mutational mosaicism in unexplained polyposis.
METHODS: To comprehensively screen for somatic low-level APC mosaicism, high-coverage next-generation sequencing of the APC gene was performed using DNA from leucocytes and a total of 53 colorectal tumours from 20 unrelated patients with unexplained sporadic adenomatous polyposis. APC mosaicism was assumed if the same loss-of-function APC mutation was present in ≥ 2 anatomically separated colorectal adenomas/carcinomas per patient. All mutations were validated using diverse methods.
RESULTS: In 25% (5/20) of patients, somatic mosaicism of a pathogenic APC mutation was identified as underlying cause of the disease. In 2/5 cases, the mosaic level in leucocyte DNA was slightly below the sensitivity threshold of Sanger sequencing; while in 3/5 cases, the allelic fraction was either very low (0.1-1%) or no mutations were detectable. The majority of mosaic mutations were located outside the somatic mutation cluster region of the gene.
CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate a high prevalence of pathogenic mosaic APC mutations below the detection thresholds of routine diagnostics in adenomatous polyposis, even if high-coverage sequencing of leucocyte DNA alone is taken into account. This has important implications for both routine work-up and strategies to identify new causative genes in this patient group.

Wang H, Gao X, Lu X, et al.
The mitotic regulator Hec1 is a critical modulator of prostate cancer through the long non-coding RNA BX647187 in vitro.
Biosci Rep. 2015; 35(6) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2017 Related Publications
Hec1 (highly expressed in cancer) is a member of a conserved Ndc80 (nuclear division cycle 80) complex that regulates mitotic processes. Its overexpression is seen in various tumours and is associated with cancer progression. However, its expression pattern and role inhuman prostate cancer (PCa) still not clear. The aim of our study is to investigate the expression and functional role of Hec1 in human PCa. Hec1 expression was measured in 10 pairs of PCa cancerous and non-cancerous tissue samples by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR. The effects of Hec1 on PCa cells were studied by RNAi approach. Apoptosis and cell cycle were analysed by flow cytometry. Cells viability was evaluated using cell counting Kit-8. Cyclin B1-Cdc2 (cell division cycle 2) activity was measured by ELISA assay. Long non-coding (Lnc)RNAs regulated by Hec1 were gained from bioinformatics analysis. The role of LncRNA BX647187, regulated by Hec1, was finally characterized in PCa cells by siRNA. Our results showed that Hec1 mRNA and protein were significantly overexpressed in Human PCa tissues and several PCa cell lines. Silencing Hec1 markedly suppressed proliferation, promoted apoptosis and induced cell-cycle arrest in G2/M-phase in PCa cells. Through bioinformatics analysis and knockdown Hec1 in PCa cells, we found LncRNA BX647187 was positively regulated by Hec1. We further demonstrated that suppression of BX647187 in PCa cells significantly reduced cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis. Thus, we conclude that Hec1 is consistently overexpressed in human PCa and Hec1 is closely linked with human PCa progression through the meditator LncRNA BX647187. Our studies may contribute to understand the molecular mechanism of PCa pathogenesis and clinical therapy.

Chen L, Tian H, Li M, et al.
Derivate isocorydine inhibits cell proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):5951-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have previously demonstrated that isocorydine (ICD) can be served as a potential antitumor agent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A novel derivate of isocorydine (d-ICD) could significantly improve its anticancer activity in tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms of d-ICD on HCC cells remain to be unclear. In this study, we observed that d-ICD inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of HCC cells in a concentration-dependent manner. We found d-ICD induced G2/M cycle arrest of HCC cells via DNA damage 45 alpha (GADD45A) and p21 pathway in vitro and in vivo. In d-ICD-treated cells, cell cycle-related proteins cyclin B1 and p-CDC2 were upregulated and p-cyclin B1, CDC2, and E2F1 were inhibited. p21 expression can be reversed by knockdown of GADD45A in d-ICD-treated HCC cells. Enforced expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in combination with d-ICD enhanced the p21 expression in HCC cells. Furthermore, the luciferase reporter assay showed that upregulation of GADD45A by C/EBPβ was achieved through the increase of GADD45A promoter activity. These findings indicate that d-ICD inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest through activation of C/EBPβ-GADD45A-p21 pathway in HCC cells. d-ICD might be a promising chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of HCC.

Hui L, Sang C, Wang D, et al.
Newly synthesized podophyllotoxin derivative, LJ12, induces apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe in non-small cell lung cancer cells in vitro.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(1):339-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT), an active compound isolated from a number of herbs and used in traditional medicine, has been reported to exhibit promising anti‑tumor activity. A newly synthesized derivative, N-(1-oxyl‑4'-demethyl-4-deoxyp odophyllic)-L‑methine-4'-piperazine carbamate (LJ12) may have improved antitumor activity and fewer side effects. The present study assessed the effect of LJ12 on cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and mitotic catastrophe in A549 human lung cancer cells in vitro. The molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of LJ12 were also examined. The results demonstrated that LJ12 reduced A549 cell viability in a time‑ and dose‑dependent manner, with a lower half maximal inhibitory concentration of ~0.1 µM, compared with another known DPT derivative, etoposide (10 µM). Flow cytometric analysis showed that LJ12 induced tumor cell arrest at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The present study also observed an expected concomitant decrease in the numbers of cells cells in the G0/G1 and S phases. LJ12 was found to upregulate the protein expression levels of Cdc2 and Cyclin B1. Furthermore, LJ12 induced tumor cell apoptosis and the protein expression of B cell lymphoma‑2‑associated X protein, caspase‑3 and p53. The present study also observed the formation of giant, multinucleated cells, indicating that LJ12 induced mitotic catastrophe in the tumor cells. These results indicated that LJ12 has anti‑non‑small cell lung cancer activity in vitro. Further investigations aim to develop LJ12 as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of lung cancer.

Li YR, Li S, Ho CT, et al.
Tangeretin derivative, 5-acetyloxy-6,7,8,4'-tetramethoxyflavone induces G2/M arrest, apoptosis and autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2016; 17(1):48-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2017 Related Publications
Tangeretin, a major phytochemicals in tangerine peels--an important Chinese herb, has been found to have anti-carcinogenic properties. To improve bioavailability and increase potency of tangeretin, its derivative, 5-acetyloxy-6,7,8,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (5-AcTMF), has been synthesized and shown potent inhibition of proliferation activity against human breast and leukemia cancer cell lines. In this study, we have further investigated the anticancer effects of 5-AcTMF on CL1-5 non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC) both in vitro and in vivo and demonstrated that 5-AcTMF effectively inhibited cancer cell proliferation, induced G2/M-phase arrest associated with cdc2 and CDC25c and increased in the apoptotic cells associated with caspase activation, down regulation of Bcl-2, XIAP and Survivn, inducing release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. We also found that 5-AcTMF treatment of CL1-5 activated autophagy, indicated by triggered autophagosome formation and increased LC3-II levels and formation of LC3 puncta. Moreover, we also found that 5-AcTMF lowered phophoatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Over-expression of AKT by AKT cDNA transfection decreased 5-AcTMF mediated apoptosis and autophagy, supporting the induction of apoptosis and autophagy by inhibition of AKT pathway. In an animal study, 5-AcTMF effectively delayed tumor growth in a nude mouse model of CL1-5 xenografts without observed adverse effect. Immunohistochemistry Analysis indicated that 5-AcTMF induced CL1-5 cell apoptosis and autophagy in vivo. Taken together, these data demonstrate that 5-AcTMF is a novel small molecule agent that can inhibit NSCLC cell proliferation, and induce G(2)/M phase arrest and via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and autophagy.

Iacobucci I, Di Rorà AG, Falzacappa MV, et al.
In vitro and in vivo single-agent efficacy of checkpoint kinase inhibition in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
J Hematol Oncol. 2015; 8:125 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although progress in children, in adults, ALL still carries a dismal outcome. Here, we explored the in vitro and in vivo activity of PF-00477736 (Pfizer), a potent, selective ATP-competitive small-molecule inhibitor of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) and with lower efficacy of checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2).
METHODS: The effectiveness of PF-00477736 as single agent in B-/T-ALL was evaluated in vitro and in vivo studies as a single agent. The efficacy of the compound in terms of cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, and changes in gene and protein expression was assessed using different B-/T-ALL cell lines. Finally, the action of PF-00477736 was assessed in vivo using leukemic mouse generated by a single administration of the tumorigenic agent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea.
RESULTS: Chk1 and Chk2 are overexpressed concomitant with the presence of genetic damage as suggested by the nuclear labeling for γ-H2A.X (Ser139) in 68 % of ALL patients. In human B- and T-ALL cell lines, inhibition of Chk1/2 as a single treatment strategy efficiently triggered the Chk1-Cdc25-Cdc2 pathway resulting in a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, and increased DNA damage. Moreover, treatment with PF-00477736 showed efficacy ex vivo in primary leukemic blasts separated from 14 adult ALL patients and in vivo in mice transplanted with T-ALL, arguing in favor of its future clinical evaluation in leukemia.
CONCLUSIONS: In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo results support the inhibition of Chk1 as a new therapeutic strategy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and they provide a strong rationale for its future clinical investigation.

Lin L, Fang Z, Lin H, et al.
Depletion of Cks1 and Cks2 expression compromises cell proliferation and enhance chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(1):26-32 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2017 Related Publications
The present study explored the oncogenic roles of overexpressed Cks1 and Cks2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Gene expression of Cks1 and Cks2 in HepG2 cells was disrupted by siRNA or increased by cDNA transfection. Cell proliferation was assayed by CCK-8 analysis and cell counting. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis after transfection was measured by flow cytometry using Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining. Cell cycle changes after transfection were determined by flow cytometry with PI staining. Protein levels of Akt and GSK-3β were measured after transfection. The results revealed that HepG2 proliferation was decreased by depletion of endogenous Cks1 or Cks2, and increased by overexpression of Cks1 or Cks2. HepG2 apoptosis increased concordantly with the decline of Cks1 or Cks2 expression. Overexpression of Cks1 or Cks2 prevented cell apoptosis. Protein levels of p‑Akt and p‑GSK-3β were downregulated after RNA interference of Cks1 or Cks2. In conclusion, Cks1 and Cks2 promoted proliferation and prevented apoptosis of HepG2 cells. The Akt/GSK-3β-related PI3K/Akt signaling pathway may be a key signaling pathway that is involved in the regulation of cell growth and cell death.

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