LYVE1

Gene Summary

Gene:LYVE1; lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1
Aliases: HAR, XLKD1, LYVE-1, CRSBP-1
Location:11p15.4
Summary:This gene encodes a type I integral membrane glycoprotein. The encoded protein acts as a receptor and binds to both soluble and immobilized hyaluronan. This protein may function in lymphatic hyaluronan transport and have a role in tumor metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronic acid receptor 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
  • Transfection
  • Staging
  • Glycoproteins
  • Lymphatic Vessels
  • LYVE1
  • Messenger RNA
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Chromosome 11
  • RNA Interference
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D
  • Angiogenesis Inducing Agents
  • Lymphangiogenesis
  • Lymph Nodes
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Disease Progression
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Vocal Cords
  • Lymphatic System
  • Vesicular Transport Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Angiogenesis
  • Gene Expression
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Liver Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Risk Factors
  • RTPCR
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3
  • Liver Cirrhosis
Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LYVE1 (cancer-related)

Daoud SA, Ismail WM, Abdelhamid MS, et al.
Possible Prognostic Role of HER2/Neu in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ and Atypical Ductal Proliferative Lesions of the Breast.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(8):3733-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
HER2/neu is a well-established prognostic and predictive factor for invasive breast cancer. However, the role of HER2/neu in ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is debated and recent data have suggested that it is mainly linked to in situ local recurrence. Although molecular data suggest that atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and duct carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are related lesions, albeit with vastly different clinical implications, the role of HER2/neu expression in atypical ductal hyperplasia is not well defined either. The aim of this study was to evaluate over expression of HER2/neu in DCIS and cases of ADH in comparison with invasive breast carcinoma. Archival primary breast carcinoma paraffin blocks (n=15), DCIS only (n=10) and ductal epithelial hyperplasia and other breast benign lesions (n=25) were analyzed for HER2/neu immunoexpression. Follow up was available for 40% of the patients. HER2/neu was positive in 80%of both DCIS and invasive carcinoma, and 67% of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) cases. Thus at least a subset of patients with preinvasive breast lesions were positive, which strongly suggests a role for Her2/neu in identifying high-risk patients for malignant transformation. Although these are preliminary data, which need further studies of gene amplification within these patients as well as a larger patient cohort with longer periods of follow up, they support the implementation of routine Her2/neu testing in patients diagnosed as pure DCIS and in florid ADH.

Wang A, Zhang W, Jin M, et al.
Differential expression of EBV proteins LMP1 and BHFR1 in EBV‑associated gastric and nasopharyngeal cancer tissues.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(5):4151-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epstein‑Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with the development of T cell lymphoma, nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), and EBV‑associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC). This study assessed the expression of the EBV‑associated proteins latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) and BamHI‑A rightward frame 1 (BARF1) in NPC and EBVaGC tissue specimens and determined their association with clinicopathological data, microvessel density (MVD) and micro‑lymphatic vessel density (MLVD). This study collected 600 gastric cancer and 75 NPC tissue samples. EBV infection was assessed using in situ hybridization, and LMP1 and BARF1 expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry. The levels of MVD and MLVD were assessed using immunostaining of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)‑C, CD34, and lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor 1 (LYVE‑1). Among the 600 gastric cancer cases, 30 were positive for EBV infection, which was shown to be associated with the age of patients (P=0.073), tumor differentiation (P<0.0001), tumor location (P<0.0001) and lymph node metastasis (P<0.0001). In these 30 EBVaGC cases, only one case was weakly positive for LMP1, but 17 cases were BARF1 positive. BARF1 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis of EBVaGC and the level of MLVD. Furthermore, 61 (81%) of 75 NPC patients were EBV positive, among which 38 cases were LMP‑1 positive (62.3%) and LMP1 expression was associated with tumor‑node‑metastasis stage (P=0.011) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.041). MLVD was significantly higher in LMP1‑positive cases than LMP1‑negative cases. There were only 8 (13.3%) cases positive for BARF1 expression. In conclusion, EBV infection exhibits a role in gastric cancer and NPC development; however, expression of EBV‑associated proteins LMP1 and BARF1 have differential functions during tumorigenesis of these two types of cancer.

Vojkovics D, Kellermayer Z, Heidt D, et al.
Isolation and Characterization of a Murine Spontaneous High-Grade Follicular Lymphoma with Restricted In Vivo Spreading--a Model for Lymphatic Metastasis Via the Mesentery.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2016; 22(2):421-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Spontaneous or induced malignant lymphomas in mice are valuable tools for studying human lymphoproliferative diseases, including the mechanism of migration between peripheral lymphoid organs and positioning within distinct tissue compartments. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a novel spontaneous lymphoma from BALB/c mice showing restricted tissue distribution and metastasis. The lymphoma cells display CD19, B220, MHC II, surface IgG2a/kappa chain with VH7183 rearrangement of the IgH gene, indicating their B-cell origin. Serial intraperitoneal injection of primary tumor into both BALB/c and RAG-1-deficient hosts led to the successful propagation of lymphoma. Despite the cytological characteristics of high-grade follicular B-cell lymphoma, the tumor cells (denoted as Bc-DLFL.1) showed significantly lesser spreading to extraabdominal locations upon intraperitoneal passage compared to splenic and mesenteric lymph node expansion. In mesenteric lymph nodes the high endothelial venules contained only few tumor cells, while the lymphatic vessels were almost completely filled with lymphoma cells. Similarly, the LYVE-1-positive lymphatic capillaries within the mesentery were packed with lymphoma cells. These findings suggest that Bc-DLFL.1 cells likely propagate primarily via the lymphatic circulation within the mesentery, therefore this tumor may offer an in vivo model to investigate the tumor cell migration via the lymphatic circulation from the peritoneal cavity.

Hsu MK, Wu IC, Cheng CC, et al.
Triple-layer dissection of the lung adenocarcinoma transcriptome: regulation at the gene, transcript, and exon levels.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(30):28755-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung adenocarcinoma is one of the most deadly human diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease, particularly RNA splicing, have remained underexplored. Here, we report a triple-level (gene-, transcript-, and exon-level) analysis of lung adenocarcinoma transcriptomes from 77 paired tumor and normal tissues, as well as an analysis pipeline to overcome genetic variability for accurate differentiation between tumor and normal tissues. We report three major results. First, more than 5,000 differentially expressed transcripts/exonic regions occur repeatedly in lung adenocarcinoma patients. These transcripts/exonic regions are enriched in nicotine metabolism and ribosomal functions in addition to the pathways enriched for differentially expressed genes (cell cycle, extracellular matrix receptor interaction, and axon guidance). Second, classification models based on rationally selected transcripts or exonic regions can reach accuracies of 0.93 to 1.00 in differentiating tumor from normal tissues. Of the 28 selected exonic regions, 26 regions correspond to alternative exons located in such regulators as tumor suppressor (GDF10), signal receptor (LYVE1), vascular-specific regulator (RASIP1), ubiquitination mediator (RNF5), and transcriptional repressor (TRIM27). Third, classification systems based on 13 to 14 differentially expressed genes yield accuracies near 100%. Genes selected by both detection methods include C16orf59, DAP3, ETV4, GABARAPL1, PPAR, RADIL, RSPO1, SERTM1, SRPK1, ST6GALNAC6, and TNXB. Our findings imply a multilayered lung adenocarcinoma regulome in which transcript-/exon-level regulation may be dissociated from gene-level regulation. Our described method may be used to identify potentially important genes/transcripts/exonic regions for the tumorigenesis of lung adenocarcinoma and to construct accurate tumor vs. normal classification systems for this disease.

Radon TP, Massat NJ, Jones R, et al.
Identification of a Three-Biomarker Panel in Urine for Early Detection of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(15):3512-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Noninvasive biomarkers for early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are currently not available. Here, we aimed to identify a set of urine proteins able to distinguish patients with early-stage PDAC from healthy individuals.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Proteomes of 18 urine samples from healthy controls, chronic pancreatitis, and patients with PDAC (six/group) were assayed using GeLC/MS/MS analysis. The selected biomarkers were subsequently validated with ELISA assays using multiple logistic regression applied to a training dataset in a multicenter cohort comprising 488 urine samples.
RESULTS: LYVE-1, REG1A, and TFF1 were selected as candidate biomarkers. When comparing PDAC (n = 192) with healthy (n = 87) urine specimens, the resulting areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC) of the panel were 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84-0.94] in the training (70% of the data) and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86-0.98) in the validation (30% of the data) datasets. When comparing PDAC stage I-II (n = 71) with healthy urine specimens, the panel achieved AUCs of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84-0.96) and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.84-1.00) in the training and validation datasets, respectively. In PDAC stage I-II and healthy samples with matching plasma CA19.9, the panel achieved a higher AUC of 0.97 (95% CI, 0.94-0.99) than CA19.9 (AUC = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.95, P = 0.005). Adding plasma CA19.9 to the panel increased the AUC from 0.97 (95% CI, 0.94-0.99) to 0.99 (95% CI, 0.97-1.00, P = 0.04), but did not improve the comparison of stage I-IIA PDAC (n = 17) with healthy urine.
CONCLUSIONS: We have established a novel, three-protein biomarker panel that is able to detect patients with early-stage pancreatic cancer in urine specimens.

Li XP, Jing W, Sun JJ, et al.
A potential small-molecule synthetic antilymphangiogenic agent norcantharidin inhibits tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis of human colonic adenocarcinomas through blocking VEGF-A,-C,-D/VEGFR-2,-3 "multi-points priming" mechanisms in vitro and in vivo.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:527 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor lymphangiogenesis plays an important role in promoting growth and metastasis of tumors, but no antilymphangiogenic agent is used clinically. Based on the effect of norcantharidin (NCTD) on lymphangiogenesis of human lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), we firstly investigated the antilymphangiogenic activity of NCTD as a tumor lymphangiogenic inhibitor for human colonic adenocarcinomas (HCACs).
METHODS: In vivo and in vitro experiments to determine the effects of NCTD on tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis of the in-situ colonic xenografts in nude mice, and lymphatic tube formation of the three-dimensional (3-D) of the co-culture system of HCAC HT-29 cells and LECs were done. Proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, Ki-67, Bcl-2 and cell cycle of LECs and the co-culture system in vitro were respectively determined. Streparidin-peroxidase staining, SABC, western blotting and RT-PCR were respectively used to examine the expression of LYVE-1, D2-40, CK20 (including their LMVD), and VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: NCTD inhibited tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis of the in-situ colonic xenografts in vivo, and these observations were confirmed by facts that lymphatic tube formation, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, S-phase cell cycle, and Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression in vitro, and LYVE-1, D2-40, CK20 expression and their LMVD in vitro and in vivo were inhibited and affected. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 at protein/mRNA levels in the process of lymphatic tube formation in vitro and tumor lymphangiogenesis in vivo was downregulated; NCTD in combination with mF4-31C1 or Sorafenib enhanced these effects.
CONCLUSIONS: NCTD inhibits tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis of HCACs through "multi-points priming" mechanisms i.e. affecting related malignant phenotypes, inhibiting Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression, inducing S-phase cell cycle arrest, and directly or indirectly downregulating VEGF-A,-C,-D/VEGFR-2,-3 signaling pathways. The present finding strongly suggests that NCTD could serve as a potential antilymphangiogenic agent for tumor lymphangiogenesis and is of importance to explore NCTD is used for antitumor metastatic comprehensive therapy for HCACs.

Shi J, Li YJ, Yan B, Wei PK
Interleukin-8: A potent promoter of human lymphatic endothelial cell growth in gastric cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(6):2703-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lymphatic metastasis is a major progression route of gastric cancer. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), as an inflammatory cytokine, is induced by Helicobacter pylori infection and is strongly associated with gastric cancer development and metastasis. The blood and lymphatic systems are similar in their function and gene expression profiles. It has been proposed that IL-8 activates angiogenesis. However, the direct role of IL-8 in lymphangiogenesis in gastric cancer remains unclear. We investigated the effect of IL-8 on the growth of human lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). In addition, protein and mRNA expression of selected lymphangiogenesis markers was assessed in these cells. LECs were co-cultured with gastric cancer SGC7901 cells and exposed to various concentrations of IL-8 (0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0 ng/ml). The Cell Counting Kit-8 was used to evaluate LEC proliferation (cultured for 1-6 days). Then, protein (immunofluorescence and western blotting) and mRNA [quantitative transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)] levels were measured in samples obtained from the 24-h cultured cells, for lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronic acid receptor-1 (LYVE-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, VEGF-D and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3). The data presented herein demonstrated that IL-8 promotes the proliferation of LECs and enhances the protein and mRNA expression of LYVE-1. Notably, IL-8 inhibited VEGF-C, VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 protein expression as well as VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 mRNA expression. These findings suggest that IL-8 may be a potent inducer of LECs, although this effect does not appear to involve the VEGF-C/VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 signaling pathway.

Da W, Zhu J, Wang L, Sun Q
Curcumin suppresses lymphatic vessel density in an in vivo human gastric cancer model.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(7):5215-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to assess the effects of curcumin on lymphatic vessel density (LVD) in an in vivo model of gastric cancer using the gastric cancer cell line, SGC-7901. Gastric tumor-bearing nude mice were treated with saline or 40, 80, or 160 mg kg(-1) day(-1) curcumin for 8 weeks. The results indicated that the tumor volumes were significantly lower in mice treated with 80 and 160 mg kg(-1) day(-1) curcumin as compared with that of the control group (both P < 0.001). In addition, both 80 and 160 mg kg(-1) day(-1) curcumin significantly reduced LVD (both P < 0.01). Although immunohistochemical analysis showed that curcumin did not significantly alter the expression of prospero homeobox 1 (Prox-1), podoplanin, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), 160 mg kg(-1) day(-1) curcumin significantly decreased the expression of Prox-1, podoplanin, and VEGFR-3 levels as detected by Western blot analysis (P ≤ 0.03). Downregulation of lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor 1 (LYVE-1), Prox-1, podoplanin, and VEGFR-3 mRNA expression by curcumin was also detected (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, the apoptosis rates of tumor cells increased with curcumin in a concentration-dependent manner (all P < 0.001). Thus, curcumin may inhibit gastric cancer lymph node metastasis. Our findings provide theoretical evidence and an experimental basis for further analysis of the clinical application of curcumin in the therapy of gastric cancer.

Tutunea-Fatan E, Majumder M, Xin X, Lala PK
The role of CCL21/CCR7 chemokine axis in breast cancer-induced lymphangiogenesis.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis facilitates breast cancer progression by generating new lymphatic vessels that serve as conduits for tumor dissemination to lymph nodes and beyond. Given the recent evidence suggesting the implication of C-C chemokine ligand 21/chemokine receptor 7 (CCL21/CCR7) in lymph node metastasis, the aim of our study was to define the role of this chemokine pair in breast cancer-associated lymphangiogenesis.
METHODS: The expression analysis of CCL21/CCR7 pair and lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) markers in breast cancer specimens was performed by means of quantitative real-time PCR. By utilizing CCR7 and CCL21 gene manipulated breast cancer cell implants into orthotopic sites of nude mice, lymphatic vessel formation was assessed through quantitative real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays. Finally, the lymphangiogenic potential of CCL21/CCR7 was assessed in vitro with primary LECs through separate functional assays, each attempting to mimic different stages of the lymphangiogenic process.
RESULTS: We found that CCR7 mRNA expression in human breast cancer tissues positively correlates with the expression of lymphatic endothelial markers LYVE-1, podoplanin, Prox-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C). We demonstrated that the expression of CCL21/CCR7 by breast cancer cells has the ability to promote tumor-induced lymph-vascular recruitment in vivo. In vitro, CCL21/CCR7 chemokine axis regulates the expression and secretion of lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C and thereby promotes proliferation, migration, as well as tube formation of the primary human LECs. Finally, we showed that protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway is the intracellular mechanism of CCR7-mediated VEGF-C secretion by human breast cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal that CCR7 and VEGF-C display a significant crosstalk and suggest a novel role of the CCL21/CCR7 chemokine axis in the promotion of breast cancer-induced lymphangiogenesis.

Higgins J, Brogley M, Palanisamy N, et al.
Interaction of the Androgen Receptor, ETV1, and PTEN Pathways in Mouse Prostate Varies with Pathological Stage and Predicts Cancer Progression.
Horm Cancer. 2015; 6(2-3):67-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To examine the impact of common somatic mutations in prostate cancer (PCa) on androgen receptor (AR) signaling, mouse models were designed to perturb sequentially the AR, ETV1, and PTEN pathways. Mice with "humanized" AR (hAR) alleles that modified AR transcriptional strength by varying polyglutamine tract (Q-tract) length were crossed with mice expressing a prostate-specific, AR-responsive ETV1 transgene (ETV1(Tg)). While hAR allele did not grossly affect ETV1-induced neoplasia, ETV1 strongly antagonized global AR regulation and repressed critical androgen-induced differentiation and tumor suppressor genes, such as Nkx3-1 and Hoxb13. When Pten was varied to determine its impact on disease progression, mice lacking one Pten allele (Pten(+/-) ) developed more frequent prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Yet, only those with the ETV1 transgene progressed to invasive adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, progression was more frequent with the short Q-tract (stronger) AR, suggesting that the AR, ETV1, and PTEN pathways cooperate in aggressive disease. On the Pten(+/-) background, ETV1 had markedly less effect on AR target genes. However, a strong inflammatory gene expression signature, notably upregulation of Cxcl16, was induced by ETV1. Comparison of mouse and human patient data stratified by the presence of E26 transformation-specific ETS fusion genes highlighted additional factors, some not previously associated with prostate cancer but for which targeted therapies are in development for other diseases. In sum, concerted use of these mouse models illuminates the complex interplay of AR, ETV1, and PTEN pathways in pre-cancerous neoplasia and early tumorigenesis, disease stages difficult to analyze in man.

Szalontay L, Schally AV, Popovics P, et al.
Novel GHRH antagonists suppress the growth of human malignant melanoma by restoring nuclear p27 function.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(17):2790-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer; the treatment of advanced and recurrent forms remains a challenge. It has recently been reported that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor is involved in the pathogenesis of melanoma. Therefore, we investigated the effects of our new GHRH antagonists on a human melanoma cancer cell line. Antiproliferative effects of GHRH antagonists, MIA-602, MIA-606 and MIA-690, on the human melanoma cell line, A-375, were studied in vitro using the MTS assay. The effect of MIA-690 (5 μg/day 28 d) was further evaluated in vivo in nude mice bearing xenografts of A-375. Subcellular localization of p27 was detected with Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. MIA-690 inhibited the proliferation of A-375 cells in a dose-dependent manner (33% at 10 μM, and 19.2% at 5 μM, P < 0 .05 vs. control), and suppressed the growth of xenografted tumors by 70.45% (P < 0.05). Flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle effects following the administration of MIA-690 revealed a decrease in the number of cells in G2/M phase (from 19.7% to 12.9%, P < 0.001). Additionally, Western blot and immunofluorescent studies showed that exposure of A-375 cells to MIA-690 triggered the nuclear accumulation of p27. MIA-690 inhibited tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, and increased the translocation of p27 into the nucleus thus inhibiting progression of the cell cycle. Our findings indicate that patients with malignant melanoma could benefit from treatment regimens, which combine existing chemotherapy agents and novel GHRH-antagonists.

Gupta R, Kitaichi M, Inoue Y, et al.
Lymphatic manifestations of lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
Lymphology. 2014; 47(3):106-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a slowly progressive, low grade, metastasizing neoplasm, associated with cellular invasion and cystic destruction of the pulmonary parenchyma. Although the source of LAM cells that infiltrate the lung is unknown, available evidence indicates that the disease spreads primarily through lymphatic channels, often involving abdominal, axial, and retroperitoneal nodes, suggestive of an origin in the pelvis. LAM cells harbor mutations in tuberous sclerosis genes and produce lymphangiogenic growth factors, which facilitate access to and movement through the lymphatic system and likely play an important role in destructive tissue remodeling in the lung. Lymphatic manifestations of LAM include thoracic duct wall invasion, lymphangioleiomyoma formation, chylous fluid collections in the peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial spaces, chyloptysis, chylocolporrheal chylometrorrhea, chyle leak from the umbilicus, chylous pulmonary congestion, and lower extremity lymphedema. LAM lesions express lymphangiogenic growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D; growth factor receptors, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3; and markers LYVE-1 and podoplanin, and are laced with chaotic lymphatic channels. Serum VEGF-D is elevated in 70% of patients with LAM and is a clinically useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. Molecular targeted therapy with sirolimus stabilizes lung function, is anti-lymphangiogenic, and is highly effective for the lymphatic and chylous complications of LAM. Future trials in patients with LAM who have lymphatic manifestations or elevated serum VEGF-D will likely focus on the VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGFR-3 axis.

Trabert B, Ness RB, Lo-Ciganic WH, et al.
Aspirin, nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and acetaminophen use and risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(2):djt431 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Regular aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of several malignancies. Epidemiologic studies analyzing aspirin, nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and acetaminophen use and ovarian cancer risk have been inconclusive.
METHODS: We analyzed pooled data from 12 population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer, including 7776 case patients and 11843 control subjects accrued between 1992 and 2007. Odds ratios (ORs) for associations of medication use with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were estimated in individual studies using logistic regression and combined using random effects meta-analysis. Associations between frequency, dose, and duration of analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer were also assessed. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Aspirin use was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer (OR = 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84 to 0.99). Results were similar but not statistically significant for nonaspirin NSAIDs, and there was no association with acetaminophen. In seven studies with frequency data, the reduced risk was strongest among daily aspirin users (OR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.96). In three studies with dose information, the reduced risk was strongest among users of low dose (<100 mg) aspirin (OR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.83), whereas for nonaspirin NSAIDs, the reduced risk was strongest for high dose (≥500 mg) usage (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.64 to 0.91).
CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin use was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer, especially among daily users of low-dose aspirin. These findings suggest that the same aspirin regimen proven to protect against cardiovascular events and several cancers could reduce the risk of ovarian cancer 20% to 34% depending on frequency and dose of use.

Su CH, Tzeng TY, Cheng C, Hsu MT
An H2A histone isotype regulates estrogen receptor target genes by mediating enhancer-promoter-3'-UTR interactions in breast cancer cells.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42(5):3073-88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A replication-dependent histone H2A isotype, H2ac, is upregulated in MCF-7 cells and in estrogen receptor-positive clinical breast cancer tissues. Cellular depletion of this H2A isotype leads to defective estrogen signaling, loss of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. H2ac mediates regulation of estrogen receptor target genes, particularly BCL2 and c-MYC, by recruiting estrogen receptor alpha through its HAR domain and facilitating the formation of a chromatin loop between the promoter, enhancer and 3'-untranslated region of the respective genes. These findings reveal a new role for histone isotypes in the regulation of gene expression in cancer cells, and suggest that these molecules may be targeted for anti-cancer drug discovery.

Ek WE, Levine DM, D'Amato M, et al.
Germline genetic contributions to risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett's esophagus, and gastroesophageal reflux.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013; 105(22):1711-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) is an increasingly common cancer with poor survival. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the main precursor to EA, and every year 0.12% to 0.5% of BE patients progress to EA. BE typically arises on a background of chronic gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), one of the risk factors for EA.
METHODS: We used genome-wide association data to investigate the genetic architecture underlying GERD, BE, and EA. We applied a method to estimate the variance explained (array heritability, h(2)g) and the genetic correlation (rg) between GERD, BE, and EA by considering all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) simultaneously. We also estimated the polygenic overlap between GERD, BE, and EA using a prediction approach. All tests were two-sided, except in the case of variance-explained estimation where one-sided tests were used.
RESULTS: We estimated a statistically significant genetic variance explained for BE (h(2)g = 35%; standard error [SE] = 6%; one-sided P = 1 × 10(-9)) and for EA (h(2)g = 25 %; SE = 5%; one-sided P = 2 × 10(-7)). The genetic correlation between BE and EA was found to be high (rg = 1.0; SE = 0.37). We also estimated a statistically significant polygenic overlap between BE and EA (one-sided P = 1 × 10(-6)), which suggests, together with the high genetic correlation, that shared genes underlie the development of BE and EA. Conversely, no statistically significant results were obtained for GERD.
CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that risk to BE and EA is influenced by many germline genetic variants of small effect and that shared polygenic effects contribute to risk of these two diseases.

Langenes V, Svensson H, Börjesson L, et al.
Expression of the chemokine decoy receptor D6 is decreased in colon adenocarcinomas.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2013; 62(11):1687-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recruitment of immune cells to tumors is a complex process crucial for both inflammation-driven tumor progression and specific anti-tumor cytotoxicity. Chemokines control the directed migration of immune cells, and their actions are partly controlled by nonsignaling chemokine decoy receptors. The role of the receptors such as D6, Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines and ChemoCentryx chemokine receptor in immunity to tumors is still unclear. Using real-time PCR, we detected significantly decreased expression of D6 mRNA in colon tumors compared to unaffected mucosa. D6 protein was expressed by lymphatic endothelium and mononuclear cells in the colon lamina propria and detected by immunohistochemistry in two out of six tissue samples containing high D6 mRNA levels, whereas no staining was observed in any tissue samples expressing low mRNA levels. When examining the density of lymphatic vessels in colon tumors, we detected a marked increase in vessels identified by the lymphatic endothelial marker Lyve-1, excluding passive regulation of D6 due to decreased lymphatic vessel density. In parallel, the Treg-recruiting chemokine CCL22, which is sequestered by D6, was threefold increased in tumor tissue. Furthermore, we could show that low D6 expression correlated to more invasive tumors and that tumor location influences D6 expression, which is lower in the more distal parts of the colon. The data support that regulation of D6 by colon tumors results in altered levels of proinflammatory CC chemokines, thereby shaping the local chemokine network to favor tumor survival. This may have implications for the design of future immunotherapy for colon cancer.

Géraud C, Mogler C, Runge A, et al.
Endothelial transdifferentiation in hepatocellular carcinoma: loss of Stabilin-2 expression in peri-tumourous liver correlates with increased survival.
Liver Int. 2013; 33(9):1428-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumour that is characterized by extensive vascular remodelling and responsiveness to treatment with the anti-angiogenic multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. The aim was to study endothelial remodelling in HCC.
METHODS: The murine inducible albumin-SV40-large T-antigen model and two tissue microarrays (TMA) with 295 tumourous and 83 peri-tumourous samples of 296 patients with HCC were analysed for expression of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC)-specific marker proteins, stabilin-1 and stabilin-2, LYVE-1 and CD32b.
RESULTS: LSEC marker proteins were sequentially lost during HCC progression in the murine HCC model being absent from tumour nodules larger than 800 μm in diameter. Similarly, the TMA analysis of human HCCs revealed loss of all four marker proteins in the majority of tumourous tissue samples. Preservation of LYVE-1 expression showed a significant correlation with low grading (G1). In corresponding peri-tumourous liver tissue, loss of all marker proteins was seen in a minor proportion of cases (34%) while the majority of cases retained expression of at least one of the marker proteins. Loss of stabilin-2 expression in peri-tumourous liver tissue of patients with HCC was significantly less likely to occur (38%) than loss of the other marker proteins (63-95%) and it was associated with significantly longer tumour-specific (P = 0.0523) and overall (P = 0.0338) survival. Loss of stabilin-2 may enhance survival in HCC by preventing endothelial-tumour cell adhesive interactions and microvascular invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, endothelial transdifferentiation is a major pathogenic event in HCC development indicating a switch from vessel co-option/intussusceptive angiogenesis to sprouting angiogenesis.

Bhawan J, Silva C, Taungjaruwinai WM
Inconsistent immunohistochemical expression of lymphatic and blood endothelial cell markers in cutaneous lymphangiomas.
J Cutan Pathol. 2013; 40(9):801-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We sought to describe expression of the immunohistochemical markers, CD31, D2-40 and LYVE-1 (lymphatic vessel hyaluronan receptor-1), that may assist in differentiating cutaneous lymphangioma and cutaneous hemangioma.
METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining of lymphangioma and hemangioma specimens was completed with CD31, D2-40 and LYVE-1 antibodies.
RESULTS: Thirty-three examples of lymphangioma and 13 examples of hemangioma were evaluated. CD31 was positive in 91% of lymphangioma and 100% of hemangioma (sensitivity 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.75-0.98; specificity 0, 95% confidence interval 0-0.28). D2-40 was positive in 54% of lymphangioma and 23% in hemangioma (sensitivity 0.50 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.68; specificity 0.50 95% confidence interval 0.28-0.72). LYVE-1 was positive in 6% in lymphangioma and 15% hemangioma (sensitivity 0.06 95% confidence interval 0.01-0.22, specificity 0.85 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.97).
CONCLUSIONS: Due to the similar embryonic origins, it is unlikely that a single marker may accurately differentiate the lymphangioma from hemangioma. A combination of immunohistochemical stains such CD31, D2-40 and LYVE-1 testing may potentially increase the diagnostic accuracy in differentiating lymphangioma from hemangioma. However, our findings suggest that there is no advantage in performing immunohistochemical staining to differentiate lymphangioma from hemangioma.

Majumder M, Xin X, Lala PK
A practical and sensitive method of quantitating lymphangiogenesis in vivo.
Lab Invest. 2013; 93(7):779-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
To address the inadequacy of current assays, we developed a directed in vivo lymphangiogenesis assay (DIVLA) by modifying an established directed in vivo angiogenesis assay. Silicon tubes (angioreactors) were implanted in the dorsal flanks of nude mice. Tubes contained either growth factor-reduced basement membrane extract (BME)-alone (negative control) or BME-containing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D (positive control for lymphangiogenesis) or FGF-2/VEGF-A (positive control for angiogenesis) or a high VEGF-D-expressing breast cancer cell line MDA-MD-468LN (468-LN), or VEGF-D-silenced 468LN. Lymphangiogenesis was detected superficially with Evans Blue dye tracing and measured in the cellular contents of angioreactors by multiple approaches: lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (Lyve1) protein (immunofluorescence) and mRNA (qPCR) expression and a visual scoring of lymphatic vs blood capillaries with dual Lyve1 (or PROX-11 or Podoplanin)/Cd31 immunostaining in cryosections. Lymphangiogenesis was absent with BME, high with VEGF-D or VEGF-D-producing 468LN cells and low with VEGF-D-silenced 468LN. Angiogenesis was absent with BME, high with FGF-2/VEGF-A, moderate with 468LN or VEGF-D and low with VEGF-D-silenced 468LN. The method was reproduced in a syngeneic murine C3L5 tumor model in C3H/HeJ mice with dual Lyve1/Cd31 immunostaining. Thus, DIVLA presents a practical and sensitive assay of lymphangiogenesis, validated with multiple approaches and markers. It is highly suited to identifying pro- and anti-lymphangiogenic agents, as well as shared or distinct mechanisms regulating lymphangiogenesis vs angiogenesis, and is widely applicable to research in vascular/tumor biology.

Frewer NC, Ye L, Sun PH, et al.
Potential implication of IL-24 in lymphangiogenesis of human breast cancer.
Int J Mol Med. 2013; 31(5):1097-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymphangiogenesis is involved in the dissemination of malignant cells from solid tumours to regional lymph nodes and possibly to various distant sites. Lymphangiogenesis is regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF-D. Interleukin (IL)-24 is known as a cytokine with potent antitumour and tumour-suppressive activity which functions through its receptor (IL-22R). Expression of IL-24 has been shown to be reduced in breast cancer, and the reduced expression is associated with lymphatic metastases and a poor prognosis. However, the involvement of IL-24 in lymphangiogenesis during lymphatic metastasis remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is an association between IL-24, IL-22R and lymphangiogenic factors and markers in breast cancer. Analysis of IL-24, IL-22R and lymphangiogenic factors in malignant breast tissue samples (n=127) revealed a correlation between increased expression of lymphangiogenic markers (podoplanin, Prox-1 and LYVE-1) and reduced levels of IL-24 and IL-22R. Samples stained with a high degree of positivity for lymphangiogenic factors and markers whereas staining for IL-24 was weak. In vitro assays showed that the average perimeter length of microtubules formed by endothelial cells treated with IL-24 was significantly reduced compared to the control. The growth of endothelial cells was significantly reduced when exposed to a high concentration of IL-24 (250 ng/ml). Treatment of HECV cells with IL-24 resulted in significantly reduced expression of VEGF-C (P<0.05) and VEGF-D (P<0.001). In conclusion, reduced expression of IL-24 and IL-22R in breast cancer is correlated with increased expression of specific lymphangiogenic markers. IL-24 suppressed in vitro growth and microtubule formation of endothelial cells. IL-24 may downregulate the expression of lymphangiogenic markers and factors although further research is required. This suggests that IL-24 plays a profound role in suppressing tumour lymphangiogenesis, thereby, reducing the likelihood of cancer metastasis via the lymphatic route.

Ozmen F
Response letter regarding the interpretation of gene expression data.
World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19(10):1669-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This is a response letter to Verna E's comments regarding our previous manuscript published last year in the World Journal of Gastroenterology entitled "Relationship between LYVE-1, VEGFR-3 and CD44 gene expressions and lymphatic metastasis in gastric cancer", which evaluated the relationship between these expression levels and clinicopathological parameters (Ozmen F et al, World J Gastroenterology 2011; 17: 3220-3228). The mean values for lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1, CD44 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 expression (represented as 2(-ΔΔCt)) were 1.13, 1.24 and 1.17, respectively, suggesting an increase in gene expression in tumor tissue compared to normal tissue. Despite the increase in gene expression in the cancer tissues (2(-ΔΔCt) > 1), only some of the results reached statistical significance, which was thoroughly discussed in our paper. In the present letter, we report that his comments are flawed and result in confusion. Therefore, we herein provide more explanation regarding gene expression in gastric cancer. We hope that this letter will address Verna E's misunderstandings.

Liu H, Han D, Liu Y, et al.
Harmine hydrochloride inhibits Akt phosphorylation and depletes the pool of cancer stem-like cells of glioblastoma.
J Neurooncol. 2013; 112(1):39-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Harmine hydrochloride (Har-hc), a derivative from Harmine which is a natural extractive from plants, has been considered for treatment of kinds of cancers and cerebral diseases. In this study, we found that Har-hc clearly decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis and inhibited Akt phosphorylation in glioblastoma cell lines. Moreover, Har-hc had the ability to inhibit self-renewal and promote differentiation of glioblastoma stem like cells (GSLCs) accompanied by inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Especially, we demonstrated that Har-hc inhibited neurosphere formation of human primary GSLCs. In vivo test also confirmed Har-hc decreased the tumorigenicity of GSLCs. Thus we conclude that Har-hc has potent anti-cancer effects in glioblastoma cells, which is at least partially via inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Administration of Har-hc may act as a new approach to glioblastoma treatment.

Perez R, Schally AV, Vidaurre I, et al.
Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone suppress in vivo tumor growth and gene expression in triple negative breast cancers.
Oncotarget. 2012; 3(9):988-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study evaluated the effects of a modern antagonistic analog of GHRH on tumor growth and on expression of inflammatory cytokine genes in two models of human triple negative breast cancers (TNBC). The TNBC subtype is refractory to the treatment options available for other hormone-independent breast cancers. Inflammatory cytokines play a major role in the cellular signaling associated with breast cancer pathogenesis and enhance epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT), drug resistance, and metastatic potential. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide which regulates the synthesis and release of growth hormone by the pituitary and is an autocrine/paracrine growth factor for multiple human cancers. The effects of analogs of GHRH on tumoral cytokine expression have not been previously investigated. Animals bearing xenografts of the human TNBC cell lines, HCC1806 and MX-1, were treated with MIA-602, an antagonistic analog of GHRH. Treatment with MIA-602 significantly reduced tumor growth. We quantified transcript levels of the genes for several inflammatory cytokines. Expression of INFγ, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNFα, was significantly reduced by treatment with MIA-602. We conclude that treatment of TNBC with GHRH antagonists reduces tumor growth through an action mediated by tumoral GHRH receptors and produces a suppression of inflammatory cytokine signaling. Silencing of GHRH receptors in vitro with siRNA inhibited the expression of GHRH-R genes and inflammatory cytokine genes in HCC1806 and MX-1 cells. Further studies on GHRH antagonists may facilitate the development of new strategies for the treatment of resistant cancers.

Verna E
More attention should be paid on the interpretation of gene expression data.
World J Gastroenterol. 2012; 18(24):3181-2 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Molecular profiling of gene expression is important for determining signatures in cancer progression and diagnosis. For this purpose, polymerase chain reaction-based techniques are preferentially used as a feasible and sensitive approach. Nevertheless, when relative quantitative analyses are performed on gene expression, the interpretation of mathematical equations must be carefully done. This letter to the editor is focused on recently published gene expression data in World Journal of Gastroenterology by Ozmen et al demonstrating increased levels of LYVE-1, VEGFR-3 and CD44 genes in gastric cancer samples compared to non-neoplastic gastric tissues. However, there are major concerns about misinterpretation of the gene expression data obtained with the 2(-ΔΔCt) relative quantitative method. In the study, 2(-ΔΔCt) values calculated for many samples were smaller than 1 (2(-ΔΔCt) < 1) which indicate decreased levels of LYVE-1, VEGFR-3 and CD44 gene expression in the gastric cancer tissues. This unfortunate mistake is an important example showing how a simple error in the interpretation of relative-quantitative gene expression data may result in misleading scientific conclusions. In this letter, a brief explanation of the 2(-ΔΔCt) method is given. In addition, the importance of technical quality and interpretation in gene expression studies is discussed.

Lesma E, Eloisa C, Isaia E, et al.
Development of a lymphangioleiomyomatosis model by endonasal administration of human TSC2-/- smooth muscle cells in mice.
Am J Pathol. 2012; 181(3):947-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is an interstitial lung disease characterized by invasion and proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle (ASM) cells in lung parenchyma and axial lymphatics. LAM cells bear mutations in tuberous sclerosis (TSC) genes. TSC2(-/-) ASM cells, derived from a human renal angiomyolipoma, require epidermal growth factor (EGF) for proliferation. Blockade of EGF receptors (EGFR) causes cell death. TSC2(-/-) ASM cells, previously labeled with PKH26-GL dye, were endonasally administered to 5-week-old immunodeficient female nude mice, and 4 or 26 weeks later anti-EGFR antibody or rapamycin was administered twice a week for 4 consecutive weeks. TSC2(-/-) ASM cells infiltrated lymph nodes and alveolar lung walls, causing progressive destruction of parenchyma. Parenchymal destruction was efficiently reversed by anti-EGFR treatment and partially by rapamycin treatment. Following TSC2(-/-) ASM cell administration, lymphangiogenesis increased in lungs as indicated by more diffuse LYVE1 expression and high murine VEGF levels. Anti-EGFR antibody and rapamycin blocked the increase in lymphatic vessels. This study shows that TSC2(-/-) ASM cells can migrate and invade lungs and lymph nodes, and anti-EGFR antibody is more effective than rapamycin in promoting lung repair and reducing lymphangiogenesis. The development of a model to study metastasis by TSC cells will also help to explain how they invade different tissues and metastasize to the lung.

Newman B, Lose F, Kedda MA, et al.
Possible genetic predisposition to lymphedema after breast cancer.
Lymphat Res Biol. 2012; 10(1):2-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Known risk factors for secondary lymphedema only partially explain who develops lymphedema following cancer, suggesting that inherited genetic susceptibility may influence risk. Moreover, identification of molecular signatures could facilitate lymphedema risk prediction prior to surgery or lead to effective drug therapies for prevention or treatment. Recent advances in the molecular biology underlying development of the lymphatic system and related congenital disorders implicate a number of potential candidate genes to explore in relation to secondary lymphedema.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We undertook a nested case-control study, with participants who had developed lymphedema after surgical intervention within the first 18 months of their breast cancer diagnosis serving as cases (n=22) and those without lymphedema serving as controls (n=98), identified from a prospective, population-based, cohort study in Queensland, Australia. TagSNPs that covered all known genetic variation in the genes SOX18, VEGFC, VEGFD, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, RORC, FOXC2, LYVE1, ADM, and PROX1 were selected for genotyping. Multiple SNPs within three receptor genes, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, and RORC, were associated with lymphedema defined by statistical significance (p<0.05) or extreme risk estimates (OR <0.5 or >2.0).
CONCLUSIONS: These provocative, albeit preliminary, findings regarding possible genetic predisposition to secondary lymphedema following breast cancer treatment warrant further attention for potential replication using larger datasets.

Ozmen F, Ozmen MM, Ozdemir E, et al.
Relationship between LYVE-1, VEGFR-3 and CD44 gene expressions and lymphatic metastasis in gastric cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2011; 17(27):3220-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the expression levels of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) and CD44 genes and the relationship between their levels and clinicopathological parameters in gastric cancer.
METHODS: Tissue samples were obtained from 33 patients (8 females) with gastric cancer. mRNA levels of LYVE-1, VEGFR-3 and CD44 in normal and tumor tissues were quantitatively measured using real time polymerase chain reaction. The results were correlated with lymph node metastasis, histological type and differentiation of the tumor, T-stage, and presence of vascular, perineural and lymphatic invasions. The distribution of molecules in the tissue was evaluated using immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: LYVE-1, CD44 and VEGFR-3 gene expression levels were significantly higher in gastric cancer than in normal tissue. While there was no correlation between gene expressions and clinicopathologic features such as histologic type, differentiation and stage, gene expression levels were found to be increased in conjunction with positive lymph node/total lymph node ratio and the presence of perineural invasion. A significant correlation was also found between LYVE-1 and CD44 over-expressions and perineural invasion and lymph node positivity in gastric cancers. When the distribution of LYVE-1 antibody-stained lymphatic vessels in tissue was evaluated, lymphatic vessels were located intra-tumorally in 13% and peri-tumorally in 27% of the patients. Moreover, lymph node metastases were also positive in all patients with LYVE-1-staining.
CONCLUSION: LYVE-1, VEGFR-3 and CD44 all play an important role in lymphangiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. LYVE-1 is a perfectly reliable lymphatic vessel marker and useful for immunohistochemistry.

Chaudary N, Milosevic M, Hill RP
Suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) and vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) inhibits hypoxia-induced lymph node metastases in cervix cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2011; 123(2):393-400 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: We have examined the role of VEGFC/VEGFR3 signaling in lymph node metastasis and growth of orthotopic human ME180 and SiHa cervical xenograft models following exposure to hypoxia. Our previous studies showed that growth of these tumors under conditions of cyclic hypoxia increased nodal metastasis.
METHODS: Mice bearing orthotopic tumors were subjected to cyclic hypoxia at 7% O(2)/air 10min cycles 4h/day/2weeks. Knockdown of vegfc was carried out by shRNA and inhibition of VEGFR3 was conducted by blocking antibodies for the mouse and human proteins. VEGFR3 protein expression was detected by Western blotting. Immunohistochemical staining was used to assess CA9, CD31, LYVE1 and Ki67 labeling. Gene expression was determined by real time PCR.
RESULTS: Knock down of vegfc or inhibition of VEGFR3 with blocking antibody reduced metastases under normoxic and cyclic hypoxia conditions. A reduction in lymphatics and blood vessel formation and a decrease in tumor cell proliferation was observed following vegfc knockdown and VEGFR3 inhibition. VEGFR3 expression was upregulated at the mRNA and protein levels following hypoxia.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results indicate that anti-VEGFR3 antibody inhibits vegfc-induced tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis and that vegfc knockdown in the tumor cells causes a similar inhibitory effect on lymph node metastasis. These results suggest that the effects of vegfc/VEGFR3 on the progression of tumor cells to form lymph node metastases occur primarily under an hypoxic tumor microenvironment.

Keichel S, Barcena de Arellano ML, Reichelt U, et al.
Lymphangiogenesis in deep infiltrating endometriosis.
Hum Reprod. 2011; 26(10):2713-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In patients diagnosed with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE), foci of endometriosis are detected in mesorectal lymph nodes (LNs) after segmental bowel resection and in pelvic sentinel LNs. Lymph vessels (LVs) seem to be the possible routes for the dissemination of endometriotic cells from DIE-lesions to LN. Therefore, we conducted a study to investigate the occurrence and density of LV and lymphangiogenic growth factors in DIE.
METHODS: Included in this study were 38 premenopausal women who underwent surgery due to symptomatic rectovaginal DIE. In order to identify LV, immunohistochemical analysis with anti-Podoplanin (D2-40), LYVE-1 and Prox-1 was performed. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF-C and VEGF-D in endometriotic tissue was investigated.
RESULTS: LV density (LVD) of DIE lesions was significantly higher compared with healthy corresponding tissue. All LV makers could be detected, and the density of LYVE-1- or Prox-1-positive LV was significantly higher than that of D2-40-positive LV. Endometriotic epithelial cells and stromal cells showed a moderate to strong VEGF-C and VEDF-D expression.
CONCLUSIONS: DIE lesions have lymphangiogenic properties, probably leading to endometriosis-like cells in lymphatic vessels and LNs featuring a loco-regional disease.

Naidu R, Har YC, Taib NA
Analysis of peptidyl-propyl-cis/trans isomerase 1 (PIN1) gene -842(G > C) and -667(T > C) polymorphic variants in relation to breast cancer risk and clinico-pathological parameters.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2011; 71(6):500-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the peptidyl-propyl-cis/trans isomerase 1 (PIN1) -842(G > C) and -667(T > C) polymorphic variants and breast cancer risk among Malaysian ethnic groups namely the Malays, Chinese and Indians, as well as clinico-pathological characteristics of the patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to genotype 387 breast cancer patients and 252 normal and healthy women who had no history of any malignancy.
RESULTS: The distribution of -842(G > C) and -667(T > C) genotypes and alleles frequencies between breast cancer cases and normal individuals showed lack of statistical significance among the Malays (p > 0.05), Chinese (p > 0.05) and Indians (p > 0.05), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the Malay, Chinese and Indian women who were -842CC homozygotes (p = 0.198, 0.089, 0.620), -842GC heterozygotes (p = 0.492, 0.176, 0.377) and -842C allele carriers (P = 0.226, 0.059, 0.669), respectively, were not associated with breast cancer risk. Furthermore Malay, Chinese and Indian women who were heterozygous (p = 0.777, 0.319, 0.710) and homozygous (p = 0.864, 0.986, 0.954) for -667C allele or carriers of -667C allele (p = 0.977, 0.915, 0.880), respectively, were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. None of the -842C and -667C allele genotypes were significantly associated with the clinico-pathological characteristics.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the polymorphic variants of -842(G > C) and -667(T > C) genes may not appear to have an influence on breast cancer risk among Malaysian Malay, Chinese and Indian women.

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