ETV1

Gene Summary

Gene:ETV1; ETS variant 1
Aliases: ER81
Location:7p21.2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the ETS (E twenty-six) family of transcription factors. The ETS proteins regulate many target genes that modulate biological processes like cell growth, angiogenesis, migration, proliferation and differentiation. All ETS proteins contain an ETS DNA-binding domain that binds to DNA sequences containing the consensus 5'-CGGA[AT]-3'. The protein encoded by this gene contains a conserved short acidic transactivation domain (TAD) in the N-terminal region, in addition to the ETS DNA-binding domain in the C-terminal region. This gene is involved in chromosomal translocations, which result in multiple fusion proteins including EWS-ETV1 in Ewing sarcoma and at least 10 ETV1 partners (see PMID: 19657377, Table 1) in prostate cancer. In addition to chromosomal rearrangement, this gene is overexpressed in prostate cancer, melanoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ETS translocation variant 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Prostate CancerETV1 translocations in Prostate Cancer
Gene fusions involving the erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors ERG, ETV1, ETV4, ETV5, and FLI1 are a common feature of prostate carcinomas. Most frequently, the androgen-activated gene TMPRSS2 is fused to the ERG gene, but less frequently involving ETV1, ETV4 ,ETV5 and over 12 fusion partners identified so far.
View Publications87
Ewing's Sarcoma t(7;22)(p22;q12) EWS-ETV1 Translocation in Ewing's Sarcoma View Publications24
Gastrointestinal Stromal TumorsETV1 overexpression in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours View Publications19
MelanomaETV1 overexpression in Melanoma View Publications4

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ETV1 (cancer-related)

Gu ML, Wang YM, Zhou XX, et al.
An inhibitor of the acetyltransferases CBP/p300 exerts antineoplastic effects on gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2763-2770 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm featured by activated mutations of KIT and PDGFRA. Although overall survival rates have greatly improved by the development of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, most patients ultimately acquire resistance due to secondary mutations of KIT or PDGFRA. Inhibition of the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) CREB‑binding protein (CBP) and p300 results in antineoplastic effects in various cancers. To determine whether CBP/p300 can serve as an antineoplastic target for GISTs, specific short interfering RNA sequences and the selective HAT inhibitor C646 were administered to GIST882 cells. Cell viability, apoptosis and the cell cycle were analysed using the Cell Counting Kit-8, a caspase-3/7 activity assay or Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) staining and PI staining. Gene and protein expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Transcriptional blockage of CBP, rather than p300, resulted in suppression of cell proliferation. Interestingly, both CBP and p300 depletion enhanced caspase-3/7 activity. A lack of CBP and p300 caused ETS translocation variant 1 (ETV1) downregulation and KIT inhibition in GIST cells. Nevertheless, the absence of CBP, not p300, leads to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 inactivation and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation, suggesting a more crucial role for CBP than p300 in cell proliferation and survival. Furthermore, proliferation of GIST cells was reduced by administration of C646, a selective HAT inhibitor for CBP/p300. Apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest were detected after exposure to C646, indicating that its antitumor activities were supported by its antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects. Additionally, C646 treatment attenuated ETV1 protein expression and inactivated KIT-dependent pathways. Taken together, the present study suggests that CBP/p300 may serve as novel antineoplastic targets and that use of the selective HAT inhibitor C646 is a promising antitumor strategy for GISTs.

Kim TD, Jin F, Shin S, et al.
Histone demethylase JMJD2A drives prostate tumorigenesis through transcription factor ETV1.
J Clin Invest. 2016; 126(2):706-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone demethylase upregulation has been observed in human cancers, yet it is unknown whether this is a bystander event or a driver of tumorigenesis. We found that overexpression of lysine-specific demethylase 4A (KDM4A, also known as JMJD2A) was positively correlated with Gleason score and metastasis in human prostate tumors. Overexpression of JMJD2A resulted in the development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in mice, demonstrating that JMJD2A can initiate prostate cancer development. Moreover, combined overexpression of JMJD2A and the ETS transcription factor ETV1, a JMJD2A-binding protein, resulted in prostate carcinoma formation in mice haplodeficient for the phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) tumor-suppressor gene. Additionally, JMJD2A cooperated with ETV1 to increase expression of yes associated protein 1 (YAP1), a Hippo pathway component that itself was associated with prostate tumor aggressiveness. ETV1 facilitated the recruitment of JMJD2A to the YAP1 promoter, leading to changes in histone lysine methylation in a human prostate cancer cell line. Further, YAP1 expression largely rescued the growth inhibitory effects of JMJD2A depletion in prostate cancer cells, indicating that YAP1 is a downstream effector of JMJD2A. Taken together, these data reveal a JMJD2A/ETV1/YAP1 axis that promotes prostate cancer initiation and that may be a suitable target for therapeutic inhibition.

Kumar-Sinha C, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Chinnaiyan AM
Landscape of gene fusions in epithelial cancers: seq and ye shall find.
Genome Med. 2015; 7:129 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Enabled by high-throughput sequencing approaches, epithelial cancers across a range of tissue types are seen to harbor gene fusions as integral to their landscape of somatic aberrations. Although many gene fusions are found at high frequency in several rare solid cancers, apart from fusions involving the ETS family of transcription factors which have been seen in approximately 50% of prostate cancers, several other common solid cancers have been shown to harbor recurrent gene fusions at low frequencies. On the other hand, many gene fusions involving oncogenes, such as those encoding ALK, RAF or FGFR kinase families, have been detected across multiple different epithelial carcinomas. Tumor-specific gene fusions can serve as diagnostic biomarkers or help define molecular subtypes of tumors; for example, gene fusions involving oncogenes such as ERG, ETV1, TFE3, NUT, POU5F1, NFIB, PLAG1, and PAX8 are diagnostically useful. Tumors with fusions involving therapeutically targetable genes such as ALK, RET, BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1-4, and NOTCH1-3 have immediate implications for precision medicine across tissue types. Thus, ongoing cancer genomic and transcriptomic analyses for clinical sequencing need to delineate the landscape of gene fusions. Prioritization of potential oncogenic "drivers" from "passenger" fusions, and functional characterization of potentially actionable gene fusions across diverse tissue types, will help translate these findings into clinical applications. Here, we review recent advances in gene fusion discovery and the prospects for medicine.

Angulo JC, Andrés G, Ashour N, et al.
Development of Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer can be Predicted by a DNA Hypermethylation Profile.
J Urol. 2016; 195(3):619-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Detection of DNA hypermethylation has emerged as a novel molecular biomarker for prostate cancer diagnosis and evaluation of prognosis. We sought to define whether a hypermethylation profile of patients with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation would predict castrate resistant prostate cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genome-wide methylation analysis was performed using a methylation cancer panel in 10 normal prostates and 45 tumor samples from patients placed on androgen deprivation who were followed until castrate resistant disease developed. Castrate resistant disease was defined according to EAU (European Association of Urology) guideline criteria. Two pathologists reviewed the Gleason score, Ki-67 index and neuroendocrine differentiation. Hierarchical clustering analysis was performed and relationships with outcome were investigated by Cox regression and log rank analysis.
RESULTS: We found 61 genes that were significantly hypermethylated in greater than 20% of tumors analyzed. Three clusters of patients were characterized by a DNA methylation profile, including 1 at risk for earlier castrate resistant disease (log rank p = 0.019) and specific mortality (log rank p = 0.002). Hypermethylation of ETV1 (HR 3.75) and ZNF215 (HR 2.89) predicted disease progression despite androgen deprivation. Hypermethylation of IRAK3 (HR 13.72), ZNF215 (HR 4.81) and SEPT9 (HR 7.64) were independent markers of prognosis. Prostate specific antigen greater than 25 ng/ml, Gleason pattern 5, Ki-67 index greater than 12% and metastasis at diagnosis also predicted a negative response to androgen deprivation. Study limitations included the retrospective design and limited number of cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Epigenetic silencing of the mentioned genes could be novel molecular markers for the prognosis of advanced prostate cancer. It might predict castrate resistance during hormone deprivation and, thus, disease specific mortality. Gene hypermethylation is associated with disease progression in patients who receive hormone therapy. It could serve as a marker of the treatment response.


The Molecular Taxonomy of Primary Prostate Cancer.
Cell. 2015; 163(4):1011-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is substantial heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, evident in the spectrum of molecular abnormalities and its variable clinical course. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we present a comprehensive molecular analysis of 333 primary prostate carcinomas. Our results revealed a molecular taxonomy in which 74% of these tumors fell into one of seven subtypes defined by specific gene fusions (ERG, ETV1/4, and FLI1) or mutations (SPOP, FOXA1, and IDH1). Epigenetic profiles showed substantial heterogeneity, including an IDH1 mutant subset with a methylator phenotype. Androgen receptor (AR) activity varied widely and in a subtype-specific manner, with SPOP and FOXA1 mutant tumors having the highest levels of AR-induced transcripts. 25% of the prostate cancers had a presumed actionable lesion in the PI3K or MAPK signaling pathways, and DNA repair genes were inactivated in 19%. Our analysis reveals molecular heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, as well as potentially actionable molecular defects.

Padul V, Epari S, Moiyadi A, et al.
ETV/Pea3 family transcription factor-encoding genes are overexpressed in CIC-mutant oligodendrogliomas.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(12):725-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oligodendrogliomas with combined loss of chromosome arms 1p and 19q are known to be particularly sensitive to chemotherapy, and the CIC gene located on 19q is known to be mutated in over 50% of the 1p/19q codeleted oligodendrogliomas. However, the role of CIC in the oligodendroglioma pathogenesis is not known. Exome sequencing of 11 oligodendroglial tumors identified 9 tumors with combined loss of 1p and 19q. Somatic mutations were found in the CIC and FUBP1 genes. Recurrent somatic mutations were also identified in the Notch signaling pathway genes NOTCH1 and MAML3, the chromatin modifying gene ARID1A and in KRAS. Comparison of the transcriptome profiles of CIC-mutant and CIC-wild type oligodendrogliomas from the study cohort as well as 65 1p/19q codeleted oligodendrogliomas from the TCGA cohort identified genes encoding the ETV transcription factor family to be significantly upregulated in the CIC-mutant tumors. Upregulation of a number of negative regulators of the receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway like Sprouty and SPRED family members in the CIC-mutant oligodendrogliomas is likely due to the constitutive activation of the pathway resulting from inactive CIC protein. Higher expression of the oncogenic ETV transcription factors in the CIC-mutant oligodendrogliomas may make these tumors more aggressive than the CIC-wild type tumors.

Jang BG, Lee HE, Kim WH
ETV1 mRNA is specifically expressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 467(4):393-403 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) develop from interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) mainly by activating mutations in the KIT or PDGFRA genes. Immunohistochemical analysis for KIT, DOG1, and PKC-θ is used for the diagnosis of GIST. Recently, ETV1 has been shown to be a lineage survival factor for ICCs and required for tumorigenesis of GIST. We investigated the diagnostic value of ETV1expression in GIST. On fresh-frozen tissue samples, RT-PCR analysis showed that ETV1 as well as KIT, DOG1, and PKC-θ are highly expressed in GISTs. On tissue microarrays containing 407 GISTs and 120 non-GIST mesenchymal tumors of GI tract, we performed RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) for ETV1 together with immunohistochemical analysis for KIT, DOG1, PKC-θ, CD133, and CD44. Overall, 387 (95 %) of GISTs were positive for ETV1, while KIT and DOG1 were positive in 381 (94 %) and 392 (96 %) cases, respectively, showing nearly identical overall sensitivity of ETV1, KIT, and DOG1 for GISTs. In addition, ETV1 expression was positively correlated with that of KIT. Notably, ETV1 was positive in 15 of 26 (58 %) KIT-negative GISTs and even positive in 2 cases of GIST negative for KIT and DOG1, whereas only 6 (5 %) non-GIST mesenchymal GI tumors expressed ETV1. We conclude that ETV1 is specifically expressed in the majority of GISTs, even in some KIT-negative cases, suggesting that ETV1 may be useful as ancillary marker in diagnostically difficult select cases of GIST.

Kherrouche Z, Monte D, Werkmeister E, et al.
PEA3 transcription factors are downstream effectors of Met signaling involved in migration and invasiveness of Met-addicted tumor cells.
Mol Oncol. 2015; 9(9):1852-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Various solid tumors including lung or gastric carcinomas display aberrant activation of the Met receptor which correlates with aggressive phenotypes and poor prognosis. Although downstream signaling of Met is well described, its integration at the transcriptional level is poorly understood. We demonstrate here that in cancer cells harboring met gene amplification, inhibition of Met activity with tyrosine kinase inhibitors or specific siRNA drastically decreased expression of ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5, three transcription factors constituting the PEA3 subgroup of the ETS family, while expression of the other members of the family were less or not affected. Similar link between Met activity and PEA3 factors expression was found in lung cancer cells displaying resistance to EGFR targeted therapy involving met gene amplification. Using silencing experiments, we demonstrate that the PEA3 factors are required for efficient migration and invasion mediated by Met, while other biological responses such as proliferation or unanchored growth remain unaffected. PEA3 overexpression or silencing revealed that they participated in the regulation of the MMP2 target gene involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. Our results demonstrated that PEA3-subgroup transcription factors are key players of the Met signaling integration involved in regulation of migration and invasiveness.

Cohen R, Greenberg E, Nemlich Y, et al.
miR-17 regulates melanoma cell motility by inhibiting the translation of ETV1.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(22):19006-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Melanoma is an aggressive malignancy with a high metastatic potential. microRNA-17 (miR-17) is a member of the oncogenic miR-17/92 cluster. Here we study the effect of miR-17 on melanoma cell motility. Over expression of the mature or pri-microRNA form of miR-17 in WM-266-4 and 624mel melanoma lines enhances cell motility, evident in both wound healing and transwell migration assays. TargetScan algorithm predicts the PEA3-subfamily member ETV1 as a direct target of miR-17. Indeed, a 3-4-fold decrease of ETV1 protein levels are observed following miR-17 transfection into the various melanoma lines, with no significant change in ETV1 mRNA expression. Dual luciferase experiments demonstrate direct binding of miR-17 to the 3'-untranslated region of ETV1, confirmed by abolishing point mutations in the putative binding site. These combined results suggest regulation of ETV1 by miR-17 by a direct translational repression. Further, in both melanoma cell lines ETV1 knockdown by selective siRNA successfully pheno-copies the facilitated cell migration, while overexpression of ETV1 inhibits cell motility and migration. Altered ETV1 expression does not affect melanoma net-proliferation. In conclusion, we show a new role for miR-17 in melanoma, facilitating cell motility, by targeting the translation of ETV1 protein, which may support the development of metastasis.

Gleize V, Alentorn A, Connen de Kérillis L, et al.
CIC inactivating mutations identify aggressive subset of 1p19q codeleted gliomas.
Ann Neurol. 2015; 78(3):355-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: CIC gene is frequently mutated in oligodendroglial tumors with 1p19q codeletion. However, clinical and biological impact remain poorly understood.
METHODS: We sequenced the CIC gene on 127 oligodendroglial tumors (109 with the 1p19q codeletion) and analyzed patients' outcome. We compared magnetic resonance imaging, transcriptomic profile, and CIC protein expression of CIC wild-type (WT) and mutant gliomas. We compared the level of expression of CIC target genes on Hs683-IDH1(R132H) cells transfected with lentivirus encoding mutant and WT CIC.
RESULTS: We found 63 mutations affecting 60 of 127 patients, virtually all 1p19q codeleted and IDH mutated (59 of 60). In the 1p19q codeleted gliomas, CIC mutations were associated with a poorer outcome by uni- (p = 0.001) and multivariate analysis (p < 0.016). CIC mutation prognostic impact was validated on the TCGA cohort. CIC mutant grade II codeleted gliomas spontaneously grew faster than WTs. Transcriptomic analysis revealed an enrichment of proliferative pathways and oligodendrocyte precursor cell gene expression profile in CIC mutant gliomas, with upregulation of normally CIC repressed genes ETV1, ETV4, ETV5, and CCND1. Various missense mutations resulted in CIC protein expression loss. Moreover, a truncating CIC mutation resulted in a defect of nuclear targeting of CIC protein to the nucleus in a human glioma cell line expressing IDH1(R132H) and overexpression of CCND1 and other new target genes of CIC, such as DUSP4 and SPRED1.
INTERPRETATION: CIC mutations result in protein inactivation with upregulation of CIC target genes, activation of proliferative pathways, inhibition of differentiation, and poorer outcome in patients with a 1p19q codeleted glioma.

Cooper CD, Newman JA, Aitkenhead H, et al.
Structures of the Ets Protein DNA-binding Domains of Transcription Factors Etv1, Etv4, Etv5, and Fev: DETERMINANTS OF DNA BINDING AND REDOX REGULATION BY DISULFIDE BOND FORMATION.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(22):13692-709 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ets transcription factors, which share the conserved Ets DNA-binding domain, number nearly 30 members in humans and are particularly involved in developmental processes. Their deregulation following changes in expression, transcriptional activity, or by chromosomal translocation plays a critical role in carcinogenesis. Ets DNA binding, selectivity, and regulation have been extensively studied; however, questions still arise regarding binding specificity outside the core GGA recognition sequence and the mode of action of Ets post-translational modifications. Here, we report the crystal structures of Etv1, Etv4, Etv5, and Fev, alone and in complex with DNA. We identify previously unrecognized features of the protein-DNA interface. Interactions with the DNA backbone account for most of the binding affinity. We describe a highly coordinated network of water molecules acting in base selection upstream of the GGAA core and the structural features that may account for discrimination against methylated cytidine residues. Unexpectedly, all proteins crystallized as disulfide-linked dimers, exhibiting a novel interface (distant to the DNA recognition helix). Homodimers of Etv1, Etv4, and Etv5 could be reduced to monomers, leading to a 40-200-fold increase in DNA binding affinity. Hence, we present the first indication of a redox-dependent regulatory mechanism that may control the activity of this subset of oncogenic Ets transcription factors.

Hayashi Y, Bardsley MR, Toyomasu Y, et al.
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-α Regulates Proliferation of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Cells With Mutations in KIT by Stabilizing ETV1.
Gastroenterology. 2015; 149(2):420-32.e16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In gastrointestinal muscles, v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT) is predominantly expressed by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRA) polypeptide is expressed by so-called fibroblast-like cells. KIT and PDGFRA have been reported to be coexpressed in ICC precursors and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), which originate from the ICC lineage. PDGFRA signaling has been proposed to stimulate growth of GISTs that express mutant KIT, but the effects and mechanisms of selective blockade of PDGFRA are unclear. We investigated whether inhibiting PDGFRA could reduce proliferation of GIST cells with mutant KIT via effects on the KIT-dependent transcription factor ETV1.
METHODS: We studied 53 gastric, small intestinal, rectal, or abdominal GISTs collected immediately after surgery or archived as fixed blocks at the Mayo Clinic and University of California, San Diego. In human GIST cells carrying imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant mutations in KIT, PDGFRA was reduced by RNA interference (knockdown) or inhibited with crenolanib besylate (a selective inhibitor of PDGFRA and PDGFRB). Mouse ICC precursors were retrovirally transduced to overexpress wild-type Kit. Cell proliferation was analyzed by methyltetrazolium, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, and Ki-67 immunofluorescence assays; we also analyzed growth of xenograft tumors in mice. Gastric ICC and ICC precursors, and their PDGFRA(+) subsets, were analyzed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry in wild-type, Kit(+/copGFP), Pdgfra(+/eGFP), and NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Immunoblots were used to quantify protein expression and phosphorylation.
RESULTS: KIT and PDGFRA were coexpressed in 3%-5% of mouse ICC, 35%-44% of ICC precursors, and most human GIST samples and cell lines. PDGFRA knockdown or inhibition with crenolanib efficiently reduced proliferation of imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant KIT(+)ETV1(+)PDGFRA(+) GIST cells (50% maximal inhibitory concentration = 5-32 nM), but not of cells lacking KIT, ETV1, or PDGFRA (50% maximal inhibitory concentration >230 nM). Crenolanib inhibited phosphorylation of PDGFRA and PDGFRB, but not KIT. However, Kit overexpression sensitized mouse ICC precursors to crenolanib. ETV1 knockdown reduced KIT expression and GIST proliferation. Crenolanib down-regulated ETV1 by inhibiting extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent stabilization of ETV1 protein and also reduced expression of KIT and PDGFRA.
CONCLUSIONS: In KIT-mutant GIST, inhibition of PDGFRA disrupts a KIT-ERK-ETV1-KIT signaling loop by inhibiting ERK activation. The PDGFRA inhibitor crenolanib might be used to treat patients with imatinib-resistant, KIT-mutant GIST.

Ateeq B, Kunju LP, Carskadon SL, et al.
Molecular profiling of ETS and non-ETS aberrations in prostate cancer patients from northern India.
Prostate. 2015; 75(10):1051-62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Molecular stratification of prostate cancer (PCa) based on genetic aberrations including ETS or RAF gene-rearrangements, PTEN deletion, and SPINK1 over-expression show clear prognostic and diagnostic utility. Gene rearrangements involving ETS transcription factors are frequent pathogenetic somatic events observed in PCa. Incidence of ETS rearrangements in Caucasian PCa patients has been reported, however, occurrence in Indian population is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the ETS and RAF kinase gene rearrangements, SPINK1 over-expression, and PTEN deletion in this cohort.
METHODS: In this multi-center study, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) PCa specimens (n = 121) were procured from four major medical institutions in India. The tissues were sectioned and molecular profiling was done using immunohistochemistry (IHC), RNA in situ hybridization (RNA-ISH) and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).
RESULTS: ERG over-expression was detected in 48.9% (46/94) PCa specimens by IHC, which was confirmed in a subset of cases by FISH. Among other ETS family members, while ETV1 transcript was detected in one case by RNA-ISH, no alteration in ETV4 was observed. SPINK1 over-expression was observed in 12.5% (12/96) and PTEN deletion in 21.52% (17/79) of the total PCa cases. Interestingly, PTEN deletion was found in 30% of the ERG-positive cases (P = 0.017) but in only one case with SPINK1 over-expression (P = 0.67). BRAF and RAF1 gene rearrangements were detected in ∼1% and ∼4.5% of the PCa cases, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on comprehensive molecular profiling of the major spectrum of the causal aberrations in Indian men with PCa. Our findings suggest that ETS gene rearrangement and SPINK1 over-expression patterns in North Indian population largely resembled those observed in Caucasian population but differed from Japanese and Chinese PCa patients. The molecular profiling data presented in this study could help in clinical decision-making for the pursuit of surgery, diagnosis, and in selection of therapeutic intervention.

Duensing A
Targeting ETV1 in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: tripping the circuit breaker in GIST?
Cancer Discov. 2015; 5(3):231-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activating mutations in the KIT or PDGFRA receptor tyrosine kinase genes are the key oncogenic drivers in the majority of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), but novel results now show that aberrant kinase signaling is potentiated by a positive feedback circuit that involves the ETS transcription factor ETV1. Targeting ETV1 can disrupt this circuit and represents a promising new therapeutic approach for the treatment of GISTs.

Tan C, Scotting P
Expression of Kit and Etv1 in restricted brain regions supports a brain-cell progenitor as an origin for cranial germinomas.
Cancer Genet. 2015; 208(3):55-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mismigrating germ-cell progenitors have historically been accepted as the cell of origin for central nervous system (CNS) germinomas. However, an alternative hypothesis suggests that CNS germinomas arise from a brain-cell progenitor. Germinomas often acquire Kit signaling pathway mutations, and there is evidence for an oncogenic relationship between KIT and the ETV1 transcription factor. KIT appears to be necessary to stabilize ETV1, and ETV1 then activates oncogenesis-associated genes. ETV1 expression is not increased by KIT, so ETV1 already needs to be expressed in order for KIT to have an oncogenic function. Therefore, if brain-cell progenitors are the cell of origin for germinomas, those cells would already need to coexpress ETV1 and KIT. We examined Kit and Etv1 in situ hybridization data from the Allen Brain Atlas, for mouse brain tissue at various stages of development. Both Kit and Etv1 were expressed in the regions where germinomas most commonly arise, and in the medulla oblongata. All human cases of germinomas correlated to the regions where ETV1 and KIT are coexpressed. We therefore postulate that germinomas in the brain share a similar mechanism with other KIT-driven cancers, which supports the hypothesis that germinomas arise from a brain-cell progenitor.

Lunardi A, Varmeh S, Chen M, et al.
Suppression of CHK1 by ETS Family Members Promotes DNA Damage Response Bypass and Tumorigenesis.
Cancer Discov. 2015; 5(5):550-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The ETS family of transcription factors has been repeatedly implicated in tumorigenesis. In prostate cancer, ETS family members, such as ERG, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5, are frequently overexpressed due to chromosomal translocations, but the molecular mechanisms by which they promote prostate tumorigenesis remain largely undefined. Here, we show that ETS family members, such as ERG and ETV1, directly repress the expression of the checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1), a key DNA damage response cell-cycle regulator essential for the maintenance of genome integrity. Critically, we find that ERG expression correlates with CHK1 downregulation in human patients and demonstrate that Chk1 heterozygosity promotes the progression of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia into prostatic invasive carcinoma in Pten(+) (/-) mice. Importantly, CHK1 downregulation sensitizes prostate tumor cells to etoposide but not to docetaxel treatment. Thus, we identify CHK1 as a key functional target of the ETS proto-oncogenic family with important therapeutic implications.
SIGNIFICANCE: Genetic translocation and aberrant expression of ETS family members is a common event in different types of human tumors. Here, we show that through the transcriptional repression of CHK1, ETS factors may favor DNA damage accumulation and consequent genetic instability in proliferating cells. Importantly, our findings provide a rationale for testing DNA replication inhibitor agents in ETS-positive TP53-proficient tumors.

Higgins J, Brogley M, Palanisamy N, et al.
Interaction of the Androgen Receptor, ETV1, and PTEN Pathways in Mouse Prostate Varies with Pathological Stage and Predicts Cancer Progression.
Horm Cancer. 2015; 6(2-3):67-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To examine the impact of common somatic mutations in prostate cancer (PCa) on androgen receptor (AR) signaling, mouse models were designed to perturb sequentially the AR, ETV1, and PTEN pathways. Mice with "humanized" AR (hAR) alleles that modified AR transcriptional strength by varying polyglutamine tract (Q-tract) length were crossed with mice expressing a prostate-specific, AR-responsive ETV1 transgene (ETV1(Tg)). While hAR allele did not grossly affect ETV1-induced neoplasia, ETV1 strongly antagonized global AR regulation and repressed critical androgen-induced differentiation and tumor suppressor genes, such as Nkx3-1 and Hoxb13. When Pten was varied to determine its impact on disease progression, mice lacking one Pten allele (Pten(+/-) ) developed more frequent prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Yet, only those with the ETV1 transgene progressed to invasive adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, progression was more frequent with the short Q-tract (stronger) AR, suggesting that the AR, ETV1, and PTEN pathways cooperate in aggressive disease. On the Pten(+/-) background, ETV1 had markedly less effect on AR target genes. However, a strong inflammatory gene expression signature, notably upregulation of Cxcl16, was induced by ETV1. Comparison of mouse and human patient data stratified by the presence of E26 transformation-specific ETS fusion genes highlighted additional factors, some not previously associated with prostate cancer but for which targeted therapies are in development for other diseases. In sum, concerted use of these mouse models illuminates the complex interplay of AR, ETV1, and PTEN pathways in pre-cancerous neoplasia and early tumorigenesis, disease stages difficult to analyze in man.

Mesquita D, Barros-Silva JD, Santos J, et al.
Specific and redundant activities of ETV1 and ETV4 in prostate cancer aggressiveness revealed by co-overexpression cellular contexts.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(7):5217-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genomic rearrangements involving ETS transcription factors are found in 50-70% of prostate carcinomas. While the large majority of the rearrangements involve ERG, around 10% involve members of the PEA3 subfamily (ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5). Using a panel of prostate cancer cell lines we found co-overexpression of ETV1 and ETV4 in two cell line models of advanced prostate cancer (MDA-PCa-2b and PC3) and questioned whether these PEA3 family members would cooperate in the acquisition of oncogenic properties or show functional redundancy. Using shRNAs we found that ETV1 and ETV4 have partially overlapping functions, with ETV1 being more relevant for cell invasion and ETV4 for anchorage-independent growth. In vitro expression signatures revealed the regulation of both specific and shared candidate targets that may resemble cellular mechanisms in vivo by interaction with the same intermediate partners. By combining the phenotypic impact data and the gene expression profiles of in vitro models with clinico-pathological features and gene expression profiles of ETS-subtyped tumors, we identified a set of eight genes associated with advanced stage and a set of three genes associated with higher Gleason score, supporting an oncogenic role of ETV1 and ETV4 overexpression and revealing gene sets that may be useful as prognostic markers.

Ran L, Sirota I, Cao Z, et al.
Combined inhibition of MAP kinase and KIT signaling synergistically destabilizes ETV1 and suppresses GIST tumor growth.
Cancer Discov. 2015; 5(3):304-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), originating from the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), is characterized by frequent activating mutations of the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase. Despite the clinical success of imatinib, which targets KIT, most patients with advanced GIST develop resistance and eventually die of the disease. The ETS family transcription factor ETV1 is a master regulator of the ICC lineage. Using mouse models of Kit activation and Etv1 ablation, we demonstrate that ETV1 is required for GIST initiation and proliferation in vivo, validating it as a therapeutic target. We further uncover a positive feedback circuit where MAP kinase activation downstream of KIT stabilizes the ETV1 protein, and ETV1 positively regulates KIT expression. Combined targeting of ETV1 stability by imatinib and MEK162 resulted in increased growth suppression in vitro and complete tumor regression in vivo. The combination strategy to target ETV1 may provide an effective therapeutic strategy in GIST clinical management.
SIGNIFICANCE: ETV1 is a lineage-specific oncogenic transcription factor required for the growth and survival of GIST. We describe a novel strategy of targeting ETV1 protein stability by the combination of MEK and KIT inhibitors that synergistically suppress tumor growth. This strategy has the potential to change first-line therapy in GIST clinical management.

Qi M, Liu Z, Shen C, et al.
Overexpression of ETV4 is associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer: involvement of uPA/uPAR and MMPs.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3565-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETS gene fusions involving ERG, ETV1, ETV4, ETV5, and FLI1 define a distinct class of prostate cancer (PCa), and this might have a bearing on diagnosis, prognosis, and rational therapeutic targeting. In the current study, we focused on the clinicopathological significance of ETV4 in Chinese PCa patients and the mechanisms whereby ETV4 overexpression mediates tumor invasion in the prostate. Overall, ETV4 overexpression was identified in 30.4 % (45/148) of PCa cases by immunohistochemistry. Accordingly, ETV4 was rearranged in only 1.6 % (2/128) of PCa patients. Clinically, ETV4 overexpression was significantly correlated with Gleason score (P = 0.045) and pathological tumor stage (P = 0.041). Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that ETV4 is an unfavorable independent prognostic factor (P = 0.040). Functional studies further showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of ETV4 significantly decreases proliferation and invasion of PC-3 cell and partially reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro. Notably, ETV4 knockdown significantly downregulated expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) at messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ETV4 regulates uPA expression through direct binding to its promoter region. Additionally, ETV4 knockdown was also observed to significantly inhibit expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. In conclusion, for the first time, our study suggested that ETV4 is an independent poor prognostic factor in Chinese PCa patients. Silencing of ETV4 suppresses invasion of PCa cells by inhibiting the expression of uPA/uPAR as well as MMPs. Further studies will be needed to determine whether ETV4 could be regarded as a potential target for the management and prevention of PCa.

Rahim S, Minas T, Hong SH, et al.
A small molecule inhibitor of ETV1, YK-4-279, prevents prostate cancer growth and metastasis in a mouse xenograft model.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(12):e114260 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The erythroblastosis virus E26 transforming sequences (ETS) family of transcription factors consists of a highly conserved group of genes that play important roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration and invasion. Chromosomal translocations fusing ETS factors to promoters of androgen responsive genes have been found in prostate cancers, including the most clinically aggressive forms. ERG and ETV1 are the most commonly translocated ETS proteins. Over-expression of these proteins in prostate cancer cells results in a more invasive phenotype. Inhibition of ETS activity by small molecule inhibitors may provide a novel method for the treatment of prostate cancer.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: We recently demonstrated that the small molecule YK-4-279 inhibits biological activity of ETV1 in fusion-positive prostate cancer cells leading to decreased motility and invasion in-vitro. Here, we present data from an in-vivo mouse xenograft model. SCID-beige mice were subcutaneously implanted with fusion-positive LNCaP-luc-M6 and fusion-negative PC-3M-luc-C6 tumors. Animals were treated with YK-4-279, and its effects on primary tumor growth and lung metastasis were evaluated. YK-4-279 treatment resulted in decreased growth of the primary tumor only in LNCaP-luc-M6 cohort. When primary tumors were grown to comparable sizes, YK-4-279 inhibited tumor metastasis to the lungs. Expression of ETV1 target genes MMP7, FKBP10 and GLYATL2 were reduced in YK-4-279 treated animals. ETS fusion-negative PC-3M-luc-C6 xenografts were unresponsive to the compound. Furthermore, YK-4-279 is a chiral molecule that exists as a racemic mixture of R and S enantiomers. We established that (S)-YK-4-279 is the active enantiomer in prostate cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that YK-4-279 is a potent inhibitor of ETV1 and inhibits both the primary tumor growth and metastasis of fusion positive prostate cancer xenografts. Therefore, YK-4-279 or similar compounds may be evaluated as a potential therapeutic tool for treatment of human prostate cancer at different stages.

Labussière M, Di Stefano AL, Gleize V, et al.
TERT promoter mutations in gliomas, genetic associations and clinico-pathological correlations.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(10):2024-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The role of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) in gliomagenesis has been recently further strengthened by the frequent occurrence of TERT promoter mutations (TERTp-mut) in gliomas and evidence that the TERT SNP genetic rs2736100 influences glioma risk. TERTp-mut creates a binding site for Ets/TCF transcription factors, whereas the common rs2853669 polymorphism disrupts another Ets/TCF site on TERT promoter.
METHODS: We sequenced for TERTp-mut in 807 glioma DNAs and in 235 blood DNAs and analysed TERT expression by RT-PCR in 151 samples. TERTp-mut status and TERTp polymorphism rs2853669 were correlated with histology, genomic profile, TERT mRNA expression, clinical outcome and rs2736100 genotype.
RESULTS: TERTp-mut identified in 60.8% of gliomas (491 out of 807) was globally associated with poorer outcome (Hazard ratio (HR)=1.50). We defined, based on TERTp-mut and IDH mutation status, four prognostic groups: (1) TERTp-mut and IDH-mut associated with 1p19q codeletion, overall survival (OS)>17 years; (2) TERTp-wt and IDH-mut, associated with TP53 mutation, OS=97.5 months; (3) TERTp-wt and IDH-wt, with no specific association, OS=31.6 months; (4) TERTp-mut and IDH-wt, associated with EGFR amplification, OS=15.4 months. TERTp-mut was associated with higher TERT mRNA expression, whereas the rs2853669 variant was associated with lower TERT mRNA expression. The mutation of CIC (a repressor of ETV1-5 belonging to the Ets/TCF family) was also associated with TERT mRNA upregulation.
CONCLUSIONS: In addition to IDH mutation status, defining the TERTp-mut status of glial tumours should afford enhanced prognostic stratification of patients with glioma. We also show that TERTp-mut, rs2853669 variant and CIC mutation influence Tert expression. This effect could be mediated by Ets/TCF transcription factors.

Jorvig JE, Chakraborty A
Zerumbone inhibits growth of hormone refractory prostate cancer cells by inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 pathway and increases paclitaxel sensitivity.
Anticancer Drugs. 2015; 26(2):160-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Zerumbone, a phytochemical isolated from Zingiber zerumbet has been shown previously to exhibit antineoplastic activity. But, the effect of zerumbone in prostate cancer has not been evaluated. Prostate cancer is frequently associated with elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), which exerts its oncogenic effects through activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) followed by activation of the transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). Here, we investigated whether the anticancer effects of zerumbone are mediated through inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and whether zerumbone can increase the paclitaxel (PTX) sensitivity of prostate cancer cells. Zerumbone exerted significant cytotoxicity of DU145 versus PC3 prostate cancer cells through cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase followed by apoptosis. Zerumbone selectively inhibited JAK2 in both DU145 and PC3 cells. However, the biological axis of IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 was inhibited only in DU145 cells as no STAT3 phosphorylation was detected in PC3 cells even after IL-6 stimulation. Other signaling pathways in DU145 cells remained unaffected. The expression of prostate cancer-associated genes, including cyclin D1, IL-6, COX2, and ETV1, was blocked. Zerumbone also synergistically increased the sensitivity to PTX. Further preclinical study might reveal the potential use of zerumbone as a chemotherapeutic agent for hormone refractory prostate cancer where IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling is aberrantly active and may be combined with PTX.

Kunju LP, Carskadon S, Siddiqui J, et al.
Novel RNA hybridization method for the in situ detection of ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 gene fusions in prostate cancer.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2014; 22(8):e32-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The genetic basis of 50% to 60% of prostate cancer (PCa) is attributable to rearrangements in E26 transformation-specific (ETS) (ERG, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5), BRAF, and RAF1 genes and overexpression of SPINK1. The development and validation of reliable detection methods are warranted to classify various molecular subtypes of PCa for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. ETS gene rearrangements are typically detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction methods. Recently, monoclonal antibodies against ERG have been developed that detect the truncated ERG protein in immunohistochemical assays where staining levels are strongly correlated with ERG rearrangement status by fluorescence in situ hybridization. However, specific antibodies for ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 are unavailable, challenging their clinical use. We developed a novel RNA in situ hybridization-based assay for the in situ detection of ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from prostate needle biopsies, prostatectomy, and metastatic PCa specimens using RNA probes. Further, with combined RNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we identified a rare subset of PCa with dual ETS gene rearrangements in collisions of independent tumor foci. The high specificity and sensitivity of RNA in situ hybridization provides an alternate method enabling bright-field in situ detection of ETS gene aberrations in routine clinically available PCa specimens.

Palanisamy N, Tsodikov A, Yan W, et al.
Molecular profiling of ETS gene rearrangements in patients with prostate cancer registered in REDEEM clinical trial.
Urol Oncol. 2015; 33(3):108.e5-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Androgen-induced E26 transformation-specific (ETS) gene fusion-positive tumors have been associated with aggressive prostate cancer. The aim is to evaluate the ETS gene rearrangement status on initial biopsy of patients registered in the Reduction by Dutasteride of Clinical Progression Events in Expectant Management trial study and determine if gene fusion status was associated with disease progression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initial biopsy material from 146 men registered in Reduction by Dutasteride of Clinical Progression Events in Expectant Management trial study treated with dutasteride (73/146, 50%) and as placebo (73/146, 50%) were reviewed, and ERG and SPINK1 immunohistochemistry was performed. ERG- and SPINK1-negative cancer samples were evaluated for ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Frequency of ETS gene aberrations in both groups was correlated with cancer progression including prostate-specific antigen progression, Gleason progression, and progression-free survival by logistic analysis, pairwise differences, and chunk likelihood ratio tests for the genotype groups.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of the 146 patients, 99 (67.8%) (placebo, 51; dutasteride, 48) samples displayed the following Gleason patterns: 3+3 = 6 in 80 (54.8%) (placebo, 39; dutasteride, 41), 3+4 = 7 in 18 (12.3%) (placebo, 11; dutasteride, 7), and 4+4 = 8 in 1(0.68%) (placebo, 1). The remaining 47 samples showed atypical glands in 5 (3.4%) (placebo, 2; dutasteride, 3), HGPIN in 9 (6.1%) (placebo, 5; dutasteride, 4), and benign in 33 (22.6%) (placebo, 15; dutasteride, 18). Immunohistochemistry findings were positive for ERG and SPINK1 in 56 (56%) (placebo, 31; dutasteride, 25) and 9 (6.1%) (placebo, 5; dutasteride, 4) cases, respectively. ETV1 and ETV4 rearrangements were noted in 2 cases (1.4%) (placebo, 1; dutasteride, 1) and 1 (0.7%) (placebo, 1) case, respectively. No significant differences in the incidence of prostate cancer molecular aberrations between the groups were observed. There was no evidence that ETS fusion status was associated with disease progression.

Birner P, Berghoff AS, Dinhof C, et al.
MAP kinase activity supported by BRAF (V600E) mutation rather than gene amplification is associated with ETV1 expression in melanoma brain metastases.
Arch Dermatol Res. 2014; 306(10):873-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
In primary melanoma, ETV1 transcription factor was suggested to be activated mainly by gene amplification and to promote tumor growth in cooperation with BRAF (V600E) . Aim of this study was to investigate ETV1 expression in human melanoma with a focus on brain metastases. We investigated ETV1 in 68 human melanoma brain metastases using FISH for ETV1 gene (located at chromosome 7p21) and centromere chromosome 7 and immunohistochemistry for ETV1, BRAF (V600E) , and ETV1/BRAF associated proteins pMSK1, pRSK1, pp38, pMEK1/2, MAPKAP kinase 2, CIC, HIF-1alpha and Ki-67. We further studied ETV1 copy number variations in 32 melanoma cell lines from primary and metastatic lesions using array CGH. The influence of the MAP kinase pathway activity on ETV1 mRNA and protein expression under BRAF wild-type and BRAF (V600E) conditions were determined in melanoma cell lines using qRT-PCR and Western Blot. No ETV1 high grade amplifications were observed in tissue samples, but low grade ETV1 gene amplifications were found in 7 (10.3 %) melanoma brain metastases. ETV1 protein expression in tissue samples (15 %) correlated with BRAF (V600E) status (p = 0.007) and HIF-1alpha expression (p = 0.049), but not with ETV1 gene dose. Application of the BRAF(V600E)-specific inhibitor vemurafenib and the BRAF(V6ooE/V600K)-inhibitor dabrafenib revealed predominant regulation of ETV-1 mRNA and protein via MAPK-pathway. ETV1 expression is a rare event in human melanoma and seems to be rather based on hyperactivation of MAPK signals, by BRAF (V600E) mutation, than on ETV1 gene amplification. Consequently, therapeutic inhibition of BRAF and the downstream MAPK pathway also down-regulates oncogenic ETV1 expression.

Srivastava A, Price DK, Figg WD
Prostate tumor development and androgen receptor function alterations in a new mouse model with ERG overexpression and PTEN inactivation.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2014; 15(10):1293-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gene fusions involving ETS transcription factors (predominantly ERG and ETV1) and PTEN deletions are prevalent in the prostate cancer genome. This report describes a novel mouse model that overexpresses ERG and lacks PTEN with the majority of mice developing prostate tumors by 6 mo. Biological mechanisms suggest increased/altered binding of the male hormone receptor in the genome. This model will be useful in pre-clinical evaluation of new drugs targeting these common prostate cancer genomic alterations.

Zhang Y, Gu ML, Zhou XX, et al.
Altered expression of ETV1 and its contribution to tumorigenic phenotypes in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(3):927-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. ETV1 is a unique transcription factor specific to GIST that has been reported to date. The present study aimed to determine aberrant ETV1 expression and its contribution to tumorigenesis in GISTs. Altered expression levels of ETV1 and its relevant signaling pathways were assessed using western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR in 72 paired patient tissue samples. In addition, immunochemistry was performed on 156 GISTs using tissue microarray to analyze the correlation between ETV1 and clinical parameters. The results revealed that ETV1 was highly expressed in the GISTs at both the transcription and protein levels. Immunochemical analysis revealed that increased expression of ETV1 was correlated with KIT in the 156 patients. In addition, the frequency of ETV1 positivity was higher when compared with KIT [50.0% (9/18) vs 38.9% (7/18)] particularly in high-risk GISTs. Analysis of western blotting data showed that total protein isoforms of Raf, MEK and ERK were similar in the GIST tissues as well as in the uninvolved normal tissues. In contrast, the level of phospho-Raf, phospho-MEK and phospho‑ERK were decreased in the tumor group. Moreover, enhanced signaling molecules such as Bcl-2 and Dvl2/GSK-3β/β-catenin/Smad2 were detected, showing a significant difference in comparison with the uninvolved normal cases. We conclude that ETV1, a member of the ETS family, is upregulated in GISTs, and its signaling is integrated into a cellular signaling network for resistance to apoptosis, tumor cell invasion and survival.

Schoppmann SF, Ricken G, Ilhan-Mutlu A, et al.
Downregulation of CIC does not associate with overexpression of ETV1 or MAP kinase pathway activation in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Cancer Invest. 2014; 32(7):363-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETV1 is a key factor in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), and is promoted by CIC downregulation in melanoma. We investigated CIC, ETV1, and the MAPK pathway in GIST. Downregulation of CIC protein levels as assessed by immunostaining was seen in 17/144 GIST, but was not associated with ETV1 or pMEK1/2 expression, KIT and PDGFRA mutations, copy number variations (CNV) of 19q13, and clinical factors. However, the data indicate that the incidence of CIC downregulation may differ for GISTs in different locations in the gastrointestinal tract, and that CNV of 19q13 is associated with shorter disease-free survival.

Dong J, Xiao L, Sheng L, et al.
TMPRSS2:ETS fusions and clinicopathologic characteristics of prostate cancer patients from Eastern China.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(7):3099-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusions in prostate cancer have a dominant prevalence of approximately 50.0%, but infomration is limited on differences among ethnic and geographical groups. Some studies focusing on Japanese and Korean patients reported a lower incidence. Investigations concerning Chinese revealed controversial results. We evaluated TMPRSS2:ERG, TMPRSS2:ETV1 and TMPRSS2:ETV4 fusions in more than 100 Eastern Chinese prostate cancer patients. Paraffin blocks of needle biopsy and radical prostatectomy were collected from 91 and 18 patients respectively. All patients' clinicopathologic factors were gathered. TMPRSS2:ERG, TMPRSS2:ETV1 and TMPRSS2:ETV4 fusions were tested by multi-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay. TMPRSS2:ERG fusions was present in 14.3% biopsy specimens and 11.1% radical prostatectomy patients. Neither TMPRSS2:ETV1 nor TMPRSS2:ETV4 fusion was found in any case. Altogether, 13 (86.7%) TMPRSS2:ERG fusion positive cases possessed deletion pattern and 7 (46.6%) and insertion pattern. Some 5 cases had both deletion and insertion patterns. While 38.5% (5/13) patients with deletion pattern had distant metastasis, except for one metastatic case harboring both deletion and insertion, there were no patients with insertion pattern accompanied with metastasis. There were no differences between fusion positive and negative cases in the distribution of age, PSA, Gleason score and TNM stage. Eastern Chinese prostate cancer patients have a significantly low incidence of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. They also lack TMPRSS2:ETV1 and TMPRSS2:ETV4 fusion. There are more deletion pattern than insertion pattern in TMPRSS2:ERG positive cases. Fusion positive and negative patients have no clinicopathologic factor differences.

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