Research IndicatorsGraph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (3)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
TICdb, Universidad de Navarra
Search the database of Translocation breakpoints In Cancer for "ETV4"
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: ETV4 (cancer-related)
Panagopoulos I, Gorunova L, Viset T, Heim SGene fusions AHRR-NCOA2, NCOA2-ETV4, ETV4-AHRR, P4HA2-TBCK, and TBCK-P4HA2 resulting from the translocations t(5;8;17)(p15;q13;q21) and t(4;5)(q24;q31) in a soft tissue angiofibroma.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2455-2462 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We present an angiofibroma of soft tissue with the karyotype 46,XY,t(4;5)(q24;q31),t(5;8;17)(p15;q13;q21)/46,XY,t(1;14)(p31;q32)/46,XY. RNA‑sequencing showed that the t(4;5)(q24;q31) resulted in recombination of the genes TBCK on 4q24 and P4HA2 on 5q31.1 with generation of an in‑frame TBCK‑P4HA2 and the reciprocal but out‑of‑frame P4HA2‑TBCK fusion transcripts. The putative TBCK‑P4HA2 protein would contain the kinase, the rhodanese‑like domain, and the Tre‑2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC) domains of TBCK together with the P4HA2 protein which is a component of the prolyl 4‑hydroxylase. The t(5;8;17)(p15;q13;q21) three‑way chromosomal translocation targeted AHRR (on 5p15), NCOA2 (on 8q13), and ETV4 (on 17q21) generating the in‑frame fusions AHRR‑NCOA2 and NCOA2‑ETV4 as well as an out‑of‑frame ETV4‑AHRR transcript. In the AHRR‑NCOA2 protein, the C‑terminal part of AHRR is replaced by the C‑terminal part of NCOA2 which contains two activation domains. The NCOA2‑ETV4 protein would contain the helix‑loop‑helix, PAS_9 and PAS_11, CITED domains, the SRC‑1 domain of NCOA2 and the ETS DNA‑binding domain of ETV4. No fusion gene corresponding to t(1;14)(p31;q32) was found. Our findings indicate that, in spite of the recurrence of AHRR‑NCOA2 in angiofibroma of soft tissue, additional genetic events (or fusion genes) might be required for the development of this tumor.
In order to propagate a solid tumor, cancer cells must adapt to and survive under various tumor microenvironment (TME) stresses, such as hypoxia or lactic acidosis. To systematically identify genes that modulate cancer cell survival under stresses, we performed genome-wide shRNA screens under hypoxia or lactic acidosis. We discovered that genetic depletion of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA or ACC1) or ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) protected cancer cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Additionally, the loss of ACLY or ACC1 reduced levels and activities of the oncogenic transcription factor ETV4. Silencing ETV4 also protected cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis and led to remarkably similar transcriptional responses as with silenced ACLY or ACC1, including an anti-apoptotic program. Metabolomic analysis found that while α-ketoglutarate levels decrease under hypoxia in control cells, α-ketoglutarate is paradoxically increased under hypoxia when ACC1 or ACLY are depleted. Supplementation with α-ketoglutarate rescued the hypoxia-induced apoptosis and recapitulated the decreased expression and activity of ETV4, likely via an epigenetic mechanism. Therefore, ACC1 and ACLY regulate the levels of ETV4 under hypoxia via increased α-ketoglutarate. These results reveal that the ACC1/ACLY-α-ketoglutarate-ETV4 axis is a novel means by which metabolic states regulate transcriptional output for life vs. death decisions under hypoxia. Since many lipogenic inhibitors are under investigation as cancer therapeutics, our findings suggest that the use of these inhibitors will need to be carefully considered with respect to oncogenic drivers, tumor hypoxia, progression and dormancy. More broadly, our screen provides a framework for studying additional tumor cell stress-adaption mechanisms in the future.
Padul V, Epari S, Moiyadi A, et al.ETV/Pea3 family transcription factor-encoding genes are overexpressed in CIC-mutant oligodendrogliomas.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(12):725-33 [PubMed
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Oligodendrogliomas with combined loss of chromosome arms 1p and 19q are known to be particularly sensitive to chemotherapy, and the CIC gene located on 19q is known to be mutated in over 50% of the 1p/19q codeleted oligodendrogliomas. However, the role of CIC in the oligodendroglioma pathogenesis is not known. Exome sequencing of 11 oligodendroglial tumors identified 9 tumors with combined loss of 1p and 19q. Somatic mutations were found in the CIC and FUBP1 genes. Recurrent somatic mutations were also identified in the Notch signaling pathway genes NOTCH1 and MAML3, the chromatin modifying gene ARID1A and in KRAS. Comparison of the transcriptome profiles of CIC-mutant and CIC-wild type oligodendrogliomas from the study cohort as well as 65 1p/19q codeleted oligodendrogliomas from the TCGA cohort identified genes encoding the ETV transcription factor family to be significantly upregulated in the CIC-mutant tumors. Upregulation of a number of negative regulators of the receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway like Sprouty and SPRED family members in the CIC-mutant oligodendrogliomas is likely due to the constitutive activation of the pathway resulting from inactive CIC protein. Higher expression of the oncogenic ETV transcription factors in the CIC-mutant oligodendrogliomas may make these tumors more aggressive than the CIC-wild type tumors.
It was reported that the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family often highly expressed in several mucinous carcinomas. In the present study, we established a murine model of colorectal mucinous adenocardinoma (CRMAC) by treating C57 mice [both wild type (WT) and loss-of-function c-kit mutant type (Wads-/-)] with AOM+DSS for 37 weeks and found that c-kit, a member of RTK family, clearly enhanced the tumor cell proliferation by decreasing p53 and increasing cyclin D1 through AKT pathway. Significantly, c-kit strongly promoted tumor cell invasiveness by increasing ETV4, which induced MMP7 expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via ERK pathway. In vitro up- or down-regulating c-kit activation in human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells further consolidated these results. In conclusion, our data suggested that the c-kit signaling obviously promoted proliferation and invasion of CRMAC. Therefore, targeting the c-kit signaling and its downstream molecules might provide the potential strategies for treatment of patients suffering from CRMAC in the future.
Lung adenocarcinoma is one of the most deadly human diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease, particularly RNA splicing, have remained underexplored. Here, we report a triple-level (gene-, transcript-, and exon-level) analysis of lung adenocarcinoma transcriptomes from 77 paired tumor and normal tissues, as well as an analysis pipeline to overcome genetic variability for accurate differentiation between tumor and normal tissues. We report three major results. First, more than 5,000 differentially expressed transcripts/exonic regions occur repeatedly in lung adenocarcinoma patients. These transcripts/exonic regions are enriched in nicotine metabolism and ribosomal functions in addition to the pathways enriched for differentially expressed genes (cell cycle, extracellular matrix receptor interaction, and axon guidance). Second, classification models based on rationally selected transcripts or exonic regions can reach accuracies of 0.93 to 1.00 in differentiating tumor from normal tissues. Of the 28 selected exonic regions, 26 regions correspond to alternative exons located in such regulators as tumor suppressor (GDF10), signal receptor (LYVE1), vascular-specific regulator (RASIP1), ubiquitination mediator (RNF5), and transcriptional repressor (TRIM27). Third, classification systems based on 13 to 14 differentially expressed genes yield accuracies near 100%. Genes selected by both detection methods include C16orf59, DAP3, ETV4, GABARAPL1, PPAR, RADIL, RSPO1, SERTM1, SRPK1, ST6GALNAC6, and TNXB. Our findings imply a multilayered lung adenocarcinoma regulome in which transcript-/exon-level regulation may be dissociated from gene-level regulation. Our described method may be used to identify potentially important genes/transcripts/exonic regions for the tumorigenesis of lung adenocarcinoma and to construct accurate tumor vs. normal classification systems for this disease.
Kherrouche Z, Monte D, Werkmeister E, et al.PEA3 transcription factors are downstream effectors of Met signaling involved in migration and invasiveness of Met-addicted tumor cells.
Mol Oncol. 2015; 9(9):1852-67 [PubMed
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Various solid tumors including lung or gastric carcinomas display aberrant activation of the Met receptor which correlates with aggressive phenotypes and poor prognosis. Although downstream signaling of Met is well described, its integration at the transcriptional level is poorly understood. We demonstrate here that in cancer cells harboring met gene amplification, inhibition of Met activity with tyrosine kinase inhibitors or specific siRNA drastically decreased expression of ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5, three transcription factors constituting the PEA3 subgroup of the ETS family, while expression of the other members of the family were less or not affected. Similar link between Met activity and PEA3 factors expression was found in lung cancer cells displaying resistance to EGFR targeted therapy involving met gene amplification. Using silencing experiments, we demonstrate that the PEA3 factors are required for efficient migration and invasion mediated by Met, while other biological responses such as proliferation or unanchored growth remain unaffected. PEA3 overexpression or silencing revealed that they participated in the regulation of the MMP2 target gene involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. Our results demonstrated that PEA3-subgroup transcription factors are key players of the Met signaling integration involved in regulation of migration and invasiveness.
Melanoma is an aggressive malignancy with a high metastatic potential. microRNA-17 (miR-17) is a member of the oncogenic miR-17/92 cluster. Here we study the effect of miR-17 on melanoma cell motility. Over expression of the mature or pri-microRNA form of miR-17 in WM-266-4 and 624mel melanoma lines enhances cell motility, evident in both wound healing and transwell migration assays. TargetScan algorithm predicts the PEA3-subfamily member ETV1 as a direct target of miR-17. Indeed, a 3-4-fold decrease of ETV1 protein levels are observed following miR-17 transfection into the various melanoma lines, with no significant change in ETV1 mRNA expression. Dual luciferase experiments demonstrate direct binding of miR-17 to the 3'-untranslated region of ETV1, confirmed by abolishing point mutations in the putative binding site. These combined results suggest regulation of ETV1 by miR-17 by a direct translational repression. Further, in both melanoma cell lines ETV1 knockdown by selective siRNA successfully pheno-copies the facilitated cell migration, while overexpression of ETV1 inhibits cell motility and migration. Altered ETV1 expression does not affect melanoma net-proliferation. In conclusion, we show a new role for miR-17 in melanoma, facilitating cell motility, by targeting the translation of ETV1 protein, which may support the development of metastasis.
Chan KK, Matchett KB, McEnhill PM, et al.Protein deregulation associated with breast cancer metastasis.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2015; 26(4):415-23 [PubMed
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Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies worldwide. It consists of a group of tumor cells that have the ability to grow uncontrollably, overcome replicative senescence (tumor progression) and metastasize within the body. Metastases are processes that consist of an array of complex gene dysregulation events. Although these processes are still not fully understood, the dysregulation of a number of key proteins must take place if the tumor cells are to disseminate and metastasize. It is now widely accepted that future effective and innovative treatments of cancer metastasis will have to encompass all the major components of malignant transformation. For this reason, much research is now being carried out into the mechanisms that govern the malignant transformation processes. Recent research has identified key genes involved in the development of metastases, as well as their mechanisms of action. A detailed understanding of the encoded proteins and their interrelationship generates the possibility of developing novel therapeutic approaches. This review will focus on a select group of proteins, often deregulated in breast cancer metastasis, which have shown therapeutic promise, notably, EMT, E-cadherin, Osteopontin, PEA3, Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) and Ran.
Gleize V, Alentorn A, Connen de Kérillis L, et al.CIC inactivating mutations identify aggressive subset of 1p19q codeleted gliomas.
Ann Neurol. 2015; 78(3):355-74 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: CIC gene is frequently mutated in oligodendroglial tumors with 1p19q codeletion. However, clinical and biological impact remain poorly understood.
METHODS: We sequenced the CIC gene on 127 oligodendroglial tumors (109 with the 1p19q codeletion) and analyzed patients' outcome. We compared magnetic resonance imaging, transcriptomic profile, and CIC protein expression of CIC wild-type (WT) and mutant gliomas. We compared the level of expression of CIC target genes on Hs683-IDH1(R132H) cells transfected with lentivirus encoding mutant and WT CIC.
RESULTS: We found 63 mutations affecting 60 of 127 patients, virtually all 1p19q codeleted and IDH mutated (59 of 60). In the 1p19q codeleted gliomas, CIC mutations were associated with a poorer outcome by uni- (p = 0.001) and multivariate analysis (p < 0.016). CIC mutation prognostic impact was validated on the TCGA cohort. CIC mutant grade II codeleted gliomas spontaneously grew faster than WTs. Transcriptomic analysis revealed an enrichment of proliferative pathways and oligodendrocyte precursor cell gene expression profile in CIC mutant gliomas, with upregulation of normally CIC repressed genes ETV1, ETV4, ETV5, and CCND1. Various missense mutations resulted in CIC protein expression loss. Moreover, a truncating CIC mutation resulted in a defect of nuclear targeting of CIC protein to the nucleus in a human glioma cell line expressing IDH1(R132H) and overexpression of CCND1 and other new target genes of CIC, such as DUSP4 and SPRED1.
INTERPRETATION: CIC mutations result in protein inactivation with upregulation of CIC target genes, activation of proliferative pathways, inhibition of differentiation, and poorer outcome in patients with a 1p19q codeleted glioma.
Kitagawa T, Okita H, Baron B, et al.Mutant screening for oncogenes of Ewing's sarcoma using yeast.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015; 99(16):6737-44 [PubMed
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Many fusion genes, which are the result of chromosomal translocation and work as an oncogene, have been recently identified, but their mode of actions is still unclear. Here, we performed a yeast mutant screening for oncogenes of Ewing's sarcoma to easily identify essential regions responsible for fusion protein functions using a yeast genetic system. Three kinds of oncogenes including EWS/FLI1, EWS/ERG, and EWS/E1AF exhibited growth inhibition in yeast. In this screening, we identified 13 single amino acid substitution mutants which could suppress growth inhibition by oncogenes. All of the point mutation positions of the EWS/ETS family proteins were located within the ETS domain, which is responsible for the interaction with a specific DNA motif. Eight-mutated residues within the ETS domain matched to 13 completely conserved amino acid residues in the human ETS domains. Moreover, mutants also showed reduced transcriptional activities on the DKK2 promoter, which is upregulated by the EWS/ETS family, compared to that of the wild type. These results suggest that the ETS domain in the EWS/ETS family proteins may be a primary target for growth inhibition of Ewing's sarcoma and that this yeast screening system can be applied for the functional screening of the oncogenes.
Cooper CD, Newman JA, Aitkenhead H, et al.Structures of the Ets Protein DNA-binding Domains of Transcription Factors Etv1, Etv4, Etv5, and Fev: DETERMINANTS OF DNA BINDING AND REDOX REGULATION BY DISULFIDE BOND FORMATION.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(22):13692-709 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ets transcription factors, which share the conserved Ets DNA-binding domain, number nearly 30 members in humans and are particularly involved in developmental processes. Their deregulation following changes in expression, transcriptional activity, or by chromosomal translocation plays a critical role in carcinogenesis. Ets DNA binding, selectivity, and regulation have been extensively studied; however, questions still arise regarding binding specificity outside the core GGA recognition sequence and the mode of action of Ets post-translational modifications. Here, we report the crystal structures of Etv1, Etv4, Etv5, and Fev, alone and in complex with DNA. We identify previously unrecognized features of the protein-DNA interface. Interactions with the DNA backbone account for most of the binding affinity. We describe a highly coordinated network of water molecules acting in base selection upstream of the GGAA core and the structural features that may account for discrimination against methylated cytidine residues. Unexpectedly, all proteins crystallized as disulfide-linked dimers, exhibiting a novel interface (distant to the DNA recognition helix). Homodimers of Etv1, Etv4, and Etv5 could be reduced to monomers, leading to a 40-200-fold increase in DNA binding affinity. Hence, we present the first indication of a redox-dependent regulatory mechanism that may control the activity of this subset of oncogenic Ets transcription factors.
BACKGROUND: Molecular stratification of prostate cancer (PCa) based on genetic aberrations including ETS or RAF gene-rearrangements, PTEN deletion, and SPINK1 over-expression show clear prognostic and diagnostic utility. Gene rearrangements involving ETS transcription factors are frequent pathogenetic somatic events observed in PCa. Incidence of ETS rearrangements in Caucasian PCa patients has been reported, however, occurrence in Indian population is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the ETS and RAF kinase gene rearrangements, SPINK1 over-expression, and PTEN deletion in this cohort.
METHODS: In this multi-center study, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) PCa specimens (n = 121) were procured from four major medical institutions in India. The tissues were sectioned and molecular profiling was done using immunohistochemistry (IHC), RNA in situ hybridization (RNA-ISH) and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).
RESULTS: ERG over-expression was detected in 48.9% (46/94) PCa specimens by IHC, which was confirmed in a subset of cases by FISH. Among other ETS family members, while ETV1 transcript was detected in one case by RNA-ISH, no alteration in ETV4 was observed. SPINK1 over-expression was observed in 12.5% (12/96) and PTEN deletion in 21.52% (17/79) of the total PCa cases. Interestingly, PTEN deletion was found in 30% of the ERG-positive cases (P = 0.017) but in only one case with SPINK1 over-expression (P = 0.67). BRAF and RAF1 gene rearrangements were detected in ∼1% and ∼4.5% of the PCa cases, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on comprehensive molecular profiling of the major spectrum of the causal aberrations in Indian men with PCa. Our findings suggest that ETS gene rearrangement and SPINK1 over-expression patterns in North Indian population largely resembled those observed in Caucasian population but differed from Japanese and Chinese PCa patients. The molecular profiling data presented in this study could help in clinical decision-making for the pursuit of surgery, diagnosis, and in selection of therapeutic intervention.
Lunardi A, Varmeh S, Chen M, et al.Suppression of CHK1 by ETS Family Members Promotes DNA Damage Response Bypass and Tumorigenesis.
Cancer Discov. 2015; 5(5):550-63 [PubMed
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UNLABELLED: The ETS family of transcription factors has been repeatedly implicated in tumorigenesis. In prostate cancer, ETS family members, such as ERG, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5, are frequently overexpressed due to chromosomal translocations, but the molecular mechanisms by which they promote prostate tumorigenesis remain largely undefined. Here, we show that ETS family members, such as ERG and ETV1, directly repress the expression of the checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1), a key DNA damage response cell-cycle regulator essential for the maintenance of genome integrity. Critically, we find that ERG expression correlates with CHK1 downregulation in human patients and demonstrate that Chk1 heterozygosity promotes the progression of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia into prostatic invasive carcinoma in Pten(+) (/-) mice. Importantly, CHK1 downregulation sensitizes prostate tumor cells to etoposide but not to docetaxel treatment. Thus, we identify CHK1 as a key functional target of the ETS proto-oncogenic family with important therapeutic implications.
SIGNIFICANCE: Genetic translocation and aberrant expression of ETS family members is a common event in different types of human tumors. Here, we show that through the transcriptional repression of CHK1, ETS factors may favor DNA damage accumulation and consequent genetic instability in proliferating cells. Importantly, our findings provide a rationale for testing DNA replication inhibitor agents in ETS-positive TP53-proficient tumors.
Mesquita D, Barros-Silva JD, Santos J, et al.Specific and redundant activities of ETV1 and ETV4 in prostate cancer aggressiveness revealed by co-overexpression cellular contexts.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(7):5217-36 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genomic rearrangements involving ETS transcription factors are found in 50-70% of prostate carcinomas. While the large majority of the rearrangements involve ERG, around 10% involve members of the PEA3 subfamily (ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5). Using a panel of prostate cancer cell lines we found co-overexpression of ETV1 and ETV4 in two cell line models of advanced prostate cancer (MDA-PCa-2b and PC3) and questioned whether these PEA3 family members would cooperate in the acquisition of oncogenic properties or show functional redundancy. Using shRNAs we found that ETV1 and ETV4 have partially overlapping functions, with ETV1 being more relevant for cell invasion and ETV4 for anchorage-independent growth. In vitro expression signatures revealed the regulation of both specific and shared candidate targets that may resemble cellular mechanisms in vivo by interaction with the same intermediate partners. By combining the phenotypic impact data and the gene expression profiles of in vitro models with clinico-pathological features and gene expression profiles of ETS-subtyped tumors, we identified a set of eight genes associated with advanced stage and a set of three genes associated with higher Gleason score, supporting an oncogenic role of ETV1 and ETV4 overexpression and revealing gene sets that may be useful as prognostic markers.
Qi M, Liu Z, Shen C, et al.Overexpression of ETV4 is associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer: involvement of uPA/uPAR and MMPs.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3565-72 [PubMed
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ETS gene fusions involving ERG, ETV1, ETV4, ETV5, and FLI1 define a distinct class of prostate cancer (PCa), and this might have a bearing on diagnosis, prognosis, and rational therapeutic targeting. In the current study, we focused on the clinicopathological significance of ETV4 in Chinese PCa patients and the mechanisms whereby ETV4 overexpression mediates tumor invasion in the prostate. Overall, ETV4 overexpression was identified in 30.4 % (45/148) of PCa cases by immunohistochemistry. Accordingly, ETV4 was rearranged in only 1.6 % (2/128) of PCa patients. Clinically, ETV4 overexpression was significantly correlated with Gleason score (P = 0.045) and pathological tumor stage (P = 0.041). Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that ETV4 is an unfavorable independent prognostic factor (P = 0.040). Functional studies further showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of ETV4 significantly decreases proliferation and invasion of PC-3 cell and partially reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro. Notably, ETV4 knockdown significantly downregulated expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) at messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ETV4 regulates uPA expression through direct binding to its promoter region. Additionally, ETV4 knockdown was also observed to significantly inhibit expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. In conclusion, for the first time, our study suggested that ETV4 is an independent poor prognostic factor in Chinese PCa patients. Silencing of ETV4 suppresses invasion of PCa cells by inhibiting the expression of uPA/uPAR as well as MMPs. Further studies will be needed to determine whether ETV4 could be regarded as a potential target for the management and prevention of PCa.
AIM: To investigate the function of Pea3 in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) invasion and metastatic potential.
METHODS: The expression of Pea3 during clinical progression of human CRC was investigated using Oncomine Research Edition. To assay Pea3 expression in established CRC cell lines, we performed western blotting of cell lysates. We employed shRNA-mediated knockdown of Pea3 in HCT116 (HCT) and LS174T CRC cells which was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blotting. Transwell invasion assays, MTS proliferation assays, anoikis assays, and fluorometric matrix metalloprotease (MMP) assays were performed to determine the effects of Pea3 knockdown on invasion, proliferation, anoikis and MMP activity in CRC cells in vitro. Alterations in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and matrix metalloprotease (MMP) mRNA levels were determined by qPCR. CRC cells were injected into the flanks of nude mice to generate xenografts and tumor growth monitored with serial calliper measurements. To assay metastatic potential, CRC cells were injected into the spleen of nude mice, and histological analysis performed on the livers 21 d later.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that reduction of Pea3 expression in CRC cells significantly impaired their invasive capacity (HCT.shPea3, 0.28 ± 0.04 fold, P < 0.01; LS.shPea3, 0.15 ± 0.04 fold; SW.shPea3, 0.23 ± 0.03, P < 0.01), reduced anoikis resistance (HCT.shPea3 75.4% ± 1.9% viable cells vs HCT.shCtrl 88.6% ± 0.6% viable cells, P < 0.01; LS.shPea3 71.7% ± 0.5% viable cells vs LS.Ctrl 89.6% ± 0.3% viable cells, P < 0.005, but had no effect on proliferation (HCT.shCtrl AUC 5098 ± 123 vs HCT.shPea3 5689 ± 151, P < 0.05; LS.shCtrl AUC 5600 ± 324.1 vs LS.shPea3 6423 ± 400, P < 0.05). In vivo, HCT.shPea3 and HCT.shCtrl tumour xenografts grew at a similar rate (HCT.shPea3 2.64 ± 0.82 fold vs HCT.shCtrl 2.88 ± 0.80 fold, P > 0.05). In keeping with a pro-metastatic function for Pea3 in CRC, several EMT markers and MMPs were downregulated in shPea3-expressing cells, suggesting that Pea3 may exert its effects through these processes. A reduction in overall MMP activity was observed in HCT.shPea3 cells compared to their control counterparts (HCT.shPea3 0.61 ± 0.04 fold, P < 0.005). This translated in vivo to the complete absence of metastases in the livers of mice that were grafted with CRC cells lacking Pea3. Conversely, CRC cells expressing Pea3 formed liver metastases in all mice.
CONCLUSION: Our study implicates Pea3 as a mediator of metastases, and provides a biological rationale for the adverse prognosis associated with elevated Pea3 expression in human CRC.
Khan A, Aljarbou AN, Aldebasi YH, et al.Resveratrol suppresses the proliferation of breast cancer cells by inhibiting fatty acid synthase signaling pathway.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2014; 38(6):765-72 [PubMed
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In breast cancer cells, overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) increases the translation of fatty acid synthase (FASN) by altering the activity of PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cancer chemotherapy causes major side effects and is not effective enough in slowing down the progression of the disease. Earlier studies showed a role for resveratrol in the inhibition of FASN, but the molecular mechanisms of resveratrol-induced inhibition are not known. In the present study, we examined the novel mechanism of resveratrol on Her2-overexpressed breast cancer cells. The effect of resveratrol on the growth of breast cancer cells was assessed as percent cell viability by cytotoxicity-based MTT assay and the induction of apoptosis was determined by cell-death detection ELISA and flow cytometric analysis of Annexin-V-PI binding. Western immunobloting was used to detect signaling events in human breast cancer (SKBR-3) cells. Data showed that resveratrol-mediated down-regulation of FASN and HER2 genes synergistically induced apoptotic death in SKBR-3 cells. This concurrently caused a prominent up-regulation of PEA3, leads to down-regulation of HER2 genes. Resveratrol also alleviated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling by down-regulation of Akt phosphorylation and up-regulation of PTEN expression. These findings suggest that resveratrol alters the cell cycle progression and induce cell death via FASN inhibition in HER2 positive breast cancer.
Kim HJ, Kim SH, Yu EJ, et al.A positive role of DBC1 in PEA3-mediated progression of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(34):4500-8 [PubMed
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Deleted in Breast Cancer 1 (DBC1), a negative regulator of deacetylase SIRT1, has been shown to act as an estrogen receptor α (ER) coactivator that has a key role in ER transcription complex assembly and estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell proliferation. However, little is known about its physiological role and mechanism of action in ER-negative breast cancer cells. Here we report that DBC1 functions as a coactivator for the oncogenic ETS transcription factor PEA3 to promote ER-negative breast cancer progression. DBC1 is required for the expression of PEA3 target genes and for recruitment of PEA3 and RNA polymerase II to PEA3 target promoters. We also demonstrated that acetylation of PEA3 stimulates its DNA binding and association with DBC1 by disrupting the intramolecular interaction of PEA3. The molecular mechanism underlying DBC1 function in PEA3-mediated transcription involves inhibition of SIRT1 interaction with PEA3 and of SIRT1-mediated deacetylation of PEA3. Moreover, DBC1 depletion inhibited the tumorigenic properties of ER-negative breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, increased DBC1 expression correlated with shorter relapse-free survival of ER-negative breast cancer patients. Our results firmly established DBC1 as a critical coactivator of PEA3 and as a key player in PEA3-mediated breast cancer progression.
The genetic basis of 50% to 60% of prostate cancer (PCa) is attributable to rearrangements in E26 transformation-specific (ETS) (ERG, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5), BRAF, and RAF1 genes and overexpression of SPINK1. The development and validation of reliable detection methods are warranted to classify various molecular subtypes of PCa for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. ETS gene rearrangements are typically detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction methods. Recently, monoclonal antibodies against ERG have been developed that detect the truncated ERG protein in immunohistochemical assays where staining levels are strongly correlated with ERG rearrangement status by fluorescence in situ hybridization. However, specific antibodies for ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 are unavailable, challenging their clinical use. We developed a novel RNA in situ hybridization-based assay for the in situ detection of ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from prostate needle biopsies, prostatectomy, and metastatic PCa specimens using RNA probes. Further, with combined RNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we identified a rare subset of PCa with dual ETS gene rearrangements in collisions of independent tumor foci. The high specificity and sensitivity of RNA in situ hybridization provides an alternate method enabling bright-field in situ detection of ETS gene aberrations in routine clinically available PCa specimens.
Palanisamy N, Tsodikov A, Yan W, et al.Molecular profiling of ETS gene rearrangements in patients with prostate cancer registered in REDEEM clinical trial.
Urol Oncol. 2015; 33(3):108.e5-13 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Androgen-induced E26 transformation-specific (ETS) gene fusion-positive tumors have been associated with aggressive prostate cancer. The aim is to evaluate the ETS gene rearrangement status on initial biopsy of patients registered in the Reduction by Dutasteride of Clinical Progression Events in Expectant Management trial study and determine if gene fusion status was associated with disease progression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initial biopsy material from 146 men registered in Reduction by Dutasteride of Clinical Progression Events in Expectant Management trial study treated with dutasteride (73/146, 50%) and as placebo (73/146, 50%) were reviewed, and ERG and SPINK1 immunohistochemistry was performed. ERG- and SPINK1-negative cancer samples were evaluated for ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Frequency of ETS gene aberrations in both groups was correlated with cancer progression including prostate-specific antigen progression, Gleason progression, and progression-free survival by logistic analysis, pairwise differences, and chunk likelihood ratio tests for the genotype groups.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of the 146 patients, 99 (67.8%) (placebo, 51; dutasteride, 48) samples displayed the following Gleason patterns: 3+3 = 6 in 80 (54.8%) (placebo, 39; dutasteride, 41), 3+4 = 7 in 18 (12.3%) (placebo, 11; dutasteride, 7), and 4+4 = 8 in 1(0.68%) (placebo, 1). The remaining 47 samples showed atypical glands in 5 (3.4%) (placebo, 2; dutasteride, 3), HGPIN in 9 (6.1%) (placebo, 5; dutasteride, 4), and benign in 33 (22.6%) (placebo, 15; dutasteride, 18). Immunohistochemistry findings were positive for ERG and SPINK1 in 56 (56%) (placebo, 31; dutasteride, 25) and 9 (6.1%) (placebo, 5; dutasteride, 4) cases, respectively. ETV1 and ETV4 rearrangements were noted in 2 cases (1.4%) (placebo, 1; dutasteride, 1) and 1 (0.7%) (placebo, 1) case, respectively. No significant differences in the incidence of prostate cancer molecular aberrations between the groups were observed. There was no evidence that ETS fusion status was associated with disease progression.
Park SW, Do HJ, Ha WT, et al.Transcriptional activation of OCT4 by the ETS transcription factor PEA3 in NCCIT human embryonic carcinoma cells.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(17):3129-36 [PubMed
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We examined the molecular mechanism of OCT4 gene regulation by polyomavirus enhancer activator 3 (PEA3) in NCCIT cells. Endogenous PEA3 and OCT4 were significantly elevated in undifferentiated cells and reduced upon differentiation. PEA3 knockdown led to a reduction in OCT4 levels. OCT4 promoter activity was significantly up-regulated by dose-dependent PEA3 overexpression. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis of the OCT4 promoter revealed a putative binding site within the conserved region 2 (CR2). PEA3 interacted with the binding element within CR2 in NCCIT cells. This study reveals the molecular details of the mechanism by which the oncogenic factor PEA3 regulates OCT4 gene expression as a transcriptional activator.
Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer is necessary to identify biomarkers/targets specific to individual airway molecular profiles and to identify options for targeted chemoprevention. Herein, we identify mechanisms by which loss of microRNA (miRNA)125a-3p (miR125a) contributes to the malignant potential of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) harboring an activating point mutation of the K-ras proto-oncogene (HBEC K-ras). Among other miRNAs, we identified significant miR125a loss in HBEC K-ras lines and determined that miR125a is regulated by the PEA3 transcription factor. PEA3 is upregulated in HBEC K-ras cells, and genetic knockdown of PEA3 restores miR125a expression. From a panel of inflammatory/angiogenic factors, we identified increased CXCL1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by HBEC K-ras cells and determined that miR125a overexpression significantly reduces K-ras-mediated production of these tumorigenic factors. miR125a overexpression also abrogates increased proliferation of HBEC K-ras cells and suppresses anchorage-independent growth (AIG) of HBEC K-ras/P53 cells, the latter of which is CXCL1-dependent. Finally, pioglitazone increases levels of miR125a in HBEC K-ras cells via PEA3 downregulation. In addition, pioglitazone and miR125a overexpression elicit similar phenotypic responses, including suppression of both proliferation and VEGF production. Our findings implicate miR125a loss in lung carcinogenesis and lay the groundwork for future studies to determine whether miR125a is a possible biomarker for lung carcinogenesis and/or a chemoprevention target. Moreover, our studies illustrate that pharmacologic augmentation of miR125a in K-ras-mutated pulmonary epithelium effectively abrogates several deleterious downstream events associated with the mutation.
Dong J, Xiao L, Sheng L, et al.TMPRSS2:ETS fusions and clinicopathologic characteristics of prostate cancer patients from Eastern China.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(7):3099-103 [PubMed
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TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusions in prostate cancer have a dominant prevalence of approximately 50.0%, but infomration is limited on differences among ethnic and geographical groups. Some studies focusing on Japanese and Korean patients reported a lower incidence. Investigations concerning Chinese revealed controversial results. We evaluated TMPRSS2:ERG, TMPRSS2:ETV1 and TMPRSS2:ETV4 fusions in more than 100 Eastern Chinese prostate cancer patients. Paraffin blocks of needle biopsy and radical prostatectomy were collected from 91 and 18 patients respectively. All patients' clinicopathologic factors were gathered. TMPRSS2:ERG, TMPRSS2:ETV1 and TMPRSS2:ETV4 fusions were tested by multi-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay. TMPRSS2:ERG fusions was present in 14.3% biopsy specimens and 11.1% radical prostatectomy patients. Neither TMPRSS2:ETV1 nor TMPRSS2:ETV4 fusion was found in any case. Altogether, 13 (86.7%) TMPRSS2:ERG fusion positive cases possessed deletion pattern and 7 (46.6%) and insertion pattern. Some 5 cases had both deletion and insertion patterns. While 38.5% (5/13) patients with deletion pattern had distant metastasis, except for one metastatic case harboring both deletion and insertion, there were no patients with insertion pattern accompanied with metastasis. There were no differences between fusion positive and negative cases in the distribution of age, PSA, Gleason score and TNM stage. Eastern Chinese prostate cancer patients have a significantly low incidence of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. They also lack TMPRSS2:ETV1 and TMPRSS2:ETV4 fusion. There are more deletion pattern than insertion pattern in TMPRSS2:ERG positive cases. Fusion positive and negative patients have no clinicopathologic factor differences.
Specht K, Sung YS, Zhang L, et al.Distinct transcriptional signature and immunoprofile of CIC-DUX4 fusion-positive round cell tumors compared to EWSR1-rearranged Ewing sarcomas: further evidence toward distinct pathologic entities.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(7):622-33 [PubMed
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Round cell sarcomas harboring CIC-DUX4 fusions have recently been described as highly aggressive soft tissue tumors of children and young adults. Due to partial morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap with Ewing sarcoma (ES), CIC-DUX4-positive tumors have generally been classified as ES-like and managed similarly; however, a systematic comparison at the molecular and immunohistochemical levels between these two groups has not yet been conducted. Based on an initial observation that CIC-DUX4-positive tumors show nuclear immunoreactivity for WT1 and ETS transcription factors, FLI1 and ERG, we performed a detailed immunohistochemical and molecular analysis including these markers, to further investigate the relationship between CIC-DUX4 tumors and ES. The study group included 21 CIC-DUX4-positive sarcomas and 20 EWSR1-rearranged ES. Immunohistochemically, CIC-DUX4 sarcomas showed membranous CD99 positivity in 18 (86%) cases, but only 5 (24%) with a diffuse pattern, while WT1 and FLI1 were strongly positive in all cases. ERG was positive in 18% of cases. All ES expressed CD99 and FLI1, while ERG positivity was only seen in EWSR1-ERG fusion positive ES. WT1 was negative in all ES. Expression profiling validated by q-PCR revealed a distinct gene signature associated with CIC-DUX4 fusion, with upregulation of ETS transcription factors (ETV4, ETV1, and ETV5) and WT1, among top overexpressed genes compared to ES, other sarcomas and normal tissue. In conclusion, the distinct gene signature and immunoprofile of CIC-DUX4 sarcomas suggest a distinct pathogenesis from ES. The consistent WT1 expression may provide a useful clue in the diagnosis in the context of round cell sarcomas negative for EWSR1 rearrangement. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The transcription factor SOX2 is an essential regulator of pluripotent stem cells and promotes development and maintenance of squamous epithelia. We previously reported that SOX2 is an oncogene and subject to highly recurrent genomic amplification in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Here, we have further characterized the function of SOX2 in SCC. Using ChIP-seq analysis, we compared SOX2-regulated gene profiles in multiple SCC cell lines to ES cell profiles and determined that SOX2 binds to distinct genomic loci in SCCs. In SCCs, SOX2 preferentially interacts with the transcription factor p63, as opposed to the transcription factor OCT4, which is the preferred SOX2 binding partner in ES cells. SOX2 and p63 exhibited overlapping genomic occupancy at a large number of loci in SCCs; however, coordinate binding of SOX2 and p63 was absent in ES cells. We further demonstrated that SOX2 and p63 jointly regulate gene expression, including the oncogene ETV4, which was essential for SOX2-amplified SCC cell survival. Together, these findings demonstrate that the action of SOX2 in SCC differs substantially from its role in pluripotency. The identification of the SCC-associated interaction between SOX2 and p63 will enable deeper characterization the downstream targets of this interaction in SCC and normal squamous epithelial physiology.
Hsieh CH, Cheng LH, Hsu HH, et al.Apicidin-resistant HA22T hepatocellular carcinoma cells strongly activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and MMP-2 expression via the IGF-IR/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway enhancing cell metastatic effect.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013; 77(12):2397-404 [PubMed
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The IGF-IR/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibited GSK3-β activity by phosphorylation and this promoted β-catenin nuclear localization. Our previous study indicated that β-catenin mRNA level was significantly higher in tumor areas than in non-tumor ones, especially in late pathologic stage tumors. However, β-catenin inhibition resulted in significantly suppressed migration and invasion ability of HA22T cells. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin pathway over-activation might be involved in metastatic enhancement of apicidin-resistant HA22T cell metastasis. Apicidin-resistant (AR) HA22T cells showed higher β-catenin nuclear accumulation and significantly decreased GSK-3-β protein level, in relation to parental cells. Results also indicated that AR cells increased abundantly in Tbx3, a downstream target of Wnt/β-catenin that it is implicated in liver cancer. AR cells also inhibited the MEK/ERK/PEA3 pathway which promoted MMP-2 activation. But, apicidin-resistant effect was totally reversed by LY294002 and AG1024. In conclusion, Apicidin-R HA22T cells activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and induced, MMP-2 expression via IGF-IR/PI3K/Akt signaling further enhancing cell the metastatic effects.
Li Z, Zhang L, Ma Z, et al.ETV1 induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human gastric cancer cells through the upregulation of Snail expression.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2859-63 [PubMed
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The ETS family of transcription factors is involved in several physiological and pathological processes including tumor progression. The ETS transcription factors are divided into subfamilies based on the sequence and location of the ETS domain. ETV1 (Ets variant gene 1; also known as ER81), is a member of the PEA3 subfamily, which has been found to promote metastatic progression in several types of human cancer. Previous findings demonstrated that ETV1 expression is upregulated in gastric adenocarcinomas; however, the underlying mechanisms of ETV1-induced metastatic progression in gastric cancer remain elusive. In the present study, we found that the overexpression of ETV1 in normal gastric epithelial cells resulted in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increased invasiveness. Conversely, knockdown of ETV1 resulted in decreased aggressiveness of the invasive gastric cancer cells. Mechanistically, ETV1 transcriptionally upregulates Snail expression. Of note, ETV1 expression is significantly correlated with Snail expression in human gastric tumor samples. In summary, we present data that ETV1 promotes Snail expression to induce EMT-like metastatic progression in gastric cancer.
Zhang X, Zhang B, Gao J, et al.Regulation of the microRNA 200b (miRNA-200b) by transcriptional regulators PEA3 and ELK-1 protein affects expression of Pin1 protein to control anoikis.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(45):32742-52 [PubMed
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MicroRNA (miRNA) 200s regulate E-cadherin by directly targeting ZEB1/ZEB2, which are transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin. Decreased expression of E-cadherin results in cancer cells losing interaction with the extracellular matrix and detaching from the primary tumor. Normally, cells will undergo anoikis after losing interaction with the extracellular matrix. Cancer cells must, therefore, possess the ability to resist anoikis during the process of metastasis. Here we show that miRNA-200b regulates anoikis by directly targeting the 3' UTR of Pin1 mRNA and regulating Pin1 expression at the translational level. We found that down-regulation of miRNA-200b promotes cancer cells survival during metastasis, and the homeless state of these cells resulted in decreased expression of miRNA-200b in the MCF-7 cell line. We also found that expression of miRNA-200b is down-regulated in human breast cancer during lymph node metastasis, which has a significant negative correlation with Pin1 expression. Two members of the ETS (E-26) family (PEA3 and ELK-1) regulate the expression of miRNA-200b. PEA3 promotes the expression of miRNA-200b, and ELK-1 is a transcriptional repressor of miRNA-200b. In addition, miRNA-200b regulates the activity of PEA3 and ELK-1 via the Pin1-pERK pathway and forms self-regulated feedback loops. This study characterizes the role of miRNA-200b in the regulation of anoikis and demonstrates the regulation of its own expression in the process of metastasis.
Ladam F, Damour I, Dumont P, et al.Loss of a negative feedback loop involving pea3 and cyclin d2 is required for pea3-induced migration in transformed mammary epithelial cells.
Mol Cancer Res. 2013; 11(11):1412-24 [PubMed
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UNLABELLED: The Ets family transcription factor Pea3 (ETV4) is involved in tumorigenesis especially during the metastatic process. Pea3 is known to induce migration and invasion in mammary epithelial cell model systems. However, the molecular pathways regulated by Pea3 are still misunderstood. In the current study, using in vivo and in vitro assays, Pea3 increased the morphogenetic and tumorigenic capacity of mammary epithelial cells by modulating their cell morphology, proliferation, and migration potential. In addition, Pea3 overexpression favored an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) triggered by TGF-β1. During investigation for molecular events downstream of Pea3, Cyclin D2 (CCND2) was identified as a new Pea3 target gene involved in the control of cellular proliferation and migration, a finding that highlights a new negative regulatory loop between Pea3 and Cyclin D2. Furthermore, Cyclin D2 expression was lost during TGF-β1-induced EMT and Pea3-induced tumorigenesis. Finally, restored Cyclin D2 expression in Pea3-dependent mammary tumorigenic cells decreased cell migration in an opposite manner to Pea3. As such, these data demonstrate that loss of the negative feedback loop between Cyclin D2 and Pea3 contributes to Pea3-induced tumorigenesis.
IMPLICATIONS: This study reveals molecular insight into how the Ets family transcription factor Pea3 favors EMT and contributes to tumorigenesis via a negative regulatory loop with Cyclin D2, a new Pea3 target gene.
Production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) for degradation of extracellular matrix is a vital step in cancer metastasis. We investigated the effects of HPV16 oncoproteins (16E6, 16E6*I and 16E7), either individually or combined, on the transcription of 7 MMPs implicated in cervical cancer invasiveness. The levels of 7 MMPs reported to be increased in cervical cancer were determined in C33A stably expressing different HPV16 oncoproteins using quantitative RT-PCR and compared with invasion ability of cell lines using in vitro invasion and wound healing assays. Overexpression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP was detected in HPV16E6E7 expressing cells which correlated with increased cell invasion. Combination of HPV oncoproteins always showed greater effects than its individual form. Inhibition of cell invasion using a specific MMP-2 inhibitor, OA-Hy, and anti-MT1-MMP antibody confirmed that invasion in these cells was dependent on both MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression. Depletion of HPV16E6E7 by shRNA-mediated knock-down experiments resulted in decreased MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression levels as well as reduced invasion ability which strongly suggested specific effects of HPV oncoproteins on both MMPs and on cell invasion. Immunohistochemistry study in invasive cervical cancers confirmed the enhanced in vivo expression of these two MMPs in HPV16-infected cells. In addition, possible sites required by HPV16E6E7 on the MMP-2 and MT1-MMP promoters were investigated and PEA3 (at -552/-540 for MMP-2, -303 for MT1-MMP) and Sp1 (at -91 for MMP-2, -102 for MT1-MMP) binding sites were shown to be essential for mediating their transactivation activity. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that HPV16E6 and E7 oncoproteins cooperate in promoting cervical cancer invasiveness by specifically upregulating MMP-2 and MT1-MMP transcription in a similar manner.