CYP24A1

Gene Summary

Gene:CYP24A1; cytochrome P450, family 24, subfamily A, polypeptide 1
Aliases: CP24, HCAI, CYP24, P450-CC24
Location:20q13
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This mitochondrial protein initiates the degradation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the physiologically active form of vitamin D3, by hydroxylation of the side chain. In regulating the level of vitamin D3, this enzyme plays a role in calcium homeostasis and the vitamin D endocrine system. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase, mitochondrial
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 20 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (17)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 20 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 20
  • Up-Regulation
  • CYP24A1 protein, human
  • DNA Methylation
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Risk Factors
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase
  • Messenger RNA
  • Transcription
  • Genotype
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Steroid Hydroxylases
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Cholecalciferol
  • Signal Transduction
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Receptors, Calcitriol
  • Calcitriol
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Down-Regulation
  • Polymorphism
  • Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group D Protein
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Case-Control Studies
  • beta Catenin
  • Epigenetics
  • RTPCR
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Lung Cancer
  • Promoter Regions
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Calcifediol
  • Vitamin D
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Colorectal Cancer
Tag cloud generated 20 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CYP24A1 (cancer-related)

Borkowski R, Du L, Zhao Z, et al.
Genetic mutation of p53 and suppression of the miR-17∼92 cluster are synthetic lethal in non-small cell lung cancer due to upregulation of vitamin D Signaling.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(4):666-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related fatalities. Recent success developing genotypically targeted therapies, with potency only in well-defined subpopulations of tumors, suggests a path to improving patient survival. We used a library of oligonucleotide inhibitors of microRNAs, a class of posttranscriptional gene regulators, to identify novel synthetic lethal interactions between miRNA inhibition and molecular mechanisms in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Two inhibitors, those for miR-92a and miR-1226*, produced a toxicity distribution across a panel of 27 cell lines that correlated with loss of p53 protein expression. Notably, depletion of p53 was sufficient to confer sensitivity to otherwise resistant telomerase-immortalized bronchial epithelial cells. We found that both miR inhibitors cause sequence-specific downregulation of the miR-17∼92 polycistron, and this downregulation was toxic only in the context of p53 loss. Mechanistic studies indicated that the selective toxicity of miR-17∼92 polycistron inactivation was the consequence of derepression of vitamin D signaling via suppression of CYP24A1, a rate-limiting enzyme in the 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 metabolic pathway. Of note, high CYP24A1 expression significantly correlated with poor patient outcome in multiple lung cancer cohorts. Our results indicate that the screening approach used in this study can identify clinically relevant synthetic lethal interactions and that vitamin D receptor agonists may show enhanced efficacy in p53-negative lung cancer patients.

Brożyna AA, Jochymski C, Janjetovic Z, et al.
CYP24A1 expression inversely correlates with melanoma progression: clinic-pathological studies.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(10):19000-17 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
The major role of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) is to maintain 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) homeostasis. Recently, it has been discovered that CYP24A1 also catalyses the hydroxylation of 20(OH)D3, producing dihydroxy-derivatives that show very effective antitumorigenic activities. Previously we showed a negative correlation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and CYP27B1 expression with progression, aggressiveness and overall or disease-free survivals of skin melanomas. Therefore, we analyzed CYP24A1 expression in relation to clinicopathomorphological features of nevi, skin melanomas and metastases. In melanocytic tumors, the level of CYP24A1 was higher than in the normal epidermis. The statistically highest mean CYP24A1 level was found in nevi and early stage melanomas. With melanoma progression, CYP24A1 levels decreased and in advanced stages were comparable to the normal epidermis and metastases. Furthermore, the CYP24A1 expression positively correlated with VDR and CYP27B1, and negatively correlated with mitotic activity. Lower CYP24A1 levels correlated with the presence of ulceration, necrosis, nodular type and amelanotic phenotypes. Moreover, a lack of detectable CYP24A1 expression was related to shorter overall and disease-free survival. In conclusion, the local vitamin D endocrine system affects melanoma behavior and an elevated level of CYP24A1 appears to have an important impact on the formation of melanocytic nevi and melanomagenesis, or progression, at early stages of tumor development.

Beaudin SG, Robilotto S, Welsh J
Comparative regulation of gene expression by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in cells derived from normal mammary tissue and breast cancer.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015; 148:96-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous genomic profiling of immortalized, non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cells identified a set of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) regulated genes with potential relevance to breast cancer prevention. In this report, we characterized the effect of 1,25D on a subset of these genes in six cell lines derived from mammary tissue and breast cancers. Non-tumorigenic cell lines included hTERT-HME1, HME and MCF10A cells which are often used to model normal breast epithelial cells. Breast cancer cell lines included MCF7 cells (a model of early stage, estrogen-dependent disease), DCIS.com cells (a derivative of MCF10A cells that models in situ breast cancer) and Hs578T cells (a model of metastatic disease). All of these cell lines express the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and exhibit anti-cancer responses to 1,25D such as changes in proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, or invasion. Our comparative data demonstrate highly variable responses to 1,25D (100nM, 24h) between the cell lines. In both hTERT-HME1 and HME cell lines, CYP24A1, SLC1A1 and ITGB3 were up-regulated whereas KDR, GLUL and BIRC3 were down-regulated in response to 1,25D. In contrast, no changes in SLC1A1, ITGB3 or GLUL expression were detected in 1,25D treated MCF10A cells although KDR and BIRC3 were down-regulated by 1,25D. The effects of 1,25D on these genes in the breast cancer cell lines were blunted, with the DCIS.com cells exhibiting the most similar responses to the immortalized hTERT-HME1 and HME cells. The differences in cellular responses were not due to general impairment in VDR function as robust CYP24A1 induction was observed in all cell lines. Thus, our data indicate that the genomic changes induced by 1,25D are highly cell-type specific even in model cell lines derived from the same tissue. The implication of these findings is that genomic responses to changes in vitamin D status in vivo are likely to be distinct from individual to individual, particularly in neoplastic tissue. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

Hummel D, Aggarwal A, Borka K, et al.
The vitamin D system is deregulated in pancreatic diseases.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014; 144 Pt B:402-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
The vitamin D system is deregulated during development and progression of several cancer types. Data on the expression of the vitamin D system in the diseased pancreas are missing. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1), and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a vitamin D target gene, in the different regions of the pancreas in patients with chronic pancreatitis (n=6) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) (n=17). We analyzed the expression of these genes at mRNA and protein level with quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunostaining. mRNA expression of CYP24A1 and VDR was significantly increased in tumors compared with the adjacent non-tumorous tissue (p<0.01), while CaSR mRNA expression decreased. Both the VDR and the CaSR protein were highly expressed in the endocrine compared with the exocrine pancreas. In CP the CYP24A1 expression was highest in the endocrine pancreas, while in PDACs in the transformed ducts. In the PDAC patients CYP24A1 expression in the islets was significantly lower than in CP patients. Our data suggest that during ductal adenocarcinoma development the vitamin D system in the pancreas becomes deregulated on two levels: in the islets CYP24A1 expression decreases weakening the negative feedback regulation of the vitamin D-dependent insulin synthesis/secretion. In the transformed ducts CYP24A1 expression increases, impairing the antiproliferative effect of vitamin D in these cells.

Kim JS, Roberts JM, Bingman WE, et al.
The prostate cancer TMPRSS2:ERG fusion synergizes with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) to induce CYP24A1 expression-limiting VDR signaling.
Endocrinology. 2014; 155(9):3262-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
A number of preclinical studies have shown that the activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) reduces prostate cancer (PCa) cell and tumor growth. The majority of human PCas express a transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2):erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) fusion gene, but most preclinical studies have been performed in PCa models lacking TMPRSS2:ETS in part due to the limited availability of model systems expressing endogenous TMPRSS2:ETS. The level of the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), is controlled in part by VDR-dependent induction of cytochrome P450, family 24, subfamily 1, polypeptide1 (CYP24A1), which metabolizes 1,25D to an inactive form. Because ETS factors can cooperate with VDR to induce rat CYP24A1, we tested whether TMPRSS2:ETS would cause aberrant induction of human CYP24A1 limiting the activity of VDR. In TMPRSS2:ETS positive VCaP cells, depletion of TMPRSS2:ETS substantially reduced 1,25D-mediated CYP24A1 induction. Artificial expression of the type VI+72 TMPRSS2:ETS isoform in LNCaP cells synergized with 1,25D to greatly increase CYP24A1 expression. Thus, one of the early effects of TMPRSS2:ETS in prostate cells is likely a reduction in intracellular 1,25D, which may lead to increased proliferation. Next, we tested the net effect of VDR action in TMPRSS2:ETS containing PCa tumors in vivo. Unlike previous animal studies performed on PCa tumors lacking TMPRSS2:ETS, EB1089 (seocalcitol) (a less calcemic analog of 1,25D) did not inhibit the growth of TMPRSS2:ETS containing VCaP tumors in vivo, suggesting that the presence of TMPRSS2:ETS may limit the growth inhibitory actions of VDR. Our findings suggest that patients with TMPRSS2:ETS negative tumors may be more responsive to VDR-mediated growth inhibition and that TMPRSS2:ETS status should be considered in future clinical trials.

Solomon JD, Heitzer MD, Liu TT, et al.
VDR activity is differentially affected by Hic-5 in prostate cancer and stromal cells.
Mol Cancer Res. 2014; 12(8):1166-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Patients with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) eventually develop castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3/calcitriol) is a potential adjuvant therapy that confers antiproliferative and pro-differentiation effects in vitro, but has had mixed results in clinical trials. The impact of the tumor microenvironment on 1,25D3 therapy in patients with CRPC has not been assessed. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), which is associated with the development of tumorigenic "reactive stroma" in prostate cancer, induced vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) expression in the human WPMY-1 prostate stromal cell line. Similarly, TGFβ enhanced 1,25D3-induced upregulation of CYP24A1, which metabolizes 1,25D3 and thereby limits VDR activity. Ablation of Hic-5, a TGFβ-inducible nuclear receptor coregulator, inhibited basal VDR expression, 1,25D3-induced CYP24A1 expression and metabolism of 1,25D3 and TGFβ-enhanced CYP24A1 expression. A Hic-5-responsive sequence was identified upstream (392-451 bp) of the CYP24A1 transcription start site that is occupied by VDR only in the presence of Hic-5. Ectopic expression of Hic-5 sensitized LNCaP prostate tumor cells to growth-inhibitory effects of 1,25D3 independent of CYP24A1. The sensitivity of Hic-5-expressing LNCaP cells to 1,25D3-induced growth inhibition was accentuated in coculture with Hic-5-ablated WPMY-1 cells. Therefore, these findings indicate that the search for mechanisms to sensitize prostate cancer cells to the antiproliferative effects of VDR ligands needs to account for the impact of VDR activity in the tumor microenvironment.
IMPLICATIONS: Hic-5 acts as a coregulator with distinct effects on VDR transactivation, in prostate cancer and stromal cells, and may exert diverse effects on adjuvant therapy designed to exploit VDR activity in prostate cancer.

Ramnath N, Nadal E, Jeon CK, et al.
Epigenetic regulation of vitamin D metabolism in human lung adenocarcinoma.
J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9(4):473-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) is antiproliferative in preclinical models of lung cancer, but in tumor tissues, its efficacy may be limited by CYP24A1 expression. CYP24A1 is the rate limiting catabolic enzyme for 1,25-D3 and is overexpressed in human lung adenocarcinoma (AC) by unknown mechanisms.
METHODS: The DNA methylation status of CYP24A1 was determined by bisulfite DNA pyrosequencing in a panel of 30 lung cell lines and 90 surgically resected lung AC. The level of CYP24A1 methylation was correlated with CYP24A1 expression in lung AC cell lines and tumors. In addition, histone modifications were assessed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation-polymerase chain reaction (ChIP-qPCR) in A549, NCI-H460, and SK-LU-1.
RESULTS: Bisulfite DNA pyrosequencing analysis revealed that CYP24A1 gene was heterogeneously methylated in lung AC. Expression of CYP24A1 was inversely correlated with promoter DNA methylation in lung AC cell lines and tumors. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) and trichostatin A (TSA) increased CYP24A1 expression in lung AC. We observed that CYP24A1 promoter hypermethylation decreased CYP24A1 enzyme activity in vitro, whereas treatment with 5-Aza and/or TSA increased CYP24A1 enzyme affinity for its substrate 1,25-D3. In addition, ChIP-qPCR analysis revealed specific histone modifications within the CYP24A1 promoter region. Treatment with TSA increased H3K4me2 and H3K9ac and simultaneously decreased H3K9me2 at the CYP24A1 promoter and treatment with 5-Aza and/or TSA increased the recruitment of vitamin D receptor (VDR) to vitamin D response elements (VDRE) of the CYP24A1 promoter.
CONCLUSIONS: The expression of CYP24A1 gene in human lung AC is in part epigenetically regulated by promoter DNA methylation and repressive histone modifications. These findings should be taken into consideration when targeting CYP24A1 to optimize antiproliferative effects of 1,25-D3 in lung AC.

Pibiri F, Kittles RA, Sandler RS, et al.
Genetic variation in vitamin D-related genes and risk of colorectal cancer in African Americans.
Cancer Causes Control. 2014; 25(5):561-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Disparities in both colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and survival impact African Americans (AAs) more than other US ethnic groups. Because vitamin D is thought to protect against CRC and AAs have lower serum vitamin D levels, genetic variants that modulate the levels of active hormone in the tissues could explain some of the cancer health disparity. Consequently, we hypothesized that genetic variants in vitamin D-related genes are associated with CRC risk.
METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we studied 39 potentially functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes (CYP2R1, CYP3A4, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, CYP27B1, GC, DHCR7, and VDR) in 961 AA CRC cases and 838 healthy AA controls from Chicago and North Carolina. We tested whether SNPs are associated with CRC incidence using logistic regression models to calculate p values, odds ratios, and 95 % confidence intervals. In the logistic regression, we used a log-additive genetic model and used age, gender, and percent West African ancestry, which we estimated with the program STRUCTURE, as covariates in the models.
RESULTS: A nominally significant association was detected between CRC and the SNP rs12794714 in the vitamin D 25-hydroxylase gene CYP2R1 (p = 0.019), a SNP that has previously been associated with serum vitamin D levels. Two SNPs, rs16847024 in the GC gene and rs6022990 in the CYP24A1 gene, were nominally associated with left-sided CRC (p = 0.015 and p = 0.018, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly suggest that genetic variation in vitamin D-related genes could affect CRC susceptibility in AAs.

Bikle DD
Vitamin D metabolism, mechanism of action, and clinical applications.
Chem Biol. 2014; 21(3):319-29 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
Vitamin D3 is made in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol under the influence of UV light. Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is derived from the plant sterol ergosterol. Vitamin D is metabolized first to 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), then to the hormonal form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). CYP2R1 is the most important 25-hydroxylase; CYP27B1 is the key 1-hydroxylase. Both 25OHD and 1,25(OH)2D are catabolized by CYP24A1. 1,25(OH)2D is the ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a transcription factor, binding to sites in the DNA called vitamin D response elements (VDREs). There are thousands of these binding sites regulating hundreds of genes in a cell-specific fashion. VDR-regulated transcription is dependent on comodulators, the profile of which is also cell specific. Analogs of 1,25(OH)2D are being developed to target specific diseases with minimal side effects. This review will examine these different aspects of vitamin D metabolism, mechanism of action, and clinical application.

Oh JJ, Byun SS, Lee SE, et al.
Genetic variants in the CYP24A1 gene are associated with prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness in a Korean study population.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2014; 17(2):149-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D-deactivating enzyme CYP24A1 had controversial effects on prostate cancer risk; the genetic study also showed the controversial results. Therefore, we identified the relationships between polymorphisms in CYP24A1 and prostate cancer in a Korean cohort.
METHODS: We evaluated the association between 21 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP24A1 and prostate cancer in Korean men (272 prostate cancers and 173 controls). BPH patients with high PSA or abnormal digital rectal examination who underwent negative prostate biopsy were enrolled in the control group. Twenty-one SNPs in the CYP24A1 were selected from the International HapMap database and the NCBI database with calculation of minor allele frequency and linkage disequilibrium, preferably including the SNPs that were nonsynonymous and located within exons. We also investigated the association between 21 SNPs in the CYP24A1 gene and known clinical characteristics, such as the PSA level, clinical stage, pathological stage and Gleason score.
RESULTS: The statistical analysis suggested that five CYP24A1 sequence variants (rs2248461-odds ratio (OR): 0.63, rs2248359-OR: 0.65, rs6022999-OR: 0.65, rs2585428-OR: 0.46, rs4809959-OR: 0.52) had a significant association with prostate cancer risk after multiple comparisons by a method of false discovery rate. Logistic analyses of the CYP24A1 polymorphisms with several prostate cancer-related factors showed that several SNPs were significant: four SNPs to PSA level, three to clinical stage, two to pathological stage and two SNPs to the Gleason score.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that some CYP24A1 gene polymorphisms might be associated with the risk of prostate cancer in Korean men. Five CYP24A1 sequence variants showed the significance to predict prostate cancer, and several SNPs of CYP24A1 gene had an important finding to predict prostate cancer-related factors. However, these results should be validated in future large-scale studies.

Basit S
Vitamin D in health and disease: a literature review.
Br J Biomed Sci. 2013; 70(4):161-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vitamin D, a fat-soluble prohormone, is synthesised in response to sunlight. Vitamin D requires two metabolic conversions, 25-hydroxylation in the liver and 1alpha-hydroxylation in the kidney, to become active hormone. The active form, 1alpha,25-(OH)2D, binds to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) to modulate gene transcription and regulate mineral ion homeostasis. Vitamin D plays several roles in the body, influencing bone health as well as serum calcium and phosphate levels. Furthermore, vitamin D may modify immune function, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with numerous health outcomes, including risk of rickets in children or osteomalacia in adults, increased risk of fractures, falls, cancer, autoimmune disease, infectious disease, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, hypertension and heart disease, and other diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Here, vitamin D physiology and metabolism, its genomic action and association of polymorphisms in vitamin D pathway genes with different diseases are reviewed by focusing on new findings published in the literature.

Bi C, Li B, Du L, et al.
Vitamin D receptor, an important transcription factor associated with aldosterone-producing adenoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e82309 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore the endocrine mechanisms of aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) by using the microarray expression profiles of normal and APA samples.
METHODS: The gene expression profile GSE8514 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including samples from normal adrenals (n = 5) and APAs (n = 10). The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by samr package and endocrine DEGs were obtained according to Clinical Genome Database. Then, functional enrichment analysis of screened DEGs was performed by DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery). Finally, a regulatory network was constructed to screen endocrine genes related with adrenal dysfunction and pathway enrichment analysis for the constructed network was performed.
RESULTS: A total of 2149 DEGs were identified including 379 up- and 1770 down-regulated genes. And 26 endocrine genes were filtered from the DEGs. Furthermore, the down-regulated DEGs are mainly related to protein kinase cascade, response to molecule of bacterial origin, response to lipopolysaccharide, cellular macromolecule catabolic process and macromolecule catabolic process, while the up-regulated DEGs are related with regulation of ion transport. The target genes of VDR (vitamin D receptor), one of the three endocrine genes differentially expressed in the regulatory network, were endocrine genes including CYP24A1 (25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase) and PTH (parathyroid hormone). Three pathways may be associated with APA pathogenesis including cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, pathways in cancer and autoimmune thyroid disease.
CONCLUSION: The VDR is the most significant transcription factor and related endocrine genes might play important roles in the endocrine mechanisms of APA.

Urbschat A, Paulus P, von Quernheim QF, et al.
Vitamin D hydroxylases CYP2R1, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 in renal cell carcinoma.
Eur J Clin Invest. 2013; 43(12):1282-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that vitamin D metabolites influence carcinogenesis. Besides its role in mineral homoeostasis, calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D3 ), is known to possess antiproliferative, proapoptotic and immunomodulatory effects in cancer. Concerning the synthesis of vitamin D, the hydroxylases CYP2R1, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 play a critical role, and the latter molecule determines the biological half-life of 1,25(OH)2 D3 , which is synthesized in the proximal renal tubules.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The adjacency of these two biological processes prompted us to investigate the gene expression of CYP2R1, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 in patients with ccRCC. Using RT-PCR, we retrospectively compared mRNA expression profiles from human ccRCC tumour samples with those derived from the corresponding adjacent healthy tissues (n = 30).
RESULTS: We observed that all three genes (CYP2R1, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1) were upregulated in tumours compared with normal tissue (P < 0·0001). Moreover, CYP24A1 displayed a significantly higher expression in tumours than CYP27B1 (P < 0·05) and CYP2R1 (P < 0·0001), whereas no differences in the expression of these genes were found in healthy renal tissue. Gene expression of CYP2R1, CYP27B1 and CYP24A did not differ between pathological classifications (TNM, grading, presence of metastasis).
CONCLUSION: We thus conclude that upregulated gene expression of the catabolizing CYP24A1 as well as the synthesizing CYP2R1 and CYP27B1 may lead to a misbalance of vitamin D metabolites in ccRCC and thus contributing to its pathogenesis.

Hummel DM, Fetahu IS, Gröschel C, et al.
Role of proinflammatory cytokines on expression of vitamin D metabolism and target genes in colon cancer cells.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014; 144 Pt A:91-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) are proinflammatory cytokines that play a critical role in inflammatory bowel disease, as well as in colorectal tumorigenesis. We hypothesize that these cytokines modulate the expression and thus activity of the vitamin D system in colonic epithelial cells. We treated the colon cancer cell line COGA-1A for 6, 12, and 24h with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3), IL-6, TNFα, and with combinations of these compounds. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we analyzed mRNA expression of genes activating and catabolizing 1,25-D3 (1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1)), expression of several vitamin D target genes, as well as expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase. As expected, treatment with 1,25-D3 resulted in an upregulation of CYP24A1, whereas expression of CYP27B1 was not affected. Treatment with TNFα and IL-6 led to decreased expression of the vitamin D activating enzyme CYP27B1. The strong inflammatory property of TNFα was mirrored by its activation of COX-2 and inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) catabolism. Interestingly, expression of the calcium ion channel TRPV6 was markedly decreased by TNFα. We conclude from these results that the presence of proinflammatory cytokines might impair activation of 1,25-D3, limiting its anti-inflammatory action. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'.

Hiraki LT, Qu C, Hutter CM, et al.
Genetic predictors of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin d and risk of colorectal cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013; 22(11):2037-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence has demonstrated an antineoplastic role for vitamin D in the colon, and higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are consistently associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide association studies have identified loci associated with levels of circulating 25(OH)D. The identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from four gene regions collectively explain approximately 5% of the variance in circulating 25(OH)D.
METHODS: We investigated whether five polymorphisms in GC, CYP2R1, CYP24A1, and DHCR7/NADSYN1, genes previously shown to be associated with circulating 25(OH)D levels, were associated with colorectal cancer risk in 10,061 cases and 12,768 controls drawn from 13 studies included in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO) and Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR). We conducted a meta-analysis of crude and multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and associated confidence intervals for SNPs individually, SNPs simultaneously, and for a vitamin D additive genetic risk score (GRS).
RESULTS: We did not observe a statistically significant association between the 25(OH)D-associated SNPs and colorectal cancer marginally, conditionally, or as a GRS, or for colon or rectal cancer separately.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support an association between SNPs associated with circulating 25(OH)D and risk of colorectal cancer. Additional work is warranted to investigate the complex relationship between 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer risk.
IMPACT: There was no association observed between genetic markers of circulating 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer. These genetic markers account for a small proportion of the variance in 25(OH)D.

Di Rosa M, Malaguarnera M, Zanghì A, et al.
Vitamin D3 insufficiency and colorectal cancer.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2013; 88(3):594-612 [PubMed] Related Publications
Traditionally the main recognized function of vitamin D has been calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Nevertheless, recent evidences have highlighted the importance of vitamin D3 as a protective agent against various cancers. The association between CRC and vitamin D3 was first suggested in ecologic studies, but further was confirmed by observational studies in humans and experimental studies in both animal models and cellular lines. The protective role of vitamin D3 against cancer has been attributed to its influence of on cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, DNA repair mechanisms, inflammation and immune function. In its active (calcitriol) form (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3[1α,25-(OH)2D3]) vitamin D3 and the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulate hundreds of genes including those coding for proteins involved in cell differentiation and cell proliferation. The current review addresses some of the key mechanisms that influence the biological actions of vitamin D and its metabolites. The insights derived from these mechanisms may aid in designing new uses for this hormone and its non-hypercalcemic derivatives in the treatment and/or prevention of CRC.

Anderson LN, Cotterchio M, Knight JA, et al.
Genetic variants in vitamin d pathway genes and risk of pancreas cancer; results from a population-based case-control study in ontario, Canada.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e66768 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
Recent studies of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and pancreas cancer have suggested a potential role of the vitamin D pathway in the etiology of this fatal disease. Variants in vitamin-D related genes are known to affect 25(OH)D levels and function and it is unknown if these variants may influence pancreatic cancer risk. The association between 87 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 genes was evaluated within the Ontario Pancreas Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study. Pancreatic cancer cases with pathology confirmed adenocarcinoma were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry (n = 628) and controls were identified through random digit dialing (n = 1193). Age and sex adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariate logistic regression. SNPs in the CYP24A1, CYP2R1, calcium sensing receptor (CASR), vitamin D binding protein (GC), retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXRA) and megalin (LRP2) genes were significantly associated with pancreas cancer risk. For example, pancreas cancer risk was inversely associated with CYP2R1 rs10741657 (AA versus GG, OR = 0.70; 95%CI: 0.51-0.95) and positively with CYP24A1 rs6127119 (TT versus CC. OR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.28-2.94). None of the associations were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Vitamin D pathway gene variants may be associated with pancreas cancer risk and future studies are needed to understand the possible role of vitamin D in tumorigenesis and may have implications for cancer-prevention strategies.

Milani C, Katayama ML, de Lyra EC, et al.
Transcriptional effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3) physiological and supra-physiological concentrations in breast cancer organotypic culture.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:119 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D transcriptional effects were linked to tumor growth control, however, the hormone targets were determined in cell cultures exposed to supra physiological concentrations of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (50-100nM). Our aim was to evaluate the transcriptional effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in a more physiological model of breast cancer, consisting of fresh tumor slices exposed to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) at concentrations that can be attained in vivo.
METHODS: Tumor samples from post-menopausal breast cancer patients were sliced and cultured for 24 hours with or without 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) 0.5nM or 100nM. Gene expression was analyzed by microarray (SAM paired analysis, FDR≤0.1) or RT-qPCR (p≤0.05, Friedman/Wilcoxon test). Expression of candidate genes was then evaluated in mammary epithelial/breast cancer lineages and cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), exposed or not to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) 0.5nM, using RT-qPCR, western blot or immunocytochemistry.
RESULTS: 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) 0.5nM or 100nM effects were evaluated in five tumor samples by microarray and seven and 136 genes, respectively, were up-regulated. There was an enrichment of genes containing transcription factor binding sites for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in samples exposed to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) near physiological concentration. Genes up-modulated by both 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations were CYP24A1, DPP4, CA2, EFTUD1, TKTL1, KCNK3. Expression of candidate genes was subsequently evaluated in another 16 samples by RT-qPCR and up-regulation of CYP24A1, DPP4 and CA2 by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was confirmed. To evaluate whether the transcripitonal targets of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) 0.5nM were restricted to the epithelial or stromal compartments, gene expression was examined in HB4A, C5.4, SKBR3, MDA-MB231, MCF-7 lineages and CAFs, using RT-qPCR. In epithelial cells, there was a clear induction of CYP24A1, CA2, CD14 and IL1RL1. In fibroblasts, in addition to CYP24A1 induction, there was a trend towards up-regulation of CA2, IL1RL1, and DPP4. A higher protein expression of CD14 in epithelial cells and CA2 and DPP4 in CAFs exposed to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) 0.5nM was detected.
CONCLUSIONS: In breast cancer specimens a short period of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) exposure at near physiological concentration modestly activates the hormone transcriptional pathway. Induction of CYP24A1, CA2, DPP4, IL1RL1 expression appears to reflect 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) effects in epithelial as well as stromal cells, however, induction of CD14 expression is likely restricted to the epithelial compartment.

Höbaus J, Hummel DM, Thiem U, et al.
Increased copy-number and not DNA hypomethylation causes overexpression of the candidate proto-oncogene CYP24A1 in colorectal cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(6):1380-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
In colorectal cancer (CRC) the vitamin D catabolizing enzyme 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) is overexpressed with a potentially significant, positive impact on the catabolism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3 ). However, the underlying mechanism of CYP24A1 overexpression is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated possible causes including hypomethylation of the CYP24A1 promoter, amplification of the CYP24A1 gene locus (20q13.2), and altered expression of CYP24A1-specific transcription factors. We quantified CYP24A1 gene copy-number, performed bisulfite sequencing of the CYP24A1 promoter to assess DNA methylation, and measured mRNA expression of CYP24A1, 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR). We found that 77 (60%) out of 127 colorectal tumors showed increased CYP24A1 gene copy-number and that more than 6 copies of CYP24A1 correlated positively with CYP24A1 mRNA expression suggestive of a causal relationship. No differences in CYP24A1 promoter methylation were found between tumor tissue and adjacent mucosa from the same patient or between tissues with high or low mRNA expression, thus excluding DNA hypomethylation as a possible cause of CYP24A1 overexpression in CRC. Furthermore, mRNA expression of several factors involved in replication licensing positively correlated with CYP24A1 mRNA expression, raising the possibility that CYP24A1 overexpression might favor increased proliferation in tumors by suppressing local 1,25-D3 levels. We conclude that high copy-number gain is a key determinant of CYP24A1 overexpression in CRC. Other postulated causes of CYP24A1 overexpression including promoter hypomethylation and enhanced VDR and/or RXR expression do not appear to be involved.

Muindi JR, Adjei AA, Wu ZR, et al.
Serum vitamin D metabolites in colorectal cancer patients receiving cholecalciferol supplementation: correlation with polymorphisms in the vitamin D genes.
Horm Cancer. 2013; 4(4):242-50 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
Cholecalciferol (D(3)) supplementation results in variable increases in serum 25(OH)D(3) levels, however, the influence of genetic polymorphisms on these variable responses is unclear. We measured serum 25(OH)D(3), 24,25(OH)(2)D(3), 1,25(OH)2D(3) and VDBP levels in 50 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients before and during 2,000 IU daily oral D(3) supplementation for six months and in 263 archived CRC serum samples. Serum PTH levels and PBMC 24-OHase activity were also measured during D(3) supplementation. TagSNPs in CYP2R1, CYP27A1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, VDR, and GC genes were genotyped in all patients, and the association between these SNPs and serum vitamin D(3) metabolites levels before and after D(3) supplementation was analyzed. The mean baseline serum 25(OH)D(3) level was less than 32 ng/mL in 65 % of the 313 CRC patients. In the 50 patients receiving D(3) supplementation, serum levels of 25(OH)D(3) increased (p = 0.008), PTH decreased (p = 0.036) and 24,25(OH)(2)D(3), 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), VDBP levels and PBMC 24-OHase activity were unchanged. GC SNP rs222016 was associated with high 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels at baseline while rs4588 and rs2282679 were associated with lower 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels both before and after D(3) supplementation. CYP2R1 rs12794714 and rs10500804 SNPs were significantly associated with low 25(OH)D(3) levels after supplementation but not with baseline 25(OH)D(3). Our results show that D(3) supplementation increased 25(OH)D(3) levels in all patients. GC rs4588 and rs2283679 SNPs were associated with increased risk of vitamin D(3) insufficiency and suboptimal increase in 25(OH)D(3) levels after D(3) supplementation. Individuals with these genotypes may require higher D(3) supplementation doses to achieve vitamin D(3) sufficiency.

Li D, Wang X, Wu JL, et al.
Tumor-produced versican V1 enhances hCAP18/LL-37 expression in macrophages through activation of TLR2 and vitamin D3 signaling to promote ovarian cancer progression in vitro.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e56616 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
Tumor-associated macrophages have been shown to promote tumor growth. They may have an obligatory function in angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis through release of inflammatory mediators. Their presence in ovarian cancer has been correlated with poor prognosis in these patients. The human cationic antimicrobial protein-18 (hCAP18)/LL-37 was originally identified as an effector molecule of the innate immune system. It is released by innate immune cells, such as macrophages, to combat microorganisms. Previous studies have characterized the hCAP18/LL-37 as a growth factor that has been shown to promote ovarian tumor progression. However, the role hCAP18/LL-37 has in macrophage-promoted ovarian tumor development and how its expression is controlled in this context remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate in co-culture experiments of macrophages and ovarian cancer cells a significant increase in the in vitro proliferation and invasiveness of the tumor cells is observed. These enhanced growth and invasion properties correlated with hCAP18/LL-37 induction. HCAP18/LL-37 expression was diminished by addition of two neutralizing antibodies, TLR2 or TLR6, as well as Cyp27B1 or VDR inhibitors. Furthermore, either the TLR2 or TLR6 antibody reduced vitamin D3 signaling and tumor cell progression in vitro. Addition of Cyp27B1 or VDR inhibitors abrogated TLR2/6 activation-induced expression of hCAP18/LL-37 in macrophages. Knockdown of tumor-produced versican V1 by RNAi in these tumor cells led to a decreased induction of hCAP18/LL-37 in macrophages. Versican V1 knockdown also inhibited TLR2 and vitamin D3 signaling, as well as growth and invasiveness of these tumor cells in the in vitro co-culture. In summary, we have found that versican V1 enhances hCAP18/LL-37 expression in macrophages through activation of TLR2 and subsequent vitamin D-dependent mechanisms which promote ovarian tumor progression in vitro.

Jacobs ET, Van Pelt C, Forster RE, et al.
CYP24A1 and CYP27B1 polymorphisms modulate vitamin D metabolism in colon cancer cells.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(8):2563-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
Vitamin D is a well-studied agent for cancer chemoprevention and treatment. Its chief circulating metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, is converted into the active hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP27B1 in kidney and other tissues. 1,25D is then deactivated by CYP24A1 and ultimately catabolized. Colorectal carcinoma cells express CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 that locally regulate 1,25D with potential implications for its impact on carcinogenesis. While 1,25D inhibits cancer growth, the effects of polymorphic variations in genes encoding proteins involved in 1,25D homeostasis are poorly understood. Using an RXR-VDR mammalian two-hybrid (M2H) biologic assay system, we measured vitamin D metabolite uptake and activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) pathway in colon cancer cells that expressed one of five CYP27B1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) or four CYP24A1 SNPs. Compared with the wild-type control, four of five CYP27B1 SNPs reduced enzymatic activity, whereas one (V166L) increased activity. For CYP24A1, all tested SNPs reduced enzyme activity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses supported the results of M2H experiments. The observed SNP-directed variation in CYP functionality indicated that vitamin D homeostasis is complex and may be influenced by genetic factors. A comprehensive understanding of 1,25D metabolism may allow for a more personalized approach toward treating vitamin D-related disorders and evaluating risk for carcinogenesis.

Fuhrman BJ, Freedman DM, Bhatti P, et al.
Sunlight, polymorphisms of vitamin D-related genes and risk of breast cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(2):543-51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Geographic gradients in breast cancer incidence and mortality suggest that vitamin D may reduce risk. The enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1), which degrades the active form of vitamin D, and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) are both found in breast tissue. We investigated six polymorphisms in CYP24A1 and two in the VDR gene in association with breast cancer risk.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study within the nationwide U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort, including 845 controls and 484 incident breast cancer cases. Associations of polymorphic variants and ecologic and personal measures of sun exposure with breast cancer risk were assessed using unconditional logistic regression.
RESULTS: Two polymorphisms in CYP24A1 were associated with increased breast cancer risk (rs34043203, P(trend)=0.03; rs2762934, P(trend)=0.005) and one with reduced breast cancer risk (rs1570669, P(trend)=0.048). Risk was inversely associated with minor alleles for the VDR Bsm1 polymorphism (rs1544410, P(trend)=0.05) but not Fok1 (rs2228570). Sunlight measures were not associated with breast cancer risk, however significant interactions between time outdoors in the teen years and three unlinked genotypes were found for VDR (rs1544410, rs2228570) and CYP24A1 (rs1570669).
CONCLUSION: In this nation-wide breast cancer case-control study, we found that the vitamin D pathway was involved in disease etiology and our results further suggest that reduced cancer risk, in association with sunlight, may depend on timing of exposure and genetic background. These findings merit further investigation.

Mondul AM, Shui IM, Yu K, et al.
Genetic variation in the vitamin d pathway in relation to risk of prostate cancer--results from the breast and prostate cancer cohort consortium.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013; 22(4):688-96 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that vitamin D status may be associated with prostate cancer risk although the direction and strength of this association differs between experimental and observational studies. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status. We examined prostate cancer risk in relation to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in four genes shown to predict circulating levels of 25(OH)D.
METHODS: SNP markers localized to each of four genes (GC, CYP24A1, CYP2R1, and DHCR7) previously associated with 25(OH)D were genotyped in 10,018 cases and 11,052 controls from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. Logistic regression was used to estimate the individual and cumulative association between genetic variants and risk of overall and aggressive prostate cancer.
RESULTS: We observed a decreased risk of aggressive prostate cancer among men with the allele in rs6013897 near CYP24A1 associated with lower serum 25(OH)D [per A allele, OR, 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80-0.93; Ptrend = 0.0002) but an increased risk for nonaggressive disease (per A allele: OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17; Ptrend = 0.002). Examination of a polygenic score of the four SNPs revealed statistically significantly lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer among men with a greater number of low vitamin D alleles (OR for 6-8 vs. 0-1 alleles, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.98; Ptrend = 0.003).
CONCLUSIONS: In this large, pooled analysis, genetic variants related to lower 25(OH)D levels were associated with a decreased risk of aggressive prostate cancer.
IMPACT: Our genetic findings do not support a protective association between loci known to influence vitamin D levels and prostate cancer risk.

Luo W, Yu WD, Ma Y, et al.
Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 reduces Cyp24a1 expression and enhances 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) antitumor activity in human prostate cancer cells.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(7):2289-97 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
Vitamin D has broad range of physiological functions and antitumor effects. 24-Hydroxylase, encoded by the CYP24A1 gene, is the key enzyme for degrading many forms of vitamin D including the most active form, 1,25D(3). Inhibition of CYP24A1 enhances 1,25D(3) antitumor activity. To isolate regulators of CYP24A1 expression in prostate cancer cells, we established a stable prostate cancer cell line PC3 with CYP24A1 promoter driving luciferase expression to screen a small molecular library for compounds that inhibit CYP24A1 promoter activity. From this screening, we identified, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz), a protein kinase CK2 selective inhibitor as a disruptor of CYP24A1 promoter activity. We show that TBBz inhibits CYP24A1 promoter activity induced by 1,25D(3) in prostate cancer cells. In addition, TBBz downregulates endogenous CYP24A1 mRNA level in TBBz-treated PC3 cells. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated CK2 knockdown reduces 1,25D(3)-induced CYP24A1 mRNA expression in PC3 cells. These results suggest that CK2 contributes to 1,25D(3)-mediated target gene expression. Finally, inhibition of CK2 by TBBz or CK2 siRNA significantly enhances 1,25D(3)-mediated antiproliferative effect in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft model. In summary, our findings reveal that protein kinase CK2 is involved in the regulation of CYP24A1 expression by 1,25D(3) and CK2 inhibitor enhances 1,25D(3)-mediated antitumor effect.

Smolders J, Schuurman KG, van Strien ME, et al.
Expression of vitamin D receptor and metabolizing enzymes in multiple sclerosis-affected brain tissue.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2013; 72(2):91-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), but how vitamin D metabolism affects MS pathophysiology is not understood. We studied the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and related enzymes, including 1,25(OH)(2)D-24-hydroxylase (24-OHase; CYP24A1) and 25(OH)D-1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), in CNS tissues of 39 MS patients and 20 controls and in primary human glial cells in vitro. In control and MS normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), nuclear VDR immunostaining was observed in oligodendrocyte-like cells, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-positive microglia, and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. There was a 2-fold increase in VDR transcripts in MS NAWM versus control white matter (p = 0.03). In chronic active MS lesions, HLA-positive microglia/macrophages showed nuclear VDR staining; astrocytes showed nuclear and cytoplasmic VDR staining. Staining for 24-OHase was restricted to astrocytes.VDR and CYP27B1 mRNA expressions were increased in active MS lesions versus NAWM (p < 0.01, p = 0.04, respectively). In primary human astrocytes in vitro, the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), induced upregulation of VDR and CYP24A1. Tumor necrosis factor and interferon-γ upregulated CYP27B1 mRNA in primary human microglia and astrocytes. Increased VDR expression in MS NAWM and inflammatory cytokine-induced amplified expression of VDR and CYP27B1 in chronic active MS lesions suggest increased sensitivity to vitamin D in NAWM and a possible endogenous role for vitamin D metabolism in the suppression of active MS lesions.

Zhou X, Khan SG, Tamura D, et al.
Abnormal XPD-induced nuclear receptor transactivation in DNA repair disorders: trichothiodystrophy and xeroderma pigmentosum.
Eur J Hum Genet. 2013; 21(8):831-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
XPD (ERCC2) is a DNA helicase involved in nucleotide excision repair and in transcription as a structural bridge tying the transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) core with the cdk-activating kinase complex, which phosphorylates nuclear receptors. Mutations in XPD are associated with several different phenotypes, including trichothiodystrophy (TTD), with sulfur-deficient brittle hair, bone defects, and developmental abnormalities without skin cancer, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), with pigmentary abnormalities and increased skin cancer, or XP/TTD with combined features, including skin cancer. We describe the varied clinical features and mutations in nine patients examined at the National Institutes of Health who were compound heterozygotes for XPD mutations but had different clinical phenotypes: four TTD, three XP, and two combined XP/TTD. We studied TFIIH-dependent transactivation by nuclear receptor for vitamin D (VDR) and thyroid in cells from these patients. The vitamin D stimulation ratio of CYP24 and osteopontin was associated with specific pairs of mutations (reduced in 5, elevated in 1) but not correlated with distinct clinical phenotypes. Thyroid receptor stimulation ratio for KLF9 was not significantly different from normal. XPD mutations frequently were associated with abnormal VDR stimulation in compound heterozygote patients with TTD, XP, or XP/TTD.

Azad AK, Bairati I, Qiu X, et al.
Genetic sequence variants in vitamin D metabolism pathway genes, serum vitamin D level and outcome in head and neck cancer patients.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 132(11):2520-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although some studies have reported associations between serum vitamin D level and prognosis in several cancers, others have found associations between genetic sequence variants (GSVs) in the vitamin D metabolism pathway genes and outcomes in various cancers including head and neck cancer (HNC). We comprehensively evaluated the association and interaction of GSVs in vitamin D metabolism pathway genes and their regulatory effects on circulatory serum vitamin D level in HNC outcome. We systemically evaluated the association of 89 tagging and candidate-based GSVs in six major vitamin D metabolism pathway genes (VDR, GC, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, CYP27B1 and CYP2R1) and the circulating serum vitamin D level with overall survival (OS) and second primary cancer (SPC) in 522 Stages I-II radiation-treated patients with HNC. For OS: median follow-up time was 8 years; for SPC, 4.4 years. The most common subsite was the larynx (84%). Three hundred and twelve patients were alive at the end of follow-up for OS. SPCs were diagnosed in 108 patients and were primarily of lung (46%). Serum vitamin D levels were significantly lower in patients carrying the minor alleles of GC:rs4588 and CYP2R1:rs10500804. CYP24A1:rs2296241 was significantly associated with OS and CYP2R1:rs1993116 was with SPC. These two GSVs remained significantly associated after adjusting for serum vitamin D level and important clinical factors. GSVs in the vitamin D metabolism pathway genes were associated with disease outcomes in HNC patients; however, these GSVs are different from those affecting serum vitamin D levels.

Horvath E, Lakatos P, Balla B, et al.
Marked increase of CYP24A1 mRNA level in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines following vitamin D administration.
Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(11):4791-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in numerous types of tumors. We aimed to examine the mRNA and protein expression of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-inactivating CYP24A1 and mRNA expression of the activating CYP27B1 enzymes, as well as that of vitamin D receptor (VDR), in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell cultures in response to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) administration.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Increasing amounts of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (0.256-10 nM) were added to cultures of HepG2, Huh-Neo, Hep3B, Huh5-15 human HCC cell lines and cells then incubated for various time periods (30 min-28 h). The mRNA expression was analyzed by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CYP24A1 protein in HepG2 cells was detected by immuncytochemistry.
RESULTS: CYP24A1 mRNA expression significantly (p<0.0001) increased in response to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) administration in two cell lines: in HepG2 cells, the CYP24A1 mRNA level exhibited 5,300-fold elevation, reaching a maximum value at 8 h; in Huh-Neo cells, the increase was 152-fold that of the baseline value, with the maximum being reached at 14 h. There was no significant change in Hep3B and Huh5-15 cell lines, nor was there any change in CYP27B1 and VDR gene expression in any cell cultures. Immuncytochemistry in HepG2 cells proved that gene activation was followed by CYP24A1 protein synthesis.
CONCLUSION: Our novel data indicate that administration of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) results in a marked increase of CYP24A1 mRNA expression in some, but not all, human HCC lines in vitro. These differences could be dependent upon the origin of the tumor cells.

Levin GP, Robinson-Cohen C, de Boer IH, et al.
Genetic variants and associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with major clinical outcomes.
JAMA. 2012; 308(18):1898-905 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
CONTEXT: Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with greater risks of many chronic diseases across large, prospective community-based studies. Substrate 25-hydroxyvitamin D must be converted to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D for full biological activity, and complex metabolic pathways suggest that interindividual variability in vitamin D metabolism may alter the clinical consequences of measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether common variation within genes encoding the vitamin D-binding protein, megalin, cubilin, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) modify associations of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D with major clinical outcomes.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Examination of 141 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a discovery cohort of 1514 white participants (who were recruited from 4 US regions) from the community-based Cardiovascular Health Study. Participants had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements in 1992-1993 and were followed up for a median of 11 years (through 2006). Replication meta-analyses were conducted across the independent, community-based US Health, Aging, and Body Composition (n = 922; follow-up: 1998-1999 through 2005), Italian Invecchiare in Chianti (n = 835; follow-up: 1998-2000 through 2006), and Swedish Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (n = 970; follow-up: 1991-1995 through 2008) cohort studies.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Composite outcome of incident hip facture, myocardial infarction, cancer, and mortality over long-term follow-up.
RESULTS: Interactions between 5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration were identified in the discovery phase and 1 involving a variant in the VDR gene replicated in independent meta-analysis. Among Cardiovascular Health Study participants, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was associated with hazard ratios for risk of the composite outcome of 1.40 (95% CI, 1.12-1.74) for those who had 1 minor allele at rs7968585 and 1.82 (95% CI, 1.31-2.54) for those with 2 minor alleles at rs7968585. In contrast, there was no evidence of an association (estimated hazard ratio, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.70-1.24]) among participants who had 0 minor alleles at this single-nucleotide polymorphism.
CONCLUSION: Known associations of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D with major health outcomes may vary according to common genetic differences in the vitamin D receptor.

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