Gene Summary

Gene:CYP24A1; cytochrome P450 family 24 subfamily A member 1
Aliases: CP24, HCAI, CYP24, HCINF1, P450-CC24
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This mitochondrial protein initiates the degradation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the physiologically active form of vitamin D3, by hydroxylation of the side chain. In regulating the level of vitamin D3, this enzyme plays a role in calcium homeostasis and the vitamin D endocrine system. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase, mitochondrial
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (17)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cholecalciferol
  • Steroid Hydroxylases
  • Receptors, Calcitriol
  • Down-Regulation
  • Genetic Variation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase
  • Calcifediol
  • Vitamin D-Binding Protein
  • Signal Transduction
  • Messenger RNA
  • Vitamins
  • Lung Cancer
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • DNA Methylation
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Epigenetics
  • Survival Rate
  • Chromosome 20
  • Genotype
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Calcitriol
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Breast Cancer
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Vitamin D
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • beta Catenin
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • CYP24A1 protein, human
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase
  • Up-Regulation
Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CYP24A1 (cancer-related)

Qu R, Li X, Quan X, et al.
Polymorphism in CYP24A1 Is Associated with Lung Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in Chinese Female Nonsmokers.
DNA Cell Biol. 2019; 38(3):243-249 [PubMed] Related Publications
CYP24A1 plays important roles in antiproliferative effects, which have been proved in many human tumor cells. Polymorphisms in CYP24A1 may affect the risk of lung cancer, but the results remained inconclusive. To enhance the understanding of possible relationship between CYP24A1 polymorphism rs6068816 and lung cancer risks, we first carried out this case-control study among Chinese female nonsmokers, including 345 lung cancer patients and 351 noncancer controls. Our results revealed that individuals carrying CT and CC genotype were associated with decreasing lung cancer risk (adjusted odds ratios were 0.71 and 0.59, and 95% confidence intervals were 0.52-0.97 and 0.35-0.99, p-values were 0.031 and 0.048, respectively). Patients carrying allele-T showed lower hazard risks, especially in adenocarcinoma and advanced stage cancers. We also found that subjects with allele-T showed a relatively low risk of lung cancer when they were exposed to oil fume. But neither additive scale nor multiplicative scale revealed interactions between allele-T and environmental exposures, including oil fume, coal fuel fume, and passive smoking. Overall, these findings indicated that CYP24A1 polymorphism rs6068816 could be significantly associated with susceptibility of lung cancer in Chinese female nonsmokers.

Zhuo M, Zhuang X, Tang W, et al.
The Impact of
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:8305745 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung carcinoma is the most common cancer and cause of cancer deaths among both males and females in China. Previously, genetic variants located in gene untranslated region have been well established as interfering factors in mRNA translation and confirmed playing critical roles in lung oncogenesis. However, the correlation between polymorphisms in gene 3' untranslated region and lung cancer risk is less reported in China Han population. In this study, polymorphisms in 3'-untranslated region of

Annalora AJ, Jozic M, Marcus CB, Iversen PL
Alternative splicing of the vitamin D receptor modulates target gene expression and promotes ligand-independent functions.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2019; 364:55-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alternative splicing modulates gene function by creating splice variants with alternate functions or non-coding RNA activity. Naturally occurring variants of nuclear receptor (NR) genes with dominant negative or gain-of-function phenotypes have been documented, but their cellular roles, regulation, and responsiveness to environmental stress or disease remain unevaluated. Informed by observations that class I androgen and estrogen receptor variants display ligand-independent signaling in human cancer tissues, we questioned whether the function of class II NRs, like the vitamin D receptor (VDR), would also respond to alternative splicing regulation. Artificial VDR constructs lacking exon 3 (Dex3-VDR), encoding part of the DNA binding domain (DBD), and exon 8 (Dex8-VDR), encoding part of the ligand binding domain (LBD), were transiently transfected into DU-145 cells and stably-integrated into Caco-2 cells to study their effect on gene expression and cell viability. Changes in VDR promoter signaling were monitored by the expression of target genes (e.g. CYP24A1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5). Ligand-independent VDR signaling was observed in variants lacking exon 8, and a significant loss of gene suppressor function was documented for variants lacking exon 3. The gain-of-function behavior of the Dex8-VDR variant was recapitulated in vitro using antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) that induce the skipping of exon 8 in wild-type VDR. ASO targeting the splice acceptor site of exon 8 significantly stimulated ligand-independent VDR reporter activity and the induction of CYP24A1 above controls. These results demonstrate how alternative splicing can re-program NR gene function, highlighting novel mechanisms of toxicity and new opportunities for the use of splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSO) in precision medicine.

Nachliely M, Trachtenberg A, Khalfin B, et al.
Dimethyl fumarate and vitamin D derivatives cooperatively enhance VDR and Nrf2 signaling in differentiating AML cells in vitro and inhibit leukemia progression in a xenograft mouse model.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019; 188:8-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one of the deadliest hematological malignancies without effective treatment for most patients. Vitamin D derivatives (VDDs) - active metabolites 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D

Wasiewicz T, Piotrowska A, Wierzbicka J, et al.
Antiproliferative Activity of Non-Calcemic Vitamin D Analogs on Human Melanoma Lines in Relation to VDR and PDIA3 Receptors.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Vitamin D is a precursor for secosteroidal hormones, which demonstrate pleiotropic biological activities, including the regulation of growth and the differentiation of normal and malignant cells. Our previous studies have indicated that the inhibition of melanoma proliferation by a short side-chain, low calcemic analog of vitamin D-21(OH)pD is not fully dependent on the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR). We have examined the effects of classic vitamin D metabolites, 1,25(OH)₂D₃ and 25(OH)D₃, and two low calcemic vitamin D analogs, (21(OH)pD and calcipotriol), on proliferation, mRNA expression and vitamin D receptor (VDR) translocation in three human melanoma cell lines: WM98, A375 and SK-MEL-188b (subline b of SK-MEL-188, which lost responsiveness to 1,25(OH)₂D₃ and became VDR

Othman ER, Ahmed E, Sayed AA, et al.
Human uterine leiomyoma contains low levels of 1, 25 dihdroxyvitamin D3, and shows dysregulated expression of vitamin D metabolizing enzymes.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2018; 229:117-122 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate tissue concentration of 1, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3, and gene expression level of CYP27B1 that codes for 1-α hydroxylase (vitamin D activating enzyme), and CYP24A1 that codes for 24-hydroxylase (vitamin D catabolizing enzyme) in human uterine leiomyoma (ULM), its adjacent myometrium (Myo-F), and normal myometrium (Myo-N).
STUDY DESIGN: Levels of 1, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 were measured using HPLC and Diode detectors whereas CYP27B1, and CYP24A1 expressions were assessed using Real-Time PCR in ULM, Myo-F, and Myo-N. Non-parametric statistics were used.
RESULTS: ULMs contained significantly less 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 compared to Myo-F (3.0, IQR: 1.0-9.0 versus 6.0, IQR: 3.0-13.0 μg/ kg, P value is 0.03). No significant difference was detected between ULM and Myo-N, or Myo-F and Myo-N. Intratumoral level of the active form of vitamin D did not differ according to the type of ULM (submucous or interstitial/subserous), or to the ULM volume. CYP27B1 was expressed in ULM (2.17, IQR: 0.65-4.9), Myo-F (4.94, IQR: 1.04-22.59), and Myo-N (0.99, IQR: 0.49-1.71) to a comparable level. CYP24A1 expression was significantly higher in ULM compared to Myo-N (2.00, IQR: 0.69-10.77 versus 0.22, IQR: 00- 0.96, respectively, P value is 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: Human ULMs contain significantly lower 1, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 than its adjacent myometrium. ULM, Myo-F, and Myo-N express CYP27B1 and CYP24A1. ULMs express significantly higher level of CYP24A1 than normal myometrium indicating that over expression of 24-hydroxylase is a mechanism by which ULMs sustain a relative state of hypovitaminosis D.

Sun H, Jiang C, Cong L, et al.
CYP24A1 Inhibition Facilitates the Antiproliferative Effect of 1,25(OH)
DNA Cell Biol. 2018; 37(9):742-749 [PubMed] Related Publications
CYP24A1 is overexpressed in colorectal cancer, and the reason for the dysregulation of CYP24A1 in colorectal cancer is still unknown. In the present study, experiments were designed to test whether CYP24A1 inhibition facilitated the antiproliferative effect of 1,25(OH)

O'Brien KM, Sandler DP, Xu Z, et al.
Vitamin D, DNA methylation, and breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has anticarcinogenic and immune-related properties and may protect against some diseases, including breast cancer. Vitamin D affects gene transcription and may influence DNA methylation.
METHODS: We studied the relationships between serum vitamin D, DNA methylation, and breast cancer using a case-cohort sample (1070 cases, 1277 in subcohort) of non-Hispanic white women. For our primary analysis, we used robust linear regression to examine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and methylation within a random sample of the cohort ("subcohort"). We focused on 198 CpGs in or near seven vitamin D-related genes. For these 198 candidate CpG loci, we also examined how multiplicative interactions between methylation and 25(OH)D were associated with breast cancer risk. This was done using Cox proportional hazards models and the full case-cohort sample. We additionally conducted an exploratory epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of the association between 25(OH)D and DNA methylation in the subcohort.
RESULTS: Of the CpGs in vitamin D-related genes, cg21201924 (RXRA) had the lowest p value for association with 25(OH)D (p = 0.0004). Twenty-two other candidate CpGs were associated with 25(OH)D (p < 0.05; RXRA, NADSYN1/DHCR7, GC, or CYP27B1). We observed an interaction between 25(OH)D and methylation at cg21201924 in relation to breast cancer risk (ratio of hazard ratios = 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.34; p = 7 × 10
CONCLUSIONS: 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with DNA methylation of CpGs in several vitamin D-related genes, with potential links to immune function-related genes. Methylation of CpGs in vitamin D-related genes may interact with 25(OH)D to affect the risk of breast cancer.

Liu C, Shaurova T, Shoemaker S, et al.
Tumor-Targeted Nanoparticles Deliver a Vitamin D-Based Drug Payload for the Treatment of EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor-Resistant Lung Cancer.
Mol Pharm. 2018; 15(8):3216-3226 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutation in the tyrosine kinase (TK) domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR) gene drives the development of lung cancer. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs), including erlotinib and afatinib, are initially effective in treating EGFR mutant nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, drug resistance quickly develops due to several mechanisms, including induction of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). No effective therapies are currently available for patients who develop EMT-associated EGFR TKI resistance. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) promotes epithelial differentiation and inhibits growth of NSCLC cells. 1,25D3 thus represents a promising agent for the treatment of EMT-associated EGFR TKI resistance. However, 1,25D3 induces the expression of 24-hydroxylase (24OHase), which decreases 1,25D3 activity. CTA091, a potent and selective 24OHase inhibitor, has been developed to attenuate this adverse effect. CTA091 also suppresses renal 24OHase activity and so may promote hypercalcemia. To exploit favorable effects of 1,25D3 plus CTA091 in tumor cells while avoiding problematic systemic effects of 24OHase inhibition, we developed EGFR-targeted, liposomal nanoparticles (EGFR-LP) to offer tumor-targeted co-delivery of 1,25D3 and CTA091. We then established an EMT-associated model of EGFR TKI resistance, and showed that such nanoparticles improved cellular uptake of 1,25D3 and CTA091, drove pro-epithelial signaling by upregulating E-cadherin ( CDH1), and significantly inhibited the growth of EGFR TKI resistant cells. Our results demonstrated that the delivery of vitamin D-based drug payloads via tumor-targeted EGFR-LP has promise as a new therapy for EFGR TKI resistant lung cancer. Future studies will focus on in vivo evaluation of biological activity, therapeutic benefits, and systemic toxicity prior to clinical translation.

Cusato J, Boglione L, De Nicolò A, et al.
Vitamin D pathway gene polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis C-affected patients treated with new drugs.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2018; 81(3):615-620 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Since HCV infection may lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and vitamin D (deficiency) is related to cancer, we investigated if SNPs in genes involved in vitamin D pathway could predict HCV-related HCC presence in patients treated with new anti-HCV drugs.
METHODS: Patients with chronic hepatitis C and treated with direct-acting antivirals were enrolled. SNPs in VDR, CYP27B1, CYP24A1 and GC genes were assessed through real-time PCR. 258 patients were analyzed.
RESULTS: HCC was present in six patients, all taking sofosbuvir, all males and five/six had cirrhosis. HCV-RNA log levels at baseline were statistically different between patients with and without HCC. VDR FokI T > C SNP resulted associated with HCC: all the CC patients were free from HCC. An association between HCC presence and undetectable HCV-RNA at 1 month of therapy was suggested; cirrhosis was related to HCC. HCC risk factors were age, ribavirin administration, IL28Brs12979860CC and previous treatments; VDR FokICC, sex and insulin resistance were protective factors.
CONCLUSIONS: These data highlighted vitamin D pathway gene SNPs and HCC relationship in the Italian population; further studies are required.

Lu M, Kjellin H, Fotouhi O, et al.
Molecular profiles of oxyphilic and chief cell parathyroid adenoma.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018; 470:84-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Parathyroid adenomas may be composed of chief cells (conventional or water-clear), oxyphilic cells or a mixture of both cells. The molecular background is rarely studied.
OBJECTIVE: To molecularly characterize parathyroid adenomas of different cell type composition.
DESIGN: Chief and oxyphilic cell adenomas were compared in a cohort of 664 sporadic cases. Extensive analyses of parathyroid tissues were performed in subgroup. Gene expressions of known parathyroid-related genes were quantified by qRT-PCR. Protein expression profiles determined by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were compared between each type of parathyroid adenomas. Selected proteins were analysed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Patients with oxyphilic cell adenoma were found to be older at the time of operation than chief cell adenoma cases but did not differ in gender, serum calcium or tumor weight. The gene expression of CASR, VDR, FGFR1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, PTHLH, GCM2, NDUFA13, CDKN1B, MEN1 and CNND1 did not differ between the groups. VDR protein levels were weaker in oxyphilic adenomas. The proteomic studies identified a set of novel dysregulated proteins of interest such as nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group C member 2 (TR4), LIM domain only protein 3 (LMO3) and calcium-binding protein B (S100B). LMO3 and S100B showed higher expression in oxyphilic adenoma and may be involve in parathyroid tumorgenesis through the p53 pathway. TR4 showed different subcellular localisation between adenoma and normal rim.
CONCLUSION: Chief and oxyphilic cell parathyroid adenomas have partly overlapping but also distinct molecular profiles. The calmodulin-eEF2K, TR4 and p53 pathways may be involved in the tumor development.

Ordóñez-Mena JM, Schöttker B, Saum KU, et al.
No Association of Vitamin D Pathway Genetic Variants with Cancer Risks in a Population-Based Cohort of German Older Adults.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017; 26(9):1459-1461 [PubMed] Related Publications

O'Brien KM, Sandler DP, Kinyamu HK, et al.
Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Vitamin D-Related Genes May Modify Vitamin D-Breast Cancer Associations.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017; 26(12):1761-1771 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Gong C, Long Z, Yu Y, et al.
Dietary factors and polymorphisms in vitamin D metabolism genes: the risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer in northeast China.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):8827 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CYP24A1 and CYP27B1 are critical genes determining 1α,25(OH)

Battaglia S, Karasik E, Gillard B, et al.
LSD1 dual function in mediating epigenetic corruption of the vitamin D signaling in prostate cancer.
Clin Epigenetics. 2017; 9:82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lysine-specific demethylase 1A (LSD1) is a key regulator of the androgen (AR) and estrogen receptors (ER), and LSD1 levels correlate with tumor aggressiveness. Here, we demonstrate that LSD1 regulates vitamin D receptor (VDR) activity and is a mediator of 1,25(OH)
METHODS: Athymic nude mice were xenografted with CWR22 cells and monitored weekly after testosterone pellet removal. Expression of LSD1 and VDR (IHC) were correlated with tumor growth using log-rank test. TRAMP tumors and prostates from wild-type (WT) mice were used to evaluate VDR and LSD1 expression via IHC and western blotting. The presence of VDR and LSD1 in the same transcriptional complex was evaluated via immunoprecipitation (IP) using nuclear cell lysate. The effect of LSD1 and 1,25(OH)
RESULTS: LSD1 and VDR protein levels are elevated in PCa tumors and correlate with faster tumor growth in xenograft mouse models. Knockdown of LSD1 reduces PCa cell viability, and gene expression data suggest a dual coregulatory role of LSD1 for VDR, acting as a coactivator and corepressor in a locus-specific manner. LSD1 modulates VDR-dependent transcription by mediating the recruitment of VDR and DNMT1 at the TSS of VDR-targeted genes and modulates the epigenetic status of transcribed genes by altering H3K4me2 and H3K9Ac and DNA methylation. Lastly, LSD1 and DNMT1 belong to a genome-wide signature whose expression correlates with shorter progression-free survival and overall survival in primary and metastatic patients' samples, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that LSD1 has a dual coregulatory role as corepressor and coactivator for VDR and defines a genomic signature whose targeting might have clinical relevance for PCa patients.

Chen XQ, Mao JY, Li WB, et al.
Association between
World J Gastroenterol. 2017; 23(28):5179-5186 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To determine the pathogenesis and potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as screening sites for colonic polyps, colon cancer and ulcerative colitis, and to analyze the possible association between these genetic polymorphisms and the three diseases.
METHODS: We evaluated genetic polymorphisms in 144 newly diagnosed colonic polyp patients, 96 colon cancer patients and 44 ulcerative colitis patients. The four SNPs genotyped were rs4809957, rs6068816, rs6091822 and rs8124792. The control group consisted of 504 East Asians enrolled in the 1000 Genomes Project. Correlations between

Slominski AT, Brożyna AA, Skobowiat C, et al.
On the role of classical and novel forms of vitamin D in melanoma progression and management.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2018; 177:159-170 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Melanoma represents a significant clinical problem affecting a large segment of the population with a relatively high incidence and mortality rate. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an important etiological factor in malignant transformation of melanocytes and melanoma development. UVB, while being a full carcinogen in melanomagenesis, is also necessary for the cutaneous production of vitamin D3 (D3). Calcitriol (1,25(OH)

Marques Vidigal V, Aguiar Junior PN, Donizetti Silva T, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms of vitamin D metabolism genes and serum level of vitamin D in colorectal cancer.
Int J Biol Markers. 2017; 32(4):e441-e446 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The metabolism of vitamin D is complex, its receptor (VDR) and proteins encoded by the genes CYP27B2 and CYP24A1 can influence vitamin D serum levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of the polymorphisms of VDR (ApaI and BsmI), CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 with serum vitamin D levels in both forms, 25(OH)D3 (circulating form) and 1,25(OH)2D3 (active form), in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.
METHODS: One hundred fifty-two CRC patients and 321 controls were included. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. Polymorphisms of BsmI and ApaI were identified by PCR-RFLP. Those of CYP24A1 (rs6013897, rs158552 and rs17217119) and CYP27B1 (rs10877012) were determined by gene sequencing.
RESULTS: The median serum levels of circulating vitamin D were not different between CRC patients and controls; however, the percentage of those with deficient vitamin D was higher in patients with cancer. The active form of the vitamin D was higher in CRC patients. VDR, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 polymorphic genotypes had no influence on serum levels of circulating vitamin D. The correlation between circulating and active vitamin D forms was lower among patients with CRC, regardless of the presence or absence of any genetic polymorphism. The mean serum levels of active vitamin D were higher among patients with polymorphic genotype variants of Apa1 or Bsm1.
CONCLUSIONS: CRC patients had a higher frequence of insufficient vitamin D and a higher concentration of active vitamin D. These concentration were higher between patients with polymorphic genotypes variants of ApaI and BsmI, CYP24A1 and CYP27B1. Polymorphic genotypes cause a lower correlation between the forms of vitamin D.

Janik S, Nowak U, Łaszkiewicz A, et al.
Diverse Regulation of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Expression by 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D and ATRA in Murine and Human Blood Cells at Early Stages of Their Differentiation.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is present in multiple blood cells, and the hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) is essential for the proper functioning of the immune system. The role of retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) in hematopoiesis is very important, as the fusion of RARα gene with PML gene initiates acute promyelocytic leukemia where differentiation of the myeloid lineage is blocked, followed by an uncontrolled proliferation of leukemic blasts. RARα takes part in regulation of

Yavropoulou MP, Panagiotou G, Topouridou K, et al.
Vitamin D receptor and progesterone receptor protein and gene expression in papillary thyroid carcinomas: associations with histological features.
J Endocrinol Invest. 2017; 40(12):1327-1335 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Vitamin D receptor (VDR) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression has been described in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) but data regarding association with tumor histological characteristics and localization of the protein expression are scarce.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from 45 patients with PTC (cases) were retrieved and tumor histological data were recorded. We analyzed gene and protein expression of VDR and PR and gene expression of vitamin D-inactivating 24-hyroxylase (CYP24A1) and the activating 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) enzymes in follicular cancer cells and the adjacent non-neoplastic thyroid tissue (NNTT).
RESULTS: VDR mRNA and protein expression was higher in PTC compared with NNTT (p < 0.05). The protein was globally localized in the cytoplasm and cell membranes of the neoplastic cells in all cases, with differences in intensity. Cytoplasmic positivity was stronger in the majority of cases. Membranous positivity was also evident in cases, whereas in NNTT was generally weak and in a low percentage of the cells. Expression of CYP 24A1, but not CYP27B1, was increased in approximately all PTC specimens and was associated with lymph node metastasis and extrathyroidal extension. PR mRNA was increased in 34% and protein expression was present in 57% of cases, and none of NNTT. PR, but not VDR, mRNA expression was significantly associated with the tumor size (r = 0.645, p = 0.007).
CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence for the expression pattern of VDR, PR and CYP24A1 in the progression of PTC. Rapid anti-tumor responses of vitamin D in PTC may be blocked due to inactivation of local vitamin D metabolism.

Welsh J
Function of the vitamin D endocrine system in mammary gland and breast cancer.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017; 453:88-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The nuclear receptor for 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25D), the active form of vitamin D, has anti-tumor actions in many tissues. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in normal mammary gland and in many human breast cancers suggesting it may represent an important tumor suppressor gene in this tissue. When activated by 1,25D, VDR modulates multiple cellular pathways including those related to energy metabolism, terminal differentiation and inflammation. There is compelling pre-clinical evidence that alterations in vitamin D status affect breast cancer development and progression, while clinical and epidemiological data are suggestive but not entirely consistent. The demonstration that breast cells express CYP27B1 (which converts the precursor vitamin D metabolite 25D to the active metabolite 1,25D) and CYP24A1 (which degrades both 25D and 1,25D) provides insight into the difficulties inherent in using dietary vitamin D, sun exposure and/or serum biomarkers of vitamin D status to predict disease outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that the normally tight balance between CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 becomes deregulated during cancer development, leading to abrogation of the tumor suppressive effects triggered by VDR. Research aimed at understanding the mechanisms that govern uptake, storage, metabolism and actions of vitamin D steroids in normal and neoplastic breast tissue remain an urgent priority.

Yang J, Wang H, Ji A, et al.
Vitamin D Signaling Pathways Confer the Susceptibility of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Northern Chinese Population.
Nutr Cancer. 2017 May-Jun; 69(4):593-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
Experimental studies have determined the chemopreventive effects of vitamin D against the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC); however, results from the epidemiological studies are not yet well established. The current study aimed to evaluate the associations between plasma vitamin D levels and variants on vitamin D metabolic-related genes with the risks for ESCC. A hospital-based case-control study was performed. Five hundred eighty-two ESCC patients and 569 controls were recruited in a Northern Chinese population. Common variants on vitamin D metabolism-related genes CYP24A1, DHCR7, GC, CYP27B1, and vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the plasma 25(OH)D level were determined. The unconditional logistic regression method was applied to determine the associations between the variants and vitamin D level and ESCC. Higher plasma 25(OH)D was associated with a reduced risk for ESCC, especially for rs2296241, rs11568820, and rs4646536. The variants rs2296241 on CYP24A1 and rs11568820 on VDR are significantly associated with ESCC cancer. Vitamin D signaling pathways may participate in the ESCC development. Further studies with larger sample size are warranted to confirm the results. Intervention studies are needed to determine whether vitamin D supplementation may reduce the ESCC risk in the Chinese population.

Kloudova A, Brynychova V, Vaclavikova R, et al.
Expression of oxysterol pathway genes in oestrogen-positive breast carcinomas.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2017; 86(6):852-861 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether gene expression levels of key modulators of the oxysterol signalling pathway modify the prognosis of patients with oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast carcinomas via interaction with endocrine therapy.
CONTEXT: The prognosis of patients with ER+ breast carcinoma depends on several factors. Previous studies have suggested that some oxygenated forms of cholesterol (oxysterols) bind to oestrogen receptor and anti-oestrogen binding site which may deregulate cholesterol homoeostasis and influence effect of therapy.
DESIGN: The expression levels of 70 oxysterol pathway genes were evaluated in a test set of breast carcinomas differing in ER expression. The genes differentially expressed in ER+ tumours were assessed in a comprehensive set of ER+ tumours to evaluate their clinical significance.
PATIENTS: A total of 193 primary patients with breast carcinoma were included.
MEASUREMENTS: The transcript levels were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: The expression levels of 23 genes were found to be specifically dysregulated in ER+ tumours compared to ER- tumours of the test set. The expression levels of ABCG2, CYP7B1, CYP24A1, CYP39A1 and CH25H genes were found to be strongly associated with disease stage; however, none of the gene expression levels were associated with disease-free survival in patients treated with endocrine therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: The expression of a number of oxysterol pathway genes is significantly modulated by ER expression and associated with the clinical stage of patients. However, the expression of oxysterol pathway genes was not found to modify the prognosis of ER+ patients with breast carcinoma treated with endocrine therapy.

Slominski AT, Brożyna AA, Zmijewski MA, et al.
Vitamin D signaling and melanoma: role of vitamin D and its receptors in melanoma progression and management.
Lab Invest. 2017; 97(6):706-724 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ultraviolet B (UVB), in addition to having carcinogenic activity, is required for the production of vitamin D3 (D3) in the skin which supplies >90% of the body's requirement. Vitamin D is activated through hydroxylation by 25-hydroxylases (CYP2R1 or CYP27A1) and 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) to produce 1,25(OH)

Shen Y, Stanislauskas M, Li G, et al.
Epigenetic and genetic dissections of UV-induced global gene dysregulation in skin cells through multi-omics analyses.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:42646 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To elucidate the complex molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse effects UV radiation (UVR) on skin homeostasis, we performed multi-omics studies to characterize UV-induced genetic and epigenetic changes. Human keratinocytes from a single donor treated with or without UVR were analyzed by RNA-seq, exome-seq, and H3K27ac ChIP-seq at 4 h and 72 h following UVR. Compared to the relatively moderate mutagenic effects of UVR, acute UV exposure induced substantial epigenomic and transcriptomic alterations, illuminating a previously underappreciated role of epigenomic and transcriptomic instability in skin pathogenesis. Integration of the multi-omics data revealed that UVR-induced transcriptional dysregulation of a subset of genes was attributable to either genetic mutations or global redistribution of H3K27ac. H3K27ac redistribution further led to the formation of distinctive super enhancers in UV-irradiated cells. Our analysis also identified several new UV target genes, including CYP24A1, GJA5, SLAMF7 and ETV1, which were frequently dysregulated in human squamous cell carcinomas, highlighting their potential as new molecular targets for prevention or treatment of UVR-induced skin cancers. Taken together, our concurrent multi-omics analyses provide new mechanistic insights into the complex molecular networks underlying UV photobiological effects, which have important implications in understanding its impact on skin homeostasis and pathogenesis.

DeSmet ML, Fleet JC
Constitutively active RAS signaling reduces 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D-mediated gene transcription in intestinal epithelial cells by reducing vitamin D receptor expression.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017; 173:194-201 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High vitamin D status is associated with reduced colon cancer risk but these studies ignore the diversity in the molecular etiology of colon cancer. RAS activating mutations are common in colon cancer and they activate pro-proliferative signaling pathways. We examined the impact of RAS activating mutations on 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)

Vidigal VM, Silva TD, de Oliveira J, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR), CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 genes and the risk of colorectal cancer.
Int J Biol Markers. 2017; 32(2):e224-e230 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D receptor (VDR) and proteins encoded by the genes CYP27B2 and CYP24A1 involved in the production and inactivation of vitamin D can influence vitamin D and the susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the risk of CRC and polymorphisms in VDR, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, lifestyle and dietary habits.
METHODS: The study included 152 patients with CRC and 321 controls. All participants answered a questionnaire on their dietary habits, alcohol consumption and smoking habits. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. Polymorphisms of BsmI and ApaI were identified by performing PCR-RFLP. Identification of CYP24A1 (rs6013897, rs158552 and rs17217119) and CYP27B1 (rs10877012) polymorphisms was performed by gene sequencing.
RESULTS: Smoking, alcohol use, and low or no consumption of fruit, cereals and dairy products were associated with an increased risk of CRC. A heterozygous genotype Aa or an association genotype aa + Aa of the VDR ApaI polymorphism increased the risk of CRC. The VDR BsmI polymorphism was not significantly associated with the risk of CRC. Multivariate analysis showed that heterozygous and association genotype AT + AA of the rs6013897 polymorphism, genotype CT of the rs158552 polymorphism, association genotype CT + CC and genotypes AA and GG of the rs17217119 polymorphism of CYP24A1, and heterozygous genotype GT and association genotype GT + TT of the rs10877012 polymorphism in CYP27B1 were associated with a higher risk of CRC.
CONCLUSIONS: Dietary habits, lifestyle, and polymorphisms in VDR (ApaI), CYP24A1 (rs6013897, rs158552, rs17217119) and CYP27B1 (rs10877012) were associated with a higher risk of CRC.

Barry EL, Peacock JL, Rees JR, et al.
Vitamin D Receptor Genotype, Vitamin D3 Supplementation, and Risk of Colorectal Adenomas: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
JAMA Oncol. 2017; 3(5):628-635 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Importance: Despite epidemiological and preclinical evidence suggesting that vitamin D and calcium inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis, daily supplementation with these nutrients for 3 to 5 years was not found to significantly reduce the risk of recurrent colorectal adenomas in a recent randomized clinical trial.
Objective: To investigate whether common variants in 7 vitamin D and calcium pathway genes (VDR, GC, DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and CASR) modify the effects of vitamin D3 or calcium supplementation on colorectal adenoma recurrence.
Design, Setting, and Participants: We examined 41 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2259 participants in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 11 clinical centers in the United States. Eligibility criteria included a recently diagnosed adenoma and no remaining colorectal polyps after complete colonoscopy. The study's treatment phase ended on August 31, 2013, and the analysis for the present study took place from July 28, 2014, to October 19, 2016.
Interventions: Daily oral supplementation with vitamin D3 (1000 IU) or calcium carbonate (1200 mg elemental calcium) or both or neither.
Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcomes assessed were the occurrence of 1 or more adenomas or advanced adenomas (estimated diameter, ≥1 cm; or with villous histologic findings, high-grade dysplasia, or cancer) during follow-up. Treatment effects and genotype associations and interactions were estimated as adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The effective number of independent SNPs was calculated to correct for multiple testing.
Results: Among the 2259 participants randomized, 1702 were non-Hispanic whites who completed the trial and had genotype data for analysis (1101 men; mean [SD] age 58.1 [6.8] years). The effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on advanced adenomas, but not on adenoma risk overall, significantly varied according to genotype at 2 VDR SNPs (rs7968585 and rs731236) in linkage disequilibrium (D' = 0.98; r2 = 0.6). For rs7968585, among individuals with the AA genotype (26%), vitamin D3 supplementation reduced risk by 64% (RR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.19-0.69; P = .002; absolute risk decreased from 14.4% to 5.1%). Among individuals with 1 or 2 G alleles (74%), vitamin D3 supplementation increased risk by 41% (RR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.99-2.00; P = .05; absolute risk increased from 7.7% to 11.1%; P < .001 for interaction). There were no significant interactions of genotypes with calcium supplementation.
Conclusions and Relevance: Our findings suggest that benefits from vitamin D3 supplementation for the prevention of advanced colorectal adenomas may vary according to vitamin D receptor genotype.
Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT00153816.

Tavakol S, Shakibapour S, Bidgoli SA
The Level of Testosterone, Vitamin D, and Irregular Menstruation More Important than Omega-3 in Non-Symptomatic Women Will Define the Fate of Multiple Scleroses in Future.
Mol Neurobiol. 2018; 55(1):462-469 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple sclerosis is one of the most salient degenerative disorders of CNS with dysregulated immune process that resulted in axonal damage and demyelination. In the present investigation, the serum level of testosterone was assessed in women who were struggling with multiple sclerosis (MS). Also, the level of omega-3, vitamin D, and the irregular menstruation in women 5 years before the onset MS symptoms were surveyed. Although the levels of omega-3 and vitamin D in women MS patients were non-significant and significantly less than the healthy ones, they were significantly less in the whole population of MS patients. However, the MS patients more experienced more irregular menstruation some years before the onset of MS with the low level of testosterone. Based on the presented findings, it might be said that the vitamin D intake has significant protective role in women and men MS patients unlike the omega-3 that had significant protective role just in men. However, vitamin D metabolism encoding genes of CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 and predicting MS risk gene of HLA-DRB1*15:01 define its fate as well. Besides, vitamin D intake, through the proliferation decrement of pro-inflammatory cells, decreases of pro-inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, INF-γ) and auto-immune pathways have potential role in recovery of irregular menstruation in women with the low level of testosterone as a red warning factor of MS development. The low level of testosterone and vitamin D consumption increase the neural damage and pro-inflammatory pathways in MS patients, and the difference among the investigations is related to the long-standing history of MS that influences severity of damage to the neural cells and biomolecules and complicate its recovery.

Zhalehjoo N, Shakiba Y, Panjehpour M
Gene expression profiles of CYP24A1 and CYP27B1 in malignant and normal breast tissues.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 15(1):467-473 [PubMed] Related Publications
Active vitamin D has several antitumor effects, including prodifferentiative, antiproliferative and proapoptotic functions in a number of tissues via its binding to vitamin D receptor. The 24‑hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and 1‑hydroxylase (CYP27B1) enzymes are considered to be pivotal determinants of the local concentration of active vitamin D. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mRNA expression levels of the CYP24A1 and CYP27B1 genes in malignant and normal breast tissues. The tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples of 30 patients with breast cancer were acquired from the Iran National Tumor Bank, Imam Hospital (Tehran, Iran). RNA was extracted and, following cDNA synthesis, Taq‑Man quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed for CYP24A1 and CYP27B1. The results demonstrated that the mRNA expression of CYP27B1 was downregulated in the tumor tissues, compared with the adjacent normal tissues (P<0.01), whereas the mRNA expression of CYP24A1 was significantly upregulated in the tumor tissues (P<0.01). This major difference revealed that the normal breast tissues transcriptionally expressed CYP24A1 slightly. These results are suggestive of dysregulation of the vitamin D signaling and metabolic pathways during tumorigenesis in breast cancer. Local alterations in the anabolism and catabolism of active vitamin D in breast cancer by the CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 may impair its anticancer functions.

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