Gene Summary

Gene:NCOR1; nuclear receptor corepressor 1
Aliases: N-CoR, TRAC1, N-CoR1, hN-CoR, PPP1R109
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that mediates ligand-independent transcription repression of thyroid-hormone and retinoic-acid receptors by promoting chromatin condensation and preventing access of the transcription machinery. It is part of a complex which also includes histone deacetylases and transcriptional regulators similar to the yeast protein Sin3p. This gene is located between the Charcot-Marie-Tooth and Smith-Magenis syndrome critical regions on chromosome 17. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 17 and 20.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nuclear receptor corepressor 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (46)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Breast Cancer
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2
  • Retinoic Acid
  • Transcription
  • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
  • Chromosome 17
  • Signal Transduction
  • beta Catenin
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Translocation
  • Epigenetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Western Blotting
  • Promoter Regions
  • Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 1
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Zinc Fingers
  • p53 Protein
  • Protein Binding
  • NCOR1
  • Messenger RNA
  • RNA Interference
  • Transfection
  • Androgen Receptors
  • Cell Line
  • Prostate Cancer
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • Receptors, Calcitriol
  • Tamoxifen
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Histone Deacetylases
  • Mutation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Histone Acetyltransferases
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NCOR1 (cancer-related)

Ali A, Ielciu I, Alkreathy HM, Khan AA
KLF17 attenuates estrogen receptor α-mediated signaling by impeding ERα function on chromatin and determines response to endocrine therapy.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1859(7):883-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Luminal-like breast cancer expressing estrogen receptor α (ERα) is among the aggressive breast tumor subtypes and shows poor prognosis. KLF17 plays a key role in breast cancer inhibition. However, the underlying mechanisms by which KLF17 control breast cancer progression remains unknown. Here, we show that KLF17 antagonizes ERα-dependent signaling to suppress breast cancer progression. KLF17 alters ERα-binding pattern throughout the genome and co-localizes with ERα on chromatin. Mechanistically, KLF17 forms a complex with ERα that interferes with ERα binding on chromatin and thereby attenuates ERα-dependent pathway. KLF17 increases the methylation status of ERE target promoters by recruiting transcriptional corepressor N-CoR/HDAC1 complex and prevents RNA polymerase II binding to suppress ERα-dependent transcriptional activation. Importantly, KLF17 preoccupies a subset of ERE target gene promoters and inhibits interaction of ERα with chromatin. Conversely, estrogen signaling suppresses KLF17 transcription via ERα/HDAC1-dependent mechanism. KLF17 expression negatively correlates with ERα target genes in multiple breast cancer samples. Enhanced KLF17 expression sensitizes ERα-positive breast cancer cells to endocrine therapy. KLF17 expression is downregulated in luminal breast cancer subtypes and is associated with poor survival rates in breast cancer patients. Taken together, these results indicate that KLF17-ERα interaction plays a potential role in inhibition of ERα-dependent breast cancer progression and suggests an improved strategy for treatment of ERα-positive breast cancer patients.

Lu YW, Zhang HF, Liang R, et al.
Colorectal Cancer Genetic Heterogeneity Delineated by Multi-Region Sequencing.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0152673 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) leads to an underestimation of the mutational landscape portrayed by a single needle biopsy and consequently affects treatment precision. The extent of colorectal cancer (CRC) genetic ITH is not well understood in Chinese patients. Thus, we conducted deep sequencing by using the OncoGxOne™ Plus panel, targeting 333 cancer-specific genes in multi-region biopsies of primary and liver metastatic tumors from three Chinese CRC patients. We determined that the extent of ITH varied among the three cases. On average, 65% of all the mutations detected were common within individual tumors. KMT2C aberrations and the NCOR1 mutation were the only ubiquitous events. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis showed that the tumors evolved in a branched manner. Comparison of the primary and metastatic tumors revealed that PPP2R1A (E370X), SETD2 (I1608V), SMAD4 (G382T), and AR splicing site mutations may be specific to liver metastatic cancer. These mutations might contribute to the initiation and progression of distant metastasis. Collectively, our analysis identified a substantial level of genetic ITH in CRC, which should be considered for personalized therapeutic strategies.

Marouf C, Göhler S, Filho MI, et al.
Analysis of functional germline variants in APOBEC3 and driver genes on breast cancer risk in Moroccan study population.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:165 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most prevalent cancer in women and a major public health problem in Morocco. Several Moroccan studies have focused on studying this disease, but more are needed, especially at the genetic and molecular levels. Therefore, we investigated the potential association of several functional germline variants in the genes commonly mutated in sporadic breast cancer.
METHODS: In this case-control study, we examined 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13 genes (APOBEC3A, APOBEC3B, ARID1B, ATR, MAP3K1, MLL2, MLL3, NCOR1, RUNX1, SF3B1, SMAD4, TBX3, TTN), which were located in the core promoter, 5'-and 3'UTR or which were nonsynonymous SNPs to assess their potential association with inherited predisposition to breast cancer development. Additionally, we identified a ~29.5-kb deletion polymorphism between APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B and explored possible associations with BC. A total of 226 Moroccan breast cancer cases and 200 matched healthy controls were included in this study.
RESULTS: The analysis showed that12 SNPs in 8 driver genes, 4 SNPs in APOBEC3B gene and 1 SNP in APOBEC3A gene were associated with BC risk and/or clinical outcome at P ≤ 0.05 level. RUNX1_rs8130963 (odds ratio (OR) = 2.25; 95 % CI 1.42-3.56; P = 0.0005; dominant model), TBX3_rs8853 (OR = 2.04; 95 % CI 1.38-3.01; P = 0.0003; dominant model), TBX3_rs1061651 (OR= 2.14; 95 % CI1.43-3.18; P = 0.0002; dominant model), TTN_rs12465459 (OR = 2.02; 95 % confidence interval 1.33-3.07; P = 0.0009; dominant model), were the most significantly associated SNPs with BC risk. A strong association with clinical outcome were detected for the genes SMAD4 _rs3819122 with tumor size (OR = 0.45; 95 % CI 0.25-0.82; P = 0.009) and TTN_rs2244492 with estrogen receptor (OR = 0.45; 95 % CI 0.25-0.82; P = 0.009).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that genetic variations in driver and APOBEC3 genes were associated with the risk of BC and may have impact on clinical outcome. However, the reported association between the deletion polymorphism and BC risk was not confirmed in the Moroccan population. These preliminary findings require replication in larger studies.

Martínez-Iglesias OA, Alonso-Merino E, Gómez-Rey S, et al.
Autoregulatory loop of nuclear corepressor 1 expression controls invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(3):E328-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nuclear corepressor 1 (NCoR) associates with nuclear receptors and other transcription factors leading to transcriptional repression. We show here that NCoR depletion enhances cancer cell invasion and increases tumor growth and metastatic potential in nude mice. These changes are related to repressed transcription of genes associated with increased metastasis and poor prognosis in patients. Strikingly, transient NCoR silencing leads to heterochromatinization and stable silencing of the NCoR gene, suggesting that NCoR loss can be propagated, contributing to tumor progression even in the absence of NCoR gene mutations. Down-regulation of the thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ) appears to be associated with cancer onset and progression. We found that expression of TRβ increases NCoR levels and that this induction is essential in mediating inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis by this receptor. Moreover, NCoR is down-regulated in human hepatocarcinomas and in the more aggressive breast cancer tumors, and its expression correlates positively with that of TRβ. These data provide a molecular basis for the anticancer actions of this corepressor and identify NCoR as a potential molecular target for development of novel cancer therapies.

Wang W, Song XW, Bu XM, et al.
PDCD2 and NCoR1 as putative tumor suppressors in gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2016; 39(2):129-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. Previously, PDCD2 (programmed cell death protein 2) has been identified as a putative tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. As yet, however, no reports on PDCD2 expression and its physical interactor NCoR1 (nuclear receptor co-repressor), and their effects in GIST have been reported.
METHODS: The expression of PDCD2 and NCoR1 was assessed in 43 primary gastric GIST and normal gastric tissue samples using Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. Next, associations between PDCD2 and NCoR1 expression and various clinicopathological features, including survival, were determined. To assess the effects of PDCD2 and NCoR1 expression in vitro, two GIST-derived cell lines (GIST-T1 and GIST882) were (co-)transfected with the expression vectors pEGFP-N1-PDCD2 and pcDNA3.1-NCoR1, after which the cells were subjected to CCK-8, PI staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining assays, respectively. Finally, the mechanisms of action of PDCD2 and NCoR1 in GIST-derived cells were determined using immunoprecipitation and Western blotting assays.
RESULTS: We found that the PDCD2 and NCoR1 protein levels were lower in gastric GIST tissues than in normal gastric tissues. The PDCD2 and NCoR1 expression levels were found to be significantly associated with the survival of the patients. Through exogenous expression analyses, we found that PDCD2 and NCoR1 can decrease proliferation, and increase apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest, in GIST-derived cells. Furthermore, we found that PDCD2 and NCoR1 can activate Smad2 and Smad3.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that both PDCD2 and NCoR1 may act as tumor suppressors in GIST cells through the Smad signaling pathway.

Yano M, Imamura T, Asai D, et al.
Identification of novel kinase fusion transcripts in paediatric B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with IKZF1 deletion.
Br J Haematol. 2015; 171(5):813-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activating tyrosine kinase mutations or cytokine receptor signalling alterations have attracted attention as therapeutic targets for high-risk paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We identified two novel kinase fusions, OFD1-JAK2 and NCOR1-LYN, in paediatric ALL patients with IKZF1 deletion, by mRNA sequencing. The patient with CSF2RA-CRLF2 also harboured IGH-EPOR. All these patients had high-risk features, such as high initial white blood cell counts and initial poor response to prednisolone. The functional analysis of these novel fusions is on-going to determine whether these genetic alterations can be targeted by drugs.

Ronowicz A, Janaszak-Jasiecka A, Skokowski J, et al.
Concurrent DNA Copy-Number Alterations and Mutations in Genes Related to Maintenance of Genome Stability in Uninvolved Mammary Glandular Tissue from Breast Cancer Patients.
Hum Mutat. 2015; 36(11):1088-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatic mosaicism for DNA copy-number alterations (SMC-CNAs) is defined as gain or loss of chromosomal segments in somatic cells within a single organism. As cells harboring SMC-CNAs can undergo clonal expansion, it has been proposed that SMC-CNAs may contribute to the predisposition of these cells to genetic disease including cancer. Herein, the gross genomic alterations (>500 kbp) were characterized in uninvolved mammary glandular tissue from 59 breast cancer patients and matched samples of primary tumors and lymph node metastases. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization showed 10% (6/59) of patients harbored one to 359 large SMC-CNAs (mean: 1,328 kbp; median: 961 kbp) in a substantial portion of glandular tissue cells, distal from the primary tumor site. SMC-CNAs were partially recurrent in tumors, albeit with considerable contribution of stochastic SMC-CNAs indicating genomic destabilization. Targeted resequencing of 301 known predisposition and somatic driver loci revealed mutations and rare variants in genes related to maintenance of genomic integrity: BRCA1 (p.Gln1756Profs*74, p.Arg504Cys), BRCA2 (p.Asn3124Ile), NCOR1 (p.Pro1570Glnfs*45), PALB2 (p.Ser500Pro), and TP53 (p.Arg306*). Co-occurrence of gross SMC-CNAs along with point mutations or rare variants in genes responsible for safeguarding genomic integrity highlights the temporal and spatial neoplastic potential of uninvolved glandular tissue in breast cancer patients.

Trombly DJ, Whitfield TW, Padmanabhan S, et al.
Genome-wide co-occupancy of AML1-ETO and N-CoR defines the t(8;21) AML signature in leukemic cells.
BMC Genomics. 2015; 16:309 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Many leukemias result from chromosomal rearrangements. The t(8;21) chromosomal translocation produces AML1-ETO, an oncogenic fusion protein that compromises the function of AML1, a transcription factor critical for myeloid cell differentiation. Because of the pressing need for new therapies in the treatment of acute myleoid leukemia, we investigated the genome-wide occupancy of AML1-ETO in leukemic cells to discover novel regulatory mechanisms involving AML-ETO bound genes.
RESULTS: We report the co-localization of AML1-ETO with the N-CoR co-repressor to be primarily on genomic regions distal to transcriptional start sites (TSSs). These regions exhibit over-representation of the motif for PU.1, a key hematopoietic regulator and member of the ETS family of transcription factors. A significant discovery of our study is that genes co-occupied by AML1-ETO and N-CoR (e.g., TYROBP and LAPTM5) are associated with the leukemic phenotype, as determined by analyses of gene ontology and by the observation that these genes are predominantly up-regulated upon AML1-ETO depletion. In contrast, the AML1-ETO/p300 gene network is less responsive to AML1-ETO depletion and less associated with the differentiation block characteristic of leukemic cells. Furthermore, a substantial fraction of AML1-ETO/p300 co-localization occurs near TSSs in promoter regions associated with transcriptionally active loci.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings establish a novel and dominant t(8;21) AML leukemia signature characterized by occupancy of AML1-ETO/N-CoR at promoter-distal genomic regions enriched in motifs for myeloid differentiation factors, thus providing mechanistic insight into the leukemic phenotype.

Gallardo F, Padrón A, Garcia-Carbonell R, et al.
Cytoplasmic accumulation of NCoR in malignant melanoma: consequences of altered gene repression and prognostic significance.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(11):9284-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Invasive malignant melanoma (MM) is an aggressive tumor with no curative therapy available in advanced stages. Nuclear corepressor (NCoR) is an essential regulator of gene transcription, and its function has been found deregulated in different types of cancer. In colorectal cancer cells, loss of nuclear NCoR is induced by Inhibitor of kappa B kinase (IKK) through the phosphorylation of specific serine residues. We here investigate whether NCoR function impacts in MM, which might have important diagnostic and prognostic significance. By IHC, we here determined the subcellular distribution of NCoR in a cohort of 63 primary invasive MM samples, and analyzed its possible correlation with specific clinical parameters. We therefore used a microarray-based strategy to determine global gene expression differences in samples with similar tumor stage, which differ in the presence of cytoplasmic or nuclear NCoR. We found that loss of nuclear NCoR results in upregulation of a specific cancer-related genetic signature, and is significantly associated with MM progression. Inhibition of IKK activity in melanoma cells reverts NCoR nuclear distribution and specific NCoR-regulated gene transcription. Analysis of public database demonstrated that inactivating NCoR mutations are highly prevalent in MM, showing features of driver oncogene.

Rashidian J, Le Scolan E, Ji X, et al.
Ski regulates Hippo and TAZ signaling to suppress breast cancer progression.
Sci Signal. 2015; 8(363):ra14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ski, the transforming protein of the avian Sloan-Kettering retrovirus, inhibits transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling and displays both pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic activities in human cancer. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling is likely responsible for the pro-oncogenic activity of Ski. We investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the tumor suppressor activity of Ski and found that Ski suppressed the activity of the Hippo signaling effectors TAZ and YAP to inhibit breast cancer progression. TAZ and YAP are transcriptional coactivators that can contribute to cancer by promoting proliferation, tumorigenesis, and cancer stem cell expansion. Hippo signaling activates the the Lats family of kinases, which phosphorylate TAZ and YAP, resulting in cytoplasmic retention and degradation and inhibition of their transcriptional activity. We showed that Ski interacted with multiple components of the Hippo pathway to facilitate activation of Lats2, resulting in increased phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of TAZ. Ski also promoted the degradation of a constitutively active TAZ mutant that is not phosphorylated by Lats, suggesting the existence of a Lats2-independent degradation pathway. Finally, we showed that Ski repressed the transcriptional activity of TAZ by binding to the TAZ partner TEAD and recruiting the transcriptional co-repressor NCoR1 to the TEAD-TAZ complex. Ski effectively reversed transformation and epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition in cultured breast cancer cells and metastasis in TAZ-expressing xenografted tumors. Thus, Ski inhibited the function of TAZ through multiple mechanisms in human cancer cells.

Sowalsky AG, Xia Z, Wang L, et al.
Whole transcriptome sequencing reveals extensive unspliced mRNA in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Mol Cancer Res. 2015; 13(1):98-106 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Men with metastatic prostate cancer who are treated with androgen deprivation therapies (ADT) usually relapse within 2 to 3 years with disease that is termed castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). To identify the mechanism that drives these advanced tumors, paired-end RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on a panel of CRPC bone marrow biopsy specimens. From this genome-wide approach, mutations were found in a series of genes with prostate cancer relevance, including AR, NCOR1, KDM3A, KDM4A, CHD1, SETD5, SETD7, INPP4B, RASGRP3, RASA1, TP53BP1, and CDH1, and a novel SND1:BRAF gene fusion. Among the most highly expressed transcripts were 10 noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including MALAT1 and PABPC1, which are involved in RNA processing. Notably, a high percentage of sequence reads mapped to introns, which were determined to be the result of incomplete splicing at canonical splice junctions. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), a series of genes (AR, KLK2, KLK3, STEAP2, CPSF6, and CDK19) were confirmed to have a greater proportion of unspliced RNA in CRPC specimens than in normal prostate epithelium, untreated primary prostate cancer, and cultured prostate cancer cells. This inefficient coupling of transcription and mRNA splicing suggests an overall increase in transcription or defect in splicing.
IMPLICATIONS: Inefficient splicing in advanced prostate cancer provides a selective advantage through effects on microRNA networks but may render tumors vulnerable to agents that suppress rate-limiting steps in splicing.

Tan KL, Ali A, Du Y, et al.
Synthesis and evaluation of bisbenzylidenedioxotetrahydrothiopranones as activators of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathways and apoptotic cell death in acute promyelocytic leukemic cells.
J Med Chem. 2014; 57(14):5904-18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Curcumin is known to trigger ER-stress induced cell death of acute promyelocytic leukemic (APL) cells by intercepting the degradation of nuclear co-repressor (N-CoR) protein which has a key role in the pathogenesis of APL. Replacing the heptadienedione moiety of curcumin with a monocarbonyl cross-conjugated dienone embedded in a tetrahydrothiopyranone dioxide ring resulted in thiopyranone dioxides that were more resilient to hydrolysis and had greater growth inhibitory activities than curcumin on APL cells. Several members intercepted the degradation of misfolded N-CoR and triggered the signaling cascade in the unfolded protein response (UPR) which led to apoptotic cell death. Microarray analysis showed that genes involved in protein processing pathways that were germane to the activation of the UPR were preferentially up-regulated in treated APL cells, supporting the notion that the UPR was a consequential mechanistic pathway affected by thiopyranone dioxides. The Michael acceptor reactivity of the scaffold may have a role in exacerbating ER stress in APL cells.

Tabarestani S, Ghaderian SM, Rezvani H, Mirfakhraie R
Expression profiling of breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen: prognostic or predictive significance.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(4):896 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 70% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor (ER) positive, and interfering with estrogen action with tamoxifen has been the treatment of choice for ER-positive breast cancer patients. However, about a third of patients treated with tamoxifen will experience a recurrence of cancer. The expression analysis of selected genes involved in tamoxifen/estrogen and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways can help to further decipher mechanisms of recurrence in ER+ tumors and contribute to the development of prognostic and possibly predictive biomarkers. We selected seven genes (ESR1, CCND1, MYC, HER2, AKT1, AIB1 and NCOR1), which are components of these pathways. A case-control study was designed. All patients in the control group had received standard adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for 5 years without any evidence of recurrence. Patients in the case group had experienced an early recurrence of cancer while receiving tamoxifen treatment. Expression levels of selected genes in both groups were compared. Expression levels of CCND1 (p < 0.001), HER2 (p < 0.001), AKT1 (p = 0.038) and AIB1 (p = 0.004) were significantly higher in recurrent tumors compared to non-recurrent tumors, while expression levels of NCOR1 (p < 0.001) were significantly lower in recurrent tumors. In multivariable analysis, CCND1 (p < 0.001), HER2 (p = 0.003), AIB1 (p = 0.036) and NCOR1 (p = 0.002) remained significant predictors of recurrence. Expression levels of CCND1, HER2, AIB1 and NCOR1 were detected as independent predictors of recurrence in this cohort of tamoxifen-treated patients. Further work should be done to validate the predictive value of this gene profile for tamoxifen response.

Olumi AF
Commentary on "the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah2 contributes to castration-resistant prostate cancer by regulation of androgen receptor transcriptional activity." Qi J, Tripathi M, Mishra R, Sahgal N, Fazli L, Ettinger S, Placzek WJ, Claps G, Chung LW, Bowtell D, Gleave M, Bhowmick N, Ronai ZA, Signal Transduction Program, Cancer Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.: Cancer Cell 2013;23(6):332-46.
Urol Oncol. 2014; 32(2):210-1 [PubMed] Related Publications
Understanding the mechanism underlying the regulation of the androgen receptor (AR), a central player in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), holds promise for overcoming the challenge of treating CRPC. We demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 targets a select pool of NCOR1-bound, transcriptionally-inactive AR for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, thereby promoting expression of select AR target genes implicated in lipid metabolism, cell motility, and proliferation. Siah2 is required for prostate cancer cell growth under androgen-deprivation conditions in vitro and in vivo, and Siah2 inhibition promotes prostate cancer regression upon castration. Notably, Siah2 expression is markedly increased in human CRPCs. Collectively, we find that selective regulation of AR transcriptional activity by the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 is important for CRPC development.

Zhu G, Mische SE, Seigneres B
Novel treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia: As₂O₃, retinoic acid and retinoid pharmacology.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2013; 14(9):849-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute promyelocytic leukemia(APL), a specific characteristic of t(15;17) chromosome translocation, represents 5% to 15% of cases of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. An alternative approach is to consider retinoic acid(all-trans RA, ATRA or 13-cis RA or 9-cis RA) plus chemotherapy or RA plus As₂O₃ regimens as now novel therapy. Molecular gene analyses are conclusive in vivo evidence that oncogenic PML/RARa plays a crucial role in APL leukemogenesis. As a novel approach to APL treatment, one possible the action of RA, A consense sequence (5'-TCAGGTCATGACCTGA-3') has been postulated for the thyroid hormone (TRE) and retinoic acid responsive element (RARE) containing half palindromes, which located in the promoter region of target genes. High dose (100-fold) of RA-RARE-PML/RARa complex in intracellular localization appears to relieve repressor from DNA binding, including corepressors N-CoR, SMRT and HDACs, release PML/RARa- mediated transcriptional repression, and release histone deacetylase activity from PMLRARa. The resulting PML/RARa oncoprotein proteolytic degradation through the autophagy-lysosome pathway and the ubiquitin SUMO-proteasome system (UPS), as well as caspase 3 (cleavage site Asp522 within a-helics region of PML component of the fusion protein) or neutrophil elastase, or lysosomal protease enzyme induction. PML protein relocalizes into the wild-type nuclear body (PML-NB) configuration or/and wild-type RARa upregulated. An effect to relieve the blockade (inhibition) of PML/RARA-mediated RA dependent promyelocytic differentiation, and retinoic acid in APL therapy (see Figure in the full text, George Zhu, 1991). Here, like v-erbA, PML/RARa is a (strong) transcriptional repressor of the RA receptor (RAR) complex, and PML/RARa fusion receptor gene act as conditional oncogenic receptor (translocated chimeric retinoic acid a signaling) or oncogenic PML/RARa may participate in leukemogenesis of APL through blocking RA-mediated promyelocytic differentiation. This is first described in eukaryotes.

Heldring N, Nyman U, Lönnerberg P, et al.
NCoR controls glioblastoma tumor cell characteristics.
Neuro Oncol. 2014; 16(2):241-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that the transcriptional coregulator NCoR represses astrocytic differentiation of neural stem cells, suggesting that NCoR could be a plausible target for differentiation therapy of glioblastoma.
METHODS: To study a putative role for NCoR in regulating glioblastoma cell characteristics, we used RNA-mediated knockdown followed by analysis of gene expression, proliferation and cell growth, autophagy, invasiveness in vitro, and tumor formation in vitro and in vivo. We further performed chromatin immunoprecipitation of NCoR followed by genome-wide sequencing in the human glioblastoma cell line U87 in order to reveal NCoR-occupied loci.
RESULTS: RNA knockdown of NCoR resulted in a moderate increase in differentiation accompanied by a significant decrease in proliferation in adherent U87 human glioblastoma cells. chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing approach revealed alternative mechanisms underlying the decrease in proliferation, as NCoR was enriched at promoters of genes associated with autophagy such as ULK3. Indeed, signs of an autophagy response in adherent glioblastoma cells included an increased expression of autophagy genes, such as Beclin1, and increased lipidation and nuclear puncta of LC3. Intriguingly, in parallel to the effects in the adherent cells, NCoR knockdown resulted in a significant increase in anchorage-independent growth, and this glioblastoma cell population showed dramatic increases in invasive properties in vitro and tumor formation capacity in vitro and in vivo along with an increased proliferation rate.
CONCLUSION: Our results unveil unexpected aspects of NCoR regulation of tumor characteristics in glioblastoma cells and highlight the need for caution when transposing developmental concepts directly to cancer therapy.

DeKelver RC, Lewin B, Lam K, et al.
Cooperation between RUNX1-ETO9a and novel transcriptional partner KLF6 in upregulation of Alox5 in acute myeloid leukemia.
PLoS Genet. 2013; 9(10):e1003765 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fusion protein RUNX1-ETO (AML1-ETO, RUNX1-RUNX1T1) is expressed as the result of the 8q22;21q22 translocation [t(8;21)], which is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities found in acute myeloid leukemia. RUNX1-ETO is thought to promote leukemia development through the aberrant regulation of RUNX1 (AML1) target genes. Repression of these genes occurs via the recruitment of the corepressors N-COR and SMRT due to their interaction with ETO. Mechanisms of RUNX1-ETO target gene upregulation remain less well understood. Here we show that RUNX1-ETO9a, the leukemogenic alternatively spliced transcript expressed from t(8;21), upregulates target gene Alox5, which is a gene critically required for the promotion of chronic myeloid leukemia development by BCR-ABL. Loss of Alox5 expression reduces activity of RUNX1-ETO9a, MLL-AF9 and PML-RARα in vitro. However, Alox5 is not essential for the induction of leukemia by RUNX1-ETO9a in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that the upregulation of Alox5 by RUNX1-ETO9a occurs via the C₂H₂ zinc finger transcription factor KLF6, a protein required for early hematopoiesis and yolk sac development. Furthermore, KLF6 is specifically upregulated by RUNX1-ETO in human leukemia cells. This identifies KLF6 as a novel mediator of t(8;21) target gene regulation, providing a new mechanism for RUNX1-ETO transcriptional control.

Płuciennik E, Kośla K, Wójcik-Krowiranda K, et al.
The WWOX tumor suppressor gene in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
Int J Mol Med. 2013; 32(6):1458-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial cancer is a lethal malignancy, the causes of which remain to be determined. The aim of the present study, carried out on tumor samples from 79 patients, was to evaluate the role of the WWOX tumor suppressor gene in endometrial adenocarcinoma. The expression levels of WWOX and its protein content were assessed in normal endometrium and cancer samples. Quantitative PCR was used to assess the correlation between the expression levels of WWOX and the genes involved in the proliferation (MKI67), apoptosis (BAX, BCL2), signal transduction (EGFR), cell cycle (CCNE1, CCND1), cell adhesion (CDH1) and transcription regulation (TP73, NCOR1). The relationship between loss of hetero-zygosity (LOH) and WWOX mRNA levels was also investigated using high resolution melting. Results of the present study demonstrated a positive correlation of WWOX expression with BCL2 and CCND1 and a negative correlation with BAX, CDH1, NCOR1 and BCL2/BAX ratio. The results also showed that loss of heterozygosity at two analyzed loci of the WWOX gene is frequent in patients with endometrial cancer and that WWOX expression levels are lower in tumor samples than in normal tissue. In conclusion, WWOX may be involved in endometrial cancer.

Ciriello G, Sinha R, Hoadley KA, et al.
The molecular diversity of Luminal A breast tumors.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 141(3):409-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer is a collection of diseases with distinct molecular traits, prognosis, and therapeutic options. Luminal A breast cancer is the most heterogeneous, both molecularly and clinically. Using genomic data from over 1,000 Luminal A tumors from multiple studies, we analyzed the copy number and mutational landscape of this tumor subtype. This integrated analysis revealed four major subtypes defined by distinct copy-number and mutation profiles. We identified an atypical Luminal A subtype characterized by high genomic instability, TP53 mutations, and increased Aurora kinase signaling; these genomic alterations lead to a worse clinical prognosis. Aberrations of chromosomes 1, 8, and 16, together with PIK3CA, GATA3, AKT1, and MAP3K1 mutations drive the other subtypes. Finally, an unbiased pathway analysis revealed multiple rare, but mutually exclusive, alterations linked to loss of activity of co-repressor complexes N-Cor and SMRT. These rare alterations were the most prevalent in Luminal A tumors and may predict resistance to endocrine therapy. Our work provides for a further molecular stratification of Luminal A breast tumors, with potential direct clinical implications.

Nin DS, Ali AB, Okumura K, et al.
Akt-induced phosphorylation of N-CoR at serine 1450 contributes to its misfolded conformational dependent loss (MCDL) in acute myeloid leukemia of the M5 subtype.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e70891 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) is a key component of the generic co-repressor complex that plays an important role in the control of cellular growth and differentiation. As shown by us recently, the growth suppressive function of N-CoR largely relies on its capacity to repress Flt3, a key regulator of cellular gorwth during normal and malignant hematopoesis. We further demonstrated how de-repression of Flt3 due to the misfolded conformation dependent loss (MCDL) of N-CoR contributed to malignant growth in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the molecular mechanism underlying the MCDL of N-CoR and its implication in AML pathogenesis is not fully understood. Here, we report that Akt-induced phosphorylation of N-CoR at the consensus Akt motif is crucial for its misfolding and subsequent loss in AML (AML-M5). N-CoR displayed significantly higher level of serine specific phosphorylation in almost all AML-M5 derived cells and was subjected to processing by AML-M5 specific aberrant protease activity. To identify the kinase linked to N-CoR phosphorylation, a library of activated kinases was screened with the extracts of AML cells; leading to the identification of Akt as the putative kinase linked to N-CoR phosphorylation. Consistent with this finding, a constitutively active Akt consistently phosphorylated N-CoR leading to its misfolding; while the therapeutic and genetic ablation of Akt largely abrogated the MCDL of N-CoR in AML-M5 cells. Site directed mutagenic analysis of N-CoR identified serine 1450 as the crucial residue whose phosphorylation by Akt was essential for the misfolding and loss of N-CoR protein. Moreover, Akt-induced phosphorylation of N-CoR contributed to the de-repression of Flt3, suggesting a cross talk between Akt signaling and N-CoR misfolding pathway in the pathogenesis of AML-M5. The N-CoR misfolding pathway could be the common downstream thread of pleiotropic Akt signaling activated by various oncogenic insults in some subtypes of leukemia and solid tumors.

Lanzino M, Maris P, Sirianni R, et al.
DAX-1, as an androgen-target gene, inhibits aromatase expression: a novel mechanism blocking estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell proliferation.
Cell Death Dis. 2013; 4:e724 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sexual hormones, estrogens and androgens, determine biological response in a tissue- and gender-specific manner and have a pivotal role in endocrine-mediated tumorigenesis. In situ estrogen production by aromatase is a critical determinant for breast cancer growth and progression. On the contrary, clinical and in vitro studies indicate that androgens have a protective role in mammary carcinogenesis. Here, we demonstrated, in hormone-dependent breast cancer cells, the existence of a functional interplay between the androgen receptor (AR), the orphan nuclear receptor DAX-1 and the aromatase enzyme involved in the inhibition of the estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell proliferation exerted by androgen signaling. Indeed, our results revealed, in MCF-7 cells, that ligand-activated AR induces the expression of the orphan nuclear receptor DAX-1 by direct binding to a newly identified androgen-response-element within the DAX-1 proximal promoter. In turn, androgen-induced DAX-1 is recruited, in association with the corepressor N-CoR, within the SF-1/LRH-1 containing region of the aromatase promoter, thereby repressing aromatase expression and activity. In elucidating a novel mechanism by which androgens, through DAX-1, inhibit aromatase expression in breast cancer cell lines, these findings reinforce the theory of androgen- opposing estrogen-action, opening new avenues for therapeutic intervention in estrogen-dependent breast tumors.

Song K, Han C, Zhang J, et al.
Epigenetic regulation of MicroRNA-122 by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma and hepatitis b virus X protein in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Hepatology. 2013; 58(5):1681-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: MicroRNA-122 (miR-122), a pivotal liver-specific miRNA, has been implicated in several liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatitis C and B viral infection. This study aimed to explore epigenetic regulation of miR-122 in human HCC cells and to examine the effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). We performed microRNA microarray analysis and identified miR-122 as the most up-regulated miRNA (6-fold) in human HCC cells treated with 5'aza-2'deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR, DNA methylation inhibitor) and 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA, histone deacetylation inhibitor). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis verified significant up-regulation of miR-122 by 5'aza and PBA in HCC cells, and to a lesser extent in primary hepatocytes. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα) complex was found to be associated with the DR1 and DR2 consensus site in the miR-122 gene promoter which enhanced miR-122 gene transcription. 5-Aza-CdR and PBA treatment increased the association of PPARγ/RXRα, but decreased the association of its corepressors (N-CoR and SMRT), with the miR-122 DR1 and DR2 motifs. The aforementioned DNA-protein complex also contains SUV39H1, an H3K9 histone methyl transferase, which down-regulates miR-122 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings establish a novel role of the PPARγ binding complex for epigenetic regulation of miR-122 in human HCC cells. Moreover, we show that hepatitis B virus X protein binds PPARγ and inhibits the transcription of miR-122, whereas hepatitis C viral particles exhibited no significant effect; these findings provide mechanistic insight into reduction of miR-122 in patients with HBV but not with HCV infection.

Qi J, Tripathi M, Mishra R, et al.
The E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah2 contributes to castration-resistant prostate cancer by regulation of androgen receptor transcriptional activity.
Cancer Cell. 2013; 23(3):332-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Understanding the mechanism underlying the regulation of the androgen receptor (AR), a central player in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), holds promise for overcoming the challenge of treating CRPC. We demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 targets a select pool of NCOR1-bound, transcriptionally-inactive AR for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, thereby promoting expression of select AR target genes implicated in lipid metabolism, cell motility, and proliferation. Siah2 is required for prostate cancer cell growth under androgen-deprivation conditions in vitro and in vivo, and Siah2 inhibition promotes prostate cancer regression upon castration. Notably, Siah2 expression is markedly increased in human CRPCs. Collectively, we find that selective regulation of AR transcriptional activity by the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 is important for CRPC development.

DeKelver RC, Yan M, Ahn EY, et al.
Attenuation of AML1-ETO cellular dysregulation correlates with increased leukemogenic potential.
Blood. 2013; 121(18):3714-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AML1-ETO (RUNX1-ETO) fusion proteins are generated by the 8;21 translocation, commonly found in acute myeloid leukemia, which fuses the AML1 (RUNX1) and ETO (MTG8, RUNX1T1) genes. Previous studies have shown that AML1-ETO interferes with AML1 function but requires additional cooperating mutations to induce leukemia development. In mouse models, AML1-ETO forms lacking the C-terminus have been shown to have greatly enhanced leukemogenic potential. Here, we investigate the role of 2 AML1-ETO C-terminal-interacting proteins, N-CoR, a transcriptional corepressor, and SON, a splicing/transcription factor required for cell cycle progression, in AML1-ETO-induced leukemia development. AML1-ETO-W692A loses N-CoR binding at NHR4, displays attenuated transcriptional repression ability and decreased cellular dysregulation, and promotes leukemia in vivo. These results support the importance of the degree of dysregulation by AML1-ETO in cellular transformation and demonstrate that AML1-ETO-W692A can be used as an effective experimental model for determining which factors compromise the leukemogenic potential of AML1-ETO.

De Amicis F, Russo A, Avena P, et al.
In vitro mechanism for downregulation of ER-α expression by epigallocatechin gallate in ER+/PR+ human breast cancer cells.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013; 57(5):840-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
SCOPE: Exposure of the breast to estrogens and other sex hormones is an important cancer risk factor and estrogen receptor downregulators are attracting significant clinical interest. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound found in green tea, has gained considerable attention for its antitumor properties. Here we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms through which EGCG regulates ER-α expression in ER+ PR+ breast cancer cells.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Western blotting analysis, real-time PCR, and transient transfections of deletion fragments of the ER-α gene promoter show that EGCG downregulates ER-α protein, mRNA, and gene promoter activity with a concomitant reduction of ER-α genomic and nongenomic signal. These events occur through p38(MAPK) /CK2 activation, causing the release from Hsp90 of progesterone receptor B (PR-B) and its consequent nuclear translocation as evidenced by immunofluorescence studies. EMSA, and ChIP assay reveal that, upon EGCG treatment, PR-B is recruited at the half-PRE site on ER-α promoter. This is concomitant with the formation of a corepressor complex containing NCoR and HDAC1 while RNA polymerase II is displaced. The events are crucially mediated by PR-B isoform, since they are abrogated with PR-B siRNA.
CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence for a mechanism by which EGCG downregulates ER-α and explains the inhibitory action of EGCG on the proliferation of ER+ PR+ cancer cells tested. We suggest that the EGCG/PR-B signaling should be further exploited for clinical approach.

Cartron PF, Blanquart C, Hervouet E, et al.
HDAC1-mSin3a-NCOR1, Dnmt3b-HDAC1-Egr1 and Dnmt1-PCNA-UHRF1-G9a regulate the NY-ESO1 gene expression.
Mol Oncol. 2013; 7(3):452-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
The NY-ESO1 gene is a cancer/testis antigen considered to be suitable target for the immunotherapy of human malignancies. Despite the identification of the epigenetical silencing of the NY-ESO1 gene in a large variety of tumors, the molecular mechanism involved in this phenomenon is not fully elucidated. In two non epithelial cancers (glioma and mesothelioma), we found that the epigenetic regulation of the NY-ESO1 gene requires the sequential recruitment of the HDAC1-mSin3a-NCOR, Dnmt3b-HDAC1-Egr1 and Dnmt1-PCNA-UHRF1-G9a complexes. Thus, our data illustrate the orchestration of a sequential epigenetic mechanism including the histone deacetylation and methylation, and the DNA methylation processes.

Lit LC, Scott S, Zhang H, et al.
LATS2 is a modulator of estrogen receptor alpha.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(1):53-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Estrogen Receptor α (ERα), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors, plays a central role in breast cancer development. More than two-thirds of patients with breast cancer are ERα-positive; however, a proportion becomes resistant. Phosphorylation of ERα is one of the mechanisms associated with resistance to endocrine therapy. In a kinome screen, we have identified the large tumor suppressor homolog-2 (LATS2) as a potential kinase, acting on ERα.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The role of LATS2 on activation of ERα transcription and its functional consequences was examined by various molecular and cellular biology techniques.
RESULTS: LATS2 co-localises with ERα in the nucleus. LATS2-silencing increases expression of ERα-regulated genes and inhibits proliferation. At the protein level, inhibition of LATS2 reduces the expression of cyclin-D1 and Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor (NCoR) while increasing the expression of p27.
CONCLUSION: Identifying novel kinases which modulate ERα activity is relevant to therapeutics. LATS2 modulates ERα-regulated gene transcription, through direct and/or indirect interactions with ERα.

Choi HK, Yoo JY, Jeong MH, et al.
Protein kinase A phosphorylates NCoR to enhance its nuclear translocation and repressive function in human prostate cancer cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2013; 228(6):1159-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates diverse protein substrates to modulate their function. In this study, we found that PKA specifically phosphorylates the RD1 (repression domain 1) domain of nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR). We demonstrated that the Serine-70 of NCoR is identified the critical amino acid for PKA-dependent NCoR phosphorylation. Importantly, we found that PKA-dependent phosphorylation enhances the nuclear translocation of NCoR. More importantly, the activation of PKA enhanced the repressive activity of NCoR in a reporter assay and potentiated the antagonist activity in the androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transcription. Taken together, these results uncover a regulatory mechanism by which PKA positively modulates NCoR function in transcriptional regulation in prostate cancer.

Singh PK, Doig CL, Dhiman VK, et al.
Epigenetic distortion to VDR transcriptional regulation in prostate cancer cells.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013; 136:258-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The current study aimed to examine the gene specific mechanisms by which the actions of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) are distorted in prostate cancer. Transcriptional responses toward the VDR ligand, 1α,25(OH)2D3, were examined in non-malignant prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1) and compared to the 1α,25(OH)2D3-recalcitrant prostate cancer cells (PC-3). Time resolved transcriptional studies for two VDR target genes revealed selective attenuation and repression of VDR transcriptional responses in PC-3 cells. For example, responses in PC-3 cells revealed suppressed responsiveness of IGFBP3 and G0S2. Furthermore, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that suppressed transcriptional responses in PC-3 cells of IGFBP3 and G0S2 were associated with selective VDR-induced NCOR1 enrichment at VDR-binding regions on target-gene promoter regions. We propose that VDR inappropriately recruits co-repressors in prostate cancer cells. Subsequent direct and indirect mechanisms may induce local DNA methylation and stable transcriptional silencing. Thus a transient epigenetic process mediated by co-repressor binding, namely, the control of H3K9 acetylation, is distorted to favor a more stable epigenetic event, namely DNA methylation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'.

Doig CL, Singh PK, Dhiman VK, et al.
Recruitment of NCOR1 to VDR target genes is enhanced in prostate cancer cells and associates with altered DNA methylation patterns.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(2):248-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The current study investigated transcriptional distortion in prostate cancer cells using the vitamin D receptor (VDR) as a tool to examine how epigenetic events driven by corepressor binding and CpG methylation lead to aberrant gene expression. These relationships were investigated in the non-malignant RWPE-1 cells that were 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) responsive (RWPE-1) and malignant cell lines that were 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) partially responsive (RWPE-2) and resistant (PC-3). These studies revealed that selective attenuation and repression of VDR transcriptional responses in the cancer cell lines reflected their loss of antiproliferative sensitivity. This was evident in VDR target genes including VDR, CDKN1A (encodes p21( (waf1/cip1) )) and GADD45A; NCOR1 knockdown alleviated this malignant transrepression. ChIP assays in RWPE-1 and PC-3 cells revealed that transrepression of CDKN1A was associated with increased NCOR1 enrichment in response to 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment. These findings supported the concept that retained and increased NCOR1 binding, associated with loss of H3K9ac and increased H3K9me2, may act as a beacon for the initiation and recruitment of DNA methylation. Overexpressed histone methyltransferases (KMTs) were detectable in a wide panel of prostate cancer cell lines compared with RWPE-1 and suggested that generation of H3K9me2 states would be favored. Cotreatment of cells with the KMT inhibitor, chaetocin, increased 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated induction of CDKN1A expression supporting a role for this event to disrupt CDKN1A regulation. Parallel surveys in PC-3 cells of CpG methylation around the VDR binding regions on CDKN1A revealed altered basal and VDR-regulated DNA methylation patterns that overlapped with VDR-induced recruitment of NCOR1 and gene transrepression. Taken together, these findings suggest that sustained corepressor interactions with nuclear-resident transcription factors may inappropriately transform transient-repressive histone states into more stable and repressive DNA methylation events.

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