Gene Summary

Gene:NCOR1; nuclear receptor corepressor 1
Aliases: N-CoR, TRAC1, N-CoR1, hN-CoR, PPP1R109
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that mediates ligand-independent transcription repression of thyroid-hormone and retinoic-acid receptors by promoting chromatin condensation and preventing access of the transcription machinery. It is part of a complex which also includes histone deacetylases and transcriptional regulators similar to the yeast protein Sin3p. This gene is located between the Charcot-Marie-Tooth and Smith-Magenis syndrome critical regions on chromosome 17. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 17 and 20.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nuclear receptor corepressor 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (46)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transfection
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • RNA Interference
  • Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2
  • Western Blotting
  • Histone Acetyltransferases
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Protein Binding
  • Transcription
  • Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 1
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • NCOR1
  • Cell Line
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Retinoic Acid
  • Histone Deacetylases
  • Prostate Cancer
  • beta Catenin
  • Mutation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Epigenetics
  • Tamoxifen
  • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Signal Transduction
  • Promoter Regions
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • Receptors, Calcitriol
  • Androgen Receptors
  • Chromosome 17
  • Translocation
Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NCOR1 (cancer-related)

Noblejas-López MDM, Morcillo-García S, Nieto-Jiménez C, et al.
Evaluation of transcriptionally regulated genes identifies NCOR1 in hormone receptor negative breast tumors and lung adenocarcinomas as a potential tumor suppressor gene.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0207776 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Regulation of transcription is a key process in cellular homeostasis. It depends on regulators that either repress or stimulate the transcription of genes, therefore controlling different biological functions. The Nuclear Receptor Corepressor 1 (NCOR1) is one of those co-repressors that regulate the transcription by facilitating the recruitment of HDAC1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7. In our article, by using an in silico approach, we evaluate the mutational status of NCOR1 in breast and lung tumors. We identified that NORC1 is mutated in more than 3% of breast tumors and lung adenocarcinomas and linked this fact with detrimental outcome in some subtypes, particularly in those that are hormone receptor negative. In addition to these findings, as mutations in this gene are deleterious, we confirmed that high levels of this gene were linked with good prognosis in the same tumor subtypes. Findings in the same direction were identified in lung adenocarcinomas, with mutations associated with detrimental prognosis and high expression with better outcome. In conclusion, hereby we describe the presence and prognostic role of mutations in the NCOR1 gene in hormone receptor negative breast and lung adenocarcinomas, and we also confirm that NCOR1 is a tumor suppressor gene. Further studies should be performed to explore therapeutic mechanisms to restore its function.

Aravind Kumar M, Naushad SM, Narasimgu N, et al.
Whole exome sequencing of breast cancer (TNBC) cases from India: association of MSH6 and BRIP1 variants with TNBC risk and oxidative DNA damage.
Mol Biol Rep. 2018; 45(5):1413-1419 [PubMed] Related Publications
Whole exome sequencing in triple negative breast cancer cases (n = 8) and targeted sequencing in healthy controls (n = 48) revealed BRIP1 rs552752779 (MAF: 75% vs. 6.25%, OR 45.00, 95% CI 9.43-243.32), ERBB2 rs527779103 (MAF: 62.5% vs. 7.29%, OR 21.19, 95% CI 5.11-94.32), ERCC2 rs121913016 (MAF: 56.25% vs. 7.29%, OR 16.34, 95% CI 4.02-70.41), MSH6 rs2020912 (MAF: 56.25% vs. 1.04%, OR 122.13, 95% CI 12.29-2985.48) as risk factors for triple negative breast cancer. Construction of classification and regression tree followed by smart pruning identified MSH6 and BRIP1 variants as the major determinants of TNBC (Triple Negative Breast Cancer) risk. Except for ERBB2, all other genes regulate DNA repair and chromosomal integrity. In TNBC cases, two likely pathogenic variations i.e. NCOR1 rs562300336 and PIM1 rs746748226 were observed at frequencies of 18.75% and 12.5%, respectively. Among the 24 variants of unknown significance, MMP9 rs199676062, SYNE1 rs368709678, AURKA rs373550419, ABCC4 rs11568694 have variant allele frequency ≥ 62.5%. These genes regulate metastasis, nuclear modeling, cell cycle and cellular detoxification, respectively. To conclude, aberrations in DNA mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair or BRCA1 associated genome surveillance mechanism contribute towards triple negative breast cancer.

Figueroa J, Phillips LM, Shahar T, et al.
Exosomes from Glioma-Associated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Increase the Tumorigenicity of Glioma Stem-like Cells via Transfer of miR-1587.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(21):5808-5819 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor-stromal communications impact tumorigenesis in ways that are incompletely understood. Here, we show that glioma-associated human mesenchymal stem cells (GA-hMSC), a newly identified stromal component of glioblastoma, release exosomes that increase the proliferation and clonogenicity of tumor-initiating glioma stem-like cells (GSC). This event leads to a significantly greater tumor burden and decreased host survival compared with untreated GSCs in orthotopic xenografts. Analysis of the exosomal content identified miR-1587 as a mediator of the exosomal effects on GSCs, in part via downregulation of the tumor-suppressive nuclear receptor corepressor NCOR1. Our results illuminate the tumor-supporting role for GA-hMSCs by identifying GA-hMSC-derived exosomes in the intercellular transfer of specific miRNA that enhance the aggressiveness of glioblastoma.

Triki M, Lapierre M, Cavailles V, Mokdad-Gargouri R
Expression and role of nuclear receptor coregulators in colorectal cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2017; 23(25):4480-4490 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common human cancers and the cause of about 700000 deaths per year worldwide. Deregulation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway is a key event in CRC initiation. This pathway interacts with other nuclear signaling pathways, including members of the nuclear receptor superfamily and their transcription coregulators. In this review, we provide an overview of the literature dealing with the main coactivators (NCoA-1 to 3, NCoA-6, PGC1-α, p300, CREBBP and MED1) and corepressors (N-CoR1 and 2, NRIP1 and MTA1) of nuclear receptors and summarize their links with the WNT/β-catenin signaling cascade, their expression in CRC and their role in intestinal physiopathology.

Lu W, Katzenellenbogen BS
Estrogen Receptor-β Modulation of the ERα-p53 Loop Regulating Gene Expression, Proliferation, and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer.
Horm Cancer. 2017; 8(4):230-242 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a crucial transcriptional regulator in breast cancer, but estrogens mediate their effects through two estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, subtypes that have contrasting regulatory actions on gene expression and the survival and growth of breast cancer cells. Here, we examine the impact of ERβ on the ERα-p53 loop in breast cancer. We found that ERβ attenuates ERα-induced cell proliferation, increases apoptosis, and reverses transcriptional activation and repression by ERα. Further, ERβ physically interacts with p53, reduces ERα-p53 binding, and antagonizes ERα-p53-mediated transcriptional regulation. ERα directs SUV39H1/H2 and histone H3 lys9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) heterochromatin assembly at estrogen-repressed genes to silence p53-activated transcription. The copresence of ERβ in ERα-positive cells abrogates the H3K9me3 repressive heterochromatin conformation by downregulating SUV39H1 and SUV39H2, thereby releasing the ERα-induced transcriptional block. Furthermore, the presence of ERβ stimulates accumulation of histone H3 lys4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) on ERα-repressed genes, inducing H3K4me3-associated epigenetic activation of the transcription of these repressed genes that can promote p53-based tumor suppression. ERβ also reduced corepressor N-CoR and SMRT recruitment by ERα that could attenuate the crosstalk between ERα and p53. Overall, our data reveal a novel mechanism for ERβ's anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in breast cancer cells involving p53 and epigenetic changes in histone methylation that underlie gene regulation of these cellular activities.

Tan G, Qiu M, Chen L, et al.
JS-K, a nitric oxide pro-drug, regulates growth and apoptosis through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in prostate cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):376 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In view of the fact that JS-K might regulate ubiquitin E3 ligase and that ubiquitin E3 ligase plays an important role in the mechanism of CRPC formation, the goal was to investigate the probable mechanism by which JS-K regulates prostate cancer cells.
METHODS: Proliferation inhibition by JS-K on prostate cancer cells was examined usingCCK-8 assays. Caspase 3/7 activity assays and flow cytometry were performed to examine whether JS-K induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation analyses investigated JS-K's effects on the associated apoptosis mechanism. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to assess JS-K's effect on transcription of specific AR target genes. Western blotting was also performed to detect Siah2 and AR protein concentrations and co-immunoprecipitation to detect interactions of Siah2 and AR, NCoR1 and AR, and p300 and AR.
RESULTS: JS-K inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. JS-K increased p53 and Mdm2 concentrations and regulated the caspase cascade reaction-associated protein concentrations. JS-K inhibited transcription of AR target genes and down-regulated PSA protein concentrations. JS-K inhibited Siah2 interactions and also inhibited the ubiquitination of AR. With further investigation, JS-K was found to stabilize AR and NCoR1 interactions and diminish AR and p300 interactions.
CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggested that JS-K might have been able to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis via regulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway, which represented a promising platform for the development of new compounds for PCa treatments.

Iżykowska K, Przybylski GK, Gand C, et al.
Genetic rearrangements result in altered gene expression and novel fusion transcripts in Sézary syndrome.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(24):39627-39639 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sézary syndrome (SS) is an aggressive, leukemic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma variant. Molecular pathogenesis of SS is still unclear despite many studies on genetic alterations, gene expression and epigenetic regulations. Through whole genome and transcriptome next generation sequencing nine Sézary syndrome patients were analyzed in terms of copy number variations and rearrangements affecting gene expression. Recurrent copy number variations were detected within 8q (MYC, TOX), 17p (TP53, NCOR1), 10q (PTEN, FAS), 2p (DNMT3A), 11q (USP28), 9p (CAAP1), but no recurrent rearrangements were identified. However, expression of five genes involved in rearrangements (TMEM244, EHD1, MTMR2, RNF123 and TOX) was altered in all patients. Fifteen rearrangements detected in Sézary syndrome patients and SeAx resulted in an expression of new fusion transcripts, nine of them were in frame (EHD1-CAPN12, TMEM66-BAIAP2, MBD4-PTPRC, PTPRC-CPN2, MYB-MBNL1, TFG-GPR128, MAP4K3-FIGLA, DCP1A-CCL27, MBNL1-KIAA2018) and five resulted in ectopic expression of fragments of genes not expressed in normal T-cells (BAIAP2, CPN2, GPR128, CAPN12, FIGLA). Our results not only underscored the genomic complexity of the Sézary cancer cell genome but also showed an unpreceded large variety of novel gene rearrangements resulting in fusions transcripts and ectopically expressed genes.

Yang F, Ma Q, Liu Z, et al.
Glucocorticoid Receptor:MegaTrans Switching Mediates the Repression of an ERα-Regulated Transcriptional Program.
Mol Cell. 2017; 66(3):321-331.e6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The molecular mechanisms underlying the opposing functions of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) in breast cancer development remain poorly understood. Here we report that, in breast cancer cells, liganded GR represses a large ERα-activated transcriptional program by binding, in trans, to ERα-occupied enhancers. This abolishes effective activation of these enhancers and their cognate target genes, and it leads to the inhibition of ERα-dependent binding of components of the MegaTrans complex. Consistent with the effects of SUMOylation on other classes of nuclear receptors, dexamethasone (Dex)-induced trans-repression of the estrogen E

Singh VP, Katta S, Kumar S
WD-repeat protein WDR13 is a novel transcriptional regulator of c-Jun and modulates intestinal homeostasis in mice.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):148 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: WDR13 is a member of the WD repeat protein family and is expressed in several tissues of human and mice. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that the lack of this gene in mice resulted in mild obesity, hyperinsulinemia, enhanced beta cell proliferation and protection from inflammation. However, the molecular mechanism of WDR13 action is not well understood.
METHODS: In the present study, we used AOM/DSS to induce colitis-mediated colorectal tumor after establishing expression of Wdr13 gene in colon. Further, we have used human colon cancer cell lines, HT29 and COLO205, and mouse primary embryonic fibroblast to understand the molecular mechanism of WDR13 action.
RESULTS: We observed that mice lacking Wdr13 gene have reduced number of tumors and are more susceptible to DSS-induced colon ulcers. We also show that WDR13 is a part of multi protein complex c-Jun/NCoR1/HDAC3 and it acts as a transcriptional activator of AP1 target genes in the presence of JNK signal. Consistent with in vitro data, we observed reduced expression of AP1 target genes in colon after AOM/DSS treatment in Wdr13 knockout mice as compared to that in wild type.
CONCLUSION: Mice lacking Wdr13 gene showed reduced expression of AP1 target genes and protection from colitis-induced colorectal tumors.

Ziv E, Yarmohammadi H, Boas FE, et al.
Gene Signature Associated with Upregulation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway Predicts Tumor Response to Transarterial Embolization.
J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2017; 28(3):349-355.e1 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To identify gene mutations in tumors undergoing transarterial embolization and explore the relationship between gene mutations and tumor response to embolization.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review that included 17 patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors treated with embolization and had specimens analyzed for a 341-gene panel next-generation sequence assay. Pathologic conditions included hepatocellular, carcinoid, pancreatic neuroendocrine, melanoma, medullary thyroid, and liver acinar-cell carcinoma. Disease, procedure data, and tumor response data were collected. Dimensionality reduction was performed by using principal component analysis. A linear support vector machine was used to learn a prediction rule and identify the genes most predictive of objective tumor response (partial or complete) per modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors. Cross-validation was used to test the prediction on the holdout set. Permutation testing was used to determine statistical significance of prediction accuracy. Recursive feature elimination was used to identify the most predictive genes.
RESULTS: At 4 months after embolization, 9 tumors showed a response and 8 did not. Using the top two principal components, prediction accuracy of the gene mutation signature was 70% (±11%), which was statistically significant (P < .05). The most predictive genes were CTNNB1, MEN1, and NCOR1: three genes associated with the Wnt/β-catenin and hypoxia signaling pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies gene mutations in tumors treated with transarterial embolization. A gene-mutation signature obtained from the mutation data suggests that upregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may be associated with sensitivity to embolization.

Phelps MP, Bailey JN, Vleeshouwer-Neumann T, Chen EY
CRISPR screen identifies the NCOR/HDAC3 complex as a major suppressor of differentiation in rhabdomyosarcoma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(52):15090-15095 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysregulated gene expression resulting from abnormal epigenetic alterations including histone acetylation and deacetylation has been demonstrated to play an important role in driving tumor growth and progression. However, the mechanisms by which specific histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate differentiation in solid tumors remains unclear. Using pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) as a paradigm to elucidate the mechanism blocking differentiation in solid tumors, we identified HDAC3 as a major suppressor of myogenic differentiation from a high-efficiency Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based phenotypic screen of class I and II HDAC genes. Detailed characterization of the HDAC3-knockout phenotype in vitro and in vivo using a tamoxifen-inducible CRISPR targeting strategy demonstrated that HDAC3 deacetylase activity and the formation of a functional complex with nuclear receptor corepressors (NCORs) were critical in restricting differentiation in RMS. The NCOR/HDAC3 complex specifically functions by blocking myoblast determination protein 1 (MYOD1)-mediated activation of myogenic differentiation. Interestingly, there was also a transient up-regulation of growth-promoting genes upon initial HDAC3 targeting, revealing a unique cancer-specific response to the forced transition from a neoplastic state to terminal differentiation. Our study applied modifications of CRISPR/CRISPR-associated endonuclease 9 (Cas9) technology to interrogate the function of essential cancer genes and pathways and has provided insights into cancer cell adaptation in response to altered differentiation status. Because current pan-HDAC inhibitors have shown disappointing results in clinical trials of solid tumors, therapeutic targets specific to HDAC3 function represent a promising option for differentiation therapy in malignant tumors with dysregulated HDAC3 activity.

Lan X, Atanassov BS, Li W, et al.
USP44 Is an Integral Component of N-CoR that Contributes to Gene Repression by Deubiquitinating Histone H2B.
Cell Rep. 2016; 17(9):2382-2393 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Decreased expression of the USP44 deubiquitinase has been associated with global increases in H2Bub1 levels during mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) differentiation. However, whether USP44 directly deubiquitinates histone H2B or how its activity is targeted to chromatin is not known. We identified USP44 as an integral subunit of the nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) complex. USP44 within N-CoR deubiquitinates H2B in vitro and in vivo, and ablation of USP44 impairs the repressive activity of the N-CoR complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments confirmed that USP44 recruitment reduces H2Bub1 levels at N-CoR target loci. Furthermore, high expression of USP44 correlates with reduced levels of H2Bub1 in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Depletion of either USP44 or TBL1XR1 impairs the invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro and causes an increase of global H2Bub1 levels. Our findings indicate that USP44 contributes to N-CoR functions in regulating gene expression and is required for efficient invasiveness of triple-negative breast cancer cells.

Martínez-Iglesias O, Olmeda D, Alonso-Merino E, et al.
The nuclear corepressor 1 and the thyroid hormone receptor β suppress breast tumor lymphangiogenesis.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(48):78971-78984 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Vascular Endotelial Growth Factors C and D (VEGF-C and VEGF-D) are crucial regulators of lymphangiogenesis, a main event in the metastatic spread of breast cancer tumors. Although inhibition of lymphangiogenic gene expression might be a useful therapeutic strategy to restrict the progression of cancer, the factors involved in the transcriptional repression of these genes are still unknown. We have previously shown that Nuclear Receptor Corepressor 1 (NCoR) and the thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ) inhibit tumor invasion. Here we show that these molecules repress VEGF-C and VEGF-D gene transcription in breast cancer cells, reducing lymphatic vessel density and sentinel lymph node invasion in tumor xenografts. The clinical significance of these results is stressed by the finding that NCoR and TRβ transcripts correlate negatively with those of the lymphangiogenic genes and the lymphatic vessel marker LYVE-1 in human breast tumors. Our results point to the use of NCoR and TRβ as potential biomarkers for diagnosis or prognosis in breast cancer and suggest that further studies of these molecules as potential targets for anti-lymphangiogenic therapy are warranted.

Kardos J, Chai S, Mose LE, et al.
Claudin-low bladder tumors are immune infiltrated and actively immune suppressed.
JCI Insight. 2016; 1(3):e85902 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We report the discovery of a claudin-low molecular subtype of high-grade bladder cancer that shares characteristics with the homonymous subtype of breast cancer. Claudin-low bladder tumors were enriched for multiple genetic features including increased rates of

Tsigelny IF, Kouznetsova VL, Lian N, Kesari S
Molecular mechanisms of OLIG2 transcription factor in brain cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(33):53074-53101 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) plays a pivotal role in glioma development. Here we conducted a comprehensive study of the critical gene regulatory networks involving OLIG2. These include the networks responsible for OLIG2 expression, its translocation to nucleus, cell cycle, epigenetic regulation, and Rho-pathway interactions. We described positive feedback loops including OLIG2: loops of epigenetic regulation and loops involving receptor tyrosine kinases. These loops may be responsible for the prolonged oncogenic activity of OLIG2. The proposed schemes for epigenetic regulation of the gene networks involving OLIG2 are confirmed by patient survival (Kaplan-Meier) curves based on the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) datasets. Finally, we elucidate the Coherent-Gene Modules (CGMs) networks-framework of OLIG2 involvement in cancer. We showed that genes interacting with OLIG2 formed eight CGMs having a set of intermodular connections. We showed also that among the genes involved in these modules the most connected hub is EGFR, then, on lower level, HSP90 and CALM1, followed by three lower levels including epigenetic genes KDM1A and NCOR1. The genes on the six upper levels of the hierarchy are involved in interconnections of all eight CGMs and organize functionally defined gene-signaling subnetworks having specific functions. For example, CGM1 is involved in epigenetic control. CGM2 is significantly related to cell proliferation and differentiation. CGM3 includes a number of interconnected helix-loop-helix transcription factors (bHLH) including OLIG2. Many of these TFs are partially controlled by OLIG2. The CGM4 is involved in PDGF-related: angiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation and differentiation. These analyses provide testable hypotheses and approaches to inhibit OLIG2 pathway and relevant feed-forward and feedback loops to be interrogated. This broad approach can be applied to other TFs.

Lu R, Hu X, Zhou J, et al.
COPS5 amplification and overexpression confers tamoxifen-resistance in ERα-positive breast cancer by degradation of NCoR.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:12044 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oestrogen receptor α (ERα) antagonists are used in endocrine therapies for ERα-positive (ERα+) breast cancer patients. Unfortunately the clinical benefit is limited due to intrinsic and acquired drug resistance. Here using integrated genomic and functional studies, we report that amplification and/or overexpression of COPS5 (CSN5/JAB1) confers resistance to tamoxifen. Amplification and overexpression of COPS5, a catalytic subunit of the COP9 complex, is present in about 9% of the ERα+ primary breast cancer and more frequently (86.7%, 26/30) in tamoxifen-refractory tumours. Overexpression of COPS5, through its isopeptidase activity, leads to ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of NCoR, a key corepressor for ERα and tamoxifen-mediated suppression of ERα target genes. Importantly, COPS5 overexpression causes tamoxifen-resistance in preclinical breast cancer models in vitro and in vivo. We also demonstrate that genetic inhibition of the isopeptidase activity of COPS5 is sufficient to re-sensitize the resistant breast cancer cells to tamoxifen-treatment, offering a potential therapeutic approach for endocrine-resistant breast cancer patients.

Gwak J, Shin JY, Lee K, et al.
SFMBT2 (Scm-like with four mbt domains 2) negatively regulates cell migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(30):48250-48264 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastatic prostate cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in men. In this study, we found that expression level of SFMBT2 is altered during prostate cancer progression and has been associated with the migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells. The expression level of SFMBT2 is high in poorly metastatic prostate cancer cells compared to highly metastatic prostate cancer cells. We also found that SFMBT2 knockdown elevates MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-26 expression, leading to increased cell migration and invasion in LNCaP and VCaP cells. SFMBT2 interacts with YY1, RNF2, N-CoR and HDAC1/3, as well as repressive histone marks such as H3K9me2, H4K20me2, and H2AK119Ub which are associated with transcriptional repression. In addition, SFMBT2 knockdown decreased KAI1 gene expression through up-regulation of N-CoR gene expression. Expression of SFMBT2 in prostate cancer was strongly associated with clinicopathological features. Patients having higher Gleason score (≥ 8) had substantially lower SFMBT2 expression than patients with lower Gleason score. Moreover, tail vein or intraprostatic injection of SFMBT2 knockdown LNCaP cells induced metastasis. Taken together, our findings suggest that regulation of SFMBT2 may provide a new therapeutic strategy to control prostate cancer metastasis as well as being a potential biomarker of metastatic prostate cancer.

Imamura T, Kiyokawa N, Kato M, et al.
Characterization of pediatric Philadelphia-negative B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia with kinase fusions in Japan.
Blood Cancer J. 2016; 6:e419 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent studies revealed that a substantial proportion of patients with high-risk B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) harbor fusions involving tyrosine kinase and cytokine receptors, such as ABL1, PDGFRB, JAK2 and CRLF2, which are targeted by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). In the present study, transcriptome analysis or multiplex reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis of 373 BCP-ALL patients without recurrent genetic abnormalities identified 29 patients with kinase fusions. Clinically, male predominance (male/female: 22/7), older age at onset (mean age at onset: 8.8 years) and a high white blood cell count at diagnosis (mean: 94 200/μl) reflected the predominance of National Cancer Institute high-risk (NCI-HR) patients (NCI-standard risk/HR: 8/21). Genetic analysis identified three patients with ABL1 rearrangements, eight with PDGFRB rearrangements, two with JAK2 rearrangements, three with IgH-EPOR and one with NCOR1-LYN. Of the 14 patients with CRLF2 rearrangements, two harbored IgH-EPOR and PDGFRB rearrangements. IKZF1 deletion was present in 16 of the 22 patients. The 5-year event-free and overall survival rates were 48.6±9.7% and 73.5±8.6%, respectively. The outcome was not satisfactory without sophisticated minimal residual disease-based stratification. Furthermore, the efficacy of TKIs combined with conventional chemotherapy without allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in this cohort should be determined.

Martínez-Iglesias O, Alonso-Merino E, Aranda A
Tumor suppressive actions of the nuclear receptor corepressor 1.
Pharmacol Res. 2016; 108:75-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear Receptor Corepressor 1 (NCoR) is an important transcriptional regulator that interacts with nuclear receptors and other transcription factors. Recent results have shown the presence of inactivating mutations or deletions of the NCoR gene in human tumors. NCoR has a strong tumor suppressor activity, inhibiting invasion, metastasis formation and tumor growth in xenograft mouse models. These changes are associated to transcriptional inhibition of genes linked to bad prognosis and increased metastasis in cancer patients. NCoR loss causes a long-term repression of NCoR gene transcription, suggesting that NCoR deficiency in the cancer cell could be propagated playing a role in tumor progression in the absence of NCoR gene mutations. The thyroid hormone receptor TRβ increases NCoR expression and this induction is essential in mediating the anti-metastatic and tumor suppressive actions of the receptor. Since metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related deaths, these results define NCoR as a potential target for cancer therapy.

Ali A, Ielciu I, Alkreathy HM, Khan AA
KLF17 attenuates estrogen receptor α-mediated signaling by impeding ERα function on chromatin and determines response to endocrine therapy.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1859(7):883-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Luminal-like breast cancer expressing estrogen receptor α (ERα) is among the aggressive breast tumor subtypes and shows poor prognosis. KLF17 plays a key role in breast cancer inhibition. However, the underlying mechanisms by which KLF17 control breast cancer progression remains unknown. Here, we show that KLF17 antagonizes ERα-dependent signaling to suppress breast cancer progression. KLF17 alters ERα-binding pattern throughout the genome and co-localizes with ERα on chromatin. Mechanistically, KLF17 forms a complex with ERα that interferes with ERα binding on chromatin and thereby attenuates ERα-dependent pathway. KLF17 increases the methylation status of ERE target promoters by recruiting transcriptional corepressor N-CoR/HDAC1 complex and prevents RNA polymerase II binding to suppress ERα-dependent transcriptional activation. Importantly, KLF17 preoccupies a subset of ERE target gene promoters and inhibits interaction of ERα with chromatin. Conversely, estrogen signaling suppresses KLF17 transcription via ERα/HDAC1-dependent mechanism. KLF17 expression negatively correlates with ERα target genes in multiple breast cancer samples. Enhanced KLF17 expression sensitizes ERα-positive breast cancer cells to endocrine therapy. KLF17 expression is downregulated in luminal breast cancer subtypes and is associated with poor survival rates in breast cancer patients. Taken together, these results indicate that KLF17-ERα interaction plays a potential role in inhibition of ERα-dependent breast cancer progression and suggests an improved strategy for treatment of ERα-positive breast cancer patients.

Fujimoto A, Furuta M, Totoki Y, et al.
Whole-genome mutational landscape and characterization of noncoding and structural mutations in liver cancer.
Nat Genet. 2016; 48(5):500-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver cancer, which is most often associated with virus infection, is prevalent worldwide, and its underlying etiology and genomic structure are heterogeneous. Here we provide a whole-genome landscape of somatic alterations in 300 liver cancers from Japanese individuals. Our comprehensive analysis identified point mutations, structural variations (STVs), and virus integrations, in noncoding and coding regions. We discovered mutational signatures related to liver carcinogenesis and recurrently mutated coding and noncoding regions, such as long intergenic noncoding RNA genes (NEAT1 and MALAT1), promoters, CTCF-binding sites, and regulatory regions. STV analysis found a significant association with replication timing and identified known (CDKN2A, CCND1, APC, and TERT) and new (ASH1L, NCOR1, and MACROD2) cancer-related genes that were recurrently affected by STVs, leading to altered expression. These results emphasize the value of whole-genome sequencing analysis in discovering cancer driver mutations and understanding comprehensive molecular profiles of liver cancer, especially with regard to STVs and noncoding mutations.

Lu YW, Zhang HF, Liang R, et al.
Colorectal Cancer Genetic Heterogeneity Delineated by Multi-Region Sequencing.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0152673 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) leads to an underestimation of the mutational landscape portrayed by a single needle biopsy and consequently affects treatment precision. The extent of colorectal cancer (CRC) genetic ITH is not well understood in Chinese patients. Thus, we conducted deep sequencing by using the OncoGxOne™ Plus panel, targeting 333 cancer-specific genes in multi-region biopsies of primary and liver metastatic tumors from three Chinese CRC patients. We determined that the extent of ITH varied among the three cases. On average, 65% of all the mutations detected were common within individual tumors. KMT2C aberrations and the NCOR1 mutation were the only ubiquitous events. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis showed that the tumors evolved in a branched manner. Comparison of the primary and metastatic tumors revealed that PPP2R1A (E370X), SETD2 (I1608V), SMAD4 (G382T), and AR splicing site mutations may be specific to liver metastatic cancer. These mutations might contribute to the initiation and progression of distant metastasis. Collectively, our analysis identified a substantial level of genetic ITH in CRC, which should be considered for personalized therapeutic strategies.

Lopez SM, Agoulnik AI, Zhang M, et al.
Nuclear Receptor Corepressor 1 Expression and Output Declines with Prostate Cancer Progression.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(15):3937-49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Castration therapy in advanced prostate cancer eventually fails and leads to the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which has no cure. Characteristic features of CRPC can be increased androgen receptor (AR) expression and altered transcriptional output. We investigated the expression of nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR1) in human prostate and prostate cancer and the role of NCOR1 in response to antiandrogens.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: NCOR1 protein levels were compared between matched normal prostate and prostate cancer in 409 patient samples. NCOR1 knockdown was used to investigate its effect on bicalutamide response in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell lines and transcriptional changes associated with the loss of NCOR1. NCOR1 transcriptional signature was also examined in prostate cancer gene expression datasets.
RESULTS: NCOR1 protein was detected in cytoplasm and nuclei of secretory epithelial cells in normal prostate. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear NCOR1 protein levels were lower in prostate cancer than in normal prostate. Prostate cancer metastases show significant decrease in NCOR1 transcriptional output. Inhibition of LNCaP cellular proliferation by bicalutamide requires NCOR1. NCOR1-regulated genes suppress cellular proliferation and mediate bicalutamide resistance. In the mouse, NCOR1 is required for bicalutamide-dependent regulation of a subset of the AR target genes.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we demonstrated that NCOR1 function declines with prostate cancer progression. Reduction in NCOR1 levels causes bicalutamide resistance in LNCaP cells and compromises response to bicalutamide in mouse prostate in vivo Clin Cancer Res; 22(15); 3937-49. ©2016 AACR.

Marouf C, Göhler S, Filho MI, et al.
Analysis of functional germline variants in APOBEC3 and driver genes on breast cancer risk in Moroccan study population.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:165 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most prevalent cancer in women and a major public health problem in Morocco. Several Moroccan studies have focused on studying this disease, but more are needed, especially at the genetic and molecular levels. Therefore, we investigated the potential association of several functional germline variants in the genes commonly mutated in sporadic breast cancer.
METHODS: In this case-control study, we examined 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13 genes (APOBEC3A, APOBEC3B, ARID1B, ATR, MAP3K1, MLL2, MLL3, NCOR1, RUNX1, SF3B1, SMAD4, TBX3, TTN), which were located in the core promoter, 5'-and 3'UTR or which were nonsynonymous SNPs to assess their potential association with inherited predisposition to breast cancer development. Additionally, we identified a ~29.5-kb deletion polymorphism between APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B and explored possible associations with BC. A total of 226 Moroccan breast cancer cases and 200 matched healthy controls were included in this study.
RESULTS: The analysis showed that12 SNPs in 8 driver genes, 4 SNPs in APOBEC3B gene and 1 SNP in APOBEC3A gene were associated with BC risk and/or clinical outcome at P ≤ 0.05 level. RUNX1_rs8130963 (odds ratio (OR) = 2.25; 95 % CI 1.42-3.56; P = 0.0005; dominant model), TBX3_rs8853 (OR = 2.04; 95 % CI 1.38-3.01; P = 0.0003; dominant model), TBX3_rs1061651 (OR= 2.14; 95 % CI1.43-3.18; P = 0.0002; dominant model), TTN_rs12465459 (OR = 2.02; 95 % confidence interval 1.33-3.07; P = 0.0009; dominant model), were the most significantly associated SNPs with BC risk. A strong association with clinical outcome were detected for the genes SMAD4 _rs3819122 with tumor size (OR = 0.45; 95 % CI 0.25-0.82; P = 0.009) and TTN_rs2244492 with estrogen receptor (OR = 0.45; 95 % CI 0.25-0.82; P = 0.009).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that genetic variations in driver and APOBEC3 genes were associated with the risk of BC and may have impact on clinical outcome. However, the reported association between the deletion polymorphism and BC risk was not confirmed in the Moroccan population. These preliminary findings require replication in larger studies.

Martínez-Iglesias OA, Alonso-Merino E, Gómez-Rey S, et al.
Autoregulatory loop of nuclear corepressor 1 expression controls invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(3):E328-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nuclear corepressor 1 (NCoR) associates with nuclear receptors and other transcription factors leading to transcriptional repression. We show here that NCoR depletion enhances cancer cell invasion and increases tumor growth and metastatic potential in nude mice. These changes are related to repressed transcription of genes associated with increased metastasis and poor prognosis in patients. Strikingly, transient NCoR silencing leads to heterochromatinization and stable silencing of the NCoR gene, suggesting that NCoR loss can be propagated, contributing to tumor progression even in the absence of NCoR gene mutations. Down-regulation of the thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ) appears to be associated with cancer onset and progression. We found that expression of TRβ increases NCoR levels and that this induction is essential in mediating inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis by this receptor. Moreover, NCoR is down-regulated in human hepatocarcinomas and in the more aggressive breast cancer tumors, and its expression correlates positively with that of TRβ. These data provide a molecular basis for the anticancer actions of this corepressor and identify NCoR as a potential molecular target for development of novel cancer therapies.

Wang W, Song XW, Bu XM, et al.
PDCD2 and NCoR1 as putative tumor suppressors in gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2016; 39(2):129-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. Previously, PDCD2 (programmed cell death protein 2) has been identified as a putative tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. As yet, however, no reports on PDCD2 expression and its physical interactor NCoR1 (nuclear receptor co-repressor), and their effects in GIST have been reported.
METHODS: The expression of PDCD2 and NCoR1 was assessed in 43 primary gastric GIST and normal gastric tissue samples using Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. Next, associations between PDCD2 and NCoR1 expression and various clinicopathological features, including survival, were determined. To assess the effects of PDCD2 and NCoR1 expression in vitro, two GIST-derived cell lines (GIST-T1 and GIST882) were (co-)transfected with the expression vectors pEGFP-N1-PDCD2 and pcDNA3.1-NCoR1, after which the cells were subjected to CCK-8, PI staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining assays, respectively. Finally, the mechanisms of action of PDCD2 and NCoR1 in GIST-derived cells were determined using immunoprecipitation and Western blotting assays.
RESULTS: We found that the PDCD2 and NCoR1 protein levels were lower in gastric GIST tissues than in normal gastric tissues. The PDCD2 and NCoR1 expression levels were found to be significantly associated with the survival of the patients. Through exogenous expression analyses, we found that PDCD2 and NCoR1 can decrease proliferation, and increase apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest, in GIST-derived cells. Furthermore, we found that PDCD2 and NCoR1 can activate Smad2 and Smad3.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that both PDCD2 and NCoR1 may act as tumor suppressors in GIST cells through the Smad signaling pathway.

Yano M, Imamura T, Asai D, et al.
Identification of novel kinase fusion transcripts in paediatric B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with IKZF1 deletion.
Br J Haematol. 2015; 171(5):813-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activating tyrosine kinase mutations or cytokine receptor signalling alterations have attracted attention as therapeutic targets for high-risk paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We identified two novel kinase fusions, OFD1-JAK2 and NCOR1-LYN, in paediatric ALL patients with IKZF1 deletion, by mRNA sequencing. The patient with CSF2RA-CRLF2 also harboured IGH-EPOR. All these patients had high-risk features, such as high initial white blood cell counts and initial poor response to prednisolone. The functional analysis of these novel fusions is on-going to determine whether these genetic alterations can be targeted by drugs.

Ronowicz A, Janaszak-Jasiecka A, Skokowski J, et al.
Concurrent DNA Copy-Number Alterations and Mutations in Genes Related to Maintenance of Genome Stability in Uninvolved Mammary Glandular Tissue from Breast Cancer Patients.
Hum Mutat. 2015; 36(11):1088-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatic mosaicism for DNA copy-number alterations (SMC-CNAs) is defined as gain or loss of chromosomal segments in somatic cells within a single organism. As cells harboring SMC-CNAs can undergo clonal expansion, it has been proposed that SMC-CNAs may contribute to the predisposition of these cells to genetic disease including cancer. Herein, the gross genomic alterations (>500 kbp) were characterized in uninvolved mammary glandular tissue from 59 breast cancer patients and matched samples of primary tumors and lymph node metastases. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization showed 10% (6/59) of patients harbored one to 359 large SMC-CNAs (mean: 1,328 kbp; median: 961 kbp) in a substantial portion of glandular tissue cells, distal from the primary tumor site. SMC-CNAs were partially recurrent in tumors, albeit with considerable contribution of stochastic SMC-CNAs indicating genomic destabilization. Targeted resequencing of 301 known predisposition and somatic driver loci revealed mutations and rare variants in genes related to maintenance of genomic integrity: BRCA1 (p.Gln1756Profs*74, p.Arg504Cys), BRCA2 (p.Asn3124Ile), NCOR1 (p.Pro1570Glnfs*45), PALB2 (p.Ser500Pro), and TP53 (p.Arg306*). Co-occurrence of gross SMC-CNAs along with point mutations or rare variants in genes responsible for safeguarding genomic integrity highlights the temporal and spatial neoplastic potential of uninvolved glandular tissue in breast cancer patients.

Trombly DJ, Whitfield TW, Padmanabhan S, et al.
Genome-wide co-occupancy of AML1-ETO and N-CoR defines the t(8;21) AML signature in leukemic cells.
BMC Genomics. 2015; 16:309 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Many leukemias result from chromosomal rearrangements. The t(8;21) chromosomal translocation produces AML1-ETO, an oncogenic fusion protein that compromises the function of AML1, a transcription factor critical for myeloid cell differentiation. Because of the pressing need for new therapies in the treatment of acute myleoid leukemia, we investigated the genome-wide occupancy of AML1-ETO in leukemic cells to discover novel regulatory mechanisms involving AML-ETO bound genes.
RESULTS: We report the co-localization of AML1-ETO with the N-CoR co-repressor to be primarily on genomic regions distal to transcriptional start sites (TSSs). These regions exhibit over-representation of the motif for PU.1, a key hematopoietic regulator and member of the ETS family of transcription factors. A significant discovery of our study is that genes co-occupied by AML1-ETO and N-CoR (e.g., TYROBP and LAPTM5) are associated with the leukemic phenotype, as determined by analyses of gene ontology and by the observation that these genes are predominantly up-regulated upon AML1-ETO depletion. In contrast, the AML1-ETO/p300 gene network is less responsive to AML1-ETO depletion and less associated with the differentiation block characteristic of leukemic cells. Furthermore, a substantial fraction of AML1-ETO/p300 co-localization occurs near TSSs in promoter regions associated with transcriptionally active loci.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings establish a novel and dominant t(8;21) AML leukemia signature characterized by occupancy of AML1-ETO/N-CoR at promoter-distal genomic regions enriched in motifs for myeloid differentiation factors, thus providing mechanistic insight into the leukemic phenotype.

Gallardo F, Padrón A, Garcia-Carbonell R, et al.
Cytoplasmic accumulation of NCoR in malignant melanoma: consequences of altered gene repression and prognostic significance.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(11):9284-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Invasive malignant melanoma (MM) is an aggressive tumor with no curative therapy available in advanced stages. Nuclear corepressor (NCoR) is an essential regulator of gene transcription, and its function has been found deregulated in different types of cancer. In colorectal cancer cells, loss of nuclear NCoR is induced by Inhibitor of kappa B kinase (IKK) through the phosphorylation of specific serine residues. We here investigate whether NCoR function impacts in MM, which might have important diagnostic and prognostic significance. By IHC, we here determined the subcellular distribution of NCoR in a cohort of 63 primary invasive MM samples, and analyzed its possible correlation with specific clinical parameters. We therefore used a microarray-based strategy to determine global gene expression differences in samples with similar tumor stage, which differ in the presence of cytoplasmic or nuclear NCoR. We found that loss of nuclear NCoR results in upregulation of a specific cancer-related genetic signature, and is significantly associated with MM progression. Inhibition of IKK activity in melanoma cells reverts NCoR nuclear distribution and specific NCoR-regulated gene transcription. Analysis of public database demonstrated that inactivating NCoR mutations are highly prevalent in MM, showing features of driver oncogene.

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